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Sample records for bari 2d trial

  1. SYNTAX Score and Long-Term Outcomes: The BARI-2D Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Fumiaki; Brooks, Maria Mori; Nakagawa, Kaori; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kaneda, Hideaki; Mitsutake, Yoshiaki; Vlachos, Helen A; Schwartz, Leonard; Frye, Robert L; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Hlatky, Mark A

    2017-01-31

    The extent of coronary disease affects clinical outcomes and may predict the effectiveness of coronary revascularization with either coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score quantifies the extent of coronary disease. This study sought to determine whether SYNTAX scores predicted outcomes and the effectiveness of coronary revascularization compared with medical therapy in the BARI-2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial. Baseline SYNTAX scores were retrospectively calculated for BARI-2D patients without prior revascularization (N = 1,550) by angiographic laboratory investigators masked to patient characteristics and outcomes. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) over 5 years. A mid/high SYNTAX score (≥23) was associated with a higher risk of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.75, p = 0.01). Patients in the CABG stratum had significantly higher SYNTAX scores: 36% had mid/high SYNTAX scores compared with 13% in the PCI stratum (p < 0.001). Among patients with low SYNTAX scores (≤22), major cardiovascular events did not differ significantly between revascularization and medical therapy, either in the CABG stratum (26.1% vs. 29.9%, p = 0.41) or in the PCI stratum (17.8% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.84). Among patients with mid/high SYNTAX scores, however, major cardiovascular events were lower after revascularization than with medical therapy in the CABG stratum (15.3% vs. 30.3%, p = 0.02), but not in the PCI stratum (35.6% vs. 26.5%, p = 0.12). Among patients with diabetes and stable ischemic heart disease, higher SYNTAX scores predict higher rates of major cardiovascular events and were associated with more favorable outcomes of revascularization compared with medical

  2. Insulin provision therapy and mortality in older adults with diabetes mellitus and stable ischemic heart disease: Insights from BARI-2D trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damluji, Abdulla A; Cohen, Erin R; Moscucci, Mauro; Myerburg, Robert J; Cohen, Mauricio G; Brooks, Maria M; Rich, Michael W; Forman, Daniel E

    2017-08-15

    Optimal strategies for glucose control in very old adults with diabetes and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) are unclear. To compare the effects of insulin provision (IP) therapy versus insulin sensitizing (IS) therapy for glycemic control in older (≥75years) and younger (diabetes (DM) and SIHD. Adults enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) were studied. The BARI 2D study population (all with type II DM and SIHD) was randomized twice: (1) between revascularization plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone, and (2) between IP versus IS therapies. The primary endpoint was all-cause-mortality over five-year follow-up. In this substudy outcomes related to IP vs. IS are assessed in relation to age. Adults aged ≥75years who received IP versus IS are compared to those history of heart failure. Within the older cohort, the IP and IS subgroups were similar in respect to baseline cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and coronary artery disease severity. During follow-up, the older subjects receiving IP therapy had higher cardiovascular mortality compared to those receiving IS therapy (16% vs. 11%, p=0.040). Using Cox proportional hazards analysis, the older IP subjects were at increased risk for all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio 1.89, CI 1.1-3.2, p=0.020). No mortality difference between IP and IS was observed in those diabetes and SIHD aged ≥75years, IP therapy may be associated with increased mortality compared to IS therapy. Additional studies are needed to further refine optimal treatment strategies for diabetes and SIHD in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Triglyceride High-Density Lipoprotein Ratios Predict Glycemia-Lowering in Response to Insulin Sensitizing Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the BARI 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Zonszein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic management is central in prevention of small vessel and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. With the plethora of newer medications and recommendations for a patient centered approach, more information is necessary to match the proper drug to each patient. We showed that BARI 2D, a five-year trial designed to compare two different glycemic treatment strategies, was suitable for assessing different responses according to different phenotypic characteristics. Treatment with insulin sensitizing medications such as thiazolidinediones and metformin was more effective in improving glycemic control, particularly in the more insulin resistant patient, when compared to the insulin provision strategy using insulin and or sulfonylureas. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein ratio (TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio was found to be a readily available and practical biomarker that helps to identify the insulin resistant patient. These results support the concept that not all medications for glycemic control work the same in all patients. Thus, tailored therapy can be done using phenotypic characteristics rather than a “one-size-fits-all approach.”

  4. Exercise improves quality of life in bariatric surgery candidates: Results from the Bari-Active trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S.; Thomas, J. Graham; King, Wendy C.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of a pre-bariatric surgery physical activity intervention (PAI), designed to increase bout-related (≥10-minute) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS Analyses included 75 adult participants (86.7% female; BMI=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or standard pre-surgical care (SC; n=35). PAI received six individual weekly counseling sessions to increase walking exercise. Participants wore an objective PA monitor for 7 days and completed the SF-36 Health Survey at baseline and post-intervention to evaluate bout-related MVPA and HRQoL changes, respectively. RESULTS PAI increased bout-related MVPA from baseline to post-intervention (4.4±5.5 to 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) versus no change (7.9±16.6 to 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). PAI reported greater improvements than SC on all SF-36 physical and mental scales (p<0.05), except role-emotional. In PAI, better baseline scores on the physical function and general health scales predicted greater bout-related MVPA increases (p<0.05), and greater bout-related MVPA increases were associated with greater post-intervention improvements on the physical function, bodily pain, and general health scales (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Increasing PA preoperatively improves physical and mental HRQoL in bariatric surgery candidates. Future studies should examine whether this effect improves surgical safety, weight loss outcomes, and postoperative HRQoL. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00962325 PMID:25611582

  5. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jacobs, P [MIM Software, Inc, Cleavland, Ohio (United States); Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N [IROC Philadelphia, RTQA Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance

  6. Human factors flight trial analysis for 2D/3D SVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefele, Jens; Howland, Duncan; Maris, John; Wipplinger, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The paper describes flight trials performed in Reno, NV. Flight trial were conducted with a Cheyenne 1 from Marinvent. Twelve pilots flew the Cheyenne in seventy-two approaches to the Reno airfield. All pilots flew completely andomized settings. Three different settings (standard displays, 2D moving map, and 2D/3D moving map) were evaluated. They included seamless evaluation for STAR, approach, and taxi operations. The flight trial goal was to evaluate the objective performance of pilots compared among the different settings. As dependent variables, positional and time accuracy were measured. Analysis was conducted by an ANOVA test. In parallel, all pilots answered subjective Cooper-Harper, situation awareness rating technique (SART), situational awareness probe (SAP), and questionnaires.This article describes the human factor analysis from flight trials performed in Reno, NV. Flight trials were conducted with a Cheyenne 1 from Marinvent. Thirteen pilots flew the Cheyenne in seventy-two approaches to the Reno airfield. All pilots flew completely randomized settings. Three different display configurations: Elec. Flight Information System (EFIS), EFIS and 2D moving map, and 3D SVS Primary Flight Display (PFD) and 2D moving map were evaluated. They included normal/abnormal procedure evaluation for: Steep turns and reversals, Unusual attitude recovery, Radar vector guidance towards terrain, Non-precision approaches, En-route alternate for non-IFR rated pilots encountering IMC, and Taxiing on complex taxi-routes. The flight trial goal was to evaluate the objective performance of pilots for the different display configurations. As dependent variables, positional and time data were measured. Analysis was performed by an ANOVA test. In parallel, all pilots answered subjective NASA Task Load Index, Cooper-Harper, Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART), and questionnaires. The result shows that pilots flying 2D/3D SVS perform no worse than pilots with conventional

  7. A high-throughput strategy to screen 2D crystallization trials of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Martin; Derr, Kd; Love, James; Stokes, David L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban

    2007-12-01

    Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has demonstrated potential for structure determination of membrane proteins. Technical limitations in large-scale crystallization screens have, however, prevented a major breakthrough in the routine application of this technology. Dialysis is generally used for detergent removal and reconstitution of the protein into a lipid bilayer, and devices for testing numerous conditions in parallel are not readily available. Furthermore, the small size of resulting 2D crystals requires electron microscopy to evaluate the results and automation of the necessary steps is essential to achieve a reasonable throughput. We have designed a crystallization block, using standard microplate dimensions, by which 96 unique samples can be dialyzed simultaneously against 96 different buffers and have demonstrated that the rate of detergent dialysis is comparable to those obtained with conventional dialysis devices. A liquid-handling robot was employed to set up 2D crystallization trials with the membrane proteins CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and light-harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. For CopA, 1 week of dialysis yielded tubular crystals and, for LH2, large and well-ordered vesicular 2D crystals were obtained after 24 h, illustrating the feasibility of this approach. Combined with a high-throughput procedure for preparation of EM-grids and automation of the subsequent negative staining step, the crystallization block offers a novel pipeline that promises to speed up large-scale screening of 2D crystallization and to increase the likelihood of producing well-ordered crystals for analysis by electron crystallography.

  8. A randomised trial of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis plus conventional digital 2D mammography versus 2D mammography alone in younger higher risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Anthony J; Michell, Michael; Lim, Yit Y; Astley, Susan M; Wilson, Mary; Hurley, Emma; Evans, D Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Iqbal, Asif; Kotre, John; Duffy, Stephen; Morris, Julie

    2017-06-30

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to increase invasive cancer detection rates at screening compared to full field digital (2D) mammography alone, and some studies have reported a reduction in the screening recall rate. No prospective randomised studies of DBT have previously been published. This study compares recall rates with 2D mammography with and without concurrent DBT in women in their forties with a family history of breast cancer undergoing incident screening. Asymptomatic women aged 40-49 who had previously undergone mammography for an increased risk of breast cancer were recruited in two screening centres. Participants were randomised to screening with 2D mammography only at the first study screen followed a year later by screening with 2D plus DBT, or vice versa. Recall rates were compared using an intention to treat analysis. Reading performance was analysed for the larger centre. 1227 women were recruited. 1221 first screens (604 2D, 617 2D+DBT) and 1124second screens (558 2D+DBT, 566 2D) were analysed. Eleven women had screen-detected cancers: 5 after 2D, 6 after 2D+DBT. The false positive recall rates were 2.4% for 2D and 2.2% for 2D+DBT (p=0.89). There was a significantly greater reduction between rounds in the number of women with abnormal reads who were not recalled after consensus/arbitration with 2D+DBT than 2D (p=0.023). The addition of DBT to 2D mammography in incident screening did not lead to a significant reduction in recall rate. DBT may increase reader uncertainty until DBT screening experience is acquired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Denoising of single-trial matrix representations using 2D nonlinear diffusion filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, I; Trenado, C; Schwerdtfeger, K; Strauss, D J

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we present a novel application of denoising by means of nonlinear diffusion filters (NDFs). NDFs have been successfully applied for image processing and computer vision areas, particularly in image denoising, smoothing, segmentation, and restoration. We apply two types of NDFs for the denoising of evoked responses in single-trials in a matrix form, the nonlinear isotropic and the anisotropic diffusion filters. We show that by means of NDFs we are able to denoise the evoked potentials resulting in a better extraction of physiologically relevant morphological features over the ongoing experiment. This technique offers the advantage of translation-invariance in comparison to other well-known methods, e.g., wavelet denoising based on maximally decimated filter banks, due to an adaptive diffusion feature. We compare the proposed technique with a wavelet denoising scheme that had been introduced before for evoked responses. It is concluded that NDFs represent a promising and useful approach in the denoising of event related potentials. Novel NDF applications of single-trials of auditory brain responses (ABRs) and the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoked electroencephalographic responses denoising are presented in this paper.

  10. Refraction-based 2D, 2.5D and 3D medical imaging: Stepping forward to a clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masami [Tokyo University of Science, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: msm-ando@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Bando, Hiroko [Tsukuba University (Japan); Tokiko, Endo; Ichihara, Shu [Nagoya Medical Center (Japan); Hashimoto, Eiko [GUAS (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [KEK (Japan); Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Okayama University (Japan); Li Gang [BSRF (China); Maksimenko, Anton [Tokyo University of Science, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); KEK (Japan); Mori, Kensaku [Nagoya University (Japan); Shimao, Daisuke [IPU (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [KEK (Japan); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Yamagata University (Japan); Ueno, Ei [Tsukuba University (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    An attempt at refraction-based 2D, 2.5D and 3D X-ray imaging of articular cartilage and breast carcinoma is reported. We are developing very high contrast X-ray 2D imaging with XDFI (X-ray dark-field imaging), X-ray CT whose data are acquired by DEI (diffraction-enhanced imaging) and tomosynthesis due to refraction contrast. 2D and 2.5D images were taken with nuclear plates or with X-ray films. Microcalcification of breast cancer and articular cartilage are clearly visible. 3D data were taken with an X-ray sensitive CCD camera. The 3D image was successfully reconstructed by the use of an algorithm newly made by our group. This shows a distinctive internal structure of a ductus lactiferi (milk duct) that contains inner wall, intraductal carcinoma and multifocal calcification in the necrotic core of the continuous DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). Furthermore consideration of clinical applications of these contrasts made us to try tomosynthesis. This attempt was satisfactory from the view point of articular cartilage image quality and the skin radiation dose.

  11. BariSurg trial: Sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese patients with BMI 35–60 kg/m2 – a multi-centre randomized patient and observer blind non-inferiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Ygastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) rank among the most frequently applied bariatric procedures worldwide due to their positive risk/benefit correlation. A systematic review revealed a similar excess weight loss (EWL) 2 years postoperatively between SG and RYGB. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled multi-centre trials comparing SG and RYGB, not only concerning EWL, but also in terms of remission of obesity-related co-morbidities, gastroesophagea...

  12. Tafenoquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria: suggestive evidence that CYP2D6 reduced metabolism is not associated with relapse in the Phase 2b DETECTIVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jean, Pamela L; Xue, Zhengyu; Carter, Nick; Koh, Gavin C K W; Duparc, Stephan; Taylor, Maxine; Beaumont, Claire; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Krudsood, Srivicha; Green, Justin A; Rubio, Justin P

    2016-02-18

    Tafenoquine (TQ) and primaquine (PQ) are 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQ) with anti-hypnozoite activity against vivax malaria. PQ is the only FDA-approved medicine for preventing relapsing Plasmodium vivax infection and TQ is currently in phase 3 clinical trials for the same indication. Recent studies have provided evidence that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism via CYP2D6 plays a role in PQ efficacy against P. vivax and have suggested that this effect may extend to other 8-AQs, including TQ. Here, a retrospective pharmacogenetic (PGx) investigation was performed to assess the impact of CYP2D6 metabolism on TQ and PQ efficacy in the treatment of P. vivax in the DETECTIVE study (TAF112582), a recently completed, randomized, phase 2b dose-ranging clinical trial. The impact of CYP2D6 on TQ pharmacokinetics (PK) was also investigated in TAF112582 TQ-treated subjects and in vitro CYP metabolism of TQ was explored. A limitation of the current study is that TAF112582 was not designed to be well powered for PGx, thus our findings are based on TQ or PQ efficacy in CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (IM), as there were insufficient poor metabolizers (PM) to draw any conclusion on the impact of the PM phenotype on efficacy. The impact of genetically-predicted CYP2D6 reduced metabolism on relapse-free efficacy six months post-dosing of TQ or PQ, both administered in conjunction with chloroquine (CQ), was assessed using exact statistical methods in 198 P. vivax-infected study participants comparing IM to extensive metabolizers (EM). The influence of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes on TQ PK was assessed comparing median TQ area under the curve (AUC). In vitro metabolism of TQ was investigated using recombinant, over-expressed human CYP enzymes and human hepatocytes. Metabolite identification experiments were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reduction of CYP2D6 activity was not associated with an increase in relapse-rate in TQ-treated subjects (p = 0.57). In contrast

  13. Breast cancer detection using single-reading of breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) compared to double-reading of 2D-mammography: Evidence from a population-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Bernardi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Marco; Valentini, Marvi; Fantò, Carmine; Ostillio, Livio; Tuttobene, Paolina; Luparia, Andrea; Macaskill, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Most population breast cancer (BC) screening programs use double-reading of 2D-mammography. We recently reported the screening with tomosynthesis or standard mammography-2 (STORM-2) trial, showing that double-read tomosynthesis (pseudo-3D-mammography) detected more BC than double-read 2D-mammography. In this study, we compare screen-detection measures for single-reading of 3D-mammography with those for double-reading of 2D-mammography, to inform screening practice. This is a secondary analysis based on STORM-2 which prospectively compared 3D-mammography and 2D-mammography in sequential screen-readings. Asymptomatic women ≥49 years who attended population-based screening (Trento, 2013-2015) were recruited. Participants recalled at any screen-read from parallel double-reading arms underwent further testing and/or biopsy. Single-reading of 3D-mammography, integrated with acquired or synthetized 2D-mammograms, was compared to double-reading of 2D-mammograhy alone for screen-detection measures: number of detected BCs, cancer detection rate (CDR), number and percentage of false-positive recall (FPR). Paired binary data were compared using McNemar's test. Screening detected 90, including 74 invasive, BCs in 85 of 9672 participants. CDRs for single-reading using integrated 2D/3D-mammography (8.2 per 1000 screens; 95% CI 6.5-10.2) or 2D synthetic/3D-mammography (8.4 per 1000 screens; 95% CI: 6.7-10.4) were significantly higher than CDR for double-reading of 2D-mammography (6.3 per 1000 screens; 95% CI: 4.8-8.1), Pread 2D/3D-mammography (2.60%; 95% CI: 2.29-2.94), or single-read 2D synthetic/3D-mammography (2.76%; 95% CI: 2.45-3.11), were significantly lower than FPR% for double-read 2D-mammography (3.42%; 95% CI: 3.07-3.80), Preading of 3D-mammography (integrated 2D/3D or 2Dsynthetic/3D) detected more BC, and had lower FPR, compared to current practice of double-reading 2D-mammography alone - these findings have implications for population BC screening programs. Copyright

  14. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: the Florence and Bari experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, A M; Resta, L; Napoli, A; Taddei, G L

    2009-04-01

    Several diagnostic procedures are available to investigate the endometrium, i.e. sonography, hysteroscopy, biopsy, endometrial curettage and cytology. Among these, endometrial cytology is less commonly utilized. Although the use of cytology in the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma has already been proposed due to its low cost and simple execution, a general consensus has not been reached. The improvement of the diagnostic capacity of endometrial cytology following the introduction of a liquid-based method suggests that this test should be routinely used in endometrial diagnosis. The main advantages of this method are the reduction in confounding factors, the distribution of cells on a thin layer and the possibility to obtain more slides from the same sample. The aim of this article is to focus on the methodological procedures and diagnostic criteria in liquid-based endometrial cytology based on the experience in two Italian centres: Department of Pathology, University of Bari and Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence. The sampling method used by the Bari authors consists in the collection of liquid for uterine distension during hysteroscopy, while the Florence group used an endometrial brush. The sensitivity and specificity at Bari were 75% and 83%, respectively, and were 94-100% and 95-100% at Florence, respectively. Endometrial cytology provided sufficient diagnostic material significantly more often than biopsy. We thus propose that endometrial cytology can be used in routine diagnosis either alone or in association with other diagnostic procedures in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  15. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  16. Portals of the Church of Saint Nicholas in Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešković Jovan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Church of Saint Nicolas in Bari, in southern Italy, is known as a church of great renown and importance, in view of the fact that it was built to receive the remains of Saint Nicholas, which are still kept in the church’s crypt, in the part of the building from where its construction began, at the end of the XI century. This church played a highly significant role in the creation of the specific, Romanic style of architecture in this region, so several important buildings were constructed using the basic typological and stylistic characteristics of the Church of Saint Nicholas. It was built as a triple-naved basilica with a transept and a dome designed at the intersection of the main nave and the transept, and the specific rendition of the altar section, with side towers and a flat facade wall that encloses the inner apse was applied in a similar manner on several churches in Apulia. Its great renown in the Christian world is well-known, reflected both in the strong connection between the churches in Bari and Kotor, and through the donations by the medieval Serbian rulers, among which is the large icon of Saint Nicholas, a gift from Stefan Dečanski, which is still preserved in the church’s crypt. The importance of this and the other churches in Apulia was undoubtedly one of the factors that have led to discussion in literature about the question of their possible influence on architectonic creation in related artistic fields, including the monuments of the Raška stylistic group, particularly in connection with the architectural and sculptural plastics on portals because of the similarity of some of the shapes and motives in the stonemasonry...

  17. Effects and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic screening for CYP2D6 among older adults starting therapy with nortriptyline or venlafaxine : study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (CYSCEtrial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berm, Elizabeth J. J.; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten; Boshuisen, Marjolein; Breuning, Laura; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Dhondt, Ton; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Kok, Rob M.; Maring, Jan G.; van Marum, Rob; Mulder, Hans; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Risselada, Arne J.; Venema, Harry; Vleugel, Liesbeth; Wilffert, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nortriptyline and venlafaxine are commonly used antidepressants for treatment of depression in older patients. Both drugs are metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme and guidelines for dose adaptations based on the CYP2D6 genotype have been developed. The CYP2D

  18. Identification of Bari Transposons in 23 Sequenced Drosophila Genomes Reveals Novel Structural Variants, MITEs and Horizontal Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazzo

    Full Text Available Bari elements are members of the Tc1-mariner superfamily of DNA transposons, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and subsequently identified in silico in 11 sequenced Drosophila genomes and as experimentally isolated in four non-sequenced Drosophila species. Bari-like elements have been also studied for their mobility both in vivo and in vitro. We analyzed 23 Drosophila genomes and carried out a detailed characterization of the Bari elements identified, including those from the heterochromatic Bari1 cluster in D. melanogaster. We have annotated 401 copies of Bari elements classified either as putatively autonomous or inactive according to the structure of the terminal sequences and the presence of a complete transposase-coding region. Analyses of the integration sites revealed that Bari transposase prefers AT-rich sequences in which the TA target is cleaved and duplicated. Furthermore evaluation of transposon's co-occurrence near the integration sites of Bari elements showed a non-random distribution of other transposable elements. We also unveil the existence of a putatively autonomous Bari1 variant characterized by two identical long Terminal Inverted Repeats, in D. rhopaloa. In addition, we detected MITEs related to Bari transposons in 9 species. Phylogenetic analyses based on transposase gene and the terminal sequences confirmed that Bari-like elements are distributed into three subfamilies. A few inconsistencies in Bari phylogenetic tree with respect to the Drosophila species tree could be explained by the occurrence of horizontal transfer events as also suggested by the results of dS analyses. This study further clarifies the Bari transposon's evolutionary dynamics and increases our understanding on the Tc1-mariner elements' biology.

  19. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  20. Opendata dinamici per i servizi di infomobilità della Smartcity a Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barbieri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Il Comune di Bari ed AMTAB, hanno deciso di “liberare” a settembre 2014 i dati derivanti dal telecontrollo dei mezzi di trasporto AMTAB , rendendo li fruibili in modalità “opendata”. Questa iniziativa punta a soddisfare l’esigenza d’integrare le diverse soluzioni per la mobilità e realizzare un sistema di monitoraggio della mobilità sostenibile e intelligente nell’ambito del programma Bari Smart City.In September 2014 the City of Bari and AMTAB, the local public transport company, decided to open the data derived from the remote control of AMTAB buses with a creative commons CC0 license. The data published are both static and dynamic: they are accessible through web services and provide information, among others, on the list of bus stops and estimated times for the arrival of buses at the stops. These data are used to calculate information on the congestion level of traffic on the roads covered by the city buses. Such information are available as opendata too. This initiative is part of a Living Lab aiming to meet the need of the city of Bari for the integration of different mobility solutions and the implementation of an integrated system for the monitoring of the smart and sustainable mobility in Bari

  1. The Byzantine Office  for the Translation of Saint Nicholas to Bari (AD 1087)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The contribution includes a historical introduction, transcriptions of selections of the music and tranlations of the texts for the Byzantine office composed on the occasion of the translation of the relics of St Nicholas to Bari in AD 1087. Texts and music is interpreted in relation to the coexi......The contribution includes a historical introduction, transcriptions of selections of the music and tranlations of the texts for the Byzantine office composed on the occasion of the translation of the relics of St Nicholas to Bari in AD 1087. Texts and music is interpreted in relation...... to the coexistence of the Roman Latin and the Greek Byzantine Churches in the area, the political conditions in South Italy in the period around the arrival of the Normans, and the upcoming of Bari as a centre of Pan-European pilgrimage....

  2. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: biology and molecular traits of a cosmopolitan pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Nelson, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in a wide range of plants. This review summarizes current knowledge of mechanisms employed by the fungus to parasitize its host with emphasis on biology, physiology and molecular aspects of pathogenicity. In ad

  3. HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    1998-03-01

    The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)

  4. Bari, a public mediterranean city: new projects to valorise public heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Paris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan area of Bari today has one million inhabitants. New regional legislation and the institution of a Strategic Plan have begun a process of urban transformation based on an innovative model of a compact, integrated and sustainable city. After the framework agreement with ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development in 2010 to implement projects to upgrade its building heritage, Bari is a candidate for the «Smart Cities & Communities» project and will launch its candidature for European Capital of Culture 2019. This text will analyse examples of valorisation of Bari’s public building heritage with a focus on case studies of major strategic importance, with the aim of identifying possible ethical-aesthetic values in the relationship between the dynamics of urban transformation and architectural quality.

  5. The Bari Center: an audiology and otology pilot center for Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A

    1996-01-01

    The Audiology and Otology Center for Mediterranean Countries began activities in 1990. Until today, the Bari Center has sponsored meetings, coordinated research projects and, above all, it has been host to 5 young colleagues coming from the Mediterranean Area, to take part in 2 or 3 month clinical stages: two from Egypt, one from Syria and one from Lybia. The Center is now verifying the possibilities of setting up an Audiology and Otology Center in Tirana (Albania).

  6. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  7. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  8. Computational 2D Materials Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic structure of 51 semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides and -oxides in the 2H and 1T hexagonal phases. The quasiparticle (QP) band structures with spin-orbit coupling are calculated in the G(0)W(0) approximation...... and used as input to a 2D hydrogenic model to estimate exciton binding energies. Throughout the paper we focus on trends and correlations in the electronic structure rather than detailed analysis of specific materials. All the computed data is available in an open database....

  9. CYP2D6 pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanan Geetha Gopisankar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes are proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions of many metabolic pathways. They are involved in drug metabolism and thus determines the therapeutic safety and efficacy of drugs in patients. Cytochrome P450 in mitochondria accounts for 90% of the oxidative metabolism of clinically used drugs during phase 1 reaction. CYP2D6 is a major gene member of this superfamily as it carries out metabolism of 25% of drugs currently available in the market. Contrary to the concept of specificity of enzyme action these can metabolize substrates of different chemistry. Since its discovery, many have intensively studied this unique hemoprotein and contributed to the elucidation of its molecular properties and physiological functions and also the structure-activity relationships of its substrates and inhibitors. Its activity ranges considerably within a population due to genetic polymorphisms which lead to varied responses to drug intake. Studying such polymorphisms which cause a significant impact in the management of patients and helps to achieve the final target of personalizing medicine. This review briefs about history, structure, and function, molecular genetics, substrates, regulators and inhibitors of CYP2D6 and its clinical pharmacogenomics.

  10. An automated pipeline to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changki; Vink, Martin; Hu, Minghui; Love, James; Stokes, David L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban

    2010-06-01

    Electron crystallography relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and is particularly well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. To obtain 2D crystals from purified membrane proteins, the detergent in a protein-lipid-detergent ternary mixture must be removed, generally by dialysis, under conditions favoring reconstitution into proteoliposomes and formation of well-ordered lattices. To identify these conditions a wide range of parameters such as pH, lipid composition, lipid-to-protein ratio, ionic strength and ligands must be screened in a procedure involving four steps: crystallization, specimen preparation for electron microscopy, image acquisition, and evaluation. Traditionally, these steps have been carried out manually and, as a result, the scope of 2D crystallization trials has been limited. We have therefore developed an automated pipeline to screen the formation of 2D crystals. We employed a 96-well dialysis block for reconstitution of the target protein over a wide range of conditions designed to promote crystallization. A 96-position magnetic platform and a liquid handling robot were used to prepare negatively stained specimens in parallel. Robotic grid insertion into the electron microscope and computerized image acquisition ensures rapid evaluation of the crystallization screen. To date, 38 2D crystallization screens have been conducted for 15 different membrane proteins, totaling over 3000 individual crystallization experiments. Three of these proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals. Our automated pipeline outperforms traditional 2D crystallization methods in terms of throughput and reproducibility.

  11. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  12. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  13. Change in enrollment patterns, patient selection, and clinical outcomes with the availability of drug-eluting stents in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binita; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S.; Lu, Jiang; Brooks, Maria M.; Bates, Eric R.; Nedeljkovic, Zoran S.; Escobedo, Jorge; Das, Gladwin S.; Lopez, John J.; Feit, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background In the BARI 2D trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease were randomized to prompt revascularization versus intensive medical therapy (IMT). This analysis sought to evaluate how the availability of drug-eluting stents (DESs) has changed practice and outcomes. Methods In BARI 2D, 1,605 patients were in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)–intended stratum. As DES became available midway through recruitment, we report clinical outcomes among patients who underwent IMT versus prompt PCI with bare-metal stents (BMSs) or DES up to 4 years. Results In North America, after DES became available, selection for the PCI-intended stratum increased from 73% to 79% (P = .003). Fewer BMS than DES patients had total occlusions treated or underwent rotational atherectomy (5.6% vs 9.7%, P = .02, and 1.2% vs 3.7%, P < .01, respectively). Subsequent revascularization (IMT 39%, BMS 29%, DES 21%, P < .01) and target vessel revascularization (BMS 16.1% vs DES 9.6%, P = .03) were lower with DES. Angina at 2 years tended to be less common with DES (IMT 39%, BMS 37%, DES 29%, P = .04, for 3 groups, P = .07 for DES vs BMS). The composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was IMT 16.0%, BMS 20.5%, DES 17.5%; P = .80. Conclusions When DES became available in North America, patients were more likely to be selected into the PCI-intended stratum. Compared with patients receiving BMS, those receiving DES tended to have less target vessel revascularization and angina. PMID:24016502

  14. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  15. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  16. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  17. Imagem corporal em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica: Interações socioculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodrigues de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apontada como epidemia global a obesidade vem sendo tratada através da cirurgia bariátrica, método invasivo, porém, considerado o mais eficiente. Objetivou-se investigar aspectos socioculturais e seu impacto sobre a imagem corporal de mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica nos períodos pré e pós-cirúrgico. Foram entrevistadas 20 mulheres submetidas à gastroplastia há pelo menos um ano no Serviço de Controle de Hipertensão Diabetes e Obesidade (SCHDO. Os dados foram analisados sob a perspectiva qualitativa e submetidos à Análise de Conteúdo. A interação entre o contexto sociocultural e imagem corporal configurou-se nas categorias: discriminação, percepção do olhar do outro antes e após cirurgia, e percepção do próprio corpo antes e após cirurgia. Constatou-se que a imagem corporal foi elaborada a partir do meio em que viveu o grupo pesquisado. O meio externo propiciou ao sujeito sentimentos de inadequação corporal, tristeza, exclusão social e inferioridade, resultando em autoconceito negativo. Tais sentimentos foram amenizados após a cirurgia bariátrica proporcionando ao grupo autoconceito positivo decorrente de uma maior inserção social.

  18. Gráfica alimentaria para la población bariátrica argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Fantelli Pateiro; N. Pampillón; M. Coqueugniot; Rosa,P.; Pagano, C.; C. Reynoso; C. De Pizzol; C. Iturralde; S. Podestà; C. Penutto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convoc...

  19. Impacto psicológico tras cirugía bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Taberna Blázquez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de ver si la hipótesis de que algunas variables psicológicas en personas que sufren de obesidad se ven alteradas tras una operación bariátrica para perder peso, si los altos índices de masa corporal influyen en la salud mental además de la salud física. Para ello, se ha contado con una muestra de 12 pacientes a los cuales se les somete a dos pruebas psicológicas, una para medir el nivel de depresión y otra para medir el nivel de ansiedad.

  20. Customers’ Behaviour Analysis in Furniture Field: IKEA Case in the Northern part of Bari province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Schirone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 70es and the 80es, the firm strategy - meant as the whole of choices to make in order to achieve long-term targets, or, as defined by SWOT Analysis, which one referred to during the economic boom years - gives way to the strategic planning and the strategic management. In such a reference picture, the present situation of IKEA store in Bari (Puglia, Italy is included. This study target is, therefore, to determine what can be the reasons linked to a different purchase choice by a particular group of individuals on a Primary Market Area.

  1. Protocolo Multiprofissional em cirúrgia bariátrica e metabólica com ênfase em fisioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Nassif,Denise Serpa Bopp

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: OBJETIVOS: 1) criar base teórica de dados clínicos referentes a multiprofissionalidade em Cirurgia Bariátrica e Metabólica; 2) informatizar a base teórica dos dados transformando-os em protocolo eletrônico multiprofissional; 3) implantar a base teórica de dados clínicos no protocolo mestre e confeccionar o protocolo específico; 4) incorporar a base de dados ao SINPE©; 5) aplicar o protocolo eletrônico específico de Fisioterapia em Cirurgia Bariátrica e Metabólica; 6) analisar e compar...

  2. The efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist tiapride in maintaining abstinence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 299 alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stefan; Scherbaum, Norbert; Soyka, Michael; Rüther, Eckart; Mann, Karl; Gastpar, Markus

    2007-10-01

    In this investigation, the hypothesis was tested whether the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist tiapride is effective in maintaining abstinence after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. The rationale of the study was based on the relevance of the dopaminergic system for addictive behaviour as well as some preliminary studies. A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted. A total of 299 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (ICD-10: F10.2) received either tiapride (300 mg/d) or placebo over a 24-wk study period. Subjects with severe comorbid psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were excluded. Primary outcome variable was the time to first relapse with relapse defined as any alcohol consumption after detoxification. Data analysis was done with Kaplan-Meier estimates with log-rank test (one-sided, ptest, p=0.9895). Relapse rate was higher in the intervention group (54.4%) than in the control group (40.7%). Like the dopamine antagonist flupenthixol, tiapride was not effective in maintaining alcohol abstinence. Regarding the high success rate in the placebo group the influence of psychosocial treatment in studies investigating drug effects on the course of alcohol dependence has to be considered.

  3. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  4. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  5. Fungicide sensitivity of US genotypes of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary to six oomycete-targeted compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causes potato late blight, an important and costly disease of potato and tomato crops. The baseline sensitivity of recent clonal lineages of P. infestans was tested for six oomycete-targeted fungicides. Forty five isolates collected between 2004 and 2012 were t...

  6. Cirugía Bariátrica, Cirugía Colorrectal e Internet: ¿Pacientes (desinformados?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elisa De Castro Peraza

    Full Text Available Introducción: El uso de Internet por los pacientes se incrementa buscando información. Evaluamos una cohorte de pacientes de cirugía bariátrica y otra de colorrectal. Objetivo: Conocer patrones de uso de Internet de pacientes bariátricos y colorrectales. Método: Preguntas a 60 pacientes de bariátrica recogiendo edad, género, nivel académico y patrones de uso de Internet comparados con 61 pacientes de colorrecto. Resultados principales: Los pacientes de bariátrica usan más Internet para informarse, destacando universitarios y mujeres. Los pacientes afirman que la información encontrada les resulta útil para el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones aunque refieran como dudosa y hasta peligrosa alguna información encontrada. Conclusiones: El uso incrementado de Internet favorece a la comunidad quirúrgica permitiendo llegar a más pacientes pero puede ser una fuente de desinformación, creando perspectivas erróneas. Un mejor entendimiento del uso que el paciente hace de Internet y de la información que encuentra permitirá mejorar el cuidado.

  7. Técnica aprimorada de duplo fuso para braquioplastia pós-bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L Modolin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o emprego da braquioplastia modificada investigando no pós-operatório tardio as complicações e a satisfação com o resultado, em mulheres previamente submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODOS: A população ((N=18, idade 49,2 ± 11,3 anos, que havia sido submetida à braquiopastia 25,2 ± 11,9 meses após o procedimento bariátrico, foi contactada após 31,7 ± 38,8 meses adicionais. As complicações cirúrgicas e a satisfação com a operação foram estimadas através de entrevista, incluindo-se um questionário concebido para esta finalidade. RESULTADOS: O índice de massa corporal (IMC pré-bariátrico era de 57,1 ± 11,1kg/m², situando-se antes da braquioplastia em 28,3 ± 6,0kg/m², sem alterações significativas subsequentes. Três complicações cirúrgicas menores foram registradas (3/18, 16,7%, a saber: parestesia temporária, seroma e pequena imperfeição da cicatriz. A taxa de satisfação foi de aproximadamente 90%, sendo os três resultados mais gratificantes para as pacientes a facilidade de se vestir (P=0,01, a diminuição do peso do braço (P=0,03 e a ausência de edema (P=0,04. Ocorreu correlação negativa entre perda de peso acentuada e grau de satisfação, todavia, nenhuma doente arrependeu-se da intervenção cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: A braquioplastia modificada foi bem sucedida em casos de ptose braquial grave com possível extensão para o tórax. Confirmaram-se benefícios funcionais e estéticos, e, graças à técnica adotada, a maioria das complicações e desapontamentos pôde ser evitada.

  8. Gráfica alimentaria para la población bariátrica argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fantelli Pateiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convocó a participar en mesas de trabajo a licenciados en nutrición y médicos especialistas en nutrición en un congreso realizado en el 2011. Se tomó como base científica el Primer Consenso Argentino de Nutrición en Cirugía Bariátrica y las "Guías alimentarias para la Población Argentina normal". De esta forma se adapta la misma a la población argentina con cirugía bariátrica sumada a la experiencia de los profesionales. Resultado: Como resultado se obtuvo un gráfica alimentaria en forma de óvalo, adaptación de la gráfica de las "Guías alimentarias para la población argentina", 12 mensajes o recomendaciones dirigidas a individuos con CB, una sugerencia de menú que responde a un valor calórico promedio de 1.273 calorías diarias, 145 g de carbohidratos, 76 g de proteínas y 43,2 g de grasas; 45,5% de calorías proveniente de los carbohidratos, 24% de calorías proveniente de las proteínas y 30,5 % de calorías proveniente de las grasas, 1.160 mg de calcio.

  9. Embarazo después de cirugía bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. Carlos Barrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad ha adquirido características de pandemia, extendida a todo el orbe, alcanzando a diferentes etnias, edades y sin diferencias de género. Las mujeres embarazadas constituyen un grupo particularmente vulnerable a los trastornos nutricionales y la obesidad representa un importante factor de riesgo para la madre y el feto. Múltiples estrategias se han desarrollado con el objeto de disminuir la prevalencia de los trastornos alimenticios en exceso y aminorar sus efectos, con resultados limitados. En los últimos años la cirugía bariátrica con sus distintas modalidades se ha constituido en una alternativa para el tratamiento de la mujer obesa y los resultados reportados señalan significativas bajas de peso y un mejor control de comorbilidades asociadas. La aparición de un población cada vez más numerosa de mujeres sometidas a cirugía bariátrica que se embarazan, ha llevado a desarrollar estrategias de control de esos embarazos, con recomendaciones nutricionales y vigilancia estricta de la madre y el feto, por equipos multidisciplinarios. Respecto de los resultados de embarazos posteriores a cirugía bariátrica, se ha reportado un gran número de publicaciones comunicando la experiencia de distintos grupos, utilizando variados diseños de estudio, haciendo referencia a distintas técnicas quirúrgicas con diferentes grupos control y tiempos de seguimiento, con resultados heterogéneos y a veces inconsistentes. Si bien se observa una tendencia a la disminución de desórdenes hipertensivos, diabetes gestacional y macrosomía fetal, con aumento de la incidencia de recién nacidos pequeños para la edad gestacional y parto prematuro, se requiere de nuevos estudios que permitan con mayor confiabilidad establecer los resultados de esos embarazos y desarrollar recomendaciones a lo equipos médicos, a los pacientes y sus familias.

  10. Assessing the benefits and the shortcomings of participation – findings from a test in Bari (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Marletto, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    ” and the “citizens’ jury”. The ex-post evaluation of the test confirmed ex-ante design choices. The DPP was effective and learning was generated: the use of understandable techniques for deliberation and assessment helped participants to generate an unambiguous final result which was based on the “hybridisation......” of the alternative schemes proposed to the participants at the beginning of the procedure. The “last word” given to the citizens’ jury avoided that the most powerful stakeholders may capture the DPP. Only a “frustration” effect was clearly generated because of the limited involvement of the Municipality of Bari......, thus confirming that the involvement of the relevant Authority is an essential requisite for successful participation. We suggest that the generation of new knowledge and learning could be further assured by the participation of citizens and stakeholders to the definition of the alternatives...

  11. Sustainable Urban Mobility Towards Smart Mobility: the Case Study of Bari Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Niglio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, sustainable mobility policies have seen a growing interest. Furthermore, in the international debate, this concept has increasingly been linked to the most innovative one of smart mobility, which is part of the more general paradigm of Smart City. The primary goal of the work is to make a review of policies, programs, projects for sustainable urban mobility and of smart mobility solutions in Bari area. The second goal is to make an assessment on trends of urban mobility in order to evaluate its sustainability and smartness. A comforting picture, focused on matching the local strategies to European programs, is shown. Finally, a consideration on how the framework “smart” may improve urban mobility planning is proposed.

  12. Temperamento emocional e afetivo em pacientes obesos tabagistas candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Estimativas de prevalência de tabagismo em obesos mórbidos tem sido maiores que na população em geral. Existem algumas evidências de que tabagistas possuem temperamentos distintos de não tabagistas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ocorrência de dimensões de temperamentos na população que se candidata a realização de cirurgia bariátrica e verificar se há diferenças entre fumantes, exfumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados sobre o temperamento afetivo e emocional através da esc...

  13. ANALISA KEGAGALAN BLADE BARIS TERAKHIR PADA ROTOR TURBINE UAP TIPE CONDENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Komara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blades dari turbin uap merupakan komponen penting dalam pembangkit listrik. Analisa kegagalan blade turbin bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kehandalan sistem turbin secara umum. Kegagalan blade baris terakhir tekanan rendah yang terjadi pada turbine uap type condensing diawali dengan naiknya vibrasi secara mendadak pada area belakang dari 5μm menjadi 51μm. Analisa dan pengujian yang dilakukan adalah analisa steam purity, pengujian mechanical stress dan pengujian metallurgy (analisa material, fractography dan microstructure. Dari hasil analisa steam purity didapat bahwa kandungan silica/ SiO2 yang diambil dari beberapa titik pengambilan sample ditemukan melebihi dari batas maximum yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan standard VGB (Vereinigung der Großkesselbesitzer/ Asosiasi pengguna boiler ukuran besar di German; yaitu < 0.02 mg/l. Penuaan material ditemukan dari hasil pengujian yang dilakukan melalui analisa metallurgy microstructure.

  14. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  15. Fatal firearm wounds: a retrospective study in Bari (Italy) between 1988 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Nicoletti, Emanuele Maria; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2007-05-24

    Fatal gunshot injuries are routinely encountered by forensic pathologists practicing in Southern Italy. Bari, the capital city of the Italian region known as Apulia, is a leader with regard to the number of firearm deaths in Italy. This is mainly attributable to local organized crime groups which control a variety of illicit activities. This retrospective study analyzes autopsy data related to fatal firearm wounds, handled by the Institute of Legal Medicine [University of Bari], between 1988 and 2003. A total of 717 cases were selected and classified as follows: firearm homicides (634); suicides (82); and accidental death (1). A significant number of variables have been reviewed such as: month in which the violent event took place; the victims' nationalities; gender and age of victims; site and number of entrance wounds; weapon type used; and manner of death (i.e. homicide; suicide; accidental). Analysis has revealed a homicide versus suicide ratio of almost 8:1. Victims were mostly male with a lower mean age than in other similar studies. Homicides with multiple gunshot wounds were more common than ones with single entrance wounds. For example, in one case, 30 entrance wounds were identified in the murder of a gang boss. Four suicides with two entrance gunshot wounds were identified. Handguns were the most frequently used weapon in all groups (i.e. homicide, suicide, and accidental), with 7.65 mm and 9 mm being the most common calibres. This study revealed a very low incidence of suicide among females. Mental and other types of illness, as well as financial stress were the apparent motives which prompted most of the suicide victims. The homicide cases described were most often related to continual, ongoing fights among local criminal gangs (75%).

  16. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: biology and molecular traits of a cosmopolitan pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; Thomma, Bart P H J; Nelson, Berlin D

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in a wide range of plants. This review summarizes current knowledge of mechanisms employed by the fungus to parasitize its host with emphasis on biology, physiology and molecular aspects of pathogenicity. In addition, current tools for research and strategies to combat S. sclerotiorum are discussed. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: kingdom Fungi, phylum Ascomycota, class Discomycetes, order Helotiales, family Sclerotiniaceae, genus Sclerotinia. Hyphae are hyaline, septate, branched and multinucleate. Mycelium may appear white to tan in culture and in planta. No asexual conidia are produced. Long-term survival is mediated through the sclerotium; a pigmented, multi-hyphal structure that can remain viable over long periods of time under unfavourable conditions for growth. Sclerotia can germinate to produce mycelia or apothecia depending on environmental conditions. Apothecia produce ascospores, which are the primary means of infection in most host plants. S. sclerotiorum is capable of colonizing over 400 plant species found worldwide. The majority of these species are dicotyledonous, although a number of agriculturally significant monocotyledonous plants are also hosts. Disease symptoms: Leaves usually have water-soaked lesions that expand rapidly and move down the petiole into the stem. Infected stems of some species will first develop dark lesions whereas the initial indication in other hosts is the appearance of water-soaked stem lesions. Lesions usually develop into necrotic tissues that subsequently develop patches of fluffy white mycelium, often with sclerotia, which is the most obvious sign of plants infected with S. sclerotiorum. http://www.whitemoldresearch.com; http://www.broad.mit.edu/annotation/fungi/sclerotinia_sclerotiorum.

  17. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    2011-01-01

    characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...... energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...

  18. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  19. Port Adriano, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Jensen, Palle Meinert

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU).......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU)....

  20. Structural Theory of 2-d Adinkras

    CERN Document Server

    Iga, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study 1-dimensional supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2-d Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2-d Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. H\\"ubsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of H\\"ubsch's even-split doubly even code.

  1. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  2. Erster und zweiter Sieger. Zum Byzantinisch-Karolingischen bündnis bezüglich Bari 870-871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kislinger Ewald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Arab power in Southern Italy and even Dalmatia menaced the Byzantine Empire as well as Carolingian Italy and led both to an alliance in 869/870. Their attempt, however, to conquer Bari in a joint attack failed in 870 (not 869 due to a lack of coordination. An exchange of letters, which followed between Basil I and Louis II, reveals cultural and ideological alienation between christian East and West.

  3. Quality of carcasses in I.H.D.H. foals reared in the province of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Centoducati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a new development in recent years in the province of Bari: Italian Heavy Draught Horse (I.H.D.H. raising for meat production. The interest of breeders in this new zootechnical development has steadily grown, but in the import-export balance of horsemeat, Italy is almost completely dependent on the countries of the East, importing every year 120,000 animals (ISTAT 2003, the real origin of which is impossible to determine.

  4. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  5. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  6. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  7. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  8. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  9. Image processing of 2D crystal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheit, Marcel; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Thierry, Raphaël; Gipson, Bryant R; Zeng, Xiangyan; Stahlberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electron crystallography of membrane proteins uses cryo-transmission electron microscopy to image frozen-hydrated 2D crystals. The processing of recorded images exploits the periodic arrangement of the structures in the images to extract the amplitudes and phases of diffraction spots in Fourier space. However, image imperfections require a crystal unbending procedure to be applied to the image before evaluation in Fourier space. We here describe the process of 2D crystal image unbending, using the 2dx software system.

  10. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  11. Epidemiologia delle sepsi nell’A.O. Policlinico di Bari attraverso una sorveglianza basata sul laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rizzo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: monitorare la frequenza e la resistenza antimicrobica di microrganismi responsabili di infezioni invasive di particolare interesse e rilevanza clinica quali S. aureus, E. faecalis/faecium, S. pneumoniae e alcuni Gram negativi attraverso un sistema di sorveglianza basato sul Laboratorio.

    Metodi: dal gennaio 2002 al maggio 2003 sono state monitorate tutte le emocolture pervenute all’ Istituto di Igiene, Cattedra II, Facoltà di Medicina, Università Bari, da pazienti affetti da patologie invasive ricoverati presso l’Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico di Bari. Questa sorveglianza fa parte di un progetto nazionale denominato “AR-ISS” (“Antibiotico-Resistenza–Istituto Superiore di Sanità” coordinato dall’ Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Risultati: sono stati isolati 107 microrganismi patogeni, da campioni di sangue pervenuti al Laboratorio, rispondenti alla definizione di caso.

    Il 49.5% degli isolati proveniva dai reparti di Medicina, il 18.7% da quello di Terapia Intensiva, il 15.9% dalle Chirurgie, il 9.3% dall’Ematologia, il 3.7% dagli Infettivi, l’1.9% dalle Pediatrie e l’1% dalle Ginecologie. Gli isolati sono risultati così distribuiti: Escherichia Coli (38.3%,
    Staphilococcus aureus (26.2%, Enterococcus fecalis/ faecium (21.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.2% ed infine Streptococcus pneumoniae (2.8%. L’età media dei pazienti considerati era pari a 63,7 anni (range 14-95. Sono state raccolte informazioni riguardanti la data di ricovero dei pazienti: il 31,8% era ricoverato da 1 giorno, il 44,9% da 2-15 giorni, il 16.8% tra 16-30 giorni ed infine il 6.5% da più di 1 mese.

    Conclusioni: sorvegliando le infezioni invasive di interesse
    clinico attraverso il laboratorio siamo in grado di ottenere una serie di informazioni che ci permettono di osservare non solo il problema relativo all’insorgenza di ceppi

  12. Razionalizzazione dell'utilizzo degli antibiotici nell'Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico di Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Vito

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: scopo del nostro lavoro è stato valutare la frequenza dei microrganismi patogeni nelle Unità Operative più rappresentative dell’A.O. Policlinico di Bari e valutare l’appropriatezza delle prescrizioni antibiotiche in relazione agli esami microbiologici effettuati dal luglio 1999 al giugno 2000.

    Metodi: nel periodo considerato sono stati esaminati gli isolamenti microbici, con i relativi antibiogrammi, effettuati presso l’Istituto di Igiene, Cattedra II, della Facoltà di Medicina, Università di Bari, provenienti dalle Unità Operative di Rianimazione, Malattie Infettive, Nefrologia e Urologia, Cliniche Mediche e Cliniche Chirurgiche dell’Azienda Ospedaliera. È stato effettuato un successivo confronto con i dati ricavati dall’analisi delle richieste di prescrizione antibiotica effettuate dalle cliniche considerate e pervenute presso il Servizio di Farmacia nello stesso periodo. I dati sono stati archiviati ed analizzati con Excel X per Macintosh.

    Risultati: sono stati isolati in totale 2.126 microrganismi patogeni, 1.491 (70% gram negativi e 635
    (30% gram positivi. Il 34,0% degli isolamenti proveniva
    dalla Rianimazione, il 23,0% dalle Cliniche Chirurgiche, il 12,6% dalle Cliniche Mediche, il 10,2% dall’Urologia e Nefrologia, il 10,0% dalle Malattie Infettive ed il 9,7% dalla Medicina Generale. Per ogni Clinica sono stati valutati i principali ceppi circolanti con le relative sensibilità antibiotiche. I dati raccolti sono stati confrontati con quelli relativi alle richieste di fornitura di antibiotici pervenute dalle cliniche indagate al Servizio di Farmacia, dell’Azienda
    Ospedaliera, nello stesso periodo.

    Conclusioni: dall’analisi dei dati si evidenzia una notevole discrepanza tra le sensibilità agli antibiotiotici saggiati in laboratorio ed i farmaci utilizzati nelle cliniche coinvolte nello studio. Tale

  13. Cirurgia bariátrica e transtornos alimentares: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Novelle

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Realizar revisão sobre transtornos alimentares e comportamentos alimentares transtornados relacionados à cirurgia bariátrica. Métodos Revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs, Bireme, portal SciELO com descritores indexados com critérios de inclusão: oferecer dado sobre a presença ou frequência de transtorno alimentar e/ou comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais previamente e/ou após a cirurgia. Resultados Foram selecionados 150 estudos (14 nacionais e 136 internacionais: 80,6% eram com avaliação de pacientes pré-/pós-cirúrgicos; 12% eram estudos de caso e 7,3% eram estudos de revisão. Diferentes instrumentos foram usados para avaliação, principalmente o Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, a Binge Eating Scale e Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire. A compulsão alimentar foi o comportamento mais avaliado, com frequências/prevalências variando de 2% a 94%; no caso do transtorno da compulsão alimentar as frequências/prevalências variaram de 3% a 61%. Houve também a descrição de anorexia e bulimia nervosa, síndrome da alimentação noturna e comportamento beliscador. Alguns estudos apontam melhora dos sintomas no pós-cirúrgico e/ou seguimento enquanto outros apontam surgimento ou piora dos problemas. Conclusão Apesar da variabilidade entre métodos e achados, comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais são muito frequentes em candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica e podem ainda surgir ou piorar após a intervenção cirúrgica. Profissionais de saúde devem considerar de maneira mais cuidadosa tais problemas neste público, dadas às consequências para o resultado cirúrgico e qualidade de vida.

  14. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  15. 2d index and surface operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  16. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  17. White mould of common bean incited by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A; Abou-el-Seoud, I; Rasmy, M R; Khater, Manar M

    2009-01-01

    White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a destructive yield-limiting disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. Forty eight isolate of S. sclerotiorum were isolated from diseased bean tissues taken from 9 geographical regions (Al-Behaira, Alexandria and Assiut governorates) during winter season in 2008. The pathogenicity studies showed that the tested bean cultivars (Bronco, Contender, Giza 6 and Nebraska) varied in disease incidence. Contender bean cultivar was more resistant than other cultivars. Whereas, the more virulent isolates were S5 and S6. Histology investigation of seedlings bean hypocotyls inoculated with S. sclerotiorum after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after inoculation indicated that penetration of bean seedlings occurred, during the first 48 hours after inoculation, through the epidermis and the outer layer of the cortex. 72 hours after inoculation, damage extended deeper into the cortical cells. Infection took place inter-and interacellularly after 96 hours more damage occurred. In addition, the invasion of the fungal hyphae through the cortical cells occurred both inter-, and intracellularly. Moreover, the observed of electron microscope both transmission and scanning investigations concluded that penetrating hyphae progressed through bean seedlings tissues leading to complete destruction of epidermis, fully colonization and death of cortical cells, partial invasion of vascular tissues. However, presence of the fungal structures in pith cells was observed.

  18. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  19. Lessons learnt from a birthday party: a Bacillus cereus outbreak, Bari, Italy, January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Martinelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacillus cereus, a ubiquitous bacterium, can be isolated in various starchy food items, causing both emetic and diarrhoeal disease. The real burden of B. cereus outbreaks is actually poorly known in Italy. We report a B. cereus foodborne outbreak that occurred in a pub in Bari (Italy on January 22nd 2012 during a birthday party, promptly reported by the pub owner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 22nd and 24th 2012, we performed a retrospective cohort study among the guests of the party to identify risk factors associated with illness. Leftovers of different meals were available for microbiological analysis. Faecal specimens were collected from cases. RESULTS: A total of 12 cases among the 13 customers (attack rate: 92% were reported. All cases had consumed basmati rice and sweet and sour vegetables (aetiological fraction: 100%. B. cereus was isolated from both basmati rice served during the party and faecal specimens. DISCUSSION: The close collaboration between the pub owner and the public health officers and the possibility to test food leftovers and stool samples contributed to prevent further cases.

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis markers among refugees in Bari, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Melpignano, Livio; De Palma, Maria; Quarto, Michele; Germinario, Cinzia

    2010-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) serological markers and the prevalence of VDRL positive subjects in a population of refugees of various nationalities, living in the Asylum Seeker Centre in Bari Palese, Southern Italy. The study was carried out in the period May-July 2008 and recruited only voluntarily enrolled healthy refugees. HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV virus antibodies were detected. VDRL syphilis screening was also carried out on the serum samples. A total of 529 refugees, 442 males and 87 females, aged between 7 and 52 years, were studied. Of these, 510 were from Africa and 19 from Asia.Forty-four individuals (8.3%) were HBsAg positive and 241 (45.6%) were anti-HBc positive. A total of 24 (4.5%) individuals were anti-HCV positive. Eight asylum seekers (1.5%) were HIV positive. VDRL tests were performed on 269 subjects and 4 (1.5%) were positive. 12.3% of the study population had serological markers of chronic and transmissible infections with potential blood-borne or sexual transmission. In Italy, a suitable protocol is necessary for the early diagnosis of infectious diseases on entering Asylum Centres, so allowing the adoption of prevention measures to safeguard the health of the individuals, the residents and workers in the Centres and the general population.

  1. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  2. 2d Index and Surface operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gadde, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools de...

  3. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  4. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  5. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  6. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  7. Técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica: uma revisão da literatura Bariatric surgery techniques: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Mattos Zeve

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A obesidade é uma condição clínica crônica de etiologia multifatorial cujo fracasso no tratamento clínico e terapêutico levam a necessidade de uma intervenção mais eficaz, a cirúrgica. As cirurgias bariátricas podem modificar apenas o estômago, a fim de reduzir o espaço para o alimento e promover a sensação de saciedade, ou em complemento o intestino delgado, visando uma diminuição do local para absorção de nutrientes. Objetivo: Revisar as técnicas de intervenção em cirurgia bariátrica utilizadas no mundo atual, no intuito de compreender as decisões do cirurgião no que diz respeito à escolha das mesmas, tendo por base comparações dessas técnicas. Materiais e Métodos: Realizou-se estudo exploratório tipo revisão bibliográfica nas bases de dados SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, Bireme, sob os seguintes indexadores: técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica, derivação biliopancreática, gastroplastia vertical com bandagem, banda gástrica ajustável, gastrectomia vertical, cirurgia de derivação gástrica, derivações gástricas em Y de Roux, derivação biliopancreática com gastrectomia vertical e preservação pilórica. Resultados: De 66 referências relativas às técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica analisadas, 40 foram selecionadas entre capítulos de obras bibliográficas, consensos, revisões sistemáticas, meta-análises, estudos clínicos randomizados e controlados. Foram revisadas técnicas cirúrgicas para tratamento da obesidade classificadas como: restritivas, predominantemente restritivas e mal absortivas. Conclusão: Atualmente, diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas no tratamento da obesidade são reconhecidas e recomendadas no mundo inteiro. A escolha da técnica pelo cirurgião irá se basear em informações sobre seu mecanismo de funcionamento, resultados e riscos, que podem ser obtidas através de relevantes publicações científicas.Introduction: Obesity is a chronic medical condition of

  8. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  10. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  11. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  12. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu;

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular wavegui...

  13. Aspectos do acompanhamento psiquiátrico de pacientes obesos sob tratamento bariátrico: revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Nas últimas décadas, diversos estudos longitudinais têm demonstrado a eficácia da cirurgia bariátrica no controle de peso em longo prazo e na redução da mortalidade resultante de complicações clínicas associadas à obesidade. Contudo, os estudos também revelam aumento significativo da mortalidade devida a suicídio e comportamento impulsivo, por razões largamente desconhecidas, o que demonstra a escassez de informações relativas ao manejo clínico de pacientes bariátricos. O presente estudo tem como objetivo sintetizar o estado atual de conhecimentos referentes ao acompanhamento psiquiátrico de pacientes bariátricos. MÉTODO: Revisão seletiva da literatura envolvendo artigos indexados no Medline e PubMed até junho de 2010, utilizando-se os termos: "bariatric surgery", "psychiatry", "binge eating", "follow-up" e "outcome". RESULTADOS: Há relativo consenso na literatura de que não haja contraindicação psiquiátrica absoluta para a cirurgia bariátrica, embora a avaliação pré-operatória seja de extrema importância para o diagnóstico e tratamento de eventuais transtornos psiquiátricos, objetivando assegurar aderência ao tratamento multidisciplinar, melhor qualidade de vida e, possivelmente, melhor prognóstico pós-cirúrgico. Entre os transtornos mais prevalentes nessa população, encontra-se o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, que está relacionado com menor perda ponderal e pior qualidade de vida, especialmente quando presente no pós-operatório. No acompanhamento pós-operatório, também se deve atentar para o surgimento de sintomas impulsivos, incluindo abuso de álcool e outras substâncias. CONCLUSÃO: Diversos estudos indicam elevada prevalência de transtornos mentais e alterações psicopatológicas na população de pacientes bariátricos. Embora a maioria dos pacientes apresente adequado controle ponderal e melhora na qualidade de vida em médio e longo prazo, alguns

  14. Micronutrientes en cirugía bariátrica Micronutrients in bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª J. Amaya García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad mórbida es una enfermedad crónica con prevalencia creciente y que asocia una importante morbimortalidad. La cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento más eficaz para conseguir una reducción ponderal mantenida en el tiempo y una disminución en las tasas de complicaciones asociadas a la obesidad. El sobrepeso y la obesidad son factores de riesgo para el déficit de varios micronutrientes como las vitaminas B1, B6, C, ácido fólico y D, minerales como el hierro y oligoelementos como el zinc, en general por déficit dietético. A pesar de ello, por el momento no existe un consenso acerca de la monitorización de micronutrientes en el preoperatorio, aunque parece razonable a la vista de su considerable prevalencia. La cirugía bariátrica puede provocar déficit de micronutrientes o intensificar deficiencias previas, tanto por limitación de la ingesta como por la maldigestión y malabsorción en las técnicas malabsortivas, siendo el riesgo paralelo a la pérdida ponderal. Es preciso monitorizar de por vida los diferentes micronutrientes, sobre todo tras las técnicas quirúrgicas malabsortivas. Se recomienda el uso de un complejo polivitamínico de forma sistemática y en los casos en los que sea insuficiente, será preciso emplear suplementación específica.The morbid obesity is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence and that associates an important morbility and mortality. The bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to secure a weight reduction maintained in the time and a diminution in the rates of complications associated to the obesity. The overweight and the obesity are risk factors for the deficit of several micronutrients like vitamins B1, B6, C, folic acid and D, minerals like the iron and trace elements like zinc, generally by dietetic deficit. In spite of it, at the moment a consensus don´t exist about the monitoring of micronutrients in the preoperative one, although it seems reasonable in view of his

  15. Aspectos nutricionais em obesos antes e após a cirurgia bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Valois Pedrosa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar perfil clínico-nutricional de pacientes obesos submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, no HC/UFPE. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente, 205 pacientes, no período 2002/2006. A análise considerou história clínica para diabetes tipo 2 (DM 2, hipertensão arterial (HA e síndrome metabólica (SM. O estado nutricional pré-operatório foi avaliado pelo IMC e bioquímica (hemoglobina, hematócrito, albumina, proteínas totais, triglicérides (TG, colesterol associado à lipoproteína de alta (HDLc e baixa (LDLc densidade e glicemia de jejum (GJ. Nos períodos pós-operatórios (6, 12, 18, 24 meses a avaliação nutricional foi feita pelas medidas de peso, perda ponderal, percentual de perda de peso (%PP, IMC e bioquímica incluindo ferro, ferritina e transferrina. RESULTADOS: 71,2% eram do sexo feminino, idade de 38,4 ± 9,96 anos, 129,66±27,40 Kg e IMC 48,6 ± 8,9 Kg/m², no pré-operatório. Receberam o diagnóstico de SM 26,8%, HA 52,7% e DM 2 11,7%. A bioquímica revelou TG, LDLc, GJ elevados, estando normais os demais parâmetros. Evolução antropométrica demonstrou perda ponderal progressiva, atingindo aos 24 meses IMC 31,7±5,82 Kg/m² (p< 0,001 e maior %PP (36,05%. Valores de TG, LDLc e GJ atingiram a normalidade a partir do 6° mês pós-operatório: 104,4mg/dL(p=0,018, 95,5mg/dL(p=0,263 e 84,8g/dL(p=0,004, respectivamente; transferrina apresentou valores reduzidos aos 6 meses. Prevalência maior dos sintomas ocorreu no 6° mês: alopécia (19%, vômitos (18%, intolerância alimentar (12,2%. CONCLUSÃO: A Cirurgia bariátrica foi um procedimento eficaz para promover perda ponderal e sua manutenção por dois anos, assim como melhora de parâmetros bioquímicos e co-morbidades, com sintomas clínico-nutricionais reduzidos e/ou evitados por monitorização nutricional.

  16. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  17. In the shadow of Darwin: Anton de Bary's origin of myxomycetology and a molecular phylogeny of the plasmodial slime molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Kutschera, U

    2010-06-01

    In his Origin of Species (John Murray, London, 1859), Charles Darwin described the theory of descent with modification by means of natural selection and postulated that all life may have evolved from one or a few simple kinds of organisms. However, Darwin's concept of evolutionary change is entirely based on observations of populations of animals and plants. He briefly mentioned 'lower algae', but ignored amoebae, bacteria and other micro-organisms. In 1859, Anton de Bary, the founder of mycology and plant pathology, published a seminal paper on the biology and taxonomy of the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes). These heterotrophic protists are known primarily as a large composite mass, the plasmodium, in which single nuclei are suspended in a common 'naked' cytoplasm that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. Here we summarize the contents of de Bary's 1859 publication and highlight the significance of this scientific classic with respect to the establishment of the kingdom Protoctista (protists such as amoebae), the development of the protoplasmic theory of the cell, the introduction of the concept of symbiosis and the rejection of the dogma of spontaneous generation. We describe the life cycle of the myxomycetes, present new observations on the myxamoebae and propose a higher-order phylogeny based on elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences. Our results document the congruence between the morphology-based taxonomy of the myxomycetes and molecular data. In addition, we show that free-living amoebae, common protists in the soil, are among the closest living relatives of the myxomycetes and conclude that de Bary's 'Amoeba-hypothesis' on the evolutionary origin of the plasmodial slime molds may have been correct.

  18. Historic Late Blight Outbreaks Caused by a Widespread Dominant Lineage of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846–1970) and more recent isolates (1992–2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe. The FAM-1 lineage shared allelic diversity and grouped with the oldest specimens collected in Colombia and Central America. The FAM-1 lineage of P. infestans formed a genetic group that was distinct from more recent aggressive lineages found in the US. The US-1 lineage formed a second, mid-20th century group. Recent modern US lineages and the oldest Mexican lineages formed a genetic group with recent Mexican lineages, suggesting a Mexican origin of recent US lineages. A survey of mitochondrial haplotypes in a larger set of global herbarium specimens documented the more frequent occurrence of the HERB-1 (type Ia) mitochondrial haplotype in archival collections from 1866–75 and 1906–1915 and the rise of the Ib mitochondrial lineage (US-1) between 1946–1955. The FAM-1 SSR lineage survived for almost 100 years in the US, was geographically widespread, and was displaced first in the mid-20th century by the US-1 lineage and then by distinct new aggressive lineages that migrated from Mexico. PMID:28030580

  19. The Pilgrimage to The San Nicola Shrine in Bari and its Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rizzello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage is defined as a journey to the Holy but more specifically as an inner journey to one’s deepest religious feelings. This type of journey has assumed new forms and types that bring it closer to modern tourism in general, though it maintains its distinctive characteristics, which will be the object of this paper. These changes in the nature of pilgrimage, which in part reflect the parallel socio-cultural transformation of the average visitor, have brought about a major reorganisation of the places involved and have had a significant socio-economic impact on the territories involved. The concentration of visitors and in some cases the presence of various categories of visit have led to structural changes in holy places and their surroundings. These changes, which arise from the need to meet the requirements of travellers as consumers, in turn have social and environmental impacts on the surrounding area that are similar to those caused by mass tourism. The most evident types of impact are structural, resulting from the creation or expansion of hotel and catering infrastructure and the start-up of new businesses such as travel agencies, specialised tour operators, shops selling religious souvenirs and establishments providing entertainment. All this alters the physiognomy and the layout of the towns where the religious sites are located, in some cases completely transforming the economy of the location and the use of land. The aim of this research is to study pilgrimage flows associated with the cult of Saint Nicholas (San Nicola in Bari, specifically concerning the pilgrimage's main characteristics and the most significant impacts on the district. The study follows a mixed approach that includes participant observation, use of archival documents and empirical evaluation of the material landscape and observed practices.

  20. The perception of healthcare quality of elderly in the city of Bari, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopalco Pietro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades in Italy, as in all the industrialized nations, the proportion of elderly subjects in the total population is constantly on the increase. However the increased life expectancy is not always paralleled by a true improvement in the quality of life. In this context, it is essential to analyze elderly real health needs and the responses to these needs, especially in terms of healthcare, that the territorial services are perceived to offer. Methods In the period from June to September 2006 we selected randomly one General Practitioner (GP for each district of the Bari Municipal Area and, form each GP, we randomly chose 25 patients over 65 years old (YO. We conducted phone interviews using a standard data collection questionnaire and, for each of the recruited subjects, the GP filled a data collection sheet. Results Although the mean age (73.6 years of the population under study was quite high, the general state of health was judged good both by the G P- and by their elderly patients (>75%. Notably, the great majority of elderly patients considered the healthcare they receive to be satisfactory (>60%: in particular, the GP was the true point of reference for this slice of the population for strictly medical problems as well as for advice. On the contrary, the patients attributed little value to social services, which were poorly known and scarcely used (8.5%. Public hospital facilities played a central role in second level healthcare in more than 30% of cases; private facilities covered by public health insurance were also very important. As possible solutions to the problem of loneliness, 36.6% of the patients declared that they approved of nursing homes. Conclusion Decision makers need to create services supporting the key role played by General Practitioners, who are well aware that their assistance is not sufficient to satisfy the health needs of the elderly.

  1. The perception of healthcare quality of elderly in the city of Bari, South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Fusco, Annarita; Panebianco, Annarita; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia Annatea; Quarto, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent decades in Italy, as in all the industrialized nations, the proportion of elderly subjects in the total population is constantly on the increase. However the increased life expectancy is not always paralleled by a true improvement in the quality of life. In this context, it is essential to analyze elderly real health needs and the responses to these needs, especially in terms of healthcare, that the territorial services are perceived to offer. Methods In the period from June to September 2006 we selected randomly one General Practitioner (GP) for each district of the Bari Municipal Area and, form each GP, we randomly chose 25 patients over 65 years old (YO). We conducted phone interviews using a standard data collection questionnaire and, for each of the recruited subjects, the GP filled a data collection sheet. Results Although the mean age (73.6 years) of the population under study was quite high, the general state of health was judged good both by the G P- and by their elderly patients (>75%). Notably, the great majority of elderly patients considered the healthcare they receive to be satisfactory (>60%): in particular, the GP was the true point of reference for this slice of the population for strictly medical problems as well as for advice. On the contrary, the patients attributed little value to social services, which were poorly known and scarcely used (8.5%). Public hospital facilities played a central role in second level healthcare in more than 30% of cases; private facilities covered by public health insurance were also very important. As possible solutions to the problem of loneliness, 36.6% of the patients declared that they approved of nursing homes. Conclusion Decision makers need to create services supporting the key role played by General Practitioners, who are well aware that their assistance is not sufficient to satisfy the health needs of the elderly. PMID:17958909

  2. Comportamento alimentar, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Cândida Lacerda Mota

    2012-01-01

    Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), a obesidade tornou-se atualmente uma epidemia que se espalha em todo o mundo, sendo foco de inúmeros estudos que abordam sua prevenção e tratamento, tais como dietas, medicamentos e prática de atividade física. Em obesos mórbidos, a Cirurgia Bariátrica (CB) vem sendo considerada a terapia mais eficaz na redução do peso corporal destes indivíduos. Contudo, participantes submetidos a esse procedimento, podem apresentar complicações psicológicas e do...

  3. Cirurgia bariátrica: como e por que suplementar Bariatric surgery: how and why to supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Azevedo Bordalo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica apresentam maior risco de desenvolver deficiências nutricionais pela limitação na ingestão e absorção de diferentes nutrientes. Desta forma, realizamos uma revisão sistemática no PubMed e ISI Web of Science incluindo artigos de setembro de 1983 a abril de 2010 para identificar as principais deficiências nutricionais após a cirurgia bariátrica e de que forma ocorre o seu tratamento. As palavras-chave utilizadas individualmente ou em associação foram: cirurgia bariátrica, obesidade, deficiência de vitamina/mineral, deficiência de proteína, absorção de nutrientes e suplementação de nutrientes. A literatura sugere que para prevenir ou tratar as deficiências nutricionais decorrentes das alterações anatômicas provocadas pelas técnicas cirúrgicas é necessário o uso de suplementação nutricional. O sucesso da suplementação nutricional oral em corrigir ou prevenir as deficiências nutricionais depende de vários fatores. Assim, compreender as formas pelas quais os nutrientes podem ser administrados é muito importante na prática clínica. Essa revisão tem como objetivo auxiliar a melhor seleção de nutrientes de forma a garantir uma reposição adequada dos nutrientes em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica.Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies from limited food intake and absorption of different nutrients. A systematic review of several database websites (PubMed and ISI Web of Science was conducted from September 1983 to April 2010 to identify literature related to micronutrient deficiencies occurring after bariatric surgery. Keywords used individually or in various combinations in the search were bariatric surgery, obesity, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, protein deficiency, nutrient absorption and nutrient supplementation. Literature suggests that to prevent or treat nutritional deficiencies

  4. Hipovitaminosis D y obesidad mórbida: efectos de la cirugía bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Hernández, Juan A.

    2007-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Los datos disponibles sobre el estado de la vitamina D en el paciente con obesidad mórbida son escasos hasta la fecha y poco clarificantes, ya que casi siempre se ha relacionado esta insuficiencia con la cirugía bariátrica, sin considerar que esta hipovitaminosis D ya pueda preceder a la cirugía. En este sentido, en los pacientes con obesidad no sometidos a cirugía existen mecanismos patofisiológicos que se han relaciona...

  5. On the Property of Being a Bary Basis for a System of Eigenfunctions of a Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, E P

    2000-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear integro-differential equation on a segment with zero Dirichlet boundary conditions and a normalization condition, containing a spectral parameter, which can arise in the mean field approximation for a quantum-mechanical description of a solid. We prove the existence of a countable set of solutions and investigate properties of these solutions. The main result consists in proving the property of being a Bary basis for a sequence of solutions of the problem, possessing a given behavior, the existence of which is proved.

  6. Vivência da obesidade e do emagrecimento em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Domingues do Nascimento; Simone Maria Muniz da Silva Bezerra; Ednalva Maria Sampaio Angelim

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo objetivou investigar em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica os aspectos psicológicos relacionados à sua condição de obesa e ao seu emagrecimento. O método utilizado foi o descritivoexploratório, de abordagem qualitativa. Os dados permitiram, inicialmente, constatar que a obesidade, além de comprometer a saúde física, restringe a vida afetiva e social, pois impõe um autoconceito negativo e inibidor dos vínculos interpessoais. Com o processo de emagrecimento após a cirur...

  7. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  8. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shavanova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  9. Implicaciones nutricionales de la cirugía bariátrica sobre el tracto gastrointestinal Nutritional implications of bariatric surgery on the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, M.A.; Moreno, C. (Cristina)

    2007-01-01

    La alteración de la anatomía del tracto gastrointestinal tras la cirugía bariátrica, conlleva una modificación de las pautas alimentarias que deben adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones fisiológicas, ya sea en relación al volumen de las ingestas, como a las características de los macro y micronutrientes a administrar. La dieta restrictiva post-cirugía bariátrica (básicamente, en bypass gástrico y procedimientos restrictivos) se desarrolla en varias etapas. La primera fase tras la cirugía consist...

  10. Análise comportamental de obesos mórbidos e de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho Cavalcante, Renata

    2009-01-01

    A obesidade é considerada um dos problemas de saúde pública mais relevante nas sociedades modernas, na medida em que constitui um fator de risco preponderante para o desenvolvimento de diversas doenças. Dentre os métodos de tratamento da obesidade mórbida a cirurgia bariátrica é o mais efetivo, sendo utilizada para o emagrecimento e resgate da saúde. O impacto da obesidade e da cirurgia bariátrica na vida dos indivíduos tem sido alvo de diversas investigações. Em muitos caso...

  11. Avaliação da memória recente e da qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marilda Alves

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de vida e as alterações cognitivas em pessoas submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica. Os referenciais foram trabalhos científicos que descreveram o aparecimento da Síndrome de Wernicke Korsakoff em alguns casos pós-cirúrgicos devido ao déficit de vitamina B1 sérica (tiamina) e outros estudos que comprovaram a melhora da qualidade de vida após a cirurgia bariátrica. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 obesos mórbidos não-operados...

  12. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  13. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Centre, Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital, 263001 Uttarakhand (India); Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Pestov, Dmitry [Nanomaterials Core Characterization Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); McLeskey, James T., E-mail: JamesMcLeskey@rmc.edu [Department of Physics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  14. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  15. 2dF mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  16. 2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...

  17. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  18. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  19. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  20. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  1. Prevalence of anemia, iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency in two Bari Indian communities from western Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Ewald, M; Torres-Guerra, E; Layrisse, M; Leets, I; Vizcaíno, G; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, M

    1997-12-01

    The hematological status of 406 Bari indians from two communities was studied. One hundred and seventy nine individuals were from Campo Rosario a village located in a low arid plain south to the Perijá mountain range and 287 were from Saimadoyi, a fertile valley in the heart of the mountain. Anemia was found in 54% and 31% of the people from Campo Rosario and Saimadoyi respectively. Low serum iron was present in 28% of the population in both communities while low serum ferritin levels were encountered in 20% of the population from Campo Rosario and 5% of the people from Saimadoyi. A high prevalence of serum folate and vitamin B12 deficiency (91% and 64% respectively) was found in Campo Rosario, in contrast only 5% of the population from Saimadoyi had low folate and none were vitamin B12 deficient. While there was a positive significant correlation between hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations (r = 0.517, p < 0.001), no significative correlation was found between the other parameters studied. The high prevalence of anemia and nutrient deficiency among the Bari indians, can be attributed to inadequate diets and the varied diseases encountered in the population.

  2. Cirugía plástica post cirugía bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Llamil Kauak, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica en aumento vertiginoso. Los pacientes obesos mórbidos que se someten a cirugía bariátrica tienen después de esta cirugía una pérdida que varía entre un 40% al 60% de su peso original y posteriormente requieren de la cirugía plástica para corregir los excesos de tejido cutáneo tras esta significativa baja de peso. Son varias las plastias que son necesarias y habitualmente varios los tiempos quirúrgicos que se requieren en esta corrección. Las complicaciones quirúrgicas en los pacientes post obesas son mayores que en los pacientes habituales. En este trabajo se exponen los aspectos más relevantes de este proceso y las características de estas plastias post cirugía bariátrica.

  3. 2-D Prony-Huang Transform: A New Tool for 2-D Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Jérémy; Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Condat, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes an extension of the 1-D Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of images. The proposed method consists in (i) adaptively decomposing an image into oscillating parts called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using a mode decomposition procedure, and (ii) providing a local spectral analysis of the obtained IMFs in order to get the local amplitudes, frequencies, and orientations. For the decomposition step, we propose two robust 2-D mode decompositions based on non-smooth convex optimization: a "Genuine 2-D" approach, that constrains the local extrema of the IMFs, and a "Pseudo 2-D" approach, which constrains separately the extrema of lines, columns, and diagonals. The spectral analysis step is based on Prony annihilation property that is applied on small square patches of the IMFs. The resulting 2-D Prony-Huang transform is validated on simulated and real data.

  4. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  5. Extrinsic curvature induced 2-d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, K S

    1993-01-01

    Abtract: 2-dimensional fermions are coupled to extrinsic geometry of a conformally immersed surface in ${\\bf R}^3$ through gauge coupling. By integrating out the fermions, we obtain a WZNW action involving extrinsic curvature of the surface. Restricting the resulting effective action to surfaces of $h\\sqrt g=1$, an explicit form of the action invariant under Virasaro symmetry is obtained. This action is a sum of the geometric action for the Virasaro group and the light-cone action of 2-d gravity plus an interaction term. The central charges of the theory in both the left and right sectors are calculated.

  6. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  7. Robust and resistant 2D shape alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell

    2001-01-01

    \\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norm alignments are formulated as linear programming problems. The linear vector function formulation along with the different norms results in alignment methods that are both resistant from influence from outliers, robust wrt. errors in the annotation and capable of handling missing datapoints......We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l...

  8. Another solution of 2D Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    The partition function of the Ising model on a two-dimensional regular lattice is calculated by using the matrix representation of a Clifford algebra (the Dirac algebra), with number of generators equal to the number of lattice sites. It is shown that the partition function over all loops in a 2D lattice including self-intersecting ones is the trace of a polynomial in terms of Dirac matrices. The polynomial is an element of the rotation group in the spinor representation. Thus, the partition function is a function of a character on an orthogonal group of a high degree in the spinor representation.

  9. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is omitted. This can be an important consideration as aircraft altitude limits the attack pro�les a target can��y [1]. 33.2 HEIGHT ESTIMATION The current literature regarding height estimation restricts itself to computations involving two or more 2D... is instrumental in determining the aircraft altitude. The accuracy to which these speeds are known is directly pro- portional to the accuracy to which the altitude can be determined. Knowledge of aircraft speed can be obtained in a variety of ways. For example...

  10. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  11. Gas sensing in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.

  12. Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...

  13. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  14. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92...... was on the Dolos breakwater with a high superstructure, where there was almost no overtopping. This case is believed to be the most dangerous one. The test of the Dolos breakwater with a low superstructure was also performed. The objective of the last part of the experiment is to investigate the influence...

  15. Alignment free characterization of 2D gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Jørgensen, Jan Friis

    2015-01-01

    Fast characterization of 2-dimensional gratings is demonstrated using a Fourier lens optical system and a differential optimization algorithm. It is shown that both the grating specific parameters such as the basis vectors and the angle between them and the alignment of the sample, such as the rotation of the sample around the x-, y-, and z-axis, can be deduced from a single measurement. More specifically, the lattice vectors and the angle between them have been measured, while the corrections of the alignment parameters are used to improve the quality of the measurement, and hence reduce the measurement uncertainty. Alignment free characterization is demonstrated on both a 2D hexagonal grating with a period of 700 nm and a checkerboard grating with a pitch of 3000 nm. The method can also be used for both automatic alignment and in-line characterization of gratings.

  16. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^{13}G. A realistic cooling model should be reconsidered including the presence of high magnetic fields. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a huge effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in maintaining magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is also important for intermediate field neu...

  17. Lie symmetries and 2D Material Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Inspired from Lie symmetry classification, we establish a correspondence between rank two Lie symmetries and 2D material physics. The material unit cell is accordingly interpreted as the geometry of a root system. The hexagonal cells, appearing in graphene like models, are analyzed in some details and are found to be associated with A_2 and G_2 Lie symmetries. This approach can be applied to Lie supersymmetries associated with fermionic degrees of freedom. It has been suggested that these extended symmetries can offer a new way to deal with doping material geometries. Motivated by Lie symmetry applications in high energy physics, we speculate on a possible connection with (p,q) brane networks used in the string theory compactification on singular Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  18. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when......One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...

  19. Full revivals in 2D quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanak, M; Jex, I [Department of Physics, FJFI CVUT v Praze, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1-Stare Mesto (Czech Republic); Kollar, B; Kiss, T, E-mail: martin.stefanak@fjfi.cvut.c [Department of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-09-01

    Recurrence of a random walk is described by the Polya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is understood as the return of the walker to the origin, rather than the full revival of its quantum state. Localization for two-dimensional quantum walks is known to exist in the sense of non-vanishing probability distribution in the asymptotic limit. We show, on the example of the 2D Grover walk, that one can exploit the effect of localization to construct stationary solutions. Moreover, we find full revivals of a quantum state with a period of two steps. We prove that there cannot be longer cycles for a four-state quantum walk. Stationary states and revivals result from interference, which has no counterpart in classical random walks.

  20. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment...

  1. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  2. Fast 2-D Complex Gabor Filter with Kernel Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Suhyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Min, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    2-D complex Gabor filtering has found numerous applications in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Especially, in some applications, it is often needed to compute 2-D complex Gabor filter bank consisting of the 2-D complex Gabor filtering outputs at multiple orientations and frequencies. Although several approaches for fast 2-D complex Gabor filtering have been proposed, they primarily focus on reducing the runtime of performing the 2-D complex Gabor filtering once at specific...

  3. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  4. The mouse ruby-eye 2(d) (ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) ) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-09-01

    The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric surgery compared to SC. Future studies should determine whether preoperative increases in PA can be maintained postoperatively and contribute to improved surgical outcomes. PMID:25304832

  6. The behaviour of certain potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the behaviour of some potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus under the field conditions of the Potato Research and Development Station, Targu-Secuiesc. During the observed period (2001-2003 the appearance of new forms of attack was registered, for example the attack on the stem, on the leaf petioles, as well as a greater number of infected tubers. The greatest number of blighted stems belonged to the varieties Sante and Ostara, and the smallest one was registered in the case of the variety Lady Roseta, followed by Desiree and Nemere. The results prove that there is a direct relationship between the frequency of the attack on the stems and that of the blighted tubers in the case of every variety, except for the varieties Lady Roseta and Nemere at which the smallest number of infected tubers was registered.

  7. Il governo integrato del sistema trasporti-territorio nell’area vasta MTB Metropoli Terra di Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  L’articolo propone il caso di studio dell’area vasta Metropoli Terra di Bari, e in particolare descrive come nella redazione del Piano Strategico BA2015 e nel piano della mobilità di Area Vasta PUM sia stato affrontato il tema della mobilità. La redazione in parallelo e congiunto dei due strumenti di pianificazione, uno generale per il governo del territorio ed uno settoriale per il governo della mobilità costituisce una best practice in Italia di governo integrato trasporti-territorio. L’articolo descrive i contenuti ed il processo per la redazione degli strumenti, evidenziando i punti di forza e i punti di debolezza dell’intero iter decisionale.

  8. TEMA 4-2014: Anestesia y Cirugía Bariátrica: Más Que Obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Existe una epidemia de sobrepeso que afecta aproximadamente a 1.7 billones de personas alrededor del mundo, de ellos el 50% son obesos. La obesidad es una patología asociada a gran cantidad de comorbilidades, su aumento ha llevado al desarrollo de múltiples procedimientos quirúrgicos para el control de la misma. Cada pacientes sometido a cirugía bariátrica es un reto para el anestesiólogo ya que presenta un riesgo  aumentado de complicaciones, que va mas allá del aumento del peso per se....

  9. Cirugía plástica post cirugía bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    K. Llamil Kauak, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica en aumento vertiginoso. Los pacientes obesos mórbidos que se someten a cirugía bariátrica tienen después de esta cirugía una pérdida que varía entre un 40% al 60% de su peso original y posteriormente requieren de la cirugía plástica para corregir los excesos de tejido cutáneo tras esta significativa baja de peso. Son varias las plastias que son necesarias y habitualmente varios los tiempos quirúrgicos que se requieren en esta corrección. Las complicacione...

  10. O tecido Adiposo num modelo animal de diabetes tipo 2 - Impacto da cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Filipa Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. O recurso à cirurgia bariátrica ou metabólica constitui uma opção eficaz na redução do peso corporal e na melhoria das co-morbilidades associadas à obesidade, como a diabetes tipo 2. Estas técnicas cirúrgicas mostraram ser eficientes na melhoria da situação diabética, na sequência de possíveis alterações entero-endócrinas e dimin...

  11. Analysis of the IEA 2D test. 2D, 3D, steady or unsteady airflow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The “IEA Annex 20 two-dimensional test case” was defined by proffesor Peter V. Nielsen (1990) and was originally considered two-dimensional and steady flow. However, some recent works considering the case as three dimensional have shown different solutions from the 2D case as well as different so...

  12. Analysis list: Kmt2d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kmt2d Adipocyte,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.5.tsv http://dbarchiv...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d....Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d.Pluripo

  13. Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Cerbus, R T

    2013-01-01

    The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R_{\\lambda}, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(\\delta u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(\\partial_x u), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent \\mu, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R_{\\lambda} but show signs of becoming gaussian as R_{\\lambda} increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(\\delta u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichn...

  14. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  15. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  16. 2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D

    2004-01-01

    The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.

  17. Wake effects characterization using wake oscillator model. Comparison on 2D response with experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurier, Benoît; Cébron, David

    2010-01-01

    A model using wake oscillators is developed to predict the 2D motion in a transverse plan of two rigid cylinders in tandem arrangement. This model of the wake dynamics is validated with experimental data from previous trials which took place at the Ifremer flume tank in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The agreement between the model and the experimental results allows using this model as a simple computational tool in the prediction of 2D Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) and, after some futher developments, Wake-Induced Oscillations (WIO) effects.

  18. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  19. Manejo endoscópico de las complicaciones en la cirugía bariátrica: lo que el gastroenterólogo debe saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Miranda da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es un transtorno grave en casi todo el mundo. Representa un importante factor de riesgo para una serie de condiciones que afectan y amenazan la salud. En la actualidad, la cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento más eficaz de la obesidad mórbida y resulta además de la pérdida de peso en la redución de morbilidad en esta población. El número de pacientes obesos operados se ha incrementado significativamente. A pesar del éxito de la cirugía bariátrica, un grupo de pacientes presentará complicaciones mayores en el postoperatorio. Para que la endoscopia contribuya en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las complicaciones de la cirugía de la obesidad, es necesario que el gastroenterólogo esté familiarizado con las particularidades de la cirugía bariátrica. En el presente artículo revisamos los aspectos anatómicos resultantes de las principales técnicas quirúrgicas empleadas, los síntomas más comunes en el postoperatorio, las ponteciales complicaciones y las posibilidades de diagnóstico y de tratamiento endoscópico. La endoscopia, en el tratamiento de las complicaciones de la cirugía bariátrica, es un área que está en crecimiento y en continua evolución. El objetivo de esta revisión es contribuir para la preparación de los gastroenterólogos para que ofrezcan diagnóstico y tratamiento endoscópico adecuado a esta población de alto riesgo.

  20. A Very Simple Approach for 3-D to 2-D Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Sandipan; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    Many times we need to plot 3-D functions e.g., in many scientificc experiments. To plot this 3-D functions on 2-D screen it requires some kind of mapping. Though OpenGL, DirectX etc 3-D rendering libraries have made this job very simple, still these libraries come with many complex pre- operations that are simply not intended, also to integrate these libraries with any kind of system is often a tough trial. This article presents a very simple method of mapping from 3D to 2D, that is free from any complex pre-operation, also it will work with any graphics system where we have some primitive 2-D graphics function. Also we discuss the inverse transform and how to do basic computer graphics transformations using our coordinate mapping system.

  1. Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.

  2. Pharm GKB: CYP2D6 [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available el for vortioxetine and CYP2D6 FDA Label for acetaminophen,tramadol and CYP2D6 FDA Label for dextromethorphan... Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6 European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and ...ore of this label. Read more. last updated 10/25/2013 FDA Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6 O...of NUEDEXTA is a CYP2D6 inhibitor used to increase the plasma availability of dextromethorphan, which is met... 05/02/2014 European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine

  3. 3D/2D Registration of medical images

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaževič, D.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral dissertation is registration of 3D medical images to corresponding projective 2D images, referred to as 3D/2D registration. There are numerous possible applications of 3D/2D registration in image-aided diagnosis and treatment. In most of the applications, 3D/2D registration provides the location and orientation of the structures in a preoperative 3D CT or MR image with respect to intraoperative 2D X-ray images. The proposed doctoral dissertation tries to find origin...

  4. Analysis list: Mef2d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Mef2d Muscle + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Mef2d.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Muscle.gml ...

  5. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  6. Backscattering in a 2D topological insulator and the conductivity of a 2D strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    A strip of the 2D HgTe topological insulator is studied. The same-spin edge states in an ideal system propagate in opposite directions on different sides of the strip and do not mix by tunneling. Impurities, edge irregularities, and phonons produce transitions between the counterpropagating edge states on different edges. This backscattering determines the conductivity of an infinitely long strip. The conductivity at finite temperature is determined in the framework of the kinetic equation. It is found that the conductivity exponentially grows with the strip width. In the same approximation the nonlocal resistance coefficients of a four-terminal strip are found.

  7. Obesidade em pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica Obesidad en pacientes candidatos a cirugía bariátrica Obesity in candidates for bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Charbel Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a obesidade grau III ou grave, identificando o perfil demográfico, clínico e as doenças de maior ocorrência, em pacientes atendidos na consulta de enfermagem, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica do Núcleo do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com análise dos registros em 252 prontuários dos pacientes atendidos no Programa de Cirurgia Bariátrica do Núcleo do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, entre 2004 a 2007. RESULTADOS: A prevalência crescente de sobrepeso e obesidade está associada a doenças crônicas relacionadas à dieta (comorbidades. Dos 252 pacientes atendidos 80,15% eram do sexo feminino; a média da idade foi de 36,07±10,16 anos; quanto à etnia 86,53% eram brancos, 8,57% pardos e 4,90% negros; houve predomínio das comorbidades: hipertensão arterial (63,49%, dispnéia (55,56%, varizes de membros inferiores (45,63% e depressão (36,51%. CONCLUSÃO: observa-se que a doença de maior ocorrência na obesidade é a hipertensão arterial, devendo o paciente ser acompanhado por uma equipe multidisciplinar.OBJETIVO: Estudiar la obesidad con grado III o grave, identificando el perfil demográfico, clínico y la enfermedades de mayor ocurrencia, en pacientes atendidos en la consulta de enfermería, candidatos a cirugía bariátrica del Núcleo del Hospital Universitario (NHU de la Universidad Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, con análisis de los registros en historias clínicas de los pacientes atendidos en el Programa de Cirugía Bariátrica del Núcleo del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, entre el 2004 al 2007. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia creciente de exceso de peso y obesidad está asociada a enfermedades crónicas relacionadas a la dieta (comorbidades. De los 252 pacientes atendidos el 80,15% eran del sexo

  8. Acceso a la cirugía bariátrica en Colombia: la tutela como mecanismo de protección para el paciente obeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Cuesta-Nova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La cirugía bariátrica es un procedimiento efectivo para el tratamiento de la obesidad. En Colombia, a muchos pacientes le es negada la realización de esta cirugía por parte de algunas aseguradoras, por lo cual deben recurrir a acciones legales como la tutela para proteger su derecho a la salud y así obtener acceso a un tratamiento efectivo para su patología. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de la acción de tutela para acceder a la cirugía bariátrica e indagar las características de los sujetos en las sentencias de tutela, además de las consideraciones y los factores relacionados con la aprobación o negación del procedimiento. Materiales y métodos. Mediante la búsqueda sistemática de sentencias de tutela en el radicador de sentencias de la Corte Constitucional de Colombia, se obtuvo una base de datos sobre la cual se realizó un análisis para evaluar la acción de tutela en los casos de cirugía bariátrica. Resultados. Dicho análisis se llevó acabo en 42 sentencias de tutela, dentro de las cuales se encontró una tasa de aprobación de 72 %. Por otro lado, la prevalencia de obesidad grado III asociada a comorbilidades en el estudio fue de 69 %. Además se encontró que lavulneración del derecho a la salud y la exclusión de la cirugía bariátrica del plan obligatorio de salud fueron los argumentos más frecuentemente empleados por los demandantes y las entidades promotoras de salud, respectivamente. Conclusión. Con base en el análisis, se puede concluir que la tutela es un mecanismo efectivo para el acceso a la cirugía bariátrica en los casos en que este procedimiento haya sido negado por alguna entidad prestadora de salud.

  9. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  10. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  11. The No-Hair Conjecture in 2D Dilaton Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamboa-Rios, J

    1993-01-01

    We study two dimensional dilaton gravity and supergravity following hamiltonian methods. Firstly, we consider the structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity and then the 2D dilaton supergravity is obtained taking the squere root of the bosonic constraints. We integrate exactly the equations of motion in both cases and we show that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differs from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables, i.e. the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the bidimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity.

  12. Scalable Fabrication of 2D Semiconducting Crystals for Future Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D layered materials are anticipated to be promising for future electronics. However, their electronic applications are severely restricted by the availability of such materials with high quality and at a large scale. In this review, we introduce systematically versatile scalable synthesis techniques in the literature for high-crystallinity large-area 2D semiconducting materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides, and 2D material-based advanced structures, such as 2D alloys, 2D heterostructures and 2D material devices engineered at the wafer scale. Systematic comparison among different techniques is conducted with respect to device performance. The present status and the perspective for future electronics are discussed.

  13. Cirurgia bariátrica: aspectos clínico-cirúrgicos e psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fandiño Julia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade grau III é uma doença crônica, de etiologia multifatorial, que acarreta prejuízos importantes à saúde do indivíduo. Devido a sua gravidade e difícil manejo clínico, novas estratégias de tratamento têm sido propostas, dentre as quais destaca-se a cirurgia bariátrica. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma atualização sobre as técnicas cirúrgicas, assim como aspectos clínicos e psiquiátricos envolvidos com este procedimento. Como pacientes com obesidade grave podem apresentar várias complicações clínicas e um aumento da psicopatologia, é de extrema importância uma avaliação multidisciplinar criteriosa visando a reduzir possíveis complicações pós-operatórias.

  14. Spatial analysis of the incidence of Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary and Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan on potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónides Castellanos González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to conduct a spatial analysis of the incidence of Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan and Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary, during five seasons of potato in Fields Company Miscellaneous Crops in Horquita, Cienfuegos (2003-2004 to 2007-2008. Information about pathogens, collected by the Plant Protection Station of Yaguaramas, was used in order to do so. An alpha numerical database was made, oriented to a group of areas under center pivot irrigation machines (Kubans and Bayamón and its quadrants. Parallel to this, mapping of center pivot machines and quadrants was generated in MapInfo GIS 8.5. Several automatic geo codifications were made in order to relate the alphanumeric database and the mapping, and thematic maps were generated in the presence or absence of pathogens. The two study agents have presented high spatial variability during the five planting seasons. Both have influenced the same geographical area with similar appearance date. P. infestans has not expressed a defined dispersion pattern and it has spread at random from the primary source of incidence, while Phytophthora nicotianae has become an endemic agent which shows a dispersion pattern towards neighboring areas or areas connected by the road network from the primary sources, which have been associated with poor land leveling and late or intermediate planting seasons.

  15. Effectiveness and residues of procymidone applied on celery and fennel in the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompi, V; Galli, M; Leandri, A; Forchielli, L

    2005-01-01

    A biennial experimentation has been led using the active ingredient (a.i.) procymidone, for the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary on fennel and celery. At present this utilizathion it is not authorized, even though this "minor use" is considered essential for the control of the various phytopathologies. For every test, both in field and in greenhouse, two treatments to the dose of 40 g/hl of a.i. have been made. After the second treatment two assessments were led to check effectiveness of a.i. and subsequent vegetable samplings have been made to determine the entity and the persistence of the residues of the used active ingredient. At the end of the agricultural cycle, in all the tests a good control of the infection caused by the fungus has been found; statistically significant differences of the infection between treated plots and the control. At harvesting (21 days from the 2nd treatment) we have found a residue average value of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg (field) and 0.3-0.4 mg/kg (greenhouse) on fennel and of: 1.0-1.5 mg/kg (field) e 3.0-3.5 mg/kg (greenhouse) on celery.

  16. Combined effect of organic manure and potassium on growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Barman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to find out the combined effect of cowdung and potassium on the growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I at Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from December 2010 to March 2011. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The two factors experiment had four levels of cowdung, viz., 0, 5, 10 and 20 tons ha-1 and four levels of potassium, viz. 0, 50, 150 and 250 kg K ha-1. Doses of cowdung and potassium showed significant variation in respect of all the parameters studied. The combination of 10 tons cowdung and 250 kg K ha-1 gave the tallest plant (46.60 cm, the highest number of leaves plant-1 (6.40, the highest length of bulb (3.27 cm, the highest diameter of bulb (4.83 cm, individual weight of bulb (51.23 g, dry matter content (12.66% and yield of bulb ha-1 (12.83 tons; whereas the control treatment gave the shortest plant (38.15 cm, lowest number of leaves plant-1 (5.68, diameter of bulb (3.41, individual weight of bulb (35.65g and gave lowest bulb yield ha-1 (9.16 tons.

  17. Cuidados de enfermagem no perioperatório de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Guimarães Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar evidencias disponibles en la literatura acerca de la atención de enfermería en el perioperatorio de pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Para esto, se realizó revisión integradora. La búsqueda de estudios primarios se realizó en las bases US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature y Literatura Latino Americana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud. La muestra consistió de 11 estudios primarios, publicados entre enero de 2002 y julio de 2013, agrupados en dos categorías. Las principales acciones de atención de enfermería identificadas fueron movilidad en el lecho, deambulación en 12 horas, profilaxis tromboembólica utilizándose dispositivos de compresión, profilaxis antibiótica, atención con drenaje, catéteres y vendajes, enseñanza del paciente sobre preparo pre y postoperatorio. Las dificultades vivenciadas por enfermeros y equipo en la atención ofrecida también se discutieron.

  18. Vivência da obesidade e do emagrecimento em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues do Nascimento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou investigar em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica os aspectos psicológicos relacionados à sua condição de obesa e ao seu emagrecimento. O método utilizado foi o descritivoexploratório, de abordagem qualitativa. Os dados permitiram, inicialmente, constatar que a obesidade, além de comprometer a saúde física, restringe a vida afetiva e social, pois impõe um autoconceito negativo e inibidor dos vínculos interpessoais. Com o processo de emagrecimento após a cirurgia, observa-se uma acentuada melhora das condições físicas e emocionais, as quais influenciam e são influenciadas pela reformulação positiva do autoconceito. Todavia, o emagrecimento tanto pode acarretar demandas estéticas irrealizáveis como certas vivências de despersonalização, as quais favorecem a desadaptação emocional ou a ocorrência de transtornos psíquicos. Pelas mudanças identitárias que acarreta, a cirurgia exige, preventivamente, o acompanhamento e o apoio psicológico às mulheres que a realizam.

  19. Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Maurizio; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2010-09-01

    A BTEX monitoring campaign, consisting of two weekly periods, was carried out in Bari, south-eastern Italy, in order to evaluate the impact of the vehicular traffic on the air quality at the main access roads of the city. Twenty-one sampling sites were selected: the pollution produced by the traffic in the vicinity of all exits from the ring road and some access roads to the city, those with higher traffic density, were monitored. Contemporarily the main meteorological parameters (ambient temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure and natural radioactivity) were investigated. It was found that in the same traffic conditions, barriers, buildings and local meteorological conditions can have important effects on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This situation is more critical in downtown where narrow roads and high buildings avoid an efficient dispersion producing higher levels of BTEX. High spatial resolution monitoring allowed both detecting the most critical areas of the city with high precision and obtaining information on the mean level of pollution, meaning air quality standard of the city. The same concentration pattern and the correlation among BTEX levels in all sites confirmed the presence of a single source, the vehicular traffic, having a strong impact on air quality.

  20. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz Júnior,Luiz H. K.; Antonio G. Ferreira; Patrick Giraudeau

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC...

  1. Antineoplastic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Carlien; Verlinden, Lieve; Verstuyf, Annemieke

    2013-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3-derived analogs were developed that are characterized by lower calcemic side effects and stronger antineoplastic effects. This review mainly focuses on the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying signaling pathways. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, migration/invasion and induce differentiation and apoptosis in malignant cell lines. Moreover, prostaglandin synthesis and Wnt/b-catenin signaling are also influenced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs. Human studies indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D3 values and the incidence of certain cancer types. Given the literature, it appears that the epidemiological link between vitamin D3 and cancer is the strongest for CRC, however more intervention studies and randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to unravel the beneficial dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs to induce antineoplastic effects.

  2. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  3. New Type of 2-D Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fundamentals and method of 2-D laser Doppler vibrometer are introduced.The factors influencing the measuring accuracy are analyzed. Moreover, the circuit for signal processing is designed. The vibrating amplitude and frequency of 2-D vibration in wider range can be measured simultaneously in non-contact means,the measuring results are accurate.

  4. Animación 2D: curriculum vitae animado

    OpenAIRE

    CANTOS BELMONTE, CONSUELO

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Grado de animación 2D donde un personaje (alter ego de la animadora) expone, mediante la interación con una Voz en Off y su sombra, el curriclum vitae de la animadora. Cantos Belmonte, C. (2014). Animación 2D: curriculum vitae animado. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/45910. Archivo delegado

  5. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, J; Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1997-01-01

    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is switched off suddenly. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model.

  6. From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the perfo

  7. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  8. From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the

  9. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....

  10. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  11. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (gen

  12. Synthesis and chemistry of elemental 2D materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Kiraly, Brian T.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2017-01-25

    2D materials have attracted considerable attention in the past decade for their superlative physical properties. These materials consist of atomically thin sheets exhibiting covalent in-plane bonding and weak interlayer and layer-substrate bonding. Following the example of graphene, most emerging 2D materials are derived from structures that can be isolated from bulk phases of layered materials, which form a limited library for new materials discovery. Entirely synthetic 2D materials provide access to a greater range of properties through the choice of constituent elements and substrates. Of particular interest are elemental 2D materials, because they provide the most chemically tractable case for synthetic exploration. In this Review, we explore the progress made in the synthesis and chemistry of synthetic elemental 2D materials, and offer perspectives and challenges for the future of this emerging field.

  13. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  14. Interfaces between bariatric surgery and oral health: a longitudinal survey Interface entre cirurgia bariátrica e saúde bucal: estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Avansini Marsicano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate oral changes, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, dental wear and salivary flow in bariatric patients. Fifty four obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were studied before (n=54, up after 3 months (n=24 and 6 months (n=16. METHODS: Indices for evaluating oral conditions were: DMFT, CPI, DWI and salivary flow. OIDP questionnaire was used to assess the impact of oral health on quality of life. ANOVA and Spearman correlation were used (p0.05, presence of periodontal pockets in 50%, 58% and 50% of patients (p>0.05, tooth wear in dentin present in 81.5%, 87.5% and 87.5% before, 3 and 6 months after surgical treatment respectively. There were differences between the three periods for prevalence and severity of dental wear (p = 0.012. Salivary flow was 0.8±0.5 ml/min before surgery, 0.9±0.5 ml/min for 3 months and 1.1±0.5m/min for 6 months (p>0.05. The impact of oral health on quality of life decreased with time after bariatric surgery (p= 0.029. CONCLUSION: The lifestyle changes after bariatric surgery and these changes may increase the severity of pre-existing dental problems. However, these alterations in oral health did not influence the quality of life.OBJETIVO: Avaliar alterações bucais, como cárie dentária, doença periodontal, desgaste dentário e fluxo salivar, em pacientes bariátricos. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e quatro pacientes obesos, submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, tiveram suas condições bucais avaliadas antes (n=54, aos 3 meses (n=24 e aos 6 meses (n=16 após a cirurgia bariátrica. Os índices para avaliação das condições bucais foram: CPOD, IPC, IDD e o volume de fluxo salivar. O questionário OIDP foi utilizado para verificar o impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida. ANOVA e correlação de Spearman foram utilizados para análise estatística (p0,05, bolsa periodontal foi encontrada em 50%, 58% e 50% dos pacientes (p>0,05 e o desgaste dentário em dentina em 81,5%, 87,5% e 87

  15. Impacto da manobra de recrutamento alveolar no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica videolaparoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Patelli Juliani Remístico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Complicações pulmonares em cirurgias bariátricas são frequentes, e, por isso, manobras de recrutamento alveolar (MRA têm sido utilizadas para preveni-las ou reduzi-las no pós-operatório (PO imediato. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da MRA executada no intraoperatório de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica por videolaparoscopia na incidência de complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico aleatório com 30 pacientes alocados em Grupo Controle (GC e Grupo Experimental (GE, sendo analisadas variáveis espirométricas, ventilatórias, hemodinâmicas e radiográficas. A MRA foi realizada no GE com pressão positiva expiratória final de 30 cmH2O e pressão de platô inspiratória de 45 cmH2O por 2 minutos após a desinsuflação do pneumoperitôneo. RESULTADOS: Observaram-se queda significativa nos valores espirométricos (p < 0,001 e maior incidência de complicações pulmonares na radiografia torácica (p = 0,02 no GC, bem como melhora significativa da escala de BORG dispneia (p < 0,001 no GE. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a MRA é uma técnica segura e eficaz quando utilizada para a prevenção de complicações pulmonares em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, resultando em achados espirométricos e radiológicos mais favoráveis no Grupo Experimental em relação ao Grupo Controle no PO.

  16. Cirurgia bariátrica e metabólica e complicações microvasculares do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cohen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoIntrodução:O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é caracterizado por uma desregulação metabólica, originando complicações microvasculares, mais especificamente a retinopatia, nefropatia e a neuropatia. A prevenção e tratamento das complicações são alvo da farmacoterapia, porém, evidências demonstram que a cirurgia bariátrica/metabólica é superior ao melhor tratamento farmacológico, pois apresenta melhor controle da glicemia, hipertensão e dislipidemias.Métodos:Por meio de pesquisa no PubMed, são discutidas as recentes publicações que evidenciam o efeito positivo das intervenções cirúrgicas sobre as complicações microvasculares, como melhora da microalbuminúria e mesmo preservação de função renal.Discussão:Existem evidências de benefício das operações bariátricas/metabólicas sobre a nefropatia diabética. Os dados sobre retinopatia são ainda ambivalentes. Na literatura, há uma diferença significativa no benefício da cirurgia em neuropatia.Conclusão:Apesar de resultados surpreendentes e positivos, para que se estabeleça definitivamente o papel da cirurgia bariátrica/metabólica nas complicações micovasculares do DM2, há a necessidade de novos estudos randomizados controlados e prospectivos.

  17. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  18. Protocolo eletrônico multiprofissional em cirurgia bariátrica Multiprofessional electronic protocol in bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Serpa Bopp Nassif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A obesidade é doença multifatorial. A coleta de dados exerce papel fundamental para realização de pesquisas de alto grau de qualidade e, na atualidade, a cirurgia da obesidade carece de meios para realização de pesquisas prospectivas com elevado nível de confiabilidade. Os dados obtidos em protocolos eletrônicos são mais completos, têm poucos erros, são mais consistentes e apresentam baixo percentual de violação em relação aos prontuários de papel. OBJETIVO: 1 Criar base teórica de dados clínicos referentes à multiprofissionalidade na abrangência da Cirurgia Bariátrica e Metabólica; 2 informatizar essa base transformando-a em protocolo eletrônico multiprofissional; 3 incorporá-la ao SINPE©; 4 disponibilizar este protocolo eletrônico e suas coletas para visualização via internet utilizando SINPE WEB©. MÉTODO: A criação da base teórica em Word© - depois transformada em forma digital para ser utilizada como protocolo eletrônico - foi baseada na revisão bibliográfica de nove livros-texto em obesidade mórbida, cirurgia bariátrica e metabólica, livros de multiprofissionalidade, livros específicos em psicologia e nutrição aplicados ao tema. Adicionou-se revisão sistemática da literatura atual com base em artigos científicos publicados nos últimos cinco anos no Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs e Scielo e também em teses e dissertações realizadas com protocolos eletrônicos. Assim, foram informatizados 10.306 itens de forma hierarquizada e ramificada contendo dados relacionados à medicina, fisioterapia, psicologia e nutrição. RESULTADOS: O protocolo completo poderá ser acessado para visualização no site www.sinpe.com.br. CONCLUSÕES: 1 Foi possível criar base eletrônica de dados clínicos referentes à multiprofissionalidade em cirurgia bariátrica e metabólica para coleta padronizada de informações; 2 foi possível informatizar esta base de dados; 3 ela está incorporada ao SINPE©; 4 o

  19. Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Saulo Maia Davila; Melo,Valdinaldo Aragão de; Menezes Filho,Raimundo Sotero; Alves Júnior,Antônio J

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de asma em um grupo de adultos obesos, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica e avaliar a gravidade da asma neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 363 pacientes obesos adultos (índice de massa corpórea > 35 kg/m²) avaliados por um médico pneumologista, utilizando a avaliação clínica como instrumento diagnóstico de asma. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos (asma e control...

  20. Paciente con paraplejia y obesidad mórbida: nuevo reto en la cirugía bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Gros Herguido; José Luis Pereira Cunill; Antonio Barranco Moreno; María Socas Macias; Salvador Morales-Conde; Pedro Pablo García- Luna

    2014-01-01

    La pérdida de la movilidad, como consecuencia de una lesión medular, es un factor de riesgo para el aumento de peso. A pesar de los resultados bien documentados de la cirugía bariátrica en pacientes ambulatorios, hay poca información disponible acerca de la cirugía en pacientes parapléjicos. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de pacientes con obesidad mórbida y lesión medular. Tras varios intentos para perder peso de forma conservadora, fueron valorados por el equipo multidisciplinar de nuestro h...

  1. Anemia pós-cirurgia bariátrica: as causas nem sempre são relacionadas à cirurgia

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso Baretta; João Batista Marchesini; João Caetano Dallegrave Marchesini; Sérgio Brenner; Maria Elize Rocha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    RACIONAL: As anemias ferropriva, perniciosa e megaloblástica são comuns após procedimentos bariátricos como o bypass e as derivações biliopancreáticas. As principais causas devem-se ao desvio duodenal e do jejuno proximal do trânsito alimentar e, em menor grau, às úlceras anastomóticas. Entretanto a dieta pobre em nutrientes, a suplementação vitamínica inadequada, medicamentos, uso de álcool e neoplasias devem ser lembrados. RELATO DOS CASOS: Os autores relatam dois casos de pacientes pós-pro...

  2. Drenagem linfática manual em mulheres submetidas à dermolipectomia de coxas após cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A drenagem linfática manual (DLM) tem se estabelecido como parte integrante nos tratamentos do edema linfático após cirurgias plásticas porém com poucas evidências. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da drenagem linfática em mulheres submetidas à dermolipectomia de coxas após cirurgia bariátrica. Médotos: Foram selecionadas 20 mulheres, com idade entre 20 e 60 anos, distribuídas aleatoriamente, em 02 grupos com 10 pacientes. As pacientes do grupo estudo realizaram 06 ...

  3. Cirugía Bariátrica, Cirugía Colorrectal e Internet: ¿Pacientes (desinformados? Bariatric surgery, colorectal surgery and the internet: (Uninformed patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elisa De Castro Peraza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El uso de Internet por los pacientes se incrementa buscando información. Evaluamos una cohorte de pacientes de cirugía bariátrica y otra de colorrectal. Objetivo: Conocer patrones de uso de Internet de pacientes bariátricos y colorrectales. Método: Preguntas a 60 pacientes de bariátrica recogiendo edad, género, nivel académico y patrones de uso de Internet comparados con 61 pacientes de colorrecto. Resultados principales: Los pacientes de bariátrica usan más Internet para informarse, destacando universitarios y mujeres. Los pacientes afirman que la información encontrada les resulta útil para el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones aunque refieran como dudosa y hasta peligrosa alguna información encontrada. Conclusiones: El uso incrementado de Internet favorece a la comunidad quirúrgica permitiendo llegar a más pacientes pero puede ser una fuente de desinformación, creando perspectivas erróneas. Un mejor entendimiento del uso que el paciente hace de Internet y de la información que encuentra permitirá mejorar el cuidado.Introduction: Internet use by patients seeking information increases. We evaluated a cohort of patients for bariatric surgery and another of colorectal. Aim: Knowing patterns of Internet use in colorectal and bariatric patients. Method: 60 questions to gather bariatric patients age, gender, educational level and patterns of Internet use compared with 61 patients of colorectum. Main results: Bariatric patients used the Internet to learn more, leading academics and women. Patients say that they found the information useful for understanding and decision making as suspect and even relate to any dangerous information found. Conclusions: The increased use of the Internet favors the surgical community to reach more patients but can be a source of misinformation, creating prospects wrong. A better understanding of the patient makes use of the Internet and found information that will improve care.

  4. Técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica: uma revisão da literatura = Bariatric surgery techniques: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeve, Jorge Luiz de Mattos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A obesidade é uma condição clínica crônica de etiologia multifatorial cujo fracasso no tratamento clínico e terapêutico levam a necessidade de uma intervenção mais eficaz, a cirúrgica. As cirurgias bariátricas podem modificar apenas o estômago, a fim de reduzir o espaço para o alimento e promover a sensação de saciedade, ou em complemento o intestino delgado, visando uma diminuição do local para absorção de nutrientes. Objetivo: Revisar as técnicas de intervenção em cirurgia bariátrica utilizadas no mundo atual, no intuito de compreender as decisões do cirurgião no que diz respeito à escolha das mesmas, tendo por base comparações dessas técnicas. Materiais e Métodos: Realizou-se estudo exploratório tipo revisão bibliográfica nas bases de dados SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, Bireme, sob os seguintes indexadores: técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica, derivação biliopancreática, gastroplastia vertical com bandagem, banda gástrica ajustável, gastrectomia vertical, cirurgia de derivação gástrica, derivações gástricas em Y de Roux, derivação biliopancreática com gastrectomia vertical e preservação pilórica. Resultados: De 66 referências relativas às técnicas em cirurgia bariátrica analisadas, 40 foram selecionadas entre capítulos de obras bibliográficas, consensos, revisões sistemáticas, meta-análises, estudos clínicos randomizados e controlados. Foram revisadas técnicas cirúrgicas para tratamento da obesidade classificadas como: restritivas, predominantemente restritivas e mal absortivas. Conclusão: Atualmente, diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas no tratamento da obesidade são reconhecidas e recomendadas no mundo inteiro. A escolha da técnica pelo cirurgião irá se basear em informações sobre seu mecanismo de funcionamento, resultados e riscos, que podem ser obtidas através de relevantes publicações científicas

  5. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Juanjo

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.

  7. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  8. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  9. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. K. Queiroz Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively.

  10. Spin Waves in 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Maher Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the area and edges spin wave calculations were carried out using the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and the tridiagonal method for the 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe, where the SW modes are characterized by a 1D in-plane wave vector $q_x$. The results show a general and an unexpected feature that the area and edge spin waves only exist as optic modes. This behavior is also seen in 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnetic square lattice. This absence of the acoustic modes in the 2D square...

  11. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  12. Harvest Survive : Game Mechanics of Unity 2D Game

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to learn how to create Games in Unity 2D, to see the work-flow and to test if the new Unity 2D feature of the Unity engine was a good alternative for developing 2D games. A further aspect was to learn the different steps and mechanics of the Unity environment. The goal was to create a survival game, in which the player would have to grow plants in order to get food and money to stay alive in a hostile environment. The player has to survive in six different...

  13. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun

    2007-01-01

    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  14. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, Eman, E-mail: eman.shaheen@uzleuven.be; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    suggestive for malignancy (BIRADS 5) indicating the required variety of shapes and margins of these models. The assessment of the BIRADS scores for all observers indicated good agreement based on Kendall's coefficient for both the 2D and the tomosynthesis evaluations. The paired analysis of the BIRADS scores between 2D and tomosynthesis for each observer revealed consistent behavior for the real and simulated masses. Conclusions: A database of 3D mass models, with variety of shapes and margins, was validated for the realism of their appearance for 2D digital mammography and for breast tomosynthesis. This database is suitable for use in future observer performance studies whether in virtual clinical trials or in patient images with simulated lesions.

  15. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Van Ongeval, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    ) indicating the required variety of shapes and margins of these models. The assessment of the BIRADS scores for all observers indicated good agreement based on Kendall's coefficient for both the 2D and the tomosynthesis evaluations. The paired analysis of the BIRADS scores between 2D and tomosynthesis for each observer revealed consistent behavior for the real and simulated masses. A database of 3D mass models, with variety of shapes and margins, was validated for the realism of their appearance for 2D digital mammography and for breast tomosynthesis. This database is suitable for use in future observer performance studies whether in virtual clinical trials or in patient images with simulated lesions.

  16. 3D vision accelerates laparoscopic proficiency and skills are transferable to 2D conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Konge, Lars; Bjerrum, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is difficult to master, in part because surgeons operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space guided by two-dimensional (2D) images. This trial explores the effect of 3D vision during a laparoscopic training program, and examine whether it is possible to transfer skills......: Mean training time were reduced in the intervention group; 231 min versus 323 min; P = 0.012. There was no significant difference in the mean times to completion of the retention test; 92 min versus 95 min; P = 0.85. CONCLUSION: 3D vision reduced time to proficiency on a virtual-reality laparoscopy...... simulator. Furthermore, skills learned with 3D vision can be transferred to 2D vision conditions. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02361463)....

  17. First Principles Calculations of Electronic Excitations in 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm

    -thin electronics and high efficiency solar cells. Contrary to many other nano-materials, methods for large scale fabrication and patterning have already been demonstrated and the first real technological applications have already be showcased. Still the technology is very young and the number of well-studied 2D...... materials are few. However as the list of 2D materials is growing it is necessary to investigate their fundamental structural, electronic and optical properties. These are determined by the atomic and electronic structure of the materials that can quite accurately predicted by computational quantum...... as if it is being screened by the electrons in the material. This method has been very successful for calculating quasiparticle energies of bulk materials but results have been more varying for 2D materials. The reason is that the 2D confined electrons are less able to screen the added charge and some...

  18. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  19. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  20. CYP2D6 polymorphism in relation to tramadol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál; Brosen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol. However, the relationship between the O-demethylation of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol (M1) and CYP2D6 activity has not previously been investigated with tramadol in multimedicated...... outpatients under steady-state conditions. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine if the well documented pharmacokinetics of tramadol regarding CYP2D6 could be verified in a study including 88 multimedicated Faroese patients, treated with tramadol at steady-state conditions. Further, the study aimed...... collection over 12 hours. Sparteine and its metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography. Genotype analyses for the CYP2D6 3, 4, 6, and 9 alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction and Taqman technology. Plasma and urinary concentrations of (+/-)-tramadol and (+/-)-M1 were determined by high...

  1. 2D gels still have a niche in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    ) alternative detection methods for modification specific proteomics; 3) identification of protein isoforms and modified proteins. With an example of the glycoprotein TIMP-1 protein we illustrate the unique properties of 2D gels for the separation and characterisation of multiply modified proteins. We also show......With the rapid advance of MS-based proteomics one might think that 2D gel-based proteomics is dead. This is far from the truth. Current research has shown that there are still a number of places in the field of protein and molecular biology where 2D gels still play a leading role. The aim...... of this review is to highlight some of these applications. Examples from our own research as well as from other published works are used to illustrate the 2D gel driven research in the areas of: 1) de novo sequencing and protein identification from organisms with no or incomplete genome sequences available; 2...

  2. Orbifold Reduction and 2d (0,2) Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Orbifold Reduction, a new method for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ gauge theories associated to D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds starting from $4d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. The new procedure generalizes dimensional reduction and orbifolding. In terms of T-dual configurations, it generates brane brick models starting from brane tilings. Orbifold reduction provides an agile approach for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories with a brane realization. We present three practical applications of the new algorithm: the connection between $4d$ Seiberg duality and $2d$ triality, a combinatorial method for generating theories related by triality and a $2d$ $(0,2)$ generalization of the Klebanov-Witten mass deformation.

  3. Proteome analysis of human colorectal cancer tissue using 2-D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Laser capture microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis were used to establish ... As a technique with high-flux and high resolution, pro- teomics ... in which the protein sample was labeled before 2-D.

  4. 2-D electromagnetic simulation of passive microstrip circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    A reference for circuit design engineers and microwave engineers. It uses a simple 2-D electromagnetic simulation procedure to provide basic knowledge and practical insight into quotidian problems of microstrip passive circuits applied to microwave systems and digital technologies.

  5. Materials science: Screen printing of 2D semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Duck; Hone, James

    2017-04-01

    Atomically thin semiconductors have been made by transferring the oxide 'skin' of a liquid metal to substrates. This opens the way to the low-cost mass production of 2D semiconductors at the sizes needed for electronics applications.

  6. Use of spatial information in 2D SEMG array decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.T.; Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2007-01-01

    A new feature extraction/classification method for High Density surface ElectroMyoGraphy (HD sEMG) Motor Unit Aciton Potential (MUAP) decomposition using 2D shape and energy distribution features is presented and experimentally tested.

  7. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive...... and prove the convergence of two algorithms for NMF2D based on minimizing the squared error and the Kullback-Leibler divergence respectively. Next, we introduce a sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution model that gives easy interpretable decompositions and devise two algorithms for computing...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....

  8. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong

    2004-01-01

    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  9. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  10. Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole

    Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....

  11. New design of 2-D photonic crystal waveguide couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zhi-rong; ZHANG Li-hua; YANG Hong-qin; JIANG Yun-kun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Based on couple wave equation and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm,the strong couple characteristic of 2-D photonic crystal couplers is calculated.Theoretical analysis and numerical simulated results indicate that the energy in a 2-D photonic crystal coupler can not be totally transferred between two wave-guides.Compared with the result of weak coupling theory,our result is more accurate.

  12. 2D IR Correlation Spectroscopy in Wood Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy is a well-established technique that provides considerable utility and benefit in various spectroscopic studies of polymers. Some of the important features of generalized 2D correlation spectra are simplification of complex spectra consisting of many overlapped peaks, enhancement of spectral resolution by spreading peaks along the second dimension, unambiguous assignments through the correlation of bands selectively coupled by various interaction mechanisms, and determination of the sequence of the spectral peak emergence.

  13. RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.

  14. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  15. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;

    2009-01-01

    activity relationship (QSAR) modelling systems. They cross validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 71%, 81% and 82%, respectively. Discrete organic European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) chemicals were screened to predict an approximate percentage of CYP 2D6...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....

  16. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  17. Technique of Embedding Depth Maps into 2D Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazutake Uehira; Hiroshi Unno; Youichi Takashima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique that is used to embed depth maps into corresponding 2-dimensional (2D) images. Since a 2D image and its depth map are integrated into one type of image format, they can be treated as if they were one 2D image. Thereby, it can reduce the amount of data in 3D images by half and simplify the processes for sending them through networks because the synchronization between images for the left and right eyes becomes unnecessary. We embed depth maps in the quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) data of 2D images. The key to this technique is whether the depth maps could be embedded into 2D images without perceivably deteriorating their quality. We try to reduce their deterioration by compressing the depth map data by using the differences from the next pixel to the left. We assume that there is only one non-zero pixel at most on one horizontal line in the DCT block because the depth map values change abruptly. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the quality of the 2D images embedded with depth maps and find that satisfactory quality could be achieved.

  18. Paciente con paraplejia y obesidad mórbida: nuevo reto en la cirugía bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Gros Herguido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de la movilidad, como consecuencia de una lesión medular, es un factor de riesgo para el aumento de peso. A pesar de los resultados bien documentados de la cirugía bariátrica en pacientes ambulatorios, hay poca información disponible acerca de la cirugía en pacientes parapléjicos. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de pacientes con obesidad mórbida y lesión medular. Tras varios intentos para perder peso de forma conservadora, fueron valorados por el equipo multidisciplinar de nuestro hospital y finalmente se intervinieron mediante bypass gástrico por vía laparoscópica. El caso 1, tras dos años de seguimiento, presenta un peso de 84 kg (IMC 25,08 kg/m². El caso 2, tras un mes de la cirugía ha reducido de peso y ha dejado de tomar tratamiento hipotensor. En ellos, destaca la disposición de la cirugía bariátrica como una opción a tener en cuenta si todas las intervenciones no quirúrgicas fracasan.

  19. Identificação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem da classe de respostas cardiovasculares/pulmonares em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Moreira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las respuestas humanas presentadas por pacientes en el postoperatorio de cirugía bariátrica que se configuren como diagnósticos de enfermería de la clase de respuestas cardiovasculares/pulmonares. Estudio observacional de carácter transversal realizado en el periodo de julio de 2010 a mayo de 2011, en un hospital referencia en cirugía bariátrica en Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil. Los diagnósticos de enfermería identificados fueron: riesgo de perfusión gastrointestinal ineficaz (87,9 % , riesgo de into - lerancia a la actividad (70,7 % , perfusión tisular periférica ineficaz (67,2 % , riesgo de choque (63,8 % , débito cardíaco disminuido (60,3 % , riesgo de perfusión tisular cardíaca disminuida (58,6 % , intolerancia a la actividad (51,7 % , riesgo de perfusión tisular cerebral ineficaz (48,3 % , ventilación espontánea perjudicada (46,5 % , riesgo de perfusión renal ineficaz (43,1 % , patrón respiratorio ineficaz (37,9 % y respuesta disfuncional al desmame ventilatorio (36,2 % .

  20. Analysis of the flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 in a small basin in the province of Bari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Bisantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the province of Bari the hydrographic network consists of ephemeral streams called lame. In these watercourses the absence of runoff for long periods contributed to unfounded beliefs concerning the hydraulic safety of the landscape and therefore uncontrolled changes in streambeds and floodplains. In these streams high water discharges can occur during heavy rainfalls, as demonstrated by the floods that hit the city of Bari in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 can be considered catastrophic as it resulted in six deaths, numerous injuries and substantial damage sustained by road and railway infrastructures at the intersection with the hydrographic network. This study aims to analyse the severity of the event in terms of the response of the landscape with reference to the case of the lama Scappagrano basin, where a Eurostar train derailed due to the collapse of the railway embankment. Coupled hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic modelling was performed to reconstruct the flood hydrograph and water depths on the upstream side of the embankment. The results were used to set the boundary conditions to analyse the internal stability of the embankment using a finite element method.

  1. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  2. A Comparative Study of 2D PCA Face Recognition Method with Other Statistically Based Face Recognition Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Gnanamurthy, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional principal component analysis (2D PCA) is compared with other algorithms like 1D PCA, Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Kernel PCA (KPCA) which are used for image representation and face recognition. As opposed to PCA, 2D PCA is based on 2D image matrices rather than 1D vectors, so the image matrix does not need to be transformed into a vector prior to feature extraction. Instead, an image covariance matrix is constructed directly using the original image matrices and its Eigen vectors are derived for image feature extraction. To test 2D PCA and evaluate its performance, a series of experiments are performed on three face image databases: ORL, Senthil, and Yale face databases. The recognition rate across all trials higher using 2D PCA than PCA, FDA, ICA and KPCA. The experimental results also indicated that the extraction of image features is computationally more efficient using 2D PCA than PCA.

  3. Failure Mechanism of True 2D Granular Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cuong T; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    Most previous experimental investigations of two-dimensional (2D) granular column collapses have been conducted using three-dimensional (3D) granular materials in narrow horizontal channels (i.e., quasi-2D condition). Our recent research on 2D granular column collapses by using 2D granular materials (i.e., aluminum rods) has revealed results that differ markedly from those reported in the literature. We assume a 2D column with an initial height of h0 and initial width of d0, a defined as their ratio (a =h0/d0), a final height of h , and maximum run-out distance of d . The experimental data suggest that for the low a regime (a 0.65), the ratio of a to (d-d0)/d0, h0/h , or d/d0 is expressed by power-law relations. In particular, the following power-function ratios (h0/h=1.42a^2/3 and d/d0=4.30a^0.72) are proposed for every a >0.65. In contrast, the ratio (d-d0)/d0=3.25a^0.96 only holds for 0.651.5. In addition, the influence of ground contact surfaces (hard or soft beds) on the final run-out distance and destru...

  4. Twin characterisation using 2D and 3D EBSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. D. NAVE; J. J. L. MULDERS; A. GHOLINIA

    2005-01-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a superior technique for twin characterisation due to its ability to provide highly detailed classification (by generation, system and variant) of a significant number of twins in a relatively short time. 2D EBSD is now widely used for twin characterisation and provides quite good estimates of twin volume fractions under many conditions. Nevertheless, its accuracy is limited by assumptions that have to be made due to the 2D nature of the technique. With 3D EBSD, two key assumptions are no longer required, as additional information can be derived from the 3D map. This paper compares the benefits and limitations of 2D and 3D EBSD for twin characterisation. 2D EBSD enables a larger number of twins to be mapped in a given space of time, giving better statistics. 3D EBSD provides more comprehensive twin characterisation and will be a valuable tool for validation of 2D stereological methods and microstructural models of twinning during deformation.

  5. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  6. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E

    2016-01-01

    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...

  7. New Reductions and Nonlinear Systems for 2D Schrodinger Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A

    2010-01-01

    New Completely Integrable (2+1)-System is studied. It is based on the so-called L-A-B-triples $L_t=[H,L]-fL$ where L is a 2D Schrodinger Operator. This approach was invented by S.Manakov and B.Dubrovin, I.Krichever, S.Novikov(DKN) in the works published in 1976. A nonstandard reduction for the 2D Schrodinger Operator (completely different from the one found by S.Novikov and A.Veselov in 1984) compatible with time dynamics of the new Nonlinear System, is studied here. It can be naturally treated as a 2D extension of the famous Burgers System. The Algebro-Geometric (AG) Periodic Solutions here are very specific and unusual (for general and reduced cases). The reduced system is linearizable like Burgers. However, the general one (and probably the reduced one also) certainly lead in the stationary AG case to the nonstandard examples of algebraic curves $\\Gamma\\subset W$ in the full complex 2D manifold of Bloch-Floquet functions W for the periodic elliptic 2D operator H where $H\\psi(x,y,P)=\\lambda(P)\\psi(x,y,P),P\\...

  8. Fatores de risco para recidiva de peso no pós-operatório tardio de cirurgia bariátrica = Risk factors for weight regain in the late postoperative of bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal, Adriane Granato

    2016-01-01

    Conclusões: Nessa amostra, a baixa assiduidade às consultas nutricionais no pré-operatório, bem como a renda familiar elevada foram fatores de risco para recidiva de peso no pós-operatório tardio de cirurgia bariátrica

  9. UPLAND EROSION MODELING WITH CASC2D-SED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre JULIEN; Rosalía ROJAS

    2002-01-01

    Developed at Colorado State University, CASC2D-SED is a physically-based model simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed to a distributed rainfall field. The time-dependent processes include:precipitation, interception, infiltration, surface runoff and channel routing, upland erosion, transport and sedimentation. CASC2D-SED is applied to Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The watershed covers 21 km2and has been extensively monitored both at the outlet and at several internal locations by the ARS-NSL at Oxford, MS. The model has been calibrated and validated using rainfall data from 16 meteorological stations, 6 stream gauging stations and 6 sediment gauging stations. Sediment erosion/deposition rates by size fraction are predicted both in space and time. Geovisualization, a powerful data exploration technique based on GIS technology, is used to analyze and display the dynamic output time series generated by the CASC2D-SED model.

  10. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  11. Design and Realization of Dynamic Obstacle on URWPSSim2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation system is charged with the strategy validation and dual team meets, and as the 2-dimensional simulation platform for underwater robotic fish game, URWPGSim2D is the assigned platform for Chinese underwater robot contest and Robot cup underwater program. By now on URWPGSim2D, there is only static obstacles,thus short of changeableness. In order to improve the changeableness and innovation of robotic fish contest, to extend the space for the programming of contest strategy, and to increase the interest, this paper study the design of dynamic obstacles on URWPGSim2D, and design and implement two kinds of dynamic obstacles, which are the evadible dynamic obstacle and the forcing dribbling obstacle.  

  12. Genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology of NKG2D ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapito, Raphael; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-09-01

    Human and mouse NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are absent or only poorly expressed by most normal cells but are upregulated by cell stress, hence, alerting the immune system in case of malignancy or infection. Although these ligands are numerous and highly variable (at genetic, genomic, structural, and biochemical levels), they all belong to the major histocompatibility complex class I gene superfamily and bind to a single, invariant, receptor: NKG2D. NKG2D (CD314) is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and subsets of T cells that have a key role in the recognition and lysis of infected and tumor cells. Here, we review the molecular diversity of NKG2DLs, discuss the increasing appreciation of their roles in a variety of medical conditions, and propose several explanations for the evolutionary force(s) that seem to drive the multiplicity and diversity of NKG2DLs while maintaining their interaction with a single invariant receptor.

  13. Joint 2-D DOA and Noncircularity Phase Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical joint estimation methods need large calculation quantity and multidimensional search. In order to avoid these shortcoming, a novel joint two-Dimension (2-D Direction Of Arrival (DOA and noncircularity phase estimation method based on three orthogonal linear arrays is proposed. The problem of 3-D parameter estimation can be transformed to three parallel 2-D parameter estimation according to the characteristic of three orthogonal linear arrays. Further more, the problem of 2-D parameter estimation can be transformed to 1-D parameter estimation by using the rotational invariance property among signal subspace and orthogonal property of noise subspace at the same time in every subarray. Ultimately, the algorithm can realize joint estimation and pairing parameters by one eigen-decomposition of extended covariance matrix. The proposed algorithm can be applicable for low SNR and small snapshot scenarios, and can estiame 2(M −1 signals. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  14. Applications of Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M.; Budaj, J.; Agafonov, M.; Sharova, O.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years, the applications of Doppler tomography have been extended beyond the usual calculation of 2D velocity images of circumstellar gas flows. This technique has now been used with the new Shellspec spectrum synthesis code to demonstrate the effective modeling of the accretion disk and gas stream in the TT Hya Algol binary. The 2D tomography procedure projects all sources of emission onto a single central (Vx, Vy) velocity plane even though the gas is expected to flow beyond that plane. So, new 3D velocity images were derived with the Radioastronomical Approach method by assuming a grid of Vz values transverse to the central 2D plane. The 3D approach has been applied to the U CrB and RS Vul Algol-type binaries to reveal substantial flow structures beyond the central velocity plane.

  15. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosenberger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain.

  16. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  17. Cluster algebras in Scattering Amplitudes with special 2D kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Marcus A C

    2013-01-01

    We study the cluster algebra of the kinematic configuration space $Conf_n(\\mathbb{P}^3)$ of a n-particle scattering amplitude restricted to the special 2D kinematics. We found that the n-points two loop MHV remainder function found in special 2D kinematics depend on a selection of \\XX-coordinates that are part of a special structure of the cluster algebra related to snake triangulations of polygons. This structure forms a necklace of hypercubes beads in the corresponding Stasheff polytope. Furthermore in $n = 12$, the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates in special 2D kinematics replicates the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates of $n=6$ two loop MHV amplitude in 4D kinematics.

  18. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  19. Análise dos efeitos da manobra de recrutamento alveolar na oxigenação sanguínea durante procedimento bariátrico Análisis de los efectos de la maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar en la oxigenación sanguínea durante el procedimiento bariátrico Analysis of the effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver on blood oxygenation during bariatric surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alda Paiva de Souza; Márcia Buschpigel; Ligia Andrade Silva Telles Mathias; Carlos Alberto Malheiros; Vera Lucia dos Santos Alves

    2009-01-01

    ... relação PaO2/FiO2 e da soma [PaO2+PaCO2], em pacientes obesos grau III. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo aberto em pacientes adultos, obesos grau III, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico bariátrico em...

  20. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  1. Integrability from 2d N=(2,2) Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    We study integrable models in the context of the recently discovered Gauge/YBE correspondence, where the Yang-Baxter equation is promoted to a duality between two supersymmetric gauge theories. We study flavored elliptic genus of 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ quiver gauge theories, which theories are defined from statistical lattices regarded as quiver diagrams. Our R-matrices are written in terms of theta functions, and simplifies considerably when the gauge groups at the quiver nodes are Abelian. We also discuss the modularity properties of the R-matrix, reduction of 2d index to 1d Witten index, and string theory realizations of our theories.

  2. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  3. 2D-ACAR investigations of PPT aramid fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnarends, P.E.; Falub, C.V.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Veen, A. van [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    2D-ACAR spectra of PPT (poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)) fibres which contain structural elongated open spaces in the crystallographic unit cell show a p-Ps peak with an elliptical cross-section and side lobes. Peak broadening suggests dimensions of {proportional_to}14-17 by 7-9 A for the open spaces and indicates some penetration of Ps into the interlayer spacing. The side lobes can be related to projected reciprocal lattice points and indicate Ps delocalization. 2D-ACAR has also been used to study the evolution of water release from the open spaces. (orig.)

  4. On the Nonrelativistic 2D Purely Magnetic Supersymmetric Pauli Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Grinevich, P.; Mironov, A.(Lebedev Physics Institute; ITEP, Moscow, Russia); Novikov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Complete Manifold of Ground State Eigenfunctions for the Purely Magnetic 2D Pauli Operator is considered as a by-product of the new reduction found by the present authors few years ago for the Algebrogeometric Inverse Spectral Data (i.e. Riemann Surfaces and Divisors). This reduction is associated with the (2+1) Soliton Hierarhy containing a 2D analog of the famous "Burgers System". This article contains also exposition of the previous works made since 1980 including the first topological...

  5. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  6. Recording 2-D Nutation NQR Spectra by Random Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotova, Olga; Sinyavsky, Nikolaj; Jadzyn, Maciej; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw

    2010-10-01

    The method of random sampling was introduced for the first time in the nutation nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy where the nutation spectra show characteristic singularities in the form of shoulders. The analytic formulae for complex two-dimensional (2-D) nutation NQR spectra (I = 3/2) were obtained and the condition for resolving the spectral singularities for small values of an asymmetry parameter η was determined. Our results show that the method of random sampling of a nutation interferogram allows significant reduction of time required to perform a 2-D nutation experiment and does not worsen the spectral resolution.

  7. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces......B vorticity as well as the ion diamagnetic vorticity. The 2D domain includes both open and closed field lines and is located on the out-board midplane of a tokamak. On open field field lines the parallel dynamics are parametrized as sink terms depending on the dynamic quantities; density, electron and ion...

  8. GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL OPTIMAZATION ANALYSIS FOR 2-D FLOW FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Si-xun; XU Ding-hua; LAN Wei-ren; TENG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The Variational Optimization Analysis Method (VOAM) for 2-D flow field suggested by Sasaki was reviewed first. It is known that the VOAM can be used efficiently in most cases. However, in the cases where there are high frequency noises in 2-D flow field, it appears to be inefficient. In the present paper, based on Sasaki's VOAM, a Generalized Variational Optimization Analysis Method (GVOAM) was proposed with regularization ideas, which could deal well with flow fields containing high frequency noises. A numerical test shows that observational data can be both variationally optimized and filtered, and therefore the GVOAM is an efficient method.

  9. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    CERN Document Server

    Roueff, E; Lis, D C; Wootten, A; Marcelino, N; cernicharo, J; Tercero, B

    2013-01-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of K, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+ and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  10. Using 2-D arrays for sensing multimodal Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Marcus; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. A 2-D ultrasonic phased array with all azimuth angle coverage would be extremely useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of such structures. Known techniques for estimating direction of arriving (DOA) waves cannot efficiently cope with dispersive and multimodal Lamb waves (LWs). In the paper we propose an adaptive spectral estimation technique capable of handling broadband LWs sensed by 2-D arrays, the modified Capon method. Performance of the technique is evaluated using simulated multiple-mode LWs, and verified using experimental data.

  11. Exact computation of scalar 2D aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald L.

    2002-07-01

    An exact formulation of the problem of imaging a 2D object through a Koehler illumination system is presented; the accurate simulation of a real layout is then not time- limited but memory-limited. The main idea behind the algorithm is that the boundary of the region that comprise a typical TCC Is made up of circular arcs, and therefore the area - which determines the value of the TCC - should be exactly computable in terms of elementary analytical functions. A change to integration around the boundary leads to an expression with minimal dependence on expensive functions such as arctangents and square roots. Numerical comparisons are made for a simple 2D structure.

  12. Hipoglicemia por nesidioblastose: uma complicação rara da cirurgia bariátrica? Nesidioblastosis hypoglycemia: is it a rare complication of bariatric surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gehlen Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia bariátrica tem-se mostrado o método mais eficaz na resolução do diabetes mellitus tipo II, chegando a resultados superiores a 80% de cura da doença. Contudo, alguns estudos têm mostrado estado de hiperinsulinemia com hipoglicemia em certos pacientes obesos mórbidos após a realização da cirurgia bariátrica, ao que se denominou nesidioblastose, que corresponde ao hipercrescimento patológico das células beta pancreáticas. O objetivo desse estudo é realizar revisão bibliográfica sobre nesidioblastose pós-cirurgia bariátrica, através da pesquisa por artigos científicos publicados a partir de 2000. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos publicados a partir de 2000. A base de dados pesquisada foi o PubMed, através do site www.pubmed.gov. cruzando-se os descritores Nesidioblastose. Hiperinsulinismo. Hipoglicemia. Cirurgia bariátrica, complicações. REVISÃO DE LITERATURA: Revisou-se 14 publicações encontradas com o tema. Dentre elas, Cummings defende que após a realização da cirurgia bariátrica, ocorrem alterações no trânsito intestinal gerando estimulação e crescimento excessivo das células beta-pancreáticas e maior atividade dos hormônios pancreáticos, sugerindo possível causa para a nesidioblastose. Corroborando para desvendar a causa dessa doença, autores sugerem que o rápido trânsito alimentar duodenal após o bypass gástrico, eleva os níveis da peptídeo glucagonóide 1 e estimula, assim, a hiperinsulinemia hipoglicêmica nesses pacientes. De forma semelhante, outros defendem que a perda de peso após a cirurgia bariátrica, reduz muito a resistência à insulina devido à hipertrofia e hiperfunção das células beta-pancreáticas, o que é muito comum na obesidade, gerando a nesidioblastose. CONCLUSÃO: A nesidioblastose após cirurgia bariátrica pode representar o extremo patológico de um fenômeno benéfico para a maioria dos pacientes obesos

  13. Cirugía bariátrica: Tratamiento de elección para la obesidad mórbida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Rodríguez- Saborío

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es una patología que ha crecido hasta convertirse en un problema de salud pública, debido a que se asocia con una serie de enfermedades como hipertensión, Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemia y trastornos respiratorios. Se ha observado que la reducción de peso ayuda en el manejo y el control de estas patologías. Aunque la terapia conservadora con dieta, ejercicios y algunos fármacos es ampliamente utilizada, la evidencia señala que en pacientes con obesidad mórbida estos métodos rara vez obtienen resultados satisfactorios en un porcentaje aceptable de pacientes. La cirugía bariátrica es el único tratamiento que ha producido resultados halagadores en el manejo de la obesidad mórbida, y esto no solo en cuanto a reducción de peso se refiere, sino que también se obtienen beneficios en el manejo de las distintas comorbilidades. En cirugía bariátrica se ha desarrollado una serie de técnicas que se podrían clasificar de 3 maneras, dependiendo del mecanismo que utilizando para inducir la pérdida de peso: malabsortivos (derivación biliopancreática, restrictivos (gastroplastía vertical y banda gástrica y mixtos ("bypass" gástrico. Aunque los 3 tipos de procedimientos mencionados logran resultados aceptables, el "bypass" gástrico se ha convertido en el "gold standard" del tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad, debido a que ofrece una adecuada reducción de peso, sin aumentar la mortalidad ni los efectos adversos; además, reduce de manera importante la prevalencia de patologías como la hipertensión arterial y diabetes tipo 2. En conclusión, la cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento de elección para pacientes con IMC > 40 Kg / m² o con IMC entre 35 y 40, si se asocia a alguna comorbilidad.

  14. Implementation of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform by Number Theoretic Transform and 2D Overlap-Save Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.

  15. The partition function of 2d string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Plesser, R

    1993-01-01

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in 2D string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the $c=1$ system to KP flow and $W_{1+\\infty}$ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.

  16. The Anglo-Australian Observatory's 2dF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, I J; Taylor, K; Glazebrook, K; Bailey, J A; Baldry, I K; Barton, J R; Bridges, T J; Dalton, G B; Farrell, T J; Gray, P M; Lankshear, A; McCowage, C; Parry, I R; Sharples, R M; Shortridge, K; Smith, G A; Stevenson, J; Straede, J O; Waller, L G; Whittard, J D; Wilcox, J K; Willis, K C

    2002-01-01

    The 2dF (Two-degree Field) facility at the prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides multiple object spectroscopy over a 2 degree field of view. Up to 400 target fibres can be independently positioned by a complex robot. Two spectrographs provide spectra with resolutions of between 500 and 2000, over wavelength ranges of 440nm and 110nm respectively. The 2dF facility began routine observations in 1997. 2dF was designed primarily for galaxy redshift surveys and has a number of innovative features. The large corrector lens incorporates an atmospheric dispersion compensator, essential for wide wavelength coverage with small diameter fibres. The instrument has two full sets of fibres on separate field plates, so that re-configuring can be done in parallel with observing. The robot positioner places one fibre every 6 seconds, to a precision of 0.3 arcsec (20micron) over the full field. All components of 2dF, including the spectrographs, are mounted on a 5-m diameter telescope top-end ring for ease of ...

  17. Approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Wolfgram, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We propose an approximate two-dimensional inversion procedure for transient electromagnetic data. The method is a two-stage procedure, where data are first inverted with 1D multi-layer models. The 1D model section is then considered as data for the next inversion stage that produces the 2D model...

  18. Nonlinear excursions of particles in ideal 2D flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Stremler, Mark A.;

    2010-01-01

    A number of problems related to particle trajectories in ideal 2D flows are discussed. Both regular particle paths, corresponding to integrable dynamics, and irregular or chaotic paths may arise. Examples of both types are shown. Sometimes, in the same flow, certain particles will follow regular ...

  19. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.;

    2016-01-01

    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...

  20. CANONICAL COMPUTATIONAL FORMS FOR AR 2-D SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROCHA, P; WILLEMS, JC

    1990-01-01

    A canonical form for AR 2-D systems representations is introduced. This yields a method for computing the system trajectories by means of a line-by-line recursion, and displays some relevant information about the system structure such as the choice of inputs and initial conditions.

  1. The 2D Boussinesq equations with logarithmically supercritical velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Dongho

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the global (in time) regularity of solutions to a system of equations that generalize the vorticity formulation of the 2D Boussinesq-Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity $u$ in this system is related to the vorticity $\\omega$ through the relations $u=\

  2. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...

  3. On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaproulias, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sigalas, M.M., E-mail: sigalas@upatras.gr [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.

  4. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  5. Research Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-13

    polythiophene chain on the Scheme should necessarily result in a continuous brick wall 2D structure). Furthermore, the design should eliminate any...Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy are under way. We have also conducted preliminary experiments on the two other low

  6. 2D InP photonic crystal fabrication process development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, B.; Van der Drift, E.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a reliable process to fabricate high quality 2D air-hole and dielectric column InP photonic crystals with a high aspect ratio on a STS production tool using ICP N2+Cl2 plasma. The photonic crystals have a triangular lattice with lattice constant of 400 nm and air-hole and dielectri

  7. Fiber Drawn 2D Polymeric Photonic Crystal THz Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on different polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies which are fabricated by a standard fiber drawing technique. The bandstop filters were simulated and designed by the generalized multipole technique (GMT). The frequency and angle dependent transmission...

  8. Anti-NKG2D mAb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...

  9. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming Hui

    2016-09-20

    It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...

  11. Fast 2D-DCT implementations for VLIW processors

    OpenAIRE

    Sohm, OP; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, DR

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes various fast 2D-DCT algorithms regarding their suitability for VLIW processors. Operations for truncation or rounding which are usually neglected in proposals for fast algorithms have also been taken into consideration. Loeffler's algorithm with parallel multiplications was found to be most suitable due to its parallel structure

  12. The Analytical Approximate Solution of the 2D Thermal Displacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu-QuanGuan; Zeng-YuanGuo; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 2D plane gas flow under heating (with nonentity boundary condition)has been discussed by the analytical approach in this paper.The approximate analytical solutions have been obtained for the flow passing various kinds of heat sources.Solutions demonstrate the thermal displacement phenomena are strongly depend on the heating intensity.

  13. BPS black holes in N=2 D=4 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, K.; Looyestijn, H.T.; Vandoren, S.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We construct and analyze BPS black hole solutions in gauged N=2, D=4 supergravity with charged hypermultiplets. A class of solutions can be found through spontaneous symmetry breaking in vacua that preserve maximal supersymmetry. The resulting black holes do not carry any hair for the scalars. We de

  14. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Nav...

  15. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.

  16. Validation of minor species of the MIPAS2D database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Papandrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS2D [Dinelli et al., 2010] database has been developed applying the tomographic analysis technique GMTR [Carlotti et al., 2001] to measurements acquired in the nominal observation mode of the complete MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding [Fischer et al., 2008] mission. […

  17. A VARIATIONAL MODEL FOR 2-D MICROPOLAR BLOOD FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ji-huan

    2003-01-01

    The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.

  18. Dynamic and approximate pattern matching in 2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Raphaël; Fontaine, Allyx; Starikovskaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    updates can be performed in O(log2 n) time and queries in O(log2 m) time. - We then consider a model where an update is a new 2D pattern and a query is a location in the text. For this setting we show that Hamming distance queries can be answered in O(log m + H) time, where H is the relevant Hamming...... distance. - Extending this work to allow approximation, we give an efficient algorithm which returns a (1+ε) approximation of the Hamming distance at a given location in O(ε−2 log2 m log log n) time. Finally, we consider a different setting inspired by previous work on locality sensitive hashing (LSH......). Given a threshold k and after building the 2D text index and receiving a 2D query pattern, we must output a location where the Hamming distance is at most (1 + ε)k as long as there exists a location where the Hamming distance is at most k. - For our LSH inspired 2D indexing problem, the text can...

  19. Computational study of interfaces and edges of 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its intriguing properties has given birth to the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials. These materials are characterized by a strong covalent bonding between the atoms within a plane, but weak, van derWaals, bonding between the planes. Such materials can be isolated

  20. Stabilization of 2D quantum gravity by branching interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Diego, O

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the stabilization of 2D quantum Gravity by branching interactions is considered. The perturbative expansion and the first nonperturbative term of the stabilized model are the same than the unbounded matrix model which define pure Gravity, but it has new nonperturbative effects that survives in the continuum limit.

  1. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  2. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report is an extension of the study presented in Lykke Andersen and Brorsen, 2006 and includes results from the irregular wave tests, where Lykke Andersen & Brorsen, 2006 focused on regular waves. The 2D physical model tests were carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil...

  3. Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Hertz, Daniel L; Damkier, Per;

    2017-01-01

    -infiltrated tissues, all of which showed excellent CYP2D6 genotype agreement. We applied these concordance data to a quantitative bias analysis of the subset of the 31 studies that were based on genotypes from tumor-infiltrated tissue to examine whether genotyping errors substantially biased estimates of association....... The bias analysis showed negligible bias by discordant genotypes. Summary estimates of association, with or without bias adjustment, indicated no clinically important association between CYP2D6 genotype and breast cancer survival in tamoxifen-treated women....

  4. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  5. 2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  6. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  7. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object's 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region's motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method's application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof.

  8. Liquid-like 2D plasmonic waves (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baile

    2017-05-01

    We predict some novel 2D plasmonic waves as analogues of corresponding hydrodynamic wave phenomena, including plasmonic splashing and V-shaped ship-wakes excited by a swift electron perpendicularly impacting upon and moving parallel above a graphene monolayer, respectively. 2D plasmons have fueled substantial research efforts in the past few years. Recent studies have identified that 2D plasmons exhibit peculiar dispersion that is formally analogous to hydrodynamic deep-water-waves on a 2D liquid surface. Logically, many intricate and intriguing hydrodynamic wave phenomena, such as the splashing stimulated by a droplet or stone impacting a calm liquid surface and the V-shaped ship-wakes generated behind a ship when it travels over a water surface, should have counterparts in 2D plasmons, but have not been studied. We fill this gap by investigating dynamic excitation of graphene plasmons when a monolayer graphene is perpendicularly impacted by a swift electron, as an analogue of hydrodynamic splashing. A central jet-like rise, called "Rayleigh jet" or "Worthington jet" as a hallmark in hydrodynamic splashing, is demonstrated as an excessive concentration of graphene plasmons, followed by plasmonic ripples dispersing like concentric ripples of deep-water waves. This plasmonic jet, serving as a monopole antenna, can generate radiation as analogue of splashing sound. This is also the first discussion on the space-time limitation on surface plasmon generation. We then demonstrate a V-shaped plasmonic wave pattern when a swift electron moves parallel above a graphene monolayer, as an analogue of hydrodynamic ship-wakes. The plasmonic wake angle is found to be the same with the Kelvin angle and thus insensitive to the electron velocity when the electron velocity is small. However, the wake angle gradually decreases by increasing the electron's velocity when the electron velocity is large, and thus transits into the Mach angle, being similar to recent development in fluid

  9. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  10. Mechanisms by which the infection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary affects the photosynthetic performance in tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zishan; Gao, Huiyuan; Liu, Meijun; Fan, Xingli

    2014-09-23

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen which causes disease in a wide range of plants. An observed decrease in photosynthetic performance is the primary reason for the reduction of crop yield induced by S. sclerotiorum. The H2C2O4 is the main pathogenic material secreted by S. sclerotiorum, but the effects of H2C2O4 acidity and the C2O4 2- ion on photosynthetic performance remain unknown. S. sclerotiorum infection significantly decreased photosynthetic O2 evolution and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in tobacco leaves under high-light. H2C2O4 (the main pathogenic material secreted by S. sclerotiorum) with pH 4.0 also significantly decreased photosynthetic performance. However, treatment with H3PO4 and HCl at the same pH as H2C2O4 caused much less decrease in photosynthetic performance than H2C2O4 did. These results verify that the acidity of the H2C2O4 secreted by S. sclerotiorum was only partially responsible for the observed decreases in photosynthesis. Treatment with 40 mM K2C2O4 decreased Fv/Fm by about 70% of the levels observed under 40 mM H2C2O4, which further demonstrates that C2O4(2-) was the primary factor that impaired photosynthetic performance during S. sclerotiorum infection. K2C2O4 treatment did not further decrease photosynthetic performance when D1 protein synthesis was fully inhibited, indicating that C2O4(2-) inhibited PSII by repressing D1 protein synthesis. It was observed that K2C2O4 treatment inhibited the rate of RuBP regeneration and carboxylation efficiency. In the presence of a carbon assimilation inhibitor, K2C2O4 2 treatment did not further decrease photosynthetic performance, which infers that C2O4(2-) inhibited PSII activity partly by repressing the carbon assimilation. In addition, it was showed that C2O4(2-) treatment inhibited the PSII activity but not the PSI activity. This study demonstrated that the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus induced by S. sclerotiorum is not

  11. Tracking cold bottom water in the Gargano Peninsula and Bari Canyon regions of the Adriatic using seismic oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren; Book, Jeffrey; Carniel, Sandro; Lindwall, Dennis; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-05-01

    lateral resolution of the SO technique is similar to the vertical resolution - therefore adequate to detect changes over as little as 5-10 meters. The images are not an instantaneous snap-shot, but occur over a finite time. Each column of image pixels is a combination of sound pulses that occur over 2-4 minutes, depending on source fire rate and ship speed. In March of 2009 an international SO field effort (AdriaSeismic09) took place the Gargano Peninsula, and Bari Canyon areas of the southern Adriatic Sea. On several seismic profiles through these areas a layer of cold bottom water, between 7 and 10 m thick is clearly imaged. Temperatures in the overlying water typically ranged from 12.5 to 13.5 degrees C, and those of the bottom water typically ranged from 12.0 to 12.5 degrees C. Some of these thin bottom water masses were observed in shallow, coastal waters about 100 m deep and some were as deep as 350m. Undulations with later wavelength of 500m and shorter, and amplitudes of several meters are clearly visible in the upper surfaces of the cold water masses.

  12. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  13. Disminución de masa ósea post-cirugía bariátrica con by-pass en Y de Roux

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Papapietro; Teresa Massardo; Andrea Riffo; Emma Díaz; A. Verónica Araya; Daniela Adjemian; Gustavo Montesinos; Gabriel Castro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía bariátrica tiene complicaciones metabólicas importantes como la pérdida de masa ósea. Objetivo: Evaluar la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) posterior a by-pass gástrico en Y de Roux (BPYR) en pacientes con indicación de suplemento estándar de calcio y vitamina D. Método: En pacientes con BPYR por obesidad mórbida, 76 mujeres y 22 hombres de diversa edad, con instrucción nutricional, suplemento de calcio y vitamina D, se midió la DMO en columna lumbar y caderas con densitóm...

  14. Técnicas en cirugía bariátrica: experiencia en 78 casos Techniques of bariatric surgery: analysis of 78 cases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Cánovas; J. Sastre; A. Neblett; R. López-Pardo; S. Abad S; Moreno, G; J. López

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: La cirugía bariátrica ha demostrado su eficacia en pérdida de peso y reducción de comorbilidades en el obeso mórbido. Los objetivos de nuestro trabajo fueron: evaluar los resultados con las técnicas de Scopinaro y Bypass gástrico, mediante cirugía abierta y laparoscópica. Material y métodos: 78 pacientes con obesidad mórbida intervenidos desde el año 2000 al 2005. 50 pacientes fueron intervenidos por cirugía abierta y 28 por laparoscopia. Se realizó bypass gástrico en 54 pacientes,...

  15. Marcadores de vulnerabilidad y respuesta a la Cirugía Bariátrica en la obesidad mórbida

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Rodríguez, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    La obesidad mórbida constituye el grado extremo de exceso de peso y se considera una enfermedad grave con múltiples comorbilidades. Numerosos antecedentes sugieren que la obesidad es una condición heterogénea y debe contemplarse como tal desde un punto de vista diagnóstico y terapéutico. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue definir marcadores clínicos, bioquímicos y genéticos asociados a la obesidad mórbida, a la respuesta a la cirugía bariátrica y a un endofenotipo de adicción por la comida ...

  16. Cuidados intensivos para pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica Intensive care of postoperative patients in bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Domingues Sanches

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A obesidade é considerada uma epidemia e afeta mais de 300 milhões de pessoas no mundo. A sua prevalência vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos e a mortalidade do paciente obeso crítico, em alguns estudos, mostra-se maior, especialmente em pacientes cirúrgicos que necessitam de UTI. Este estudo teve como objetivo ressaltar as particularidades das condutas em Medicina Intensiva no pós-operatório do paciente obeso submetido à cirurgia bariátrica. CONTEÚDO: A taxa dos pacientes obesos na UTI é de 9% a 26% e o aumento no número de cirurgias bariá­tricas tem elevado o fluxo de obesos internados em UTI. A obesidade tem várias particularidades fisiopatológicas que devem ser conhecidas para melhor manuseio pós-operatório. Entre elas estão as restrições pulmonares, que leva ao aumento do número de complicações, o fator de risco para síndrome coronariana aguda eventos trombóticos. CONCLUSÕES: O número de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica está aumentando, o que leva a maior número de pacientes obesos internados na UTI. As alterações fisiológicas da obesidade, juntamente com as complicações de um paciente crítico, são desafios para a prática médica. Portanto, é relevante conhecer a fisiopatologia da obesidade, o tratamento rotineiro das complicações no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an epidemic disease reaching more than 300 million people all over the world. Its prevalence has increased during the past few years and according to some studies its mortality in the critically ill patient seems to be much higher, especially among patients who were submitted to surgery. This study has as objective to discuss some particularities of managing obese patients in the intensive care unit after bariatric surgery. CONTENTS: The rate of obese patient in the ICU ranges from 9% to 26% and the increase in the number of bariatric

  17. Resultados materno-fetales de la gestación tras cirugía bariátrica Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy following bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    I. González Navarro; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; P. Serrano Aguayo; S. Morales Conde; J. M. Martos Martínez; P. P. García Luna

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es la enfermedad metabòlica más frecuente en el mundo y conlleva múltiples co-morbilidades, siendo la cirugía bariátrica (CB) una opción terapéutica cuando fallan las medidas clásicas. La mitad de los pacientes intervenidos son mujeres en edad fértil y está demostrado que la obesidad se asocia a peores resultados obstétricos y fetales. Dado que el estado nutricional se ve afectado por la CB y es un factor esencial para el adecuado desarrollo del embarazo, el objetivo...

  18. Novel Hydrogen-bonded Three-dimensional Supramolecular Architectures Containing 2D Honeycomb Networks or 2D Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Sheng; ZHOU Cai-Hua; WANG Yao-Yu; FU Feng; WU Ya-Pan; QI Guang-Cai; SHI Qi-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Two new supramolecular complexes, [Cu(H2dhbd)(3-pyOH)(H2O)]2·3-pyOH·2H2O (1) and [Cu2(dhbd)(dpa)2-(H2O)]·6H2O (2) (H4dhbd=2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, 3-pyOH=3-hydroxypyridine, dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine),have been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses,H-O hydrogen bonds, the cyclic dinuclear units in 1 together with four adjacent neighbors are connected into a 2D honeycomb network encapsulating free 3-pyOH ligands. Unexpectedly, the water-dimers are fixed in interlayers of 2D honeycomb network and act as hydrogen-bond bridging to further extend these 2D networks into 3D hydrogen-bonded framework. Complex 2 includes interesting 2D grids constructed from chiral dinuclear units through cules into three dimension with channels. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for both complexes indicate the presence of weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between adjacent copper(Ⅱ) ions.

  19. Chitosan and β-Cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin Polymer Composite Film as a Plant Healthcare Material for Carbendazim-Controlled Release to Protect Rape against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Delong; Jia, Mingchen; Wang, Lanying; Song, Shuang; Feng, Juntao; Zhang, Xing

    2017-03-26

    The influence of β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin (β-CD-EP) polymers on the improvement of the solubility and antifungal activity of carbendazim has been investigated. Meanwhile, the potential of the chitosan and β-CD-EP composite film used as a plant healthcare material for carbendazim-controlled release to protect rape against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary has been evaluated. β-CD-EP-1 and 2 (β-CD content, 750 mg/g and 440 mg/g, respectively) were found to significantly improve the solubility of the guest molecule carbendazim (17.9 and 18.5 times, respectively) and the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest was confirmed by the Job's plot. A slight synergism was observed for the β-CD-EP/carbendazim complex against S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, indicating an enhancement to the bioavailability of carbendazim. The in vitro release studies revealed that β-CD-EP polymers could efficiently modulate carbendazim release behaviors, such as the release retard and rate. The in vivo efficacy experiments demonstrated that the β-CD-EP/carbendazim and chitosan composite film could significantly prolong the effective duration of carbendazim at a concentration of 100 μg/mL compared with spraying carbendazim at 500 μg/mL. Thereby, a highly useful and strategic concept in plant disease control by a plant healthcare material-the chitosan and polymeric β-CD-EP composite film-is provided, which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases.

  20. The addition of hydrodynamic variables to predictive cold water coral habitat modeling: The Bari Canyon case-study, southwestern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Bargain, Annaëlle; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Predictive habitat modeling is gaining momentum because of its usefulness to recognize potential distributional patterns of ecosystems thus facilitating their proper governance when required, as it is for instance the case of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This holds particularly true for the deep-sea in front of its overwhelming areal extent on a global scale and intrinsic technological difficulties (with related costs) for its direct exploration. Cold Water Corals (CWC) is one emblematic, virtually cosmopolitan, ecosystem in the deep, that is under international attention because of its multifaceted ecological importance. CWC is currently represented in the Mediterranean basin by habitats engineered by the arborescent scleractinians Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa associated with a number of other benthic invertebrates. One major CWC hotspot located on the southwestern Adriatic margin, the Bari Canyon cold water coral province, has been targeted for producing habitat suitability maps. Initially the evaluation of the theoretical distribution of CWC in this area has been based upon visual observations, mainly extracted from geo-referenced underwater ROV imagery, coupled with the eco-geographic information derived from bathymetry. This approach relies upon the compilation and comparison of presence-only models (MaxEnt and ENFA), but also presence-absence model (GLMs). However, the pivotal role played by oceanographic factors has been soon added in order to achieve more robust predictive models. In fact, the Bari Canyon CWC province is situated on the main path of the North Adriatic Dense Water cascading, and hypothesized to be sensitive to hydrological factors. Accordingly, the statistical models to assess potential habitat extent have been implemented using hydrodynamic fields provided by ROMS for ocean currents, coupled with SWAN within the COAWST modelling system to account for wave-current interactions. The integration of results is

  1. Instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP(N-1) sigma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yaogang

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis I present the results of a study of the topological structures of 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP N-1 sigma models. Both models have been studied using the overlap Dirac operator construction of topological charge density. The overlap operator provides a more incisive probe into the local topological structure of gauge field configurations than the traditional plaquette-based operator. In the 2D U(1) Higgs model, we show that classical instantons with finite sizes violate the negativity of topological charge correlator by giving a positive contribution to the correlator at non-zero separation. We argue that instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model must be accompanied by large quantum fluctuations in order to solve this contradiction. In 2D CPN-1 sigma models, we observe the anomalous scaling behavior of the topological susceptibility chi t for N ≤ 3. The divergence of chi t in these models is traced to the presence of small instantons with a radius of order a (= lattice spacing), which are directly observed on the lattice. The observation of these small instantons provides detailed confirmation of Luscher's argument that such short-distance excitations, with quantized topological charge, should be the dominant topological fluctuations in CP1 and CP 2, leading to a divergent topological susceptibility in the continuum limit. For the CPN-1 models with N > 3 the topological susceptibility is observed to scale properly with the mass gap. Another topic presented in this thesis is an implementation of the Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the overlap Dirac operator. This new implementation has reduced the time complexity of the overlap routine from O(N3 ) to O(N), where N is the total number of sites on the lattice. This opens up a door to more accurate lattice measurements in the future.

  2. Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.

  3. A brief review of the 2d/4d correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    An elementary introduction to the 2d/4d correspondences is given. After quickly reviewing the 2d q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory, we will introduce 4d theories obtained by coupling trifundamentals to SU(2) gauge fields. We will then see concretely that the supersymmetric partition function of these theories on S^3 x S^1 and on S^4 is given respectively by the q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory. After giving a short discussion on how this correspondence may be understood from the viewpoint of the 6d N=(2,0) theory, we conclude the review by enumerating future directions. Most of the technical points will be referred to more detailed review articles.

  4. 2D Models for Dust-driven AGB Star Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, P

    2006-01-01

    New axisymmetric (2D) models for dust-driven winds of C-stars are presented which include hydrodynamics with radiation pressure on dust, equilibrium chemistry and time-dependent dust formation with coupled grey Monte Carlo radiative transfer. Considering the most simple case without stellar pulsation (hydrostatic inner boundary condition) these models reveal a more complex picture of the dust formation and wind acceleration as compared to earlier published spherically symmetric (1D) models. The so-called exterior $\\kappa$-mechanism causes radial oscillations with short phases of active dust formation between longer phases without appreciable dust formation, just like in the 1D models. However, in 2D geometry, the oscillations can be out-of-phase at different places above the stellar atmosphere which result in the formation of dust arcs or smaller caps that only occupy a certain fraction of the total solid angle. These dust structures are accelerated outward by radiation pressure, expanding radially and tangen...

  5. Simulation of corium concrete interaction in 2D geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranga, M. [IRSN, DPAM, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Spindler, B.; Dufour, E. [CEA Grenoble, DEN, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dimov, Dimitar [Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res and Nucl Energy, NPPSAL, BU-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atkhen, Kresna [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Foit, Jerzy [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Garcia-Martin, M. [Univ Politecn Madrid, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sevon, Tuomo [Tech Res Ctr Finland VTT, FI-02044 Helsinki (Finland); Schmidt, W. [AREVA, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spengler, C. [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Benchmarking work was recently performed for the issue of molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). A synthesis is given here. It concerns first the 2D CCI-2 test with a homogeneous pool and a limestone concrete, which was used for a blind benchmark. Secondly, the COMET-L2 and COMET-L3 2D experiments in a stratified configuration were used as a post-test (L2) and a blind-test (L3) benchmark. More details are given here for the recent benchmark considering a matrix of four reactor cases, with both a homogeneous and a stratified configuration, and with both a limestone and a siliceous concrete. A short overview is given on the different models used in the codes, and the consistency between the benchmark actions on experiments and reactor situations is discussed. Finally, the major uncertainties concerning MCCI are also pointed out. (authors)

  6. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  7. Extreme Growth of Enstrophy on 2D Bounded Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sliwiak, Adam

    2016-11-01

    We study the vortex states responsible for the largest instantaneous growth of enstrophy possible in viscous incompressible flow on 2D bounded domain. The goal is to compare these results with estimates obtained using mathematical analysis. This problem is closely related to analogous questions recently considered in the periodic setting on 1D, 2D and 3D domains. In addition to systematically characterizing the most extreme behavior, these problems are also closely related to the open question of the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system. We demonstrate how such extreme vortex states can be found as solutions of constrained variational optimization problems which in the limit of small enstrophy reduce to eigenvalue problems. Computational results will be presented for circular and square domains emphasizing the effect of geometric singularities (corners of the domain) on the structure of the extreme vortex states. Supported by an NSERC (Canada) Discovery Grant.

  8. 2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Ruiz-Baca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70 was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.

  9. Stable 2D Feature Tracking for Long Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seung Park

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a 2D feature tracking method that is stable to long video sequences. To improve the stability of long tracking, we use trajectory information about 2D features. We predict the expected feature states and compute a rough estimate of the feature location on the current image frame using the history of previous feature states up to the current frame. A search window is positioned at the estimated location and similarity measures are computed within the search window. Once the feature position is determined from the similarity measures, the current feature states are appended to the history bu®er. The outlier rejection stage is also introduced to reduce false matches. Experimental results from real video sequences showed that the proposed method stably tracks point features for long frame sequences.

  10. Hard and Soft Physics with 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEuen, Paul

    With their remarkable structural, thermal, mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties, 2D materials are truly special. For example, a graphene sheet can be made into a high-performance transistor, but it is also the ultimate realization of a thin mechanical sheet. Such sheets, first studied in detail by August Föppl over a hundred years ago, are notoriously complex, since they can bend, buckle, and crumple in a variety of ways. In this talk, I will discuss a number of experiments to probe these unusual materials, from the effects of ripples on the mechanical properties of a graphene sheet, to folding with atomically thin bimorphs, to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene solitons. Finally, I discuss how the Japanese paper art of kirigami (kiru = `to cut', kami = `paper') applied to 2D materials offers a route to mechanical metamaterials and the construction of nanoscale machines.

  11. Optimizing sparse sampling for 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeding, Sebastian; Klimovich, Nikita; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation. This leads to increased sparsity compared to the Fourier domain and to improved reconstruction. We demonstrate this approach by recovering transient dynamics in the 2D spectrum of a cresyl violet sample using just 25% of the originally sampled data points.

  12. Enhanced automated platform for 2D characterization of RFID communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuza, Dan Tudor; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of the quality of communication between an RFID reader and a transponder at all expected positions of the latter on the reader antenna is of primal importance for the evaluation of performance of an RFID system. Continuing the line of instruments developed for this purpose by the authors, the present work proposes an enhanced version of a previously introduced automated platform for 2D evaluation. By featuring higher performance in terms of mechanical speed, the new version allows to obtain 2D maps of communication with a higher resolution that would have been prohibitive in terms of test duration with the previous version. The list of measurement procedures that can be executed with the platform is now enlarged with additional ones, such as the determination of the variation of the magnetic coupling between transponder and antenna across the antenna surface and the utilization of transponder simulators for evaluation of the quality of communication.

  13. Security Issues for 2D Barcodes Ticketing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding access to the subway public transportation systems. First part of the paper is dedicated through section one and two to the most used 2D barcodes used in the market – QR and DataMatrix. The sample for DataMatrix is author propietary and the QR sample is from the QR standard [2]. The section three presents MMS and Digital Rights Management topics used for issuing the 2D barcodes tickets. The second part of the paper, starting with section four shows the architecture of Subway Ticketing Systems and the proposed procedure for the ticket issuing. The conclusions identify trends of the security topics in the public transportation systems.

  14. A Novel 2D Z-Shaped Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iliev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches a novel 2D Z-shaped Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG structure, its dispersion diagram and application field. Based on a transmission line model, the dispersion equation is derived and theoretically investigated. In order to validate theoretical results, a full wave analysis is performed and the electromagnetic properties of the structure are revealed. The theoretical results show good agreement with the full wave simulation results. The frequency response of the structure is compared to the well know structures of Jerusalem cross and patch EBG. The results show the applicability of the proposed 2D Z-shaped EBG in microstrip patch antennas, microstrip filters and high speed switching circuits, where the suppression of parasitic surface wave is required.

  15. Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.

  16. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author).

  17. Structural Complexity and Phonon Physics in 2D Arsenenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Jesús; Gallego, Luis J; Mingo, Natalio

    2017-03-15

    In the quest for stable 2D arsenic phases, four different structures have been recently claimed to be stable. We show that, due to phonon contributions, the relative stability of those structures differs from previous reports and depends crucially on temperature. We also show that one of those four phases is in fact mechanically unstable. Furthermore, our results challenge the common assumption of an inverse correlation between structural complexity and thermal conductivity. Instead, a richer picture emerges from our results, showing how harmonic interactions, anharmonicity, and symmetries all play a role in modulating thermal conduction in arsenenes. More generally, our conclusions highlight how vibrational properties are an essential element to be carefully taken into account in theoretical searches for new 2D materials.

  18. Wave propagation in pantographic 2D lattices with internal discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Madeo, A; Neff, P

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2D pantographic structure composed by two orthogonal families of Euler beams. Pantographic rectangular 'long' waveguides are considered in which imposed boundary displacements can induce the onset of traveling (possibly non-linear) waves. We performed numerical simulations concerning a set of dynamically interesting cases. The system undergoes large rotations which may involve geometrical non-linearities, possibly opening the path to appealing phenomena such as propagation of solitary waves. Boundary conditions dramatically influence the transmission of the considered waves at discontinuity surfaces. The theoretical study of this kind of objects looks critical, as the concept of pantographic 2D sheets seems to have promising possible applications in a number of fields, e.g. acoustic filters, vascular prostheses and aeronautic/aerospace panels.

  19. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  20. Band-structure engineering in conjugated 2D polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzler, Rico

    2016-10-26

    Conjugated polymers find widespread application in (opto)electronic devices, sensing, and as catalysts. Their common one-dimensional structure can be extended into the second dimension to create conjugated planar sheets of covalently linked molecules. Extending π-conjugation into the second dimension unlocks a new class of semiconductive polymers which as a consequence of their unique electronic properties can find usability in numerous applications. In this article the theoretical band structures of a set of conjugated 2D polymers are compared and information on the important characteristics band gap and valence/conduction band dispersion is extracted. The great variance in these characteristics within the investigated set suggests 2D polymers as exciting materials in which band-structure engineering can be used to tailor sheet-like organic materials with desired electronic properties.

  1. A "Necklace" Model for Vesicles Simulations in 2D

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Mourad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new numerical model to simulate 2D vesicles interacting with a newtonian fluid. The inextensible membrane is modeled by a chain of circular rigid particles which are maintained in cohesion by using two different type of forces. First, a spring force is imposed between neighboring particles in the chain. Second, in order to model the bending of the membrane, each triplet of successive particles is submitted to an angular force. Numerical simulations of vesicles in shear flow have been run using Finite Element Method and the FreeFem++[1] software. Exploring different ratios of inner and outer viscosities, we recover the well known "Tank-Treading" and "Tumbling" motions predicted by theory and experiments. Moreover, for the first time, 2D simulations of the "Vacillating-Breathing" regime predicted by theory in [2] and observed experimentally in [3] are done without special ingredient like for example thermal fluctuations used in [4].

  2. Planar maps, circle patterns and 2d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    David, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Via circle pattern techniques, random planar triangulations (with angle variables) are mapped onto Delaunay triangulations in the complex plane. The uniform measure on triangulations is mapped onto a conformally invariant spatial point process. We show that this measure can be expressed as: (1) a sum over 3-spanning-trees partitions of the edges of the Delaunay triangulations; (2) the volume form of a K\\"ahler metric over the space of Delaunay triangulations, whose prepotential has a simple formulation in term of ideal tessellations of the 3d hyperbolic space; (3) a discretized version (involving finite difference complex derivative operators) of Polyakov's conformal Fadeev-Popov determinant in 2d gravity; (4) a combination of Chern classes, thus also establishing a link with topological 2d gravity.

  3. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y

    2013-01-01

    Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.

  4. Tradeoffs for reliable quantum information storage in 2D systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We ask whether there are fundamental limits on storing quantum information reliably in a bounded volume of space. To investigate this question, we study quantum error correcting codes specified by geometrically local commuting constraints on a 2D lattice of finite-dimensional quantum particles. For these 2D systems, we derive a tradeoff between the number of encoded qubits k, the distance of the code d, and the number of particles n. It is shown that kd^2=O(n) where the coefficient in O(n) depends only on the locality of the constraints and dimension of the Hilbert spaces describing individual particles. We show that the analogous tradeoff for the classical information storage is k\\sqrt{d} =O(n).

  5. 2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  6. TRO-2D - A code for rational transonic aerodynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Features and sample applications of the transonic rational optimization (TRO-2D) code are outlined. TRO-2D includes the airfoil analysis code FLO-36, the CONMIN optimization code and a rational approach to defining aero-function shapes for geometry modification. The program is part of an effort to develop an aerodynamically smart optimizer that will simplify and shorten the design process. The user has a selection of drag minimization and associated minimum lift, moment, and the pressure distribution, a choice among 14 resident aero-function shapes, and options on aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Design variables such as the angle of attack, leading edge radius and camber, shock strength and movement, supersonic pressure plateau control, etc., are discussed. The results of calculations of a reduced leading edge camber transonic airfoil and an airfoil with a natural laminar flow are provided, showing that only four design variables need be specified to obtain satisfactory results.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF 2D HUMAN BODY MODELING USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.

  8. An Arbitrary 2D Structured Replica Control Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Basmadjian, Robert; Meer, Hermann,

    2011-01-01

    Traditional replication protocols that logically arrange the replicas into a specific structure have reasonable availability, lower communication cost as well as system load than those that do not require any logical organisation of replicas. We propose in this paper the A2DS protocol: a single protocol that, unlike the existing proposed protocols, can be adapted to any 2D structure. Its read operation is carried out on any replica of every level of the structure whereas write operations are ...

  9. FASTWO - A 2-D interactive algebraic grid generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Lombard, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple and effective computational procedure, FASTWO, for generating patched composite finite difference grids in 2-D for any geometry. Major components of the interactive graphics based method that is closely akin to and borrows many tools from transfinite interpolation are highlighted. Several grids produced by FASTWO are shown to illustrate its powerful capability. Comments about extending the methodology to 3-D are also given.

  10. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006......-shaped access platforms on piles. The Model tests include mainly regular waves and a few irregular wave tests. These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. November, 2006 to 17. November, 2006....

  11. Controllable and Observable Polynomial Description for 2D Noncausal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Boudellioua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional state-space systems arise in applications such as image processing, iterative circuits, seismic data processing, or more generally systems described by partial differential equations. In this paper, a new direct method is presented for the polynomial realization of a class of noncausal 2D transfer functions. It is shown that the resulting realization is both controllable and observable.

  12. Stereoscopic highlighting: 2D graph visualization on stereo displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Basak; Höllerer, Tobias; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Forbes, Angus

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present a new technique and prototype graph visualization system, stereoscopic highlighting, to help answer accessibility and adjacency queries when interacting with a node-link diagram. Our technique utilizes stereoscopic depth to highlight regions of interest in a 2D graph by projecting these parts onto a plane closer to the viewpoint of the user. This technique aims to isolate and magnify specific portions of the graph that need to be explored in detail without resorting to other highlighting techniques like color or motion, which can then be reserved to encode other data attributes. This mechanism of stereoscopic highlighting also enables focus+context views by juxtaposing a detailed image of a region of interest with the overall graph, which is visualized at a further depth with correspondingly less detail. In order to validate our technique, we ran a controlled experiment with 16 subjects comparing static visual highlighting to stereoscopic highlighting on 2D and 3D graph layouts for a range of tasks. Our results show that while for most tasks the difference in performance between stereoscopic highlighting alone and static visual highlighting is not statistically significant, users performed better when both highlighting methods were used concurrently. In more complicated tasks, 3D layout with static visual highlighting outperformed 2D layouts with a single highlighting method. However, it did not outperform the 2D layout utilizing both highlighting techniques simultaneously. Based on these results, we conclude that stereoscopic highlighting is a promising technique that can significantly enhance graph visualizations for certain use cases.

  13. Compression of 2D vector fields under guaranteed topology preservation

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new compression technique for 2D vector fields which preserves the complete topology, i.e., the critical points and the connectivity of the separatrices. As the theoretical foundation of the algorithm, we show in a theorem that for local modifications of a vector field, it is possible to decide entirely by a local analysis whether or not the global topology is preserved. This result is applied in a compression algorithm which is based on a ...

  14. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  15. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  16. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  17. An inverse design method for 2D airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao

    2010-03-01

    The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.

  18. Physical degrees of freedom in 2-D string field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Norisuke; Tanii, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    States in the absolute (semi-relative) cohomology but not in the relative cohomology are examined through the component decomposition of the string field theory action for the 2-D string. It is found that they are auxiliary fields without kinetic terms, but are important for instance in the master equation for the Ward-Takahashi identities. The ghost structure is analyzed in the Siegel gauge, but it is noted that the absolute (semi-relative) cohomology states are lost.

  19. 2D relaxation/diffusion correlations in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, S; Callaghan, P T

    2003-01-01

    2D correlations between NMR relaxation and/or diffusion have been used to investigate water and oil dynamics in food and micro-emulsion systems. In the case of Mozzarella and Gouda cheese samples, a significant change in D/T2 correlation is appearing with cheese aging. In the case of a water/toluene micro-emulsion, some evidence for coalescence effects is suggested by D/D exchange spectra.

  20. 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior...

  1. Mapping Proprioception across a 2D Horizontal Workspace

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few studies have been reported that document how proprioception varies across the workspace of the human arm. Here we examined proprioceptive function across a horizontal planar workspace, using a new method that avoids active movement and interactions with other sensory modalities. We systematically mapped both proprioceptive acuity (sensitivity to hand position change) and bias (perceived location of the hand), across a horizontal-plane 2D workspace. Proprioception of both the le...

  2. Evolutionary learning in the 2D artificial life system "avida"

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Chris Adami

    1994-01-01

    We present a new tierra-inspired artificial life system with local interactions and two-dimensional geometry, based on an update mechanism akin to that of 2D cellular automata. We find that the spatial geometry is conducive to the development of diversity and thus improves adaptive capabilities. We also demonstrate the adaptive strength of the system by breeding cells with simple computational abilities, and study the dependence of this adaptability on mutation rate and population size.

  3. F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo

    2016-05-01

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  4. Inversions for MT data in 2D symmetrical anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-fu; LIN Chang-you; SUN Chong-chi; LI Qing-he

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, a 2D symmetrical anisotropic medium whose strike agrees with one of the horizontal principal axes is considered to develop a corresponding inversion technique. In the specified conditions, if we assume an equivalent conductivity anisotropy in both the vertical and dipping directions, i.e., σzz=σyy, the differential equations obtained are formally the same as that for TE and TM modes in the 2D isotropic geoelectrical media. The same inversion technique as that in the 2D isotropic media can be employed to obtain the anisotropic conductivities. It means that the TE and TM inversion results in the isotropic media can be respectively thought as the resistivities in the two principal directions of the symmetrically anisotropic media, which has offered a new approach and a theoretical guidance for interpreting magnetotelluric data. And the inversion technique developed here is used to test the magnetotelluric data in the area of Tianzhu and Yongdeng in Gansu Province, so that the crust anisotropic geoelectrical structures in this region can be obtained.

  5. A novel point cloud registration using 2D image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chou; Tai, Yen-Chou; Lee, Jhong-Jin; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Since a 3D scanner only captures a scene of a 3D object at a time, a 3D registration for multi-scene is the key issue of 3D modeling. This paper presents a novel and an efficient 3D registration method based on 2D local feature matching. The proposed method transforms the point clouds into 2D bearing angle images and then uses the 2D feature based matching method, SURF, to find matching pixel pairs between two images. The corresponding points of 3D point clouds can be obtained by those pixel pairs. Since the corresponding pairs are sorted by their distance between matching features, only the top half of the corresponding pairs are used to find the optimal rotation matrix by the least squares approximation. In this paper, the optimal rotation matrix is derived by orthogonal Procrustes method (SVD-based approach). Therefore, the 3D model of an object can be reconstructed by aligning those point clouds with the optimal transformation matrix. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is close to the ICP, but the computation cost is reduced significantly. The performance is six times faster than the generalized-ICP algorithm. Furthermore, while the ICP requires high alignment similarity of two scenes, the proposed method is robust to a larger difference of viewing angle.

  6. Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2017-02-01

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  7. Based on the cocos2d cross-platform development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申志兵

    2016-01-01

    the intelligent mobile Phone operating system is various, but apple's IOS, Google's Android and Microsof 's Windows Phone operating system almost all of the mobile Phone market, so developing a cross-platform recruit games has the very high commercial value.Cocos2d - x is a cross-platform, open source2 d mobile game framework, using the Cocos2d - x development projects can in IOS, Android, Windows Phone support, such as c + + platform to create and run. This paper mainly introduces recruit class game development stages of preparation, including feasibility analysis, system requirements analysis, system outline design, detailed design and coding and testing of the system as well as content.Whether it is worth in feasibility analysis, mainly on the system development in all aspects of the analysis;In system demand analysis, the major demand analysis and the function of the system system function structure diagram, use case diagram, system flow chart to comprehend;In system design, mainly on the system of the game execution module, main module, a monster module, props module in detail, such as design and draw the class diagram, sequence diagram and state diagram;This game is a dungeon stage mode class, to rotate around the protagonist to destroy the monster, obtains the key to unlock the next level, in the pursuit of complete game speed at the same time to finish the game within the prescribed steps.

  8. Observations of 2D Doppler backscattering on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D A; Freethy, S J; Huang, B K; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2015-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D Doppler backscattering (DBS) experiments on MAST. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (+-40 degrees vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-35.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24 degrees FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is an entirely novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial measurements of phenomena observed on conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch an...

  9. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  10. Cross-Correlating 2D and 3D Galaxy Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaglia, Samuel [Chicago U., KICP; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab

    2017-02-09

    Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ${\\sim}1.2$ to ${\\sim}1.8$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of ${\\sim}2$ to ${\\sim}12$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.

  11. F-theory and 2d (0,2) theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-11

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  12. 2D DOST based local phase pattern for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2017-05-01

    A new two dimensional (2-D) Discrete Orthogonal Stcokwell Transform (DOST) based Local Phase Pattern (LPP) technique has been proposed for efficient face recognition. The proposed technique uses 2-D DOST as preliminary preprocessing and local phase pattern to form robust feature signature which can effectively accommodate various 3D facial distortions and illumination variations. The S-transform, is an extension of the ideas of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), is also known for its local spectral phase properties in time-frequency representation (TFR). It provides a frequency dependent resolution of the time-frequency space and absolutely referenced local phase information while maintaining a direct relationship with the Fourier spectrum which is unique in TFR. After utilizing 2-D Stransform as the preprocessing and build local phase pattern from extracted phase information yield fast and efficient technique for face recognition. The proposed technique shows better correlation discrimination compared to alternate pattern recognition techniques such as wavelet or Gabor based face recognition. The performance of the proposed method has been tested using the Yale and extended Yale facial database under different environments such as illumination variation and 3D changes in facial expressions. Test results show that the proposed technique yields better performance compared to alternate time-frequency representation (TFR) based face recognition techniques.

  13. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.

  14. 2D Non-Abelian Theory: Some Novel Features

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, N; Kureel, B K; Malik, R P

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we discuss some novel features of a two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (without any interaction with matter fields). Besides the usual off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, we discuss the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for this specific 2D theory. Particularly, we lay emphasis on the existence of the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities of the 2D non-Abelian theory in view of the presence of (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations where we pin-point some novel features associated with the Curci-Ferrari (CF) type restrictions. We demonstrate that these CF-type restrictions can be incorporated into the (anti-)co-BRST invariant Lagrangian densities through the fermionic Lagrange multipliers which carry specific ghost numbers. The modified versions of the Lagrangian densities respect some precise and perf...

  15. Photonic crystals to enhance light extraction from 2D materials

    CERN Document Server

    Noori, Yasir J; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramon; Tovee, Peter; Young, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme for coupling 2D materials to an engineered cavity based on a defective rod type photonic crystal lattice. We show results from numerical modelling of the suggested cavity design, and propose using the height profile of a 2D material transferred on top of the cavity to maximise coupling between exciton recombination and the cavity mode. The photonic structure plays a key role in enhancing the launch efficiency, by improving the directionality of the emitted light to better couple it into an external optical system. When using the photonic structure, we measured an increase in the extraction ratio by a factor of 3.4. We investigated the variations in the flux spectrum when the radius of the rods is modified, and when the 2D material droops to a range of different heights within the cavity. We found an optimum enhancement when the rods have a radius equal to 0.165 times the lattice constant, this enhancement reduces when the radius is reduced or increased. Finally, we discuss the possible use...

  16. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  17. Rabdomiólise por síndrome compartimental glútea após cirurgia bariátrica: relato de caso Rabdomiolisis por síndrome compartimental glúteo después de cirugía bariátrica: relato de caso Rhabdomyolysis secondary to gluteal compartment syndrome after bariatric surgery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Benevides

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cirurgia bariátrica tornou-se rotineira e muitas complicações têm sido relatadas. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de síndrome compartimental glútea que evoluiu para insuficiência renal aguda após cirurgia bariátrica e discutir aspectos do diagnóstico e condutas profilática e terapêutica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 42 anos, branco, índice de massa corporal (IMC 43, estado físico ASA II, submetido à cirurgia bariátrica tipo duodenal switch, sob anestesia geral associada à anestesia peridural. O procedimento transcorreu sem intercorrências. O tempo anestésico-cirúrgico foi de 3 horas e 30 minutos. No primeiro dia do pós-operatório o paciente apresentou dor na região lombossacral e nas nádegas, além de parestesia nos membros inferiores na distribuição do nervo isquiático. Durante o exame, as nádegas apresentavam discreta palidez, tensas, edemaciadas, dolorosas à palpação e à movimentação. Foi diagnosticada síndrome compartimental glútea que evoluiu com rabdomiólise e insuficiência renal aguda. Houve recuperação da função renal e nenhuma seqüela motora ou sensitiva foi detectada. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes obesos mórbidos submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica podem apresentar síndrome compartimental glútea. Quando não diagnosticada e tratada precocemente, podem evoluir com rabdomiólise e insuficiência renal aguda que representam grave ameaça à vida.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La cirugía bariátrica se convirtió en rutina y en algo muy complicado para ser relatada. El objetivo de este relato fue el de presentar un caso de síndrome compartimental glútea que evolucionó para la insuficiencia renal aguda después de la cirugía bariátrica y discutir aspectos del diagnóstico y conductas profiláctica y terapéutica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 42 años, blanco, índice de masa corporal (IMC 43, estado físico ASA II, sometido

  18. Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

    2015-12-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66 mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030 μg retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12 μmol L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status.

  19. Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-12-01

    The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway gene polymorphism associated with extent of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation 2 diabetes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Sharon; Wu, Jun; Province, Michael A; Spertus, John A; Steffes, Michael; McGill, Janet B; Alderman, Edwin L; Brooks, Maria Mori; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Frye, Robert L; Bach, Richard G

    2011-09-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although demographic and clinical factors associated with extent of CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus have been described, genetic factors have not. We hypothesized that genetic variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway genes, important in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, would be associated with extent of CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus. We genotyped 1043 patients (702 white, 175 blacks) from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) genetic cohort for 3351 variants in 223 PPAR pathway genes using a custom targeted-genotyping array. Angiographic end points were determined by a core laboratory. In whites, a single variant (rs1503298) in TLL1 was significantly (P=5.5 × 10(-6)) associated with extent of CAD, defined as number of lesions with percent diameter stenosis ≥20%, after stringent Bonferroni correction for all 3351 single nucleotide polymorphisms. This association was validated in the diabetic subgroups of 2 independent cohorts, the Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) post-myocardial infarction registry and the prospective Family Heart Study (FHS) of individuals at risk for CAD. TLL1rs1503298 was also significantly associated with extent of severe CAD (≥70% diameter stenosis; P=3.7 × 10(-2)) and myocardial jeopardy index (P=8.7 × 10(-4)). In general linear regression modeling, TLL1rs1503298 explained more variance of extent of CAD than the previously determined clinical factors. We identified a variant in a single PPAR pathway gene, TLL1, that is associated with the extent of CAD independently of clinical predictors, specifically in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00006305.

  1. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  2. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    OpenAIRE

    Akca Irfan

    2016-01-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole invers...

  3. Hybrid 3D-2D printing of bone scaffolds Hybrid 3D-2D printing methods for bone scaffolds fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, V Ya; Seleznev, Vladimir

    2016-12-13

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Topologiacl Models of 2D Fractal Cellular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Caër, G.; Delannay, R.

    1995-11-01

    In space-filling 2D cellular structures with trivalent vertices and in which each cell is constrained to share at most one side with any cell and no side with itself, the maximum fraction of three-sided cells is produced by a decoration of vertices of any initial structure by three-sided cells. Fractal cellular structures are obtained if the latter decoration process is iterated indefinitely. Other methods of constructions of fractal structures are also described. The probability distribution P(n) of the number n of cell sides and some two-cell topological properties of a 2D fractal cellular structure constructed from the triangular Sierpinski gasket are investigated. On the whole, the repartition of cells in 2D structures with n geq 3 and P(3) ne 0 evolve regularly when topological disorder, conveniently measured by the variance μ2 of P(n), increases. The strong correlations which exist among cells, in particular in natural structures (μ2lesssim 5), decrease progressively when μ2 increases, a cell repartition close to a random one being reached for μ2sim 12. We argue that the structures finally evolve to fractal structures (for which μ2 is infinite) but we have not characterized the latter transition. Dans des structures cellulaires 2D à sommets trivalents qui remplissent l'espace et dans lesquelles une cellule partage au plus un côté avec toute autre cellule et aucun avec elle-même, la proportion maximum admissible de cellules à trois côtés est obtenue par une décoration de tous les sommets d'une structure initiale quelconque par des cellules à trois côtés. Des structures cellulaires “fractales” 2D sont ainsi engendrées si le processus précédent est répété à l'infini. D'autres méthodes de constructions de structures fractales sont également décrites. La distribution de probabilité P(n) du nombre n de côtés des cellules ainsi que des corrélations de paires sont étudiées pour une structure cellulaire fractale construite à partir

  5. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  7. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  8. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin "wrapping", i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  9. 单群2D2n(2)的拟刻画%Quasirecognition of the Simple Group 2 D2n (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立莉

    2015-01-01

    Let G be finite group such that M(G) = M(2 D2n (2)) where 2n -1 prime .Then G has a nor‐mal subgroup isomorphic to 2 D2n (2) .Especially ,if | G | = |2 D2n (2)| ,then G ≌ 2 D2n (2) .%设 G为有限群,且满足 M(G)= M(2 D2n (2)),其中2n -1为素数。则 G必有正规子群同构于2 D2n (2)。特别地,若|G|=|2 D2n (2)|,则G ≌2 D2n (2)。

  10. N=2, D=6 supergravity with $E_7$ gauge matter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyablyuk, K N

    1997-01-01

    The lagrangian of N=2, D=6 supergravity coupled to E_7 X SU(2) vector- and hyper-multiplets is derived. For this purpose the coset manifold E_8/E_7 X SU(2), parametrized by the scalars of the hypermultiplet, is constructed. A difference from the case of Sp(n)-matter is pointed out. This model can be considered as an intermediate step in the compactification of D=10 supergravity coupled to E_8 X E_8 matter to four-dimensional model of E_6 unification.

  11. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  12. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  13. Dislocation field theory in 2D: Application to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Markus, E-mail: lazar@fkp.tu-darmstadt.de [Heisenberg Research Group, Department of Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstr. 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2013-01-17

    A two-dimensional (2D) dislocation continuum theory is being introduced. The present theory adds elastic rotation, dislocation density, and background stress to the classical energy density of elasticity. This theory contains four material moduli. Two characteristic length scales are defined in terms of the four material moduli. Non-singular solutions of the stresses and elastic distortions of an edge dislocation are calculated. It has been pointed out that the elastic strain agrees well with experimental data found recently for an edge dislocation in graphene.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 2D PERIODIC UNSTEADY CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lei; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    A two-phase mixture model was established to study unsteady cavitating flows. A local compressible system of equations was derived by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for solving the variable-density Navier-Stokes equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The numerical results for unsteady characteristics of cavitating flows on a 2D NACA hydrofoil coincide well with experimental data.

  15. Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, I A; Dmitriev, I A; Ostrovsky, P M; Titov, M

    2016-07-22

    Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength.

  16. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To investigate the combined influence of the pile diameter to water depth ratio and the wave height to water...... on the front side of the pile (0 to 90 degrees). These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. October, 2006 to 8. November, 2006. Unless otherwise mentioned, all values given in this report are in model scale....

  17. A generalized 2-D Poincaré inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisciani Fulvio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two 1-D Poincaré-like inequalities are proved under the mild assumption that the integrand function is zero at just one point. These results are used to derive a 2-D generalized Poincare inequality in which the integrand function is zero on a suitable arc contained in the domain (instead of the whole boundary. As an application, it is shown that a set of boundary conditions for the quasi geostrophic equation of order four are compatible with general physical constraints dictated by the dissipation of kinetic energy.

  18. 2-D SIMULATION OF CHANNEL FLOWS WITH MOVEABLE BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wilhelm BECHTELER; Davood FARSHI

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results of 2-D numerical simulation of open channel flow with moveable bed. The unsteady two dimensional channel flow and sediment transport are simulated by solving shallow water equations and sediment continuity equation in conservation form based on unstructured finite volume method. Redefining longitudinal and transverse slopes of the bed is implemented in order to consider them in the bedload equation. A simple modeling treatment dealing with secondary flow effect on sediment movement is also discussed. Finally, two examples of numerical simulation are presented.

  19. Automatic simulation of 1D and 2D chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, E; Munoz-Pacheco, J-M [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 MEXICO (Mexico)], E-mail: e.tlelo@ieee.org, E-mail: mpacheco@inaoep.mx

    2008-02-15

    A new method is introduced for automatic simulation of three kinds of chaotic oscillators: Chua's circuit, generalized Chua's circuit and chaotic oscillator implemented with saturated functions. The former generates the double-scroll, and the others 1D n-scroll attractors. The third chaotic oscillator is modified to generate 2D n-scrolls attractors. The oscillators are modelled by applying state variables and piecewise-linear approximation. Basically, the method computes the eigenvalues of the oscillators to begin time simulation and to make control of step-size automatically.

  20. 2D Magneto-optical trapping of diatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K; Collopy, Alejandra L; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun

    2013-04-05

    We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.

  1. Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.

  2. Dynamics of Quantum Particles in Perturbed Parabolic 2d Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Mazmanishvili

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 2d quantum-mechanical problem of the time evolution of a particle in a quadratic potential is studied. We suppose that the center of the potential is displaced in arbitrary way in time. An analytical expression for the wave function in arbitrary instant time was built. It is shown the dynamic shift of the center of the potential doesn’t change the variance. Moreover, the system can exhibit the resonance: when the frequency of the potential perturbation approaches to the natural frequency the amplitude of the wave packet of particle is increased.

  3. A New Upper Bound on 2D Online Bin Packing

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xin; Francis Y L Chin; Ting, Hing-Fung; Zhang, Guochuan

    2009-01-01

    The 2D Online Bin Packing is a fundamental problem in Computer Science and the determination of its asymptotic competitive ratio has attracted great research attention. In a long series of papers, the lower bound of this ratio has been improved from 1.808, 1.856 to 1.907 and its upper bound reduced from 3.25, 3.0625, 2.8596, 2.7834 to 2.66013. In this paper, we rewrite the upper bound record to 2.5545. Our idea for the improvement is as follows. In SODA 2002 \\cite{SS03}, Seiden and van Stee p...

  4. Terahertz detection using mechanical resonators based on 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hassel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated a THz detection scheme based on mixing of electrical signals in a voltage-dependent capacitance made out of suspended graphene. We have analyzed both coherent and incoherent detection regimes and compared their performance with the state of the art. Using a high-amplitude local oscillator, we anticipate potential for quantum limited detection in the coherent mode. The sensitivity stems from the extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties of atomically thin graphene or graphene-related 2D materials.

  5. Quantum Cosmological Approach to 2d Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Salas, J

    1994-01-01

    We study the canonical quantization of the induced 2d-gravity and the pure gravity CGHS-model on a closed spatial section. The Wheeler-DeWitt equations are solved in (spatially homogeneous) choices of the internal time variable and the space of solutions is properly truncated to provide the physical Hilbert space. We establish the quantum equivalence of both models and relate the results with the covariant phase-space quantization. We also discuss the relation between the quantum wavefunctions and the classical space-time solutions and propose the wave function representing the ground state.

  6. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI DAKWAH VISUAL ANIMASI 2D UNTUK ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Mahfud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dakwah activities as a communication process of delivering the teachings of Islam's ideal has no power to change people for the better. There are many causal factors, one of them is because of propagandas that has been done tends to be cold, impersonal, and is only informative sheer, yet using less effective communication ethics. A visual cultural revolution is now growing rapidly, unfortunately its dominated by capitalists and worshipers of lust. For example, nearly all visual ads is using the interest of sensuality and lust to lure customers. On the billboards, media newspapers, magazines, television and other media, visual communication seemed to be a valuable garbage, and this is very dangerous, especially if in the consumption of children who are mentally and immature psyche. The Effects of visual "value-free" communication can damage the sense of children as the next generation, we are slowly showed on-aurast which makes Muslims become stupid. This study aims to provide a creative space to explore the lives of children for the purpose of providing religious materials in SDN Monggang Pendowoharjo Sewon Bantul. 2D animation design is expected to give a message to children that religious material is not complicated but enjoyable. And the use of cartoon animation techniques in the making is in fact, expecting the material to be delivered to children to be light for their minds and appropriate with their entertainment media which is television. This research Visual Communication Design using 2d Animation For Children is using descriptive study which is a qualitative research method that analyze the words or sentences and separate it by category for the conclusion. Qualitative research aims to explain the phenomenon in detail and in-depth data collection that focuses on quality rather than the quantity of data. The results of this study is that the creation of 2D animation is effective to be a dakwah media for children that will be made with a

  7. Fracture surfaces of heterogeneous materials: A 2D solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, E.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Derrida, B.

    2007-05-01

    Using an elastostatic description of crack growth based on the Griffith criterion and the principle of local symmetry, we present a stochastic model describing the propagation of a crack tip in a 2D heterogeneous brittle material. The model ensures the stability of straight cracks and allows for the study of the roughening of fracture surfaces. When neglecting the effect of the nonsingular stress, the problem becomes exactly solvable and yields analytic predictions for the power spectrum of the paths. This result suggests an alternative to the conventional power law analysis often used in the analysis of experimental data.

  8. Computation of 2-D spectra assisted by compressed sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J; Plenio, M B

    2012-01-01

    The computation of scientific data can be very time consuming even if they are ultimately determined by a small number of parameters. The principle of compressed sampling suggests that we can achieve a considerable decrease in the computation time by avoiding the need to sample the full data set. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach at the hand of 2-D spectra in the context of ultra-fast non-linear spectroscopy of biological systems where numerical calculations are highly challenging due to the considerable computational effort involved in obtaining individual data points.

  9. Automatische Annotation medizinischer 2D- und 3D-Visualisierungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühler, Konrad; Preim, Bernhard

    Wir stellen ein Framework vor, mit dem medizinische 2D- und 3D-Visualisierungen automatisch annotiert werden können. Annotationstexte wie St beirukturbenennungen oder Kurzbefunde werden so in der Darstellung platziert, dass sie gut lesbar sind und keine anderen Texte oder Strukturen verdecken. Weiterhin führen wir Techniken ein, mit denen sich eine Überfrachtung von Schichtbildern mit Annotationen vermeiden lassen. Unser System kommt sowohl in der chirurgischen OP-Planung wie auch in medizinischen Ausbildungssystemen zum Einsatz.

  10. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  11. Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelkin, Andrey V. [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.

  12. Microscopy of 2D Fermi gases. Exploring excitations and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgener, Kai Henning

    2014-12-08

    This thesis presents experiments on three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li gases providing local access to microscopic quantum many-body physics. A broad magnetic Feshbach resonance is used to tune the interparticle interaction strength freely to address the entire crossover between the Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We map out the critical velocity in the crossover from BEC to BCS superfluidity by moving a small attractive potential through the 3D cloud. We compare the results with theoretical predictions and achieve quantitative understanding in the BEC regime by performing numerical simulations. Of particular interest is the regime of strong correlations, where no theoretical predictions exist. In the BEC regime, the critical velocity should be closely related to the speed of sound, according to the Landau criterion and Bogolyubov theory. We measure the sound velocity by exciting a density wave and tracking its propagation. The focus of this thesis is on our first experiments on general properties of quasi-2D Fermi gases. We realize strong vertical confinement by generating a 1D optical lattice by intersecting two blue-detuned laser beams under a steep angle. The large resulting lattice spacing enables us to prepare a single planar quantum gas deeply in the 2D regime. The first measurements of the speed of sound in quasi-2D gases in the BEC-BCS crossover are presented. In addition, we present preliminary results on the pressure equation of state, which is extracted from in-situ density profiles. Since the sound velocity is directly connected to the equation of state, the results provide a crosscheck of the speed of sound. Moreover, we benchmark the derived sound from available equation of state predictions, find very good agreement with recent numerical calculations, and disprove a sophisticated mean field approach. These studies are carried out with a novel apparatus which has

  13. Partial compactness for the 2-D Landau-Lifshitz flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Harpes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Uniform local $C^infty$-bounds for Ginzburg-Landau type approximations for the Landau-Lifshitz flow on planar domains are proven. They hold outside an energy-concentration set of locally finite parabolic Hausdorff-dimension 2, which has finite times-slices. The approximations subconverge to a global weak solution of the Landau-Lifshitz flow, which is smooth away from the energy concentration set. The same results hold for sequences of global smooth solutions of the 2-d Landau-Lifshitz flow.

  14. Exact solutions for the 2d one component plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    The 2d one component gas of pointlike charges in a uniform neutralizing background interacting with a logarithmic potential is a common model for plasmas. In its classical equilibrium statistics at fixed temperature (canonical ensemble) it is formally related to certain types of random matrices with Gaussian distribution and complex eigenvalues. In this paper, I present an exact integration of this ensemble for $N$ such particles (or alternatively $N\\times N$ matrices) for all complex temperatures, a significant open problem in statistical physics for several decades.

  15. 2-D Electromagnetic Model of Fast-Ramping Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Kurz, S; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Fast-ramping superconducting (SC) accelerator magnets are the subject of R&D efforts by magnet designers at various laboratories. They require modifications of magnet design tools such as the ROXIE program at CERN, i.e. models of dynamic effects in superconductors need to be implemented and validated. In this paper we present the efforts towards a dynamic 2-D simulation of fast-ramping SC magnets with the ROXIE tool. Models are introduced and simulation results are compared to measurements of the GSI001 magnet of a GSI test magnet constructed and measured at BNL.

  16. Numerical modelling of spallation in 2D hydrodynamics codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw, J. R.; Giles, A. R.

    1996-05-01

    A model for spallation based on the void growth model of Johnson has been implemented in 2D Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes. The model has been extended to treat complete separation of material when voids coalesce and to describe the effects of elevated temperatures and melting. The capabilities of the model are illustrated by comparison with data from explosively generated spall experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on the prediction of multiple spall effects in weak, low melting point, materials such as lead. The correlation between the model predictions and observations on the strain rate dependence of spall strength is discussed.

  17. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3...... × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar...

  18. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingop [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Henan [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States); Lin, Jiao [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Ye, Zhenyu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Jaime, Marcelo [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Balakirev, Fedor F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Yuan, Huiqiu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Wu, Huizhen [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhang, Yong [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb1-xSnxTe thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.

  19. Novel 2D representation of vibration for local damage detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new 2D representation for local damage detection is presented. It is based on a vibration time series analysis. A raw vibration signal is decomposed via short-time Fourier transform and new time series for each frequency bin are differentiated to decorrelate them. For each time series, autocorrelation function is calculated. In the next step ACF maps are constructed. For healthy bearing ACF map should not have visible horizontal lines indicating damage. The method is illustrated by analysis of real data containing signals from damaged bearing and healthy for comparison.

  20. Multichannel 2-D Power Spectral Estimation and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Nuttall,1976) in 1-D. The success of the ME method in 1-D has led researchers to explore this problem in 2-D. Unfortunately, the simplicity and elegance...the form: P -I T , _ _ (i)] x,,i (3.53)i=1 (S. where i. is the estimated value of the PWM -dimensional data vector x,, and a(’) is the linear...in detail in the next section. C. CODING EXPERIMENTS WITH COLOR IMAGES In this work a color image is represented by its red, green, and blue ( RGB ) com

  1. Structures of quantum 2D electron-hole plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Filinov, V S; Fehske, H; Levashov, P R; Fortov, V E

    2008-01-01

    We investigate structures of 2D quantum electron-hole (e-h) plasmas by the direct path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) in a wide range of temperature, density and hole-to-electron mass ratio. Our simulation includes a region of appearance and decay of the bound states (excitons and biexcitons), the Mott transition from the neutral e-h plasma to metallic-like clusters, formation from clusters the hexatic-like liquid and formation of the crystal-like lattice.

  2. Guanfu base A, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid of Aconitum coreanum, Is a CYP2D6 inhibitor of human, monkey, and dog isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zhong, Yunxi; Xiao, Yanan; Zhang, Fengyi; Qi, Huanhuan; Shang, Lili; Zhu, Jianping; Sun, Yue; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jinghan; A, Jiye; Ho, Rodney J Y; Wang, Guangji

    2015-05-01

    Guanfu base A (GFA) is a novel heterocyclic antiarrhythmic drug isolated from Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) rapaics and is currently in a phase IV clinical trial in China. However, no study has investigated the influence of GFA on cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolism. We characterized the potency and specificity of GFA CYP2D inhibition based on dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a CYP2D6 probe substrate of activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. In addition, (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was used as a CYP2D6 probe for the recombinant form (rCYP2D6), 2D1 (rCYP2D1), and 2D2 (rCYP2D2) activities. Results show that GFA is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with inhibition constant Ki = 1.20 ± 0.33 μM in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Ki = 0.37 ± 0.16 μM for the human recombinant form (rCYP2D6). GFA is also a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D in monkey (Ki = 0.38 ± 0.12 μM) and dog (Ki = 2.4 ± 1.3 μM) microsomes. However, GFA has no inhibitory activity on mouse or rat CYP2Ds. GFA did not exhibit any inhibition activity on human recombinant CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C19, 3A4, or 3A5, but showed slight inhibition of 2B6 and 2E1. Preincubation of HLMs and rCYP2D6 resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme, which was attenuated by GFA or quinidine. Beagle dogs treated intravenously with dextromethorphan (2 mg/ml) after pretreatment with GFA injection showed reduced CYP2D metabolic activity, with the Cmax of dextrorphan being one-third that of the saline-treated group and area under the plasma concentration-time curve half that of the saline-treated group. This study suggests that GFA is a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor that might play a role in CYP2D6 medicated drug-drug interaction.

  3. Quality of life of obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery Calidad de vida en pacientes obesos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barreto Villela

    2004-11-01

    pacientes con obesidad mórbida (OM se ve reducida dadas las restricciones que esta situación impone. Se considera que la cirugía bariátrica es un tratamiento eficaz para la OM puesto que conduce a una reducción notable y progresiva del peso. Perder peso, el consejo dietético adecuado y el seguimiento pueden favorecer una mejoría notable en la QOL. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de QOL en pacientes con OM, antes y después de la cirugía bariátrica (gastroplastia reductora de Fobi-Capella. Casos, material y métodos: Noventa y cinco pacientes obesos mórbidos (IMC > 40 kg/m², o moderados (IMC 35 -39 kg/m² con comorbilidades, fueron vistos, seguidos y recibieron consejo por parte del personal de Nutrición, Psicología, Endocrinología y Cirugía del Federal University Bahia Hospital. El grupo I incluía individuos en la etapa prequirúrgica y el grupo II se componía de 29 pacientes distintos en una etapa posquirúrgica avanzada. A los pacientes del grupo II se les vio a los 6, 12 y más meses después de la cirugía bariátrica. Se utilizó el estudio de resultados médicos Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 para evaluar la QOL en este estudio. Se analizaron los datos utilizando el método no paramétrico de Mann-Whitney y el programa SPSS. Resultados: Se detectó una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en la QOL, en los aspectos de salud general, capacidad funcional y vitalidad. Se vio una mejoría progresiva en la forma física, particularmente en los pacientes que habían sido sometidos a cirugía bariátrica en los últimos 12 meses, entre los 6 y 12 meses, y hacía más de 6 meses. Se vieron pequeños cambios en los puntos subjetivos. Se observó un cambio en los aspectos sociales tras una caída posquirúrgica. Esto explica el porqué los cambios no se ven cuando se comparan pacientes pre y posquirúrgicos. Conclusiones: La cirugía bariátrica de Fobi-Capella en nuestros pacientes con obesidad mórbida o con obesidad moderada y comorbilidades asociadas supuso

  4. A atuação da fisioterapia dermato-funcional no pós-operatório de cirúrgia bariátrica: uma revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gil Aldenucci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é uma doença crônica caracterizada pelo acúmulo excessivo de tecido adiposo no organismo, utiliza-se o IMC (índice de massa corporal como parâmetro avaliativo. É uma das principais causa de mortalidade e co-morbidade mundial. Na obesidade mórbida a cirurgia bariátrica é indicada após dois anos de tratamento clínico. O paciente submetido à cirurgia bariátrica após perda ponderal sua nova imagem corporal é a flacidez cutânea, presença de estrias e celulite decorrentes da obesidade anterior a cirurgia. A fisioterapia dermato-funcional é fundamental para a recuperação física e para a firmação da auto-imagem desses pacientes. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo evidenciar a importância da fisioterapia dermato-funcional no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica na prevenção de intercorrências e recuperação cinesiológica funcional e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.

  5. 2D vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Dmytro; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Le Lay, Guy; Sahin, Hasan; Cahangirov, Seymur; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Vogt, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    The two-dimensional silicon allotrope, silicene, could spur the development of new and original concepts in Si-based nanotechnology. Up to now silicene can only be epitaxially synthesized on a supporting substrate such as Ag(111). Even though the structural and electronic properties of these epitaxial silicene layers have been intensively studied, very little is known about its vibrational characteristics. Here, we present a detailed study of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111) using in situ Raman spectroscopy, which is one of the most extensively employed experimental techniques to characterize 2D materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorous. The vibrational fingerprint of epitaxial silicene, in contrast to all previous interpretations, is characterized by three distinct phonon modes with A and E symmetries. Both, energies and symmetries of theses modes are confirmed by ab initio theory calculations. The temperature dependent spectral evolution of these modes demonstrates unique thermal properties of epitaxial silicene and a significant electron-phonon coupling. These results unambiguously support the purely two-dimensional character of epitaxial silicene up to about 300 °C, whereupon a 2D-to-3D phase transition takes place. The detailed fingerprint of epitaxial silicene will allow us to identify it in different environments or to study its modifications.

  6. F-theory and 2d (0,2) Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schafer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-01-01

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet t...

  7. Asymmetric 2D spatial beam filtering by photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, D.; Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gaizauskas, E.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.

  8. Flatbands in 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2016-01-14

    Density functional calculations have been performed to analyze the electronic and mechanical properties of a number of 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are experimentally fabricated from di-borate aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the band structures are surprising and show flat-band characteristics which are mainly attributed to the delocalized π-conjugated electrons around the phenyl rings and can be better understood within aromaticity theories. Next, the effects of branch sizes and hydrostatic strains on their band structures are systematically considered within generalized gradient approximations. It is found that their band gaps will start to saturate when the branch size reaches 9. For boroxine-linked COFs with only one benzene ring in the branch, the band gap is robust under compressive strain while it decreases with the tensile strain increasing. When the branch size is equal or greater than 2, their band gaps will monotonously increase with the strain increasing in the range of [-1.0, 2.0] Å. All boroxine-linked COFs are semiconductors with controllable band gaps, depending on the branch length and the applied strain. In comparison with other 2D materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and even γ-graphyne, all boroxine-linked COFs are much softer and even more stable. That is, they can maintain the planar features under a larger compressive strain, which means that they are good candidates in flexible electronics.

  9. Reconstruction of a 2D seismic wavefield by seismic gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-12-01

    We reconstructed a 2D seismic wavefield and obtained its propagation properties by using the seismic gradiometry method together with dense observations of the Hi-net seismograph network in Japan. The seismic gradiometry method estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients at any location from a discrete station record by using a Taylor series approximation. From the spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, the properties of a propagating wave packet, including the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern can be obtained. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary conditions, the 2D vector elastic wavefield can be decomposed into divergence and rotation components. First, as a feasibility test, we performed an analysis with a synthetic seismogram dataset computed by a numerical simulation for a realistic 3D medium and the actual Hi-net station layout. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives were very well-reproduced for period bands longer than 25 s. Applications to a real large earthquake showed that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield were well reconstructed, along with slowness vector. The slowness of the reconstructed wavefield showed a clear contrast between body and surface waves and regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation, possibly owing to scattering. Slowness vectors together with divergence and rotation decomposition are expected to be useful for determining constituents of observed wavefields in inhomogeneous media.

  10. 2D CFT partition functions at late times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ethan; Gur-Ari, Guy

    2017-08-01

    We consider the late time behavior of the analytically continued partition function Z( β + it) Z( β - it) in holographic 2 d CFTs. This is a probe of information loss in such theories and in their holographic duals. We show that each Virasoro character decays in time, and so information is not restored at the level of individual characters. We identify a universal decaying contribution at late times, and conjecture that it describes the behavior of generic chaotic 2 d CFTs out to times that are exponentially large in the central charge. It was recently suggested that at sufficiently late times one expects a crossover to random matrix behavior. We estimate an upper bound on the crossover time, which suggests that the decay is followed by a parametrically long period of late time growth. Finally, we discuss gravitationally-motivated integrable theories and show how information is restored at late times by a series of characters. This hints at a possible bulk mechanism, where information is restored by an infinite sum over non-perturbative saddles.

  11. On row-by-row coding for 2-D constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Ido; Roth, Ron M

    2008-01-01

    A constant-rate encoder--decoder pair is presented for a fairly large family of two-dimensional (2-D) constraints. Encoding and decoding is done in a row-by-row manner, and is sliding-block decodable. Essentially, the 2-D constraint is turned into a set of independent and relatively simple one-dimensional (1-D) constraints; this is done by dividing the array into fixed-width vertical strips. Each row in the strip is seen as a symbol, and a graph presentation of the respective 1-D constraint is constructed. The maxentropic stationary Markov chain on this graph is next considered: a perturbed version of the corresponding probability distribution on the edges of the graph is used in order to build an encoder which operates in parallel on the strips. This perturbation is found by means of a network flow, with upper and lower bounds on the flow through the edges. A key part of the encoder is an enumerative coder for constant-weight binary words. A fast realization of this coder is shown, using floating-point arith...

  12. 2D arc-PIC code description: methods and documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Timko, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum discharges are one of the main limiting factors for future linear collider designs such as that of the Compact LInear Collider. To optimize machine efficiency, maintaining the highest feasible accelerating gradient below a certain breakdown rate is desirable; understanding breakdowns can therefore help us to achieve this goal. As a part of ongoing theoretical research on vacuum discharges at the Helsinki Institute of Physics, the build-up of plasma can be investigated through the particle-in-cell method. For this purpose, we have developed the 2D Arc-PIC code introduced here. We present an exhaustive description of the 2D Arc-PIC code in two parts. In the first part, we introduce the particle-in-cell method in general and detail the techniques used in the code. In the second part, we provide a documentation and derivation of the key equations occurring in the code. The code is original work of the author, written in 2010, and is therefore under the copyright of the author. The development of the code h...

  13. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Xie, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2015-08-30

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.

  14. High Current Density 2D/3D Esaki Tunnel Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lee, Choong Hee; Zhang, Yuewei; McCulloch, William D; Johnson, Jared M; Hwang, Jinwoo; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    The integration of two-dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides with bulk semiconductors offer interesting opportunities for 2D/3D heterojunction-based novel device structures without any constraints of lattice matching. By exploiting the favorable band alignment at the GaN/MoS2 heterojunction, an Esaki interband tunnel diode is demonstrated by transferring large area, Nb-doped, p-type MoS2 onto heavily n-doped GaN. A peak current density of 446 A/cm2 with repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance, peak to valley current ratio of 1.2, and minimal hysteresis was measured in the MoS2/GaN non-epitaxial tunnel diode. A high current density of 1 kA/cm2 was measured in the Zener mode (reverse bias) at -1 V bias. The GaN/MoS2 tunnel junction was also modeled by treating MoS2 as a bulk semiconductor, and the electrostatics at the 2D/3D interface was found to be crucial in explaining the experimentally observed device characteristics.

  15. Application Perspective of 2D+SCALE Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Different applications or users need different abstraction of spatial models, dimensionalities and specification of their datasets due to variations of required analysis and output. Various approaches, data models and data structures are now available to support most current application models in Geographic Information System (GIS). One of the focuses trend in GIS multi-dimensional research community is the implementation of scale dimension with spatial datasets to suit various scale application needs. In this paper, 2D spatial datasets that been scaled up as the third dimension are addressed as 2D+scale (or 3D-scale) dimension. Nowadays, various data structures, data models, approaches, schemas, and formats have been proposed as the best approaches to support variety of applications and dimensionality in 3D topology. However, only a few of them considers the element of scale as their targeted dimension. As the scale dimension is concerned, the implementation approach can be either multi-scale or vario-scale (with any available data structures and formats) depending on application requirements (topology, semantic and function). This paper attempts to discuss on the current and new potential applications which positively could be integrated upon 3D-scale dimension approach. The previous and current works on scale dimension as well as the requirements to be preserved for any given applications, implementation issues and future potential applications forms the major discussion of this paper.

  16. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  17. Homogenization of 1D and 2D magnetoelastic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the equivalent in-plane mechanical properties of one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D, periodic magneto-elastic lattices. A lumped parameter model describes the lattices using magnetic dipole moments in combination with axial and torsional springs. The homogenization procedure is applied to systems linearized about stable configurations, which are identified by minimizing potential energy. Simple algebraic expressions are derived for the properties of 1D structures. Results for 1D lattices show that a variety of stiffness changes are possible through reconfiguration, and that magnetization can either stiffen or soften a structure. Results for 2D hexagonal and re-entrant lattices show that both reconfigurations and magnetization have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of lattice structures. Lattices can be stiffened or softened and the Poisson’s ratio can be tuned. Furthermore for certain hexagonal lattices the sign of Poisson’s ratio can change by varying the lattice magnetization. In some cases presented, analytical and numerically estimated equivalent properties are validated through numerical simulations that also illustrate the unique characteristics of the investigated configurations.

  18. Symmetries and black holes in 2D dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, J; Navarro, M; Talavera, C F

    1996-01-01

    We study global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models. Using a non-linear sigma model formulation we show that the unique theories admitting special conformal symmetries are the models with an exponential potential V \\propto e^{\\beta\\phi} ( S ={1\\over2\\pi} \\int d^2 x \\sqrt{-g} [ R \\phi + 4 \\lambda^2 e^{\\beta\\phi} ]), which include the model of Callan, Giddings, Harvey and Strominger (CGHS) as a particular though limiting (\\beta=0) case. These models give rise to black hole solutions with a mass-dependent temperature. The underlying conformal symmetry can be maintained in a natural way in the one-loop effective action, thus implying the exact solvability of the semiclassical theory including back-reaction. Moreover, we also introduce three different classes of non-conformal transformations which are symmetries for generic 2D dilaton gravity models. Special linear combinations of these transformations turn out to be the conformal symmetries of the CGHS and V \\propto e^{\\beta\\phi} models. We show that,...

  19. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oswaldo Cadenas

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n; second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  20. 2-D DOA Estimation via Matrix Partition and Stacking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach is proposed for the efficient estimation of the two-dimensional (2-D direction-of-arrival (DOA of signals impinging on two orthogonal uniform linear arrays (ULAs. By partitioning the cross-correlation matrix (CCM between two ULAs data into a great deal of submatrices and making use of the submatrices and the symmetric subarrays, an extended correlation matrix is constructed, and then uses the modified ESPRIT approach to extract out the so-called Kronecker Steering Vectors (KSVs of which each is the Kronecker product of the elevation and azimuth angle with a one-to-one relationship. Upon that the proposed method yields the estimate of the 2-D DOA efficiently without requiring the additionally computational burden to remove the pair-matching problem. Furthermore, the main idea of the matrix partition and stacking is to much-enhanced subspace estimate. So based on the use of the concept, the proposed method's performance is better than the existing similar approaches. Meanwhile, unlike the traditional subspace methods, it is shown that the proposed can resolve the same uncorrelated sources as the number of subarray sensor through a delicate partition-and-stacking process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to the existing techniques in both DOA estimation and the detection capability of sources.

  1. 2D Mueller matrix approach for tissue complete polarization characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J.-L.; Romanov, O. G.; Tolstik, A. L.; Ormachea, O.

    2007-06-01

    The use of optical techniques in medical praxis allows practitioners to improve their tools. This improvement is realized in two main aspects, treatment and characterization of biological tissue. The former deals with methods like Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) or Hyperthermia. Tissue characterization by optical means is more challenging. The idea is to obtain images from biological tissues with a non-contact, non-invasive and safe procedure. The drawbacks of conventional imaging techniques, like X-Ray with its ionising radiation or ultrasound with the needed contact, are then avoided. Some of these optical techniques are for instance Confocal Microscopy or Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The inclusion of the analysis of light polarization can increase the contrast in these images. In this work, polarization information via the Mueller matrix of the target tissue in 2D is proposed as an improved way of characterization. This matrix contains all the polarization properties of tissue, including depolarisation, so a more complete analysis can be carried out. A polarimeter, composed by linear polarizers and rotators, as long as a CCD camera, is proposed to measure 2D Mueller matrix in concrete points of a biological tissue. The importance of these diagnosis methods is crucial in preliminary detection of diseases, like cancer.

  2. 2D COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Konakoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate systems used in Turkey, namely the ED50 (European Datum 1950 and ITRF96 (International Terrestrial Reference Frame 1996 coordinate systems. In most cases, it is necessary to conduct transformation from one coordinate system to another. The artificial neural network (ANN is a new method for coordinate transformation. One of the biggest advantages of the ANN is that it can determine the relationship between two coordinate systems without a mathematical model. The aim of this study was to investigate the performances of three different ANN models (Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP, Cascade Forward Back Propagation (CFBP and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN with regard to 2D coordinate transformation. To do this, three data sets were used for the same study area, the city of Trabzon. The coordinates of data sets were measured in the ED50 and ITRF96 coordinate systems by using RTK-GPS technique. Performance of each transformation method was investigated by using the coordinate differences between the known and estimated coordinates. The results showed that the ANN algorithms can be used for 2D coordinate transformation in cases where optimum model parameters are selected.

  3. 2D Implosion Simulations with a Kinetic Particle Code

    CERN Document Server

    Sagert, Irina; Strother, Terrance T

    2016-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional (2D) implosion simulations using a Monte Carlo kinetic particle code. The paper is motivated by the importance of non-equilibrium effects in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions. These cannot be fully captured by hydrodynamic simulations while kinetic methods, as the one presented in this study, are able to describe continuum and rarefied regimes within one approach. In the past, our code has been verified via traditional shock wave and fluid instability simulations. In the present work, we focus on setups that are closer to applications in ICF. We perform simple 2D disk implosion simulations using one particle species. The obtained results are compared to simulations using the hydrodynamics code RAGE. In a first study, the implosions are powered by energy deposition in the outer layers of the disk. We test the impact of the particle mean-free-path and find that while the width of the implosion shock broadens, its location as a function of time remains very similar. ...

  4. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  6. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  7. 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Eckman, Laura E; McCarthy, Patrick H; Smedley, Scott R; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C

    2011-06-14

    Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature's cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature's structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored.

  8. Electron-Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Libai

    2016-11-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomically thin perovskites with strongly bound excitons are highly promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the nature of nonradiative processes that limit the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency remains elusive. Here, we present time-resolved and temperature-dependent PL studies to systematically address the intrinsic exciton relaxation pathways in layered (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) structures. Our results show that scatterings via deformation potential by acoustic and homopolar optical phonons are the main scattering mechanisms for excitons in ultrathin single exfoliated flakes, exhibiting a T(γ) (γ = 1.3 to 1.9) temperature dependence for scattering rates. We attribute the absence of polar optical phonon and defect scattering to efficient screening of Coulomb potential, similar to what has been observed in 3D perovskites. These results establish an understanding of the origins of nonradiative pathways and provide guidelines for optimizing PL efficiencies of atomically thin 2D perovskites.

  9. 2D CFT Partition Functions at Late Times

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    We consider the late time behavior of the analytically continued partition function $Z(\\beta + it) Z(\\beta - it)$ in holographic $2d$ CFTs. This is a probe of information loss in such theories and in their holographic duals. We show that each Virasoro character decays in time, and so information is not restored at the level of individual characters. We identify a universal decaying contribution at late times, and conjecture that it describes the behavior of generic chaotic $2d$ CFTs out to times that are exponentially large in the central charge. It was recently suggested that at sufficiently late times one expects a crossover to random matrix behavior. We estimate an upper bound on the crossover time, which suggests that the decay is followed by a parametrically long period of late time growth. Finally, we discuss integrable theories and show how information is restored at late times by a series of characters. This hints at a possible bulk mechanism, where information is restored by an infinite sum over non-...

  10. $T \\bar{T}$-deformed 2D Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaglià, Andrea; Szécsényi, István M; Tateo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was noticed many years ago, in the framework of massless RG flows, that the irrelevant composite operator $T \\bar{T}$, built with the components of the energy-momentum tensor, enjoys very special properties in 2D quantum field theories, and can be regarded as a peculiar kind of integrable perturbation. Novel interesting features of this operator have recently emerged from the study of effective string theory models.In this paper we study further properties of this distinguished perturbation. We discuss how it affects the energy levels and one-point functions of a general 2D QFT in finite volume through a surprising relation with a simple hydrodynamic equation. In the case of the perturbation of CFTs, adapting a result by L\\"uscher and Weisz we give a compact expression for the partition function on a finite-length cylinder and make a connection with the exact $g$-function method. We argue that, at the classical level, the deformation naturally maps the action of $N$ massless free bosons into the Nambu-Goto...

  11. Conformal Laplace superintegrable systems in 2D: polynomial invariant subspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.

    2016-07-01

    2nd-order conformal superintegrable systems in n dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and 2n-1 independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about Helmholtz (eigenvalue) superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: there is a 1-1 correspondence between Laplace superintegrable systems and Stäckel equivalence classes of Helmholtz superintegrable systems. In this paper we focus on superintegrable systems in two-dimensions, n = 2, where there are 44 Helmholtz systems, corresponding to 12 Laplace systems. For each Laplace equation we determine the possible two-variate polynomial subspaces that are invariant under the action of the Laplace operator, thus leading to families of polynomial eigenfunctions. We also study the behavior of the polynomial invariant subspaces under a Stäckel transform. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial variables and the conditions on parameters of the potential corresponding to polynomial solutions. The hidden gl 3-algebraic structure is exhibited for the exact and quasi-exact systems. For physically meaningful solutions, the orthogonality properties and normalizability of the polynomials are presented as well. Finally, for all Helmholtz superintegrable solvable systems we give a unified construction of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-exactly solvable potentials possessing polynomial solutions, and a construction of new 2D PT-symmetric potentials is established.

  12. 2D Plasmonics for Enabling Novel Light-Matter Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminer, Ido; Zhen, Bo; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    The physics of light-matter interactions is strongly constrained by both the small value of the fine-structure constant and the small size of the atom. Overcoming these limitations is a long-standing challenge. Recent theoretical and experimental breakthroughs have shown that two dimensional systems, such as graphene, can support strongly confined light in the form of plasmons. These 2D systems have a unique ability to squeeze the wavelength of light by over two orders of magnitude. Such high confinement requires a revisitation of the main assumptions of light-matter interactions. In this letter, we provide a general theory of light-matter interactions in 2D systems which support plasmons. This theory reveals that conventionally forbidden light-matter interactions, such as: high-order multipolar transitions, two-plasmon spontaneous emission, and spin-flip transitions can occur on very short time-scales - comparable to those of conventionally fast transitions. Our findings enable new platforms for spectroscopy...

  13. Spectroscopic properties of multilayered gold nanoparticle 2D sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihito; Imazu, Keisuke; Li, Xinheng; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2012-12-11

    We report the fabrication technique and optical properties of multilayered two-dimensional (2D) gold nanoparticle sheets ("Au nanosheet"). The 2D crystalline monolayer sheet composed of Au nanoparticles shows an absorption peak originating from a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). It was found that the absorption spectra dramatically change when the monolayers are assembled into the multilayers on different substrates (quartz or Au). In the case of the multilayers on Au thin film (d = 200 nm), the LSPR peak is shifted to longer wavelength at the near-IR region by increasing the number of layers. The absorbance also depends on the layer number and shows the nonlinear behavior. On the other hand, the multilayers on quartz substrate show neither such LSPR peak shift nor nonlinear response of absorbance. The layer number dependence on metal surfaces can be interpreted as the combined effects between the near-field coupling of the LSPR and the far-field optics of the stratified metamaterial films, as proposed in our previous study. We also report the spectroscopic properties of hybrid multilayers composed of two kinds of monolayers, i.e., Au nanosheet and Ag nanosheet. The combination of the different metal nanoparticle sheets realizes more flexible plasmonic color tuning.

  14. Beam-Plasma Interaction in a 2D Complex Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkos, Stamatios; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.

    2006-10-01

    In a complex (dusty) plasma, penetrating ion or electron beams may lead to beam-plasma instabilities. The instability displays interesting new properties when either the plasma or the beam, or both, are strongly interacting^1. Foremost amongst them is the possible generation of transverse instabilities. We consider the case when a 2D plasma is in the crystalline phase, forming a lattice, and the beam is moving in the lattice plane. Both the grains and the beam particles interact through a realistic Yukawa potential. The beam particles are assumed to be weakly coupled to each other and to the lattice^2. Using the full phonon spectrum for a 2D hexagonal Yukawa lattice^3, we determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The behavior of the growth rates depends on the direction of the beam and on the relationship between the beam speed v and the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds sL, sT. For beam speeds between the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds, the transverse instability could be more important, because it appears at lower k values. ^1 G. J. Kalman and M. Rosenberg, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 5963 (2003) ^2 M. Rosenberg, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4613 (2006) ^3 T. Sullivan, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos, P. Bakshi, M. Rosenberg and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4607 (2006)

  15. Scaling in Gravitational Clustering, 2D and 3D Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, D; Melott, A L; Schäffer, R

    1999-01-01

    Perturbation Theory (PT) applied to a cosmological density field with Gaussian initial fluctuations suggests a specific hierarchy for the correlation functions when the variance is small. In particular quantitative predictions have been made for the moments and the shape of the one-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the top-hat smoothed density. In this paper we perform a series of systematic checks of these predictions against N-body computations both in 2D and 3D with a wide range of featureless power spectra. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the reconstructed PDF-s work remarkably well down to very low probabilities, even when the variance approaches unity. Our results for 2D reproduce the features for the 3D dynamics. In particular we found that the PT predictions are more accurate for spectra with less power on small scales. The nonlinear regime has been explored with various tools, PDF-s, moments and Void Probability Function (VPF). These studies have been done with unprec...

  16. Predicting Non-Square 2D Dice Probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pender, G A T

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of the final state probabilities of a general cuboid randomly thrown onto a surface is a problem that naturally arises in the minds of men and women familiar with regular cubic dice and the basic concepts of probability. Indeed, it was considered by Newton in 1664 [1]. In this paper we make progress on the 2D problem (which can be realised in 3D by considering a long cuboid, or alternatively a rectangular cross-sectioned dreidel). For the two-dimensional case we suggest a model that predicts this based on the side length ratio. We test this theory both experimentally and computationally, and find good agreement between our theory, experimental and computational results. Our theory is known, from its derivation, to be an approximation for particularly bouncy or grippy surfaces where the die rolls through many revolutions before settling. On real surfaces we would expect (and we observe) that the true probability ratio for a 2D die is a somewhat closer to unity than predicted by our theory. This ...

  17. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  18. The Usage of 2D Codes in Marketing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Podmanicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barcodes, which are used for the labelling and identification of products, have been used as the foundation for the development of new symbols, two-dimensional barcodes (usually called 2D codes. These codes are capable of receiving large amounts of data in a small area, and data stored in them can be read by means of mobile devices. They usually contain information such as web addresses, text, contacts and similar data that encourage users to interact in order to obtain the desired information, entertainment, discount, reservation, and even do their shopping. The possibility of connecting the physical and digital world by means of 2D codes has led marketing professionals to face new challenges in the development of strategies in mobile marketing. Many companies recognized the potential of the above technology very early, in its initial phase, and they use it now in their activities. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of knowing this technology and its advantages by providing examples in marketing practices.

  19. 2D velocity fields of simulated interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Ziegler, B L

    2007-01-01

    We investigate distortions in the velocity fields of disc galaxies and their use to reveal the dynamical state of interacting galaxies at different redshift. For that purpose, we model disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations. 2D velocity fields of the gas are extracted from these simulations which we place at different redshifts from z=0 to z=1 to investigate resolution effects on the properties of the velocity field. To quantify the structure of the velocity field we also perform a kinemetry analysis. If the galaxy is undisturbed we find that the rotation curve extracted from the 2D field agrees well with long-slit rotation curves. This is not true for interacting systems, as the kinematic axis is not well defined and does in general not coincide with the photometric axis of the system. For large (Milky way type) galaxies we find that distortions are still visible at intermediate redshifts but partly smeared out. Thus a careful analysis of the velocity field is necessary before using it for...

  20. MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.

    2012-01-20

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.

  1. 2-D Composite Model for Numerical Simulations of Nonlinear Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    - A composite model, which is the combination of Boussinesq equations and Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, has been developed for 2-D time-domain computations of nonlinear waves in a large region. The whole computational region Ω is divided into two subregions. In the near-field around a structure, Ω2, the flow is governed by 2-D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure model of k-ε equations and numerically solved by the improved VOF method; whereas in the subregion Ω1 (Ω1 = Ω - Ω2) the flow is governed by one-D Boussinesq equations and numerically solved with the predictor-corrector algorithm. The velocity and the wave surface elevation are matched on the common boundary of the two subregions. Numerical tests have been conducted for the case of wave propagation and interaction with a wave barrier. It is shown that the composite model can help perform efficient computation of nonlinear waves in a large region with the complicated flow fields near structures taken into account.

  2. Respuestas para algunas preguntas sobre obesidad y cirugía bariátrica Responses to some questions about obesity and bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernández Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía bariátrica en pacientes con obesidad mórbida y la obtención con este proceder de pérdidas de peso mayores y más rápidas que las reportadas por las vías convencionales de tratamiento, constituye, sin duda, una alternativa objetiva para disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad observadas en estas personas. Se pretende dar respuesta a las interrogantes que existen sobre algunos aspectos relacionados con la cirugía bariátrica como método más efectivo para tratar la obesidad mórbida. Esta se caracteriza por ser crónica, multifactorial, y asociada a importantes complicaciones físicas y psicológicas, que contribuyen a disminuir la calidad y la esperanza de vida de todo aquel que la padece. La cirugía bariátrica se basa en la reducción de la cámara gástrica, combinada o no con técnicas de mala absorción. Hasta ahora, prácticamente es el único tratamiento que consigue alcanzar las expectativas a largo plazo relacionadas con pérdidas de peso suficientes para controlar adecuadamente las comorbilidades. Este procedimiento se acompaña de importantes cambios, no solo en el peso, sino también en el perfil metabólico de los tratados con este método. Resulta imprescindible realizar un seguimiento médico a largo plazo de los sometidos a este tratamiento, una vez realizada la cirugía, por parte de un grupo multidisciplinario especializado en estos procedimientos, para detectar y tratar los trastornos que posteriormente puedan presentarse. Queda demostrado que existe una alternativa terapéutica para el tratamiento de las comorbilidades de la obesidad grave y mórbida, así como para la obesidad misma.The bariatric surgery aimed at patients with morbid obesity and the quicker major weight loss through this procedure when compared to the reports of weight loss in the conventional treatments is, beyond any doubt, an objective alternative to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in these persons. This paper was intended to

  3. Cirugía bariátrica: Tratamiento de elección para la obesidad mórbida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Rodríguez- Saborío

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es una patología que ha crecido hasta convertirse en un problema de salud pública, debido a que se asocia con una serie de enfermedades como hipertensión, Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemia y trastornos respiratorios. Se ha observado que la reducción de peso ayuda en el manejo y el control de estas patologías. Aunque la terapia conservadora con dieta, ejercicios y algunos fármacos es ampliamente utilizada, la evidencia señala que en pacientes con obesidad mórbida estos métodos rara vez obtienen resultados satisfactorios en un porcentaje aceptable de pacientes. La cirugía bariátrica es el único tratamiento que ha producido resultados halagadores en el manejo de la obesidad mórbida, y esto no solo en cuanto a reducción de peso se refiere, sino que también se obtienen beneficios en el manejo de las distintas comorbilidades. En cirugía bariátrica se ha desarrollado una serie de técnicas que se podrían clasificar de 3 maneras, dependiendo del mecanismo que utilizando para inducir la pérdida de peso: malabsortivos (derivación biliopancreática, restrictivos (gastroplastía vertical y banda gástrica y mixtos ("bypass" gástrico. Aunque los 3 tipos de procedimientos mencionados logran resultados aceptables, el "bypass" gástrico se ha convertido en el "gold standard" del tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad, debido a que ofrece una adecuada reducción de peso, sin aumentar la mortalidad ni los efectos adversos; además, reduce de manera importante la prevalencia de patologías como la hipertensión arterial y diabetes tipo 2. En conclusión, la cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento de elección para pacientes con IMC > 40 Kg / m² o con IMC entre 35 y 40, si se asocia a alguna comorbilidad.Obesity has become a very important health problem nowadays, given its high prevalence and its associated pathological conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and joint disease. It is well known

  4. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  5. GRID GENERATION AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 2-D RIVER FLOW GRID GENERATION AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 2-D RIVER FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents new weighting functions in grid generation and new discretizing scheme of momentum equations in numerical simulation of river flow. By using the new weighting functions, the curvilinear grid could be concentrated as desired near the assigned points or lines in physical plane. By using the new discretizing scheme, the difficulties caused by movable boundary and dry riverbed can be overcome. As an application, the flow in the Wuhan Section of Yangtze River is simulated. The computational results are in good agreement with the measured results. The new method is applicable to the numerical simulation of 2-D river flow with irregular region and moveable boundary.

  6. BARI研究的十年随访结果%The Final 10-Year Follow-up Results from the BARI Randomized Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 靳立军

    2007-01-01

    BARI(Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation)随机研究的设计目的是为了比较经皮冠状动脉球囊血管成形术(percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty,PTCA)与冠状动脉旁路移植术(coronary artery bypass grafting,CABG)对多支血管病变的冠心病患者5年生存率的疗效。

  7. Availability of CYP2D6 genotyping results in general practitioner and community pharmacy medical records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoons, Mirjam; Mulder, Hans; Schoevers, Robert A; Ruhé, Henricus G; van Roon, Eric N

    AIM: To investigate the availability of CYP450-2D6 (CYP2D6) genotyping results in general practitioner (GP) and/or community pharmacy records, and the influence thereof on psychotropic CYP2D6 substrate dosing. MATERIALS & METHODS: Primary outcome was the percentage of patients genotyped for CYP2D6

  8. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Kürklüoglu, Mustafa [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Lovejoy, John [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Yaniv, Ziv, E-mail: ZYaniv@childrensnational.org [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on

  9. NKG2D ligand expression in Crohn's disease and NKG2D-dependent stimulation of CD8(+) T cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Galsgaard, Elisabeth Douglas; Jensen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    , but expression of MICA and MICB in CD intestine has been reported. In this exploratory study, we further characterize the expression of NKG2D and its ligands, including the less well-described ULBP4-6, in CD, and test if NKG2D ligand interactions are involved in the migration of activated T cells...... expression of NKG2D ligands, including MICA/B and ULBP2/6. Blockade of NKG2D on CD8(+) T cells inhibited the migration over ligand-expressing endothelial cells. Intestinal induction of NKG2D ligands and ligand-induced down-regulation of NKG2D in CD suggest that the NKG2D-ligand interaction may be involved...

  10. Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-28

    Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.

  11. Study On Nonlinear effect In 2D Plastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, D.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike the perfect elastic, homogeneous and isotropic model, the properties of real earth media are heterogeneous, plastic and anisotropic to a certain extend. To accurately simulate the strong ground motion in a basin, nonlinear or plastic effect should be considered in simulation. In this study, we use DRP/opt MacCormack non-staggered finite difference method to simulate 2D seismic wave propagation in anisotropic and plastic media. Compared with the traditional staggered grid FDM, this scheme is more accurate and more efficient. We focus on the nonlinear character of the sedimentary basin model. The preliminary ground motion results indicate that the energy of seismic wave has obvious nonlinear dissipation and irreversible deformations which is danger to buildings in the sedimentary basin.

  12. TRANSITION FROM 2D TO 3D WITH GEOGEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MIHAILOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the definition of projection plane, its importance for the geometry constructions used in civil engineering and comparative analysis of three opportunities for creating a three dimensional basis, used in drawing such a plane. First method consists of transforming affine and orthonormal coordinates and its application in GeoGebra is presented. Second method, using combination of spherical and polar coordinates in space, is introduced. The third suggested method is an application of descriptive geometry for transforming 2D to 3D and a new method of forming a plane of projection, which will be used later in the reviewed example below. The example shows how GeoGebra software can be used in technical drawing used in civil engineering.

  13. Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, S.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.

    2017-02-01

    Magnonic crystals, materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, represent the magnetic counterpart of photonic, phononic and plasmonic crystals, and have been largely investigated in recent years because of the possibility of using spin waves as a new means for carrying and processing information over a very large frequency bandwidth. Here, we review recent Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals consisting of single- and bi-component arrays of interacting magnetic dots or antidot lattices. In particular, we discuss the principal properties of the magnonic band diagram of such systems, with emphasis given to its dependence on both magnetic and the geometrical parameters. Thanks to the possibility of tailoring their band structure by means of several degrees of freedom, planar magnonic crystals offer a good opportunity to design an innovative class of nanoscale microwave devices.

  14. L 1 Generalized Procrustes 2D Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for resistant and robust alignment of sets of 2D shapes wrt. position, rotation, and iso-tropical scaling. Apart from robustness a major advantage of the method is that it is formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem, thus enabling the use of well known and...... results in resistance towards object as well as landmark outliers. Examples that illustrate the properties of the robust norm are given on simulated as well as medical data sets....... on the orientation of the coordinate system, i.e. it is not rotationally invariant. However, by simultaneously minimizing the city block distances in a series of rotated coordinate systems we are able to approximate the circular equidistance curves of Euclidean distances with a regular polygonal equidistance curve...

  15. Premixed Flame Dynamics in Narrow 2D Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ayoobi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Premixed flames propagating within small channels show complex combustion phenomena that differ from flame propagation at conventional scales. Available experimental and numerical studies have documented stationary/non-stationary and/or asymmetric modes that depend on properties of the incoming reactant flow as well as channel geometry and wall temperatures. The present work seeks to illuminate mechanisms leading to symmetry-breaking and limit cycle behavior that are fundamental to these combustion modes. Specifically, four cases of lean premixed methane/air combustion -- two equivalence ratios (0.53 and 0.7) and two channel widths (2 and 5mm) -- are investigated in a 2D configuration with constant channel length and bulk inlet velocity, where numerical simulations are performed using detailed chemistry. External wall heating is simulated by imposing a linear temperature gradient as a boundary condition on both walls. In the 2mm-channel, both equivalence ratios produce flames that stabilize with symmetric fla...

  16. Heat Transport in Confined Strongly Coupled 2D Dust Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kudelis, Giedrius; Bonitz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dusty plasmas are a model system for studying strong correlation. The dust grains' size of a few micro-meters and their characteristic oscillation frequency of a few hertz allows for an investigation of many particle effects on an atomic level. In this article, we model the heat transport through an axially confined 2D dust cluster from the center to the outside. The system behaves particularly interesting since heat is not only conducted within the dust component but also transfered to the neutral gas. Fitting the analytical solution to the obtained radial temperature profiles allows to determine the heat conductivity $\\kheat$. The heat conductivity is found to be constant over a wide range of coupling strengths even including the phase transition from solid to liquid here, as it was also found in extended systems by V. Nosenko et al. in 2008 \\cite{PhysRevLett.100.025003}

  17. Non-chiral 2d CFT with integer energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, M.; Loran, F.

    2016-09-01

    The partition function of 2d conformal field theory is a modular invariant function. It is known that the partition function of a holomorphic CFT whose central charge is a multiple of 24 is a polynomial in the Klein function. In this paper, by using the medium temperature expansion we show that every modular invariant partition function can be mapped to a holomorphic partition function whose structure can be determined similarly. We use this map to study partition function of CFTs with half-integer left and right conformal weights. We show that the corresponding left and right central charges are necessarily multiples of 4. Furthermore, the degree of degeneracy of high-energy levels can be uniquely determined in terms of the degeneracy in the low energy states.

  18. Non-chiral 2d CFT with integer energy levels

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafi, M

    2016-01-01

    The partition function of 2d conformal field theory is a modular invariant function. It is known that the partition function of a holomorphic CFT whose central charge is a multiple of 24 is a polynomial in the Klein function. In this paper, by using the medium temperature expansion we show that every modular invariant partition function can be mapped to a holomorphic partition function whose structure can be determined similarly. We use this map to study partition function of CFTs with half-integer left and right conformal weights. We show that the corresponding left and right central charges are necessarily multiples of 4. Furthermore, the degree of degeneracy of high-energy levels can be uniquely determined in terms of the degeneracy in the low energy states.

  19. Fast and robust recognition and localization of 2D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterbach, Rainer; Gerdes, Rolf; Kammueller, R.

    1994-11-01

    The paper presents a vision system which provides a robust model-based identification and localization of 2-D objects in industrial scenes. A symbolic image description based on the polygonal approximation of the object silhouettes is extracted in video real time by the use of dedicated hardware. Candidate objects are selected from the model database using a time and memory efficient hashing algorithm. Any candidate object is submitted to the next computation stage which generates pose hypotheses by assigning model to image contours. Corresponding continuous measures of similarity are derived from the turning functions of the curves. Finally, the previous generated hypotheses are verified using a voting scheme in transformation space. Experimental results reveal the fault tolerance of the vision system with regard to noisy and split image contours as well as partial occlusion of objects. THe short cycle time and the easy adaptability of the vision system make it well suited for a wide variety of applications in industrial automation.

  20. Quantification of In Vivo 2D Vector Flow Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis has investigated the use of a new ultrasound technique that to measure the movement of blood. The technique was developed at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging at the Technical University of Denmark and has previously only been available with experimental ultrasound scanners....... Now, the method has been implemented into a commercial ultrasound scanner made for hospital use. In real-time, the technique measures movements in all directions as 2D vector fields, including movements perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. This is not available with conventional ultrasound scanners...... today. The thesis consists of three studies that uses vector flow ultrasound measurements on healthy volunteers. In study I the common carotid artery of 16 healthy volunteers were scanned simultaneously with the vector technique and the conventional, spectral estimation method. The study compared...

  1. Topological Lattice Actions for the 2d XY Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Niedermayer, F; Pepe, M; Rejón-Barrera, F G; Wiese, U -J

    2012-01-01

    We consider the 2d XY Model with topological lattice actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the field configuration. These actions constrain the angle between neighbouring spins by an upper bound, or they explicitly suppress vortices (and anti-vortices). Although topological actions do not have a classical limit, they still lead to the universal behaviour of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition - at least up to moderate vortex suppression. Thus our study underscores the robustness of universality, which persists even when basic principles of classical physics are violated. In the massive phase, the analytically known Step Scaling Function (SSF) is reproduced in numerical simulations. In the massless phase, the BKT value of the critical exponent eta_c is confirmed. Hence, even though for some topological actions vortices cost zero energy, they still drive the standard BKT transition. In addition we identify a vortex-free transition point, which deviates from the BKT be...

  2. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  3. A WATERMARKING ALGORITHM BASED ON PERMUTATION AND 2-D BARCODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhen; Zhang Jihong; Xie Weixin

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents a method for digital image watermarking for copyright protection. This technique produces a watermarked image that closely retains the quality of the original host image while concurrently surviving various image processing operations such as lowpass/highpass filtering, lossy JPEG compression, and cropping. This image watermarking algorithm takes full advantage of permutation and 2-D barcode (PDF417). The actual watermark embedding in spatial domain is followed using permutated image for improving the resistance to image cropping. Much higher watermark robustness is obtainable via a simple forward error correction technique, which is the main feature of PDF417 codes. Additional features of this technique include the easy determination of the existence of the watermark and that the watermark verification procedure does not need the original host image. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  4. Printable ink lenses, diffusers, and 2D gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Yetisen, Ali K; Khoury, Anthony El; Butt, Haider

    2017-01-07

    Advances in holography have led to applications including data storage, displays, security labels, and colorimetric sensors. However, existing top-down approaches for the fabrication of holographic devices are complex, expensive, and expertise dependent, limiting their use in practical applications. Here, ink-based holographic devices have been created for a wide range of applications in diffraction optics. A single pulse of a 3.5 ns Nd:YAG laser allowed selective ablation of ink to nanofabricate planar optical devices. The practicality of this method is demonstrated by fabricating ink-based diffraction gratings, 2D holographic patterns, optical diffusers, and Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lenses by using the ink. The fabrication processes were rationally designed using predictive computational modeling and the devices were fabricated within a few minutes demonstrating amenability for large scale printable optics through industrial manufacturing. It is anticipated that ink will be a promising diffraction optical material for the rapid printing of low-cost planar nanophotonic devices.

  5. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    Throughout this thesis we investigate a recently introduced optical technique denoted 2D static light scattering (2DSLS). The technique is remote sensing, non-invasive, highly flexible, and appears to be well suited for in-line process control. Moreover, the output signal contains contributions......, this specific process control can be highly beneficial. To provide suitable reference measures on the actual microstructure, we investigate how to quantify micrographs of yogurts objectively. We provide a comparative study, that includes a broad range of different image texture descriptors....... from several different optical phenomena, which can be utilised to provide information on chemical composition and underlying microstructure of an investigated sample. The main goal of this thesis is to provide an exploratory study of the 2DSLS technique in relation to dairy based applications...

  6. A stochastic model of cascades in 2D turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ditlevsen, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    The dual cascade of energy and enstrophy in 2D turbulence cannot easily be understood in terms of an analog to the Richardson-Kolmogorov scenario describing the energy cascade in 3D turbulence. The coherent up- and downscale fluxes points to non-locality of interactions in spectral space, and thus the specific spatial structure of the flow could be important. Shell models, which lack spacial structure and have only local interactions in spectral space, indeed fail in reproducing the correct scaling for the inverse cascade of energy. In order to exclude the possibility that non-locality of interactions in spectral space is crucial for the dual cascade, we introduce a stochastic spectral model of the cascades which is local in spectral space and which shows the correct scaling for both the direct enstrophy - and the inverse energy cascade.

  7. Optimal Control of 1D and 2D Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, R; Glaser, S J; Marquardt, F; Schulte-Herbrueggen, T

    2009-01-01

    Optimal control can be used to significantly improve multi-qubit gates in quantum information processing hardware architectures based on superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics. We apply this approach not only to dispersive gates of two qubits inside a cavity, but, more generally, to architectures based on two-dimensional arrays of cavities and qubits. For high-fidelity gate operations, simultaneous evolutions of controls and couplings in the two coupling dimensions of cavity grids are shown to be significantly faster than conventional sequential implementations. Even under experimentally realistic conditions speedups by a factor of three can be gained. The methods immediately scale to large grids and indirect gates between arbitrary pairs of qubits on the grid. They are anticipated to be paradigmatic for 2D arrays and lattices of controllable qubits.

  8. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiao; López, Josué J; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-indu...

  9. 2D quantum gravity at three loops: a counterterm investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Leduc, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kahler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence in $\\sim A\\Lambda^2 (\\ln A\\Lambda^2)^2$. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence $(\\ln A\\Lambda^2)^3$. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.

  10. 2D quantum gravity at three loops: A counterterm investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lætitia Leduc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kähler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence ∼AΛ2(ln⁡AΛ22. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence (ln⁡AΛ23. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.

  11. Brane Brick Models and 2d (0,2) Triality

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    We provide a brane realization of 2d (0,2) Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality in terms of brane brick models. These are Type IIA brane configurations that are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Triality translates into a local transformation of brane brick models, whose simplest representative is a cube move. We present explicit examples and construct their triality networks. We also argue that the classical mesonic moduli space of brane brick model theories, which corresponds to the probed Calabi-Yau 4-fold, is invariant under triality. Finally, we discuss triality in terms of phase boundaries, which play a central role in connecting Calabi-Yau 4-folds to brane brick models.

  12. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha

    2006-12-01

    The polarization-dependent photonic band gaps (TM and TE polarizations) in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. It is observed that the size of the photonic band gap changes with changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. Further, it is reported, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the change in the orientation of the constituent elliptical air holes/dielectric rods in 2D photonic crystals.

  13. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Xiao; G Zhou; F S Yang

    2016-03-01

    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-loadtransport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numericalpredictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under differentscenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  14. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by 2D inversions

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; Rempel, M

    2016-01-01

    Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown due to rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. We address the matter by using the 2D inversion code that is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales, up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Performance of the code and the impact of the various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic MHD simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real Hinode/SP data. Tests on simulations show: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters, (2) code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field, (3) slightly different noise level or slightly different defocus included in the spatial PSF produces no significant effect on the results and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to the stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Although the co...

  15. A Volume Rendering Algorithm for Sequential 2D Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering of 3D data sets composed of sequential 2D medical images has become an important branch in image processing and computer graphics.To help physicians fully understand deep-seated human organs and focuses(e.g.a tumour)as 3D structures.in this paper,we present a modified volume rendering algorithm to render volumetric data,Using this method.the projection images of structures of interest from different viewing directions can be obtained satisfactorily.By rotating the light source and the observer eyepoint,this method avoids rotates the whole volumetric data in main memory and thus reduces computational complexity and rendering time.Experiments on CT images suggest that the proposed method is useful and efficient for rendering 3D data sets.

  16. Fuzzy Dynamic Analysis of a 2D Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Štemberk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dynamic analysis of a 2D concrete frame with uncertainties which are an integral part of any real structure. The uncertainties can be modeled by a stochastic or a fuzzy approach. The fuzzy approach is used and the influence of uncertain input data (modulus of elasticity and density on output data is studied. Fuzzy numbers are represented by ?-cuts. In order to reduce the volume of computation in the fuzzy approach, the response surface function concept is applied. In this way the natural frequencies and mode shapes described by fuzzy numbers are obtained. The results of fuzzy dynamic analysis can be used, e.g., in seismic design of structures based on the response spectrum. 

  17. Grazing incidence neutron diffraction from large scale 2D structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toperverg, B. P.; Felcher, G. P.; Metlushko, V. V.; Leiner, V.; Siebrecht, R.; Nikonov, O.

    2000-01-13

    The distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) is applied to evaluate the diffraction pattern of neutrons (or X-rays) from a 2D array of dots deposited onto a dissimilar substrate. With the radiation impinging on the surface at a grazing incidence angle {alpha}, the intensities diffracted both in and out the plane of specular reflection are calculated as a function of the periodicity of the array, height and diameter of the dots. The results are presented in the form of diffracted intensity contours in a plane with coordinates {alpha} and {alpha}{prime}, the latter being the glancing angle of scattering. The optimization of the experimental conditions for polarized neutron experiments on submicron dots is discussed. The feasibility of such measurements is confirmed by a test experiment.

  18. Vacuum States in 2D Tachyon Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will study the ground states of the toy model of 2D closed string tachyon effective action. We will firstly construct the classical solutions of the tachyon effective action that do not induce backreaction on metric and dilaton. Then we will study the quantum mechanics of the zero mode of the tachyon field. We will find family of vacuum states labelled with single parameter. We will also perform the quantum mechanical analysis of the tachyon effective action when we take into account dynamics of nonzero modes. We will calculate the vacuum expectation values of components of the stress energy tensor and dilaton source and we will argue that there is not any backreaction on metric and dilaton.

  19. First investigation of a novel 2D position-sensitive

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first study of the performance of a novel 2D position-sensitive microstrip detector, where the resistive charge division method was implemented by replacing the metallic electrodes with resistive electrodes made of polycrystalline silicon. A characterization of two proof-of-concept prototypes with different values of the electrode resistivity was carried out using a pulsed Near Infra-Red laser. The experimental data were compared with the electrical simulation of the sensor equivalent circuit coupled to simple electronics readout circuits. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results establishes the soundness of resistive charge division method in silicon microstrip sensors and validates the developed simulation as a tool for the optimization of future sensor prototypes. Spatial resolution in the strip length direction depends on the ionizing event position. The average value obtained from the protype analysis is close to 1.2% of the strip length for a 6 MIP signal.

  20. Phase Cascade Bridge Rectifier Array in a 2-D lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Nazari, M; Hong, M K; Mohanty, P; Erramilli, S; Narayan, O

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel rectification phenomenon in a 2-D lattice network consisting of $N\\times N$ sites with diode and AC source elements with controllable phases. A phase cascade configuration is described in which the current ripple in a load resistor goes to zero in the large $N$ limit, enhancing the rectification efficiency without requiring any external capacitor or inductor based filters. The integrated modular configuration is qualitatively different from conventional rectenna arrays in which the source, rectifier and filter systems are physically disjoint. Exact analytical results derived using idealized diodes are compared to a realistic simulation of commercially available diodes. Our results on nonlinear networks of source-rectifier arrays are potentially of interest to a fast evolving field of distributed power networks.