WorldWideScience

Sample records for bargaining cooperatives

  1. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    This chapter focuses on 1981 cases relative to collective bargaining. The author notes that after a decline in litigation, as reported in the previous edition, the number of bargaining cases rose again during the past year. The dominant area of controversy involved grievance arbitration. The second largest number of cases, dwarfed by the first…

  2. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    In his introductory statements, the author notes that grievance arbitration has been the major single source of litigation and that scope of bargaining has become a central issue. These issues reflect the growing fiscal pressures on school boards to reduce positions, close schools, and take other economy measures. The author also notes that the…

  3. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Smith, Margaret D.

    An increasing amount of case law dealing with collective bargaining in education was evident in 1987. The more than 100 cases cited indicate that educational employers and their unionized employees are increasingly resorting to the courts rather than resolving issues at the negotiation or arbitration table. However, there were no United States…

  4. Bargaining over an international water resource based on cooperative game theory concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Gholizadeh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prior the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Caspian Sea was peacefully shared by Iran and the USSR, based on the two historic treaties between Iran (Persia) and Russia. Collapse of the USSR gave birth to one of the world's serious conflicts over international water resources. Since then, the five littoral states of the Caspian Sea, namely Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have been negotiating over finding an appropriate allocation scheme for sharing the sea and its valuable energy and environmental resources. Although several solution methods have been proposed, the negotiating parties have been unsuccessful in developing a compromise solution. A range of bargaining solutions are used here to show how cooperative game theory can be used to develop fair and efficient allocation schemes to resolve the Caspian Sea conflict. It is also examined how the negotiators may use their powers to change their shares from the Caspian Sea resources. Finally, the stability of the suggested game theoretic solutions are tested to find the solution which is more acceptable by the negotiating parties.

  5. Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    This chapter discusses litigation touching on collective bargaining issues. The chapter is organized to follow the collective bargaining process, from cases dealing with union organizing to cases involving arbitration. Issues covered also include determination of bargaining units, scope of bargaining, union security, and unfair labor practices in…

  6. Ordered Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Raskovich

    2006-01-01

    When buyers choose the order in which they bargain with suppliers of known characteristics, prices are determined jointly by bargaining power and competitive intensity (the outside option to bargain with rival suppliers). Bargaining power becomes less important to the outcome as competition intensifies; prices fall to marginal cost in the limit. With positive visit costs and weak competition, some buyer power is necessary for trade. Incomplete buyer power may lead to inefficient choice of bar...

  7. Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Steven M.

    This chapter deals with the legal process by which employers and employee organizations discuss matters related to employment. The chapter is organized to reflect the initial sequence of events in the collective bargaining process. Cases are reported and analyzed in nine sections: obligation and authority to bargain; unit determination and…

  8. Employment Law, Negotiation, and the Business Environment: A Cooperative Collective Bargaining Negotiation of the National Hockey League Lockout of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchetti, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    Employment law is a "must-cover" subject in business environment courses. Comparing the plethora of topics requiring coverage with the limited time devoted to employment law during a typical academic term, other important employment subjects--such as negotiation and collective bargaining--commonly receive short shrift. This article offers a…

  9. Bilateral Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendstrup, Bjarne; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Paarsch, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    We employ a simple two-person bargaining model to interpret wage data-demands(offers) by workers (firms) and acceptances by firms (workers). Under two polarextremebargaining solutions, we develop a strategy to recover estimates of themarginal-productivity and the opportunity-cost distributions. W...

  10. Collective bargaining under non-binding contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, S.; Luttens, R.I.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce collective bargaining in a static framework where the firm and its risk-neutral employees negotiate over wages in a non-binding contract setting. Our main result is the equivalence between the non-binding collective equilibrium wage-employment contract and the equilibrium contract under binding risk-neutral efficient bargaining. We also demonstrate that our non-cooperative equilibrium wages and profits coincide with the Owen values of the corresponding cooperative game with the c...

  11. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  12. Searching and Bargaining with Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh; Subramanian, Vijay G.; Berry, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    We study decentralized markets with the presence of middlemen, modeled by a non-cooperative bargaining game in trading networks. Our goal is to investigate how the network structure of the market and the role of middlemen influence the market's efficiency and fairness. We introduce the concept of limit stationary equilibrium in a general trading network and use it to analyze how competition among middlemen is influenced by the network structure, how endogenous delay emerges in trade and how s...

  13. Efficiency wages and bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    2005-01-01

    I argue that in contrast to the literature to date efficiency wage and bargaining solutions will typically be independent. If the bargained wage satisfies the efficiency wage constraint efficiency wages are irrelevant. If it does not, typically we have the efficiency wage solution and bargaining is irrelevant.

  14. Bargaining in the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Andersen, Søren Kaj; Due, Jesper Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis weighed heavily on the 2010 collective bargaining rounds in the Danish and Swedish manufacturing sectors – the pattern-setting sectors in both countries. This article analyses and compares the bargaining rounds from agenda-setting to signing, pointing to the significant...... differences in bargaining structures, processes and output. On the whole, the crisis seems to have had little effect on the Danish bargaining system due to a strong centralization on the employer side through the Confederation of Danish Industries, union moderation and the coordination of bargaining areas...

  15. Bargaining and the MISO Interference Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleby, Matthew; Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    2009-12-01

    We examine the MISO interference channel under cooperative bargaining theory. Bargaining approaches such as the Nash and Kalai-Smorodinsky solutions have previously been used in wireless networks to strike a balance between max-sum efficiency and max-min equity in users' rates. However, cooperative bargaining for the MISO interference channel has only been studied extensively for the two-user case. We present an algorithm that finds the optimal Kalai-Smorodinsky beamformers for an arbitrary number of users. We also consider joint scheduling and beamformer selection, using gradient ascent to find a stationary point of the Kalai-Smorodinsky objective function. When interference is strong, the flexibility allowed by scheduling compensates for the performance loss due to local optimization. Finally, we explore the benefits of power control, showing that power control provides nontrivial throughput gains when the number of transmitter/receiver pairs is greater than the number of transmit antennas.

  16. Buyers' alliances for bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Suchan; Heidhues, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We provide a novel explanation as to why forming an alliance of buyers (or sellers) across separate markets can be advantageous when input prices are determined by bargaining. Our explanation helps to understand the prevalence of buyer cooperatives among small and medium sized firms. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Verhandlungsmacht durch Käuferkooperationen) Dieses Papier entwickelt eine neue Erklärung dafür, warum Zusammenschlüsse zwischen Käufern (oder Verkäufern), die in unterschiedlichen Märkten akti...

  17. The Seawall Bargaining Game

    OpenAIRE

    Rémy Delille; Jean-Christophe Pereau

    2014-01-01

    Agents located from downstream to upstream along an estuary and exposed to a flooding risk have to invest in facilities like a seawall (or dike). As the benefits of that local public good increase along the estuary, upstream agents have to bargain for monetary compensation with the most downstream agent in exchange for more protection effort. The paper analyses different bargaining protocols and determines the conditions under which agents are better off. The results show that upstream agents...

  18. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  19. Bargaining with an Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Barry O'Neill; Dov Samet; Zvi Wiener; Eyal Winter

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new framework for bargaining in which the process follows an agenda. The agenda is represented by a family, parameterized by time, of increasing sets of joint utilities for possible agreements. This is in contrast to the single set used in the standard framework. The set at each time involves all possible agreements on the issues discussed up to that time. A \\emph{bargaining solution} for an agenda specifies a path of agreements, one for each time. We characterize axiomatically a...

  20. Quantum Bargaining Games

    OpenAIRE

    Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski

    2001-01-01

    We continue the analysis of quantum-like description of markets and economics. The approach has roots in the recently developed quantum game theory and quantum computing. The present paper is devoted to quantum bargaining games which are a special class of quantum market games without institutionalized clearinghouses.

  1. Bargaining Game Model between the Farmer Professional Cooperatives and Channel Partners Considering the Deadline of Agricultural Products’ Value%考虑农产品价值期限的农民专业合作社讨价还价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 余晓茜; 黄芳菲

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The farmer professional cooperatives is an important means to change the vulnerable position and improve the bargaining power of farmers in the process of agricultural trade. This article constructs a tri-stages bargaining game model between the farmer cooperatives and channel partners, which contains the range of price of agricultural products, the pressure of psychological, and other factors in the bargaining game analysis. It uses reverse deduction and comparative analysis to get the game equilibrium. The results obtain the following three points: comparing the individual farmers, farmer professional cooperatives have stronger bargaining power; the different psychological pressure can affect the state of negotiations; under the certain conditions, the negotiating parties can ascertain each other’s bottom price line.%建立专业合作社是改善农户在农产品交易过程中的弱势地位、提升农户议价能力的重要手段。首先构建了农民专业合作社与渠道商的三阶段讨价还价博弈模型,模型中引入了价格区间、心理压力等影响博弈结果的感知要素,应用逆向归纳和对比分析方法对模型进行了求解。结果表明:(1)相比于农户个体,农民专业合作社具有更强的谈判能力;(2)谈判结果因谈判过程中双方心理压力的不同而存在差异;(3)特定条件下,谈判双方可以探知对方的价格底线。

  2. Flexicurity and Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    bargaining and agreements at sector level to the development of flexicurity in print and electrical contracting of the United Kingdom, Denmark and Spain, respectively. The study is primarily based on document analysis of the three countries' collective agreements in print and electrical contracting together...... countries combine flexibility and security. Minimum rates provide a certain degree of income security in shifting jobs and economic downturns while companies can introduce variable pay systems at workplace level. The same logic applies to working time, but here balances between working time flexibility...... as for the transferability of experiences between countries. Learning from the positive experiences in the UK and Denmark seems problematic from the get-go as the general weakening of collective bargaining at sector level in many countries continues. The results of this report do, nonetheless, suggest that under the right...

  3. Bargaining Power and Local Heroes

    OpenAIRE

    Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Bargaining Power of retailers is an important aspect of discourse in many industrialized countries, including Germany, Portugal, the UK, and the USA. In Germany the Federal Cartel Office argues that strong bargaining power of retailers presents danger for workable competition in the market. Furthermore, significant bargaining power on the retailer side is often assumed a priori without further investigation. Based on a treatment effect study using difference-in-differences techniques we show,...

  4. Bargains, treaties, and delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, R T

    1999-01-01

    Using a case example, I have explored a particular type of difficult patient. This individual has typically suffered poor attachment with his maternal object and through projective identification has developed highly conflicted object ties within the ego. These relations produce cycles of intense persecutory and depressive anxieties, forcing the subject to rely on excessive splitting and other primitive defenses. As part of these protective maneuvers, the ego begins to build internal bargains and treaties with the adversarial objects. These repetitious intrapsychic negotiations lead to delusional thought systems that bring on the very anxiety the ego tried to avoid, creating vicious feedback loops with more severe delusional systems and more rigid bargains to strike. For the price of survival, and the maintenance of an intact object, the ego builds and maintains certain relational configurations. These are attempted solutions for fantasies about destructive forces threatening the ego or the object. Self and object protection are the goals. If these intrapsychic bargains break down, fantasies about self and object destruction, loss, or annihilation enter the forefront. Infusing the concept of compromise formation with the ideas of object relations theory allows a better understanding of this highly defended anxiety state. PMID:10615642

  5. The bargaining set of four-person balanced games

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Solymosi

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that in three-person transferable-utility cooperative games the bargaining set {\\cal M}i1 and the core coincide for any coalition structure, provided the latter solution is not empty. In contrast, five-person totally-balanced games are discussed in the literature in which the bargaining set {\\cal M}i1 (for the grand coalition) is larger then the core. This paper answers the equivalence question in the remaining four-person case. We prove that in any four-person game and for a...

  6. Revisiting collective bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, A S; Brent, N J

    1994-09-01

    Over the past 3 years, the massive unionizing campaigns forecasted have not materialized. Even so, the parameters of the AHA case are still being established. For example, the NLRB currently is attempting to determine if nurse practitioners still should be placed in a bargaining unit with registered nurses or physicians. Until this and other issues are resolved more clearly, nurse administrators must play a key role in balancing the professional concerns of patient care quality and staff satisfaction with the reality of current economics and healthcare reform. Clearly, unionization cannot be ignored in attempting to achieve that balance.

  7. Nash bargaining with a nondeterministic threat

    CERN Document Server

    Soileau, Kerry Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider bargaining problems which involve two participants, with a nonempty closed, bounded convex bargaining set of points in the real plane representing all realizable bargains. We also assume that there is no definite threat or disagreement point which will provide the default bargain if the players cannot agree on some point in the bargaining set. However, there is a nondeterministic threat: if the players fail to agree on a bargain, one of them will be chosen at random with equal probability, and that chosen player will select any realizable bargain as the solution, subject to a reasonable restriction.

  8. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ainslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  9. Power asymmetry and escalation in bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Vollstädt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Bargaining is prevalent in economic interactions. Under complete information, game theory predicts efficient bargaining outcomes (immediate acceptance of first offer) (see Rubinstein, 1982). However, continuous rejections of offers leading to inefficient delays (escalation) have regularly been found in previous bargaining experiments even under complete information (see Roth, 1995). I test experimentally (1) whether power asymmetry leads to more escalation in bargaining and (2) whether perspe...

  10. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  11. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    . To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  12. 36 CFR 254.10 - Bargaining; arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bargaining; arbitration. 254... LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.10 Bargaining; arbitration. (a) Unless the parties to an exchange... exchange, the appraisal(s), at the initiative of either party, must be submitted to arbitration, unless,...

  13. n-person nonconvex bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    For n-person bargaining problems the family of proportional solutions (introduced and characterized by Kalai) is generalized to bargaining problems with non-convex payoff sets. The so-called "efficient proportional solutions" are characterized axiomatically using natural extensions of the original...

  14. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression...

  15. Ultimatum salary bargaining with real effort

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gallego, Aurora; Georgantzis, Nikos; Jaramillo-Gutiérrez, Ainhoa

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental results on ultimatum salary bargaining with a real task performed by employee subjects. Compared to the baseline treatment with a hypothetical task, the introduction of a real task raises offers, accepted wages and rejection rates.

  16. Patent licensing, bargaining, and product positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2010-01-01

    Innovators who have developed advanced technologies, along with launching new products by themselves, often license these technologies to their rivals. When a firm launches a new product, product positioning is also an important matter. Using a standard linear city model with two firms, we investigate how the bargaining power of the licenser affects the product positions of the firms. We find that the inventor more likely chooses the central position when its bargaining power is weak. We also...

  17. Market Structure, Bargaining, and Technology Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Wey, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this paper analyzes the impact of horizontal mergers of suppliers or retailers on their respective bargaining power. In contrast to previous approaches, we suppose that parties resolve the bargaining problem efficiently. Moreover, by ensuring that demand is independent at all retailers we exclude monopolization effects. We find that downstream mergers are more likely (less likely) if suppliers have increasing (decreasing) unit costs, while upstream mergers are more likely (l...

  18. Formation of Bargaining Networks Via Link Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Priazhkina, Sofia; PAGE, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model of collusive bargaining networks. Given a status quo network, game is played in two stages: in the first stage, pairs of sellers form the network by signing two-sided contracts that allow sellers to use connections of other sellers; in the second stage, sellers and buyers bargain for the product. We extend the notion of a pairwise Nash stability with transfers to pairwise Nash stability with contracts and characterize the subgame perfect equilibria. The equilibrium...

  19. A Bad Bargain: How Teacher Collective Bargaining Affects Students' Employment and Earnings Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Willén, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than 60 percent of teachers in the United States work under a union contract. The rights of teachers to unionize and bargain together have expanded dramatically since the late 1950s, when states began passing "duty-to-bargain" (DTB) laws that required school districts to negotiate with teachers unions in good faith. Recently,…

  20. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  1. Workers' Well-Being and Productivity: The Role of Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Bargaining that makes available facilities for satisfaction of workers' basic needs can contribute to increased productivity, which in turn enhances competitiveness. Such bargaining can be an effective means of extending and reinforcing national economic planning. (SK)

  2. Endogenous Wage-Bargaining Institutions in Oligopolistic Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Petrakis; Minas Vlassis

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the endogenous emergence of wage bargaining institutions in sectors with market power. We show that asymmetries in firms’ productivity and in unions’ risk aversion and/or bargaining power may generate various degrees of centralization in wage bargaining, which are often observable in real life. In the presence of such asymmetries, a winning coalition of all the unions and (typically) the efficient firms has an incentive to establish wage bargaining centralization at the se...

  3. Study about the Competing Channel Structure under Bargaining Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xing-zheng; ZHANG Chi

    2005-01-01

    From the bargaining process, competing channel structure models are presented. The evolving process of channel structure under different bargaining power is analyzed. The important role of different bargaining power is discussed and the equilibrium result is found. Also the theoretical evidences for competing channel structure choice are given.

  4. Study about the Asymmetry Competing Channel Structure under Bargaining Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; AI Xing-zheng

    2005-01-01

    On the problem of competing channel structure, we present asymmetry competing channel structure models under bargaining power, analyze the evolving process of channel structure under different bargaining power and product nature, find different bargaining power and product nature important role for channel structure, and also present equilibrium result. Furthermore, the academic proof for channel structure choice is presented.

  5. Best practice and enterprise bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M

    1995-12-01

    The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) and its affiliated health unions have strongly supported and actively participated in the Federal Government Best Practice in Health initiative over the past two years. We believe the initiative has been an important vehicle in fostering the development of the Best Practice approach in this vital sector of the economy. Healthcare expenditure in this country runs to some $34.3 billion (1992/93 figures) annually, financed by a mix of Commonwealth, State and private sources and constituting approximately 9% of GDP. Hospital expenditure alone absorbs just over a third of the total at $11.8 billion (1990/91). At the same time, we have developed one of the most accessible and equitable healthcare systems in the world and an increasing source of valuable export dollars. The Australian trade union movement, like others in the community, recognizes that real cost constraints exist on governments in healthcare as elsewhere. Those constraints can lead to a variety of responses, such as to withdraw money from the system, combined with total reorganization of financing through the introduction of casemix and hospital reorganization, to see whether the system survives. The alternative is one epitomized by a Best Practice type approach. It is these types of approaches and their relationships with enterprise bargaining on which I intend to focus. However, I hasten to add that the issue of context is all important. Whilst it may be possible to create a microcosm of Best Practice change in a particular healthcare setting, it is unlikely to be maintained. The interface with the socio-ecomonic and political context cannot be avoided and it is this context which will determine the continuing success of Best Practice initiatives--whether in health or elsewhere. PMID:8719058

  6. Safeguarding compliance with supplier codes of conduct : Investigating how buying organizations ensure the compliance of suppliers with higher bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi; Löfgren, Erica

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are using Supplier Codes of Conduct to ensure socially responsible behavior in their supply chains. Previous research on SCCs have focused on powerful brand owning multinational corporations and have concluded that a cooperative approach, the cooperation model, has yielded better results than a more traditional approach based on monitoring and sanctions, the compliance model. This study will investigate how organizations with low bargaining power use these tw...

  7. Instability and Change in Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Bernd; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on collective bargaining structures and macroeconomic performance have largely ignored the role of stable and instable institutional structures and the effects of institutional change itself. In this article we posit that institutional stability of collective bargaining is of major...... importance for the moderation of unit labour costs growth. This hypothesis is tested on the basis of data which cover the period 1965–2012 and includes 28 countries. The results show that institutional change impairs the capacity to moderate unit labour cost growth significantly in the subsequent years...

  8. One-dimensional bargaining with unanimity rule

    OpenAIRE

    Predtetchinski, A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines bargaining over a one--dimensional set of social states, with a unanimity acceptance rule. We consider a class of delta-equilibria, i.e. subgame perfect equilibria in stationary strategies that are free of coordination failures in the response stage.We show that along any sequence of delta-equilibria, as delta converges to one, the proposal of each player converges to the same limit. The limit, called the bargaining outcome, is uniquely determined by the set of players, the...

  9. Collective Bargaining: Its Impact for Institutional Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    Central Michigan University was the first single campus, 4-year institution of higher education in the United States to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with its faculty. This first agreement in 1969 was followed by a multiyear contract for the year 1971-74 which represented the first instance of a second successful contract in a…

  10. Incomplete contract, bargaining and optimal divisional structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bao; Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    When complete contracting is not possible, allocating control structure becomes the second-best arrangement. This paper analyzes the design of optimal divisional structure within an organization where ex post bargaining between the potential divisional managers is possible. In much the same light as

  11. Intergenerational bargaining in the EU: comparative report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tros; M. Keune

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that there are three advantages in promoting the ‘intergenerational’ dimension in social dialogue and collective bargaining: o It strengthens awareness of the specific labour market positions and needs of both younger and older workers. o It supports social partners’ role in unifying gen

  12. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  13. Bargaining with Many Players: A Limit Result

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Kultti; Hannu Vartiainen

    2008-01-01

    We provide a simple characterization of the stationary subgame perfect equilibrium of an alternating offers bargaining game when the number of players increases without a limit. Core convergence literature is emulated by increasing the number of players by replication. The limit allocation is interpreted in terms of Walrasian market for being the first proposer.

  14. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary...

  15. Outsourcing and portuguese collective bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Lambelho, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada na Global Conference on Business and Finance, 2010. The globalization, the technological innovations, the pressures of the market means that enterprises have to face new challenges that to surmount them, has to adopt new business processes, increase the productivity and innovation at all the levels, namely organizational. The new forms of business organization are based on network cooperation, and often achieved by outsourcing. The outsourcing and networ...

  16. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DYNAMICS IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Gbajumo-Sheriff (Mrs.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamics of collective bargaining machinery in both the public and private sectors in Nigeria; with a view to bringing to the fore the peculiarities associated with both sectors with regard to the practice of bargaining. To achieve this objective, the paper adopts a theoretical approach. The author observes that the practice of industrial relations as a discipline and that of collective bargaining in particular emanated from the private sector the world over. Thus, much of the practices of public sector collective bargaining are modelled after the private sector collective bargaining. However, in Nigeria, the obverse is the case as collective bargaining gained its root in the public sector owing to the near absence of private sector at the turn of the century. However, in Nigeria, the public sector pays lip-service to the collective bargaining machinery. Governments at all levels (Federal, State and Local have continued to set aside collective bargaining and to give wage awards to score political points in spite of its commitment to the ILO Convention 98 to freely bargain with workers. The State or the government in the course of regulating wages and employment terms and conditions revert to the use of wage commissions. Thus, wage determination is by fiat. This preference for wage commissions can at best be regarded as a unilateral system as collective bargaining is relegated to the background.Wage tribunals or commissions offer little opportunity for workers’ contribution in the determination of terms and conditions of employment and can hardly be viewed as bilateral or tripartite. Thus, the State preference for wage commissions is anti-collective bargaining. In spite of Nigeria’s commitment to Conventions of the ILO with particular reference to such Conventions as 87 of 1948 and 98 of 1949 which provide for freedom of association and the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively

  17. Capacity as philosophy: review of Lippke's Ethics of Plea Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Plea bargaining is a response to capacity overload in the criminal justice system. It both preserves and belies the right to trial, making possible its glorious display but only by denying it in most cases. While plea bargaining has been documented and analysed copiously in historical, sociological and legal terms, its ethical status as an institutional practice are hazy. Richard Lippke offers an account of plea bargaining that draws on the normative debates over responsibility, culpability a...

  18. Bargaining Power in Relational Contracts: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Salas, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence of the economic impact from shifting bargaining power in relational contracts. I implement an experimental design that adjusts the bargaining power of sellers (agents) and the enforceability of the contract. I find that the vast majority of contracts take the form of efficiency wage contracts instead of contingent performance contracts when enforcement is partially incomplete and sellers have more bargaining power than buyers. The total contracted and...

  19. Bargaining in vertical relationships and suppliers' R&D profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of bargaining in vertical relationships on the profitability of suppliers' R&D investments. Studies on the relationship between R&D and firm profitability mostly concentrate on the impact of horizontal market structure and neglect vertical interac-tions. Building on theoretical and empirical evidence about the effects of bargaining in vertical relationships, the crucial determinants of a supplier's bargaining power are identified as the market position and the d...

  20. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  1. The Factorial Distribution of Income in the Union Bargaining Model

    OpenAIRE

    Beenstock, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the implications of the Union Bargaining Model (UBM) for the factorial distribution of income. It is shown that when the contract curve is given, greater union bargaining power raises the wage share. We argue, however, that the factors that strengthen the bargaining power of unions are likely to induce offsetting shifts in the contract curve. A simulation exercise indicates that the shift in the contract curve is likely to be of secondary importance in determining the ...

  2. TOWARDS A NEW EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS: COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR IN BARGAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Lopez Paredes; Cesreo Hernndez Iglesias

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we show that simple cognitive learning models, in a Computational Organization set-up can predict very well the bargaining behaviour observed in laboratory experiments with human players. Economist are interested in bargaining because transactions are not determined by market forces, and the because conceptually is the opposite to the idealized perfect competition equilibrium models. In fact in bargaining the complexity of the "institutional" setting depends upon the way the str...

  3. Searching a bargain: power of strategic commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Ozyurt, Selcuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of reputation (in contact with inflexibility) on imperfectly competitive search markets where the sellers announce their initial demands prior to the buyer’s visit and the buyer directs his search for a better deal. The buyer facing multiple sellers can negotiate with only one at a time and can switch his bargaining partner with some cost. The introduction of commitment types that are inflexible in their demands, even with low probabilities, makes the equil...

  4. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  5. Bargaining Between Retailers and their Suppliers.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys new research concerning bargaining within supply chains and its implications for buyer power. The paper explores the implications of the research on supermarket supply chains for primary, secondary and private-label branded goods. The empirical base in support of the theories is also discussed. This paper is an initial draft of a chapter for the book "Private Labels, Brands and Competition Policy" (OUP) edited by Ariel Ezrachi and Ulf Bernitz.

  6. Agency Problems and Commitment in Delegated Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbin Cai; Walter Cont

    2000-01-01

    In many economic situations, delegates are hired to play games for their principals. The principal-agent literature focuses on agency problems in the delegation relationships. Following Schelling (1960), the delegation literature emphasizes the commitment effects of delegation contracts against a third party. But not much attention has been paid to the interactions between agency problems and commitment considerations. In the context of one-sided delegated bargaining, we analyze how a princip...

  7. Essays in Intellectual Property Bargaining and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Pyoungchan Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays on the dynamics of intellectual property bargaining and trade, particularly of patents. The first essay presents a game theoretic model examining the sale of intellectual property rights from small inventors with buyers of varying commercialization capacity across intellectual property rights regimes with full and no property rights protection. The essay finds that in Nash equilibrium in both single seller and infinite seller scenarios, sellers ge...

  8. The Future Role of Livestock Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeland, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, a total of 17 regional cooperatives marketed livestock. These cooperatives were created to provide greater competition, bargaining power, and market access for producers. Growth in direct marketing, bypassing the services of cooperatives, has occurred because the number of buyers has decreased and producers want to improve marketing efficiency or lower explicit costs. Less emphasis on providing convenient markets, more competitive service charges, supplementing buy-sell operations wi...

  9. Collective Bargaining in Education, 1981: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward T.

    Whether or not collective bargaining in the public sector becomes a universal practice, work stoppages cannot be considered an acceptable method for resolving contract disputes. Public opposition to strikes by teachers is growing. School districts and teachers must realize that collective bargaining is a process of compromise, and that candor,…

  10. Pricing in reinsurance bargaining with comonotonic additive utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Boonen; K.S. Tan; S.C. Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Optimal reinsurance indemnities have widely been studied in the literature, yet the bargaining for optimal prices has remained relatively unexplored. Therefore, the key objective of this paper is to analyze the price of reinsurance contracts. We use a novel way to model the bargaining powers of the

  11. Wage bargaining, job loss fears and offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I present a simple theoretical model where firms and trade unions negotiate over wages. Firms have the possibility to offshore parts of the ir production and trade union members have a disutility from individual job loss fears. I show that higher job loss fears result in lower wages. As a Nash bargaining result, firms can use potential but non realized offshoring as a threat to enforce lower wages. Using a large German household survey, I can show evidence that increasing potent...

  12. Bargaining power and supply base diversification

    OpenAIRE

    WAN, Zhixi; Damian R. Beil

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a supply base diversification problem faced by a buyer who periodically holds auctions to award short term supply contracts among a cohort of suppliers (i.e., the supply base). To mitigate significant cost shocks to procurement, the buyer can diversify her supply base by selecting suppliers from different regions. The authors find that the optimal degree of supply base diversification depends on the buyer’s bargaining power, i.e., the buyer’s ability to choo...

  13. Has international trade affected workers’ bargaining power?

    OpenAIRE

    BROCK, E; Dobbelaere, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether international trade has affected workers?wages and their bargaining power in particular in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1987-1995 by relying on a rent-sharing framework. Using a sample of more than 12 000 firms, we find that international trade has an effect on workers?wages through changes in the firms?profits. Our regression results reveal that increased foreign competition in the firm of lower export prices reduces both wages per ...

  14. A BARGAINING APPROACH TO COORDINATION IN NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Meléndez-Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which players interact via the formation of costly links and the benefits of bilateral interactions are determined by a coordination game. A novel contribution of this paper is that the fraction of the cost borne by each player involved in a bilateral link is not fixed exogenously, but results from bargaining. We analyze the model both in a static and a dynamic setting. Whereas the static game has multiplicity of equilibria, we show that only one is stochastical...

  15. Clever Agents in Young's Evolutionary Bargaining Model

    OpenAIRE

    Weibull, Jörgen W.; Saez-Marti, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the models of Young (1993a,b), boundedly rational individuals are recurrently matched to play a game, and they play myopic best replies to the recent history of play. It could therefore be an advantage to instead play a myopic best reply to the myopic best reply, something boundedly rational players might conceivably also do. We investigate this possibility in the context of Young's (1993b)bargaining model. It turns out that 'cleverness' in this respect indeed does have an advantage in som...

  16. From Bargaining Solutions to Claims Rules: A Proportional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Giménez-Gómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agents involved in a conflicting claims problem may be concerned with the proportion of their claims that is satisfied, or with the total amount they get. In order to relate both perspectives, we associate to each conflicting claims problem a bargaining-in-proportions set. Then, we obtain a correspondence between classical bargaining solutions and usual claims rules. In particular, we show that the constrained equal losses, the truncated constrained equal losses and the contested garment (Babylonian Talmud rules can be obtained throughout the Nash bargaining solution.

  17. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    over the wage (case 2). In both cases reducing tax progression increases working time of employed and, more interestingly, increases unambiguously wages and unemployment. Wages and unemployment rise more and working time and production less in case 1 compared to case 2; probably making case 2 countries......This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...

  18. Conservation when landowners have bargaining power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennox, Gareth D.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Acs, Szvetlana;

    2013-01-01

    Spatially heterogeneous costs of securing conservation agreements should be accounted for when prioritizing properties for conservation investment. Most researchers incorporating conservation costs into analyses have relied on estimates of landowners' opportunity costs of accepting a conservation...... agreement. Implicitly assumed in such studies is therefore that those who ``produce'' biodiversity (landowners) receive none of the surplus available from trade. Instead, landowners could use their bargaining power to gain profits from conservation investments. We employ game theory to determine the surplus...... landowners could obtain in negotiations over conservation agreements, and the consequent effects on conservation outcomes, when enrolment decisions are governed by continuous variables (e.g. the proportion of a property to enrol). In addition, we consider how landowner uncertainty regarding the opportunity...

  19. On centralized bargaining in a symmetric oligopolistic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Amrita; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study interactions between labor and product markets, in an imperfectly competitive industry with centralized wage bargaining. Firms jointly bargain with the union over wages and then compete in prices or quantities. We show that the negotiated wage is independent of the number of firms, the degree of substitutability of firms' products, and the type of market competition, in a broad c1ass of industry specifications, including the standard syrnmetric linear demand system-line...

  20. Endogenous Contracts Under Bargaining in Competing Vertical Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Milliou, Chrysovalantou; Petrakis, Emmanuel; Vettas, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous determination of contracts in competing vertical chains where upstream and downstream firms bargain first over the type of contract and then over the contract terms. Upstream firms always opt for non-linear contracts, which specify the input quantity and its total price. Downstream firms also opt for non-linear contracts, unless their bargaining power is low, in which case they prefer wholesale price contracts. While welfare is maximized under two-part tariffs, t...

  1. Bargaining in Technology Markets: An empirical study of biotechnology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kinukawa, Shinya; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We empirically examine the distribution of bargaining power between buyers and sellers on the biotechnology markets by estimating the extracted surplus in alliance agreements, which depends on each party's bargaining power. The results show that buyers have extracted more surplus than sellers. However, these also reveal that the surplus extracted by buyers has been decreasing while that of the sellers has been increasing. We construe that the prices of biotechnologies have been lower than the...

  2. The effect of decision weights in bargaining problems

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.J.M.; Koebberling, V.

    2002-01-01

    Bargaining problems are considered where the preferences of the bargainers deviate from expected utility but can be modelled according to rank dependent utility theory. Under rank dependent utility two factors influence the risk attitude of a decision maker: the utility function and the probability weighting function. Arising from the same definition of risk aversion, two forms of risk aversion can be distinguished: utility risk aversion and probabilistic risk aversion.The main finding is tha...

  3. Bargaining with asymmetric information in non-stationary markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Trefler

    1999-01-01

    The Rubinstein and Wolinsky bargaining-in-markets framework is modified by the introduction of asymmetric information and non-stationarity. Non-stationarity is introduced in the form of an arbitrary stochastic Markov process which captures the dynamics of market entry and pairwise matching. A new technique is used for establishing existence and characterizing the unique outcome of a non-stationary market equilibrium. The impact of market supply and demand on bilateral bargaining outcomes and ...

  4. Equity considerations in health care: An axiomatic bargaining approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadras, Xavier; Pinto, Jos?? Luis; Abell??n, Jos?? M??

    2000-01-01

    The general issues of equity and efficiency are placed at the center of the analysis of resource allocation problems in health care. We examine them using axiomatic bargaining theory. We study different solutions that have been proposed and relate them to previous literature on health care allocation. In particular, we focus on the solutions based on axiomatic bargaining with claims and suggest that they may be particularly appealing as distributive criteria in hea...

  5. The Strategic Positioning of Store Brands in Retailer - Manufacturer Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona M. Scott Morton; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2000-01-01

    We argue in this paper that retailers can strategically position store brands in product space to strengthen their bargaining position when negotiating supply terms with manufacturers of national brands. Using a bargaining framework we model a retailer's decision whether to carry an additional national brand or a store brand, and if the retailer chooses to introduce the latter, where in product space to locate the store brand. Store brands differ from other brands in being both unadvertised a...

  6. Experimental evidence of the importance of gender pairing in bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Matthias; Bosman, Ronald; Kocher, Martin; van Winden, Frans

    2003-01-01

    We study the influence of gender on economic decision making in a two-person bargaining game. By testing hypotheses derived from evolutionary psychology and social role theory, we find that (1) gender per se has no significant effect on behavior, whereas (2) gender pairing systematically affects behavior. In particular, we observe much more competition and retaliation and, thus, lower efficiency when the bargaining partners have the same gender than when they have the opposite gender. Implica...

  7. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but has not investigated its impact on regional wage differentiation. Empirical evidence in this paper for EU regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests that countries w...

  8. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  9. 5 CFR 9701.518 - Duty to bargain, confer, and consult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of an existing collective bargaining agreement over a proposed change that is otherwise negotiable...) In promulgating Departmental policies and regulations that deal with otherwise negotiable subjects... those organizations on other appropriate matters. (3) Management has no obligation to bargain over...

  10. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  11. Bargaining with a Shared Interest: The Impact of Employee Stock Ownership Plans on Labor Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Hamid Mehran; Joseph Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Bargaining often occurs between parties with some shared interest. Partnerships, joint ventures, and cross ownership are examples. We extend standard bargaining models to allow for joint ownership. Joint ownership reduces costly bargaining disputes, as bargainers’ interests are more aligned. We then test the theory with collective bargaining data, where employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are the source of joint ownership. The theory predicts that ESOPs will lead to a reduction in strike i...

  12. Direct and Indirect Bargaining Costs and the Scope of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Simester; Marc Knez

    2002-01-01

    We compare bargaining costs with internal and external suppliers using a unique data set describing internal and external transactions for the same categories of parts at a single firm. The findings confirm that direct bargaining costs are higher with external suppliers, at least in part because there is more to bargain over. We also observed higher indirect bargaining costs with external suppliers. Information that may hinder contractual negotiations is often suppressed or delayed. To enforc...

  13. 48 CFR 952.237-70 - Collective bargaining agreements-protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... collective bargaining agreements applicable to the work force under this contract, the Contractor shall use... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collective bargaining... Clauses 952.237-70 Collective bargaining agreements—protective services. As prescribed in 937.7040,...

  14. The Uniqueness of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education. Proceedings, Sixth Annual Conference, April 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.; Lang, Theodore H.

    The proceedings of a conference on collective bargaining in higher education sponsored by the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education are presented. The contents are as follows: an introduction; welcoming address by Joel Segall; keynote address by Harold Newman; "The Impact of Collective Bargaining Upon Those Who…

  15. 29 CFR 103.30 - Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry... Appropriate Bargaining Units § 103.30 Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry. (a) This... such by either Joint Committee on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or by Commission...

  16. Equilibrium solution of two enterprises cooperative game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling; Deng Feiqi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the actual experience of cooperation in the supply chain, the Nash solution of two enterprises cooperative games is given.Not only is the solution unique, but it is also stable, and neither side has the capability to deviate the allocation of interests from the equilibrium point.If some firm tries to withdraw from cooperation or threaten to use other particular strategy, the negotiations are likely to achieve the distribution by the threat game; The calculating method of the choice of the optimal bargaining base point and the corresponding optimal pay-off vector are given.

  17. BARGAINING POWER IN THE NASH DEMAND GAME AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    JUANA SANTAMARIA-GARCIA

    2009-01-01

    A population of buyers and a population of sellers meet repeatedly in order to exchange a good. The price is fixed through a variant of the Nash demand game. This paper analyzes the prices that are robust to experimentation in the sense of stochastic stability. Under some conditions only one price is selected and it gives a share of the surplus to each side of the market that corresponds to the generalized Nash bargaining solution. The bargaining power of each party depends on the division of...

  18. When is Bargaining Successful? Negotiated Division of Tournament Prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Goldreich, David; Pomorski, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    We study bargaining at the end of high-stakes poker tournaments, in which participants often negotiate a division of the prize money rather than bear the risk of playing the game until the end. This setting is ideal for studying bargaining: the stakes are substantial, there are no restrictions on the negotiations or the terms of a deal, outside options are clearly defined, there are no agency conflicts, and there is little private information. Even in this setting, we find that risk-reducing ...

  19. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  20. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2005-07-01

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  1. Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women’s Position in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); R. Mabsout (Ramzi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining lit

  2. Teacher Unionism and Collective Bargaining in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    This article analyzes the teacher union movement and the system of teacher bargaining in England and Wales. The author traces the postwar history of teacher negotiations and shows that the present system of negotiation has experienced increasing difficulties in the past decade, such as a rise in teacher militancy. (Author/CT)

  3. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  4. Bargaining among Nations: Culture, History, and Perceptions in Regime Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Ronnie D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of regimes (collective international schemes) for managing global problems depends on culture, history, and perceptions. The ways in which these elements affect bargaining among nations over issues of the global commons are discussed. Implications are reviewed for a regime to deal with atmospheric conditions and global warming. (SLD)

  5. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  6. Collective bargaining responses to the economic crisis in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Glassner; M. Keune

    2010-01-01

    Collective bargaining has proven to be an effective instrument to maintain employment and to allow companies to find flexible solutions to deal with the steep economic downturn. In particular, social partners played an important role in implementing statutory short-time working provisions aimed at m

  7. Collective Bargaining in Education and Pay for Performance. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Collective Bargaining in Education and Pay for Performance"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Jane Hannaway and Andrew J. Rotherham examine the interplay between the emerging policy focus on teacher pay for performance and the response of teacher unions. Noting that…

  8. Essays in competition with product differentiation and bargaining in markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth essay uses bargaining theory and compares the outcome of a negotiation in two differently organized markets. In the first market, sellers simultaneously offer their good or service for sale. In the second market, sellers queue and offer their good or service sequentially for sale. Relevan

  9. The Nature and Function of Argument in Organizational Bargaining Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Colleen M.

    Noting the call for research that links argument theory with negotiation, this paper examines the nature and function of argument negotiation in current organizational bargaining research theories. Five perspectives are extrapolated to define "argument" and demonstrate how different viewpoints can affect understanding of the negotiation process.…

  10. Observations on Collective Bargaining: Implications for Academic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Edward P., Jr.; Rodriguez, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Faculty unionism and collective bargaining have emerged as dynamic forces on both public and private campuses throughout the country. Factors in their growth are described, along with their influence on the campus itself, trustees, students and alumni, governance, the presidency and deans, and grievance and arbitration, retrenchment, and faculty…

  11. Faculty vs. Administration: Rights Issues in Academic Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Margaret K.; Julius, Daniel J.

    The sharing of authority after collective bargaining is initiated in higher education institutions is addressed. Seven issues at the center of power struggle within organized institutions are looked at: long-range planning, retrenchment, promotion, appointment, nonrenewal, tenure, and management rights. An analysis of two-thirds of the bargaining…

  12. On the Evolutionary Stability of 'Tough' Bargaining Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game such behavior survives. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary selection wipes out all tough behavior, as long...

  13. Labor-management cooperation: Antecedents and impact on organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Deery; Roderick D. Iverson

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the antecedents and outcomes of labor-management cooperation. Data were drawn from 305 branches of a large unionized Australian-based multinational banking organization. The authors find that perceptions of a cooperative labor relations climate were positively influenced by procedural justice, the union's willingness to adopt an integrative approach to bargaining, and management's willingness to share information freely with the union. The findings also indicate that a coo...

  14. A Model of Protocoalition Bargaining with Breakdown Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a model of legislative bargaining in which parties form tentative coalitions (protocoalitions before deciding on the allocation of a resource. Protocoalitions may fail to reach an agreement, in which case they may be dissolved (breakdown and a new protocoalition may form. We show that agreement is immediate in equilibrium, and the proposer advantage disappears as the breakdown probability goes to zero. We then turn to the special case of apex games and explore the consequences of varying the probabilities that govern the selection of formateurs and proposers. Letting the breakdown probability go to zero, most of the probabilities considered lead to the same ex post pay-off division. Ex ante expected pay-offs may follow a counterintuitive pattern: as the bargaining power of weak players within a protocoalition increases, the weak players may expect a lower pay-off ex ante.

  15. Wage bargaining with on-the-job search: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre CAHUC; Postel-Vinay, Fabien; Robin, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The Nash wage bargaining model is ubiquitous in modern labour economics. Yet most applications of this model ignore inter-employer competition for labour services and attribute all of the workers’ rent to their bargaining power. In this Paper, we write and estimate an equilibrium model with strategic wage bargaining and on-the-job search and use it to take another look at the determinants of wages in France. There are three essential determinants of wages in our model: productivity, competiti...

  16. Globalisation and the Future of Central Collective Bargaining: The Example of the German Metal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, A.; Schulten, T.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the relationship of the German model of capitalism and the role of centralized collective bargaining within it. It is assumed that the system of central wage bargaining - leading to a relativel~e. galitarian wage structure and the absence of a non-union wage sector - is one of the major pillars of the national institutional framework of the German economy. Pressures towards the decentralization of collective bargaining will therefore not only affect the distribution of wa...

  17. Capacity and concessions : bargaining power in multilateral negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Realism and liberalism disagree over the source of bargaining power in international relations. Realists believe that the success of a negotiator is a linear function of the capabilities that its home state possesses. Liberals stress the crucial importance of either the relative salience a country attaches to a contested issue or the importance negotiating governments have to attribute to powerful domestic actors. In this essay, I clarify some of the channels through which these different fac...

  18. List Prices, Bargaining and Resultant Productivity Diffusion Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Thanassoulis, John

    2005-01-01

    List prices are not completely credible as take it or leave it prices: buyers are able to seek reductions by bargaining with firms. We show that this realisation leads to the existence of a critical threshold number of competitors in an industry which depends on fundamentals. In industries with fewer competitors than the critical level, there is productivity diffuson delay: low and high cost firms coexist, list prices have no information value and transaction price dispersion exists. Above th...

  19. Factors affecting bargaining outcomes between pharmacies and insurers.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, J. M.; Doucette, W; Sorofman, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To model the bargaining power of pharmacies and insurers in price negotiations and test whether it varies with characteristics of the pharmacy, insurer, and pharmacy market. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from four sources. Pharmacy/insurer transactions were taken from Medstat's universe of 6.8 million pharmacy claims in their 1994 Marketscan database. Sources Informatics, Inc. supplied a three-digit zip code-level summary database containing pharmacy payments and self-reported c...

  20. Gender differences in education in a dynamic household bargaining model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Echevarria; Antonio Merlo

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the issue of gender differences in education in the context of a two-sexoverlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children conditional on gender, andparents are altruistic toward their children. We show that the difference in the education levels ofboys and girls implied by our model is smaller than the one that would result from a pureinvestment model. Also,...

  1. A Note on Free Trade Agreement and Wage Bargaining Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Yohanes E.; Jung Hur

    2004-01-01

    Mezzeti and Dinopoulos (1991) show that a free trade agreement (trade liberalization) decreases wage rate. However, Naylor (1998) shows that trade liberalization increases wage rate. Both papers consider tariff as exogenously given. In this paper we show that these conflicting results can be nested into a model of international duopoly with a more general wage bargaining structure. Tariff is endogenously determined in our model. In addition, we also derive crucial implications of the wage bar...

  2. Strategic factor markets: Bargaining, scarcity, and resource complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbesan, Tunji

    2007-01-01

    Strategic factor market theory suggests that without luck or asymmetric expectations, firms can't appropriate gains from acquired resources. Adopting the bargaining perspective on resource advantage, we hold that this is only true in the absence of resource complementarity. We extend factor market theory to account for resource complementarity, and we show that firms can profit when they exhibit superior complementarity to target resources, even in the absence of asymmetric expectations. Thus...

  3. Sticky wage Nash bargaining model with incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Antosiewicz; Maciej Bukowski; Pawel Kowal

    2011-01-01

    We develop an alternative novel method of introducing real wage rigidity into an otherwise standard search and matching model. Wages are constantly renegotiated through Nash wage bargaining, however negotiations are based on imperfect information regarding the productivity level and consequently marginal productivity. The imperfect information mechanism is modeled by means of a Kalman filter. As a consequence, after a positive technology shock some of the increase in productivity is attribute...

  4. Efficiency Wages, Union-Firm Bargaining, and Strikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana MAULEON; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    We consider efficiency wage effects in a union-firm bargaining model with private information. We show that efficiency wage effects do not necessarily increase the wage level at equilibrium. However, if it is commonly known that the union is stronger than the firm and the productivity enhancing effects of paying higher wages are sufficiently large, then efficiency wage effects still increase the wage at equilibrium. More surprisingly, we show that efficiency wage effects increase the strike...

  5. Efficiency Wages, Unio-Firm Bargaining, and Strikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana MAULEON; VANNETLEBOSCH, Vincent J.

    2001-01-01

    We consider efficiency wage effects in a union-firm bargaining model with private information. We show that efficiency wage effects do not necessarily increase the wage level at equilibrium. However, if it is commonly known that the union is stronger than the firm and the productivity enhancing effects of paying higher wages are sufficiently large, then efficiency wage effects still increase the wage of equilibrium. More surprisingly, we show that efficiency wage effects increase the strike a...

  6. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  7. Bargaining over waiting time in ultimatum game experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roger; Rauhut, Heiko; Prade, Sandra; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    While preference-based explanations play an increasing role in economics and sociology, the accurate measurement of social preferences deserves more attention. Most laboratory experiments measure social preferences by studying the division of "a cake that nobody had to bake" (Güth and Kliemt, 2003). This article reports results of the first ultimatum game experiment with bargaining over waiting time. The experiment was created to avoid effects of windfall gains. In contrast to donated money, time is not endowed by the experimenter and implies a natural loss to subjects. This allows for a better measurement of the inherent conflict in the ultimatum game. We implemented three anonymity conditions; one baseline condition, one condition with anonymity among subjects and one double-blind condition in which the experimenter did not know the division of waiting time. While we expected to observe less other-regarding behavior in ultimatum game bargaining over time, our experimental results rather confirm previous ultimatum game experiments, in which people bargained over money. The modal offer was half of the waiting time and only one offer was rejected. Interestingly, anonymity did not change the results significantly. In conclusion, our experiment confirms other-regarding behavior in the ultimatum game. PMID:23017758

  8. The Scope of Collective Bargaining and Arbitration for Tenure of Public School Teachers: The New York Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Shows the scope of collective bargaining and arbitration for tenure that has developed in New York. Examines both the statutory background of the right of collective bargaining for tenure and the recent case law on the subject. (Author/IRT)

  9. The Effect of Collective Bargaining on Policy Development at Institutions of Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring-Ellis, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    For over three decades, collective bargaining in higher education has given faculty a voice in which to be heard in decision making involving tenure, faculty appointments, salaries, and education policies. However, as recent as 2011, the voice once afforded to faculty through its collective bargaining rights has been threatened with attempts to…

  10. 48 CFR 970.5222-1 - Collective Bargaining Agreements Management and Operating Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause: Collective Bargaining Agreements—Management and Operating Contracts (DEC 2000) When negotiating collective bargaining agreements applicable to the work force under this contract, the Contractor shall use... Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5222-1...

  11. A Case for the College Handbook in an Era of Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    With the growth of collective bargaining in California community colleges, the collective bargaining agreement has begun to replace faculty handbooks and college policy manuals as the statement of management/employee relations, work conditions, and benefits. This has led many to conclude that the college handbook is outmoded and inconsequential…

  12. A Bargaining Set Based on External and Internal Stability and Endogenous Coalition Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarova, E.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Montero, M.P.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A new bargaining set based on notions of both internal and external stability is developed in the context of endogenous coalition formation.It allows to make an explicit distinction between within-group and outsidegroup deviation options.This type of distinction is not present in current bargaining

  13. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of dama

  14. Collective Bargaining and the Future of Higher Education. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.; Lang, Theodore H.

    Papers presented at the fifth annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education are provided. The union's and management's views of the impact of fiscal crisis on collective bargaining are given in the first two papers by Robert W. Miner and Caesar Naples. The next two presentations by Robert…

  15. Landmarks in Collective Bargaining in Higher Education. Proceedings, Seventh Annual Conference, April 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.; Douglas, Joel M.

    The meeting of some 300 college administrators, faculty unionists, arbitrators specializing in education, and members of government agencies dealing with collective bargaining is reported in the proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education. Topics and speakers…

  16. The Differences between Mediation, Factfinding and Arbitration. [An Overview of Collective Bargaining, Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T.

    Fact finding, mediation, and arbitration are three methods of resolving impasses in collective bargaining. All three methods imvolve the inclusion of a third party in the bargaining process. The mediator suggests avenues along which agreement may be sought, but has no power to compel acceptance of his suggestions. Fact finders have greater power…

  17. The Role of Government in Collective Bargaining: Scandinavia and the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, Ank; Slomp, Hans

    1990-01-01

    This article compares the role of government in collective bargaining in five small West European countries. For the period until the second half of the 1970s, a distinction is made between countries in which government often interfered in wage bargaining, e. g. Denmark and The Netherlands, and coun

  18. The role of mediation institutions in Sweden and Denmark after centralized bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    not explain the internal stability of bargaining coordination once established. This analysis stresses the role of mediation institutions of both countries for solving collective action problems in pattern bargaining by pegging other settlements to the manufacturing labour cost norm. Mediation capabilities...

  19. Community College Collective Bargaining in New Jersey. Study Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begin, James P.; And Others

    This study's purpose was to analyze the operation of the bargaining systems in the 16 public two-year New Jersey colleges, to compare these systems with those in other states, and to develop policy recommendations. Research covered the history and origins of bargaining, employers' negotiating structures, faculty salary and compensation analysis,…

  20. Wage Bargaining Institutions in Europe: a happy Marriage or preparing for Divorce?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Visser

    2005-01-01

    This paper is written as a reappraisal of the work on inflation and wage bargaining of Ezio Tarantelli, the Italian economist who in 1985 was brutally killed by the Red Brigades. It returns to his ideas, and the discussion within the OECD, about combating inflation and free collective bargaining, as

  1. A BARGAINING FRAMEWORK TO ESTABLISH OVER-ORDER PREMIUMS IN DAIRY MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Prasertsri, Peerapon; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Given the approximate bilateral monopoly nature of Florida dairy industry (producers and processors), the monthly projected over-order premiums (i.e., the dollar amount above the Class I price) are determined by the generalized Nash bargaining model through the relevant prices, costs, bargaining power, and risk attitudes. The implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Theory Z Bargaining Works: Teachers and Administrators in Two School Districts Replace Hostility with Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    A bargaining process, begun over 10 years ago, is based on problem-solving rather than on adversarial confrontation and uses elements of participative management. It has resulted in outstanding benefits for two school districts. Called "Theory Z bargaining," the process follows a procedure based on each side treating the other with respect.…

  3. Collective Bargaining on Employment Security: The Influence of the Legal Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekic, Nuna; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Employers’ organisations and trade unions (also called the social partners) are given a central role to play in the specification of employment security into concrete regulations through collective bargaining. The question is how employment security can be implemented through collective bargaining.

  4. Non-cooperative game theoretic approaches to bilateral exchange networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Prangle, D.

    2005-01-01

    Bilateral exchange networks are structures in which a finite set of players have a restricted framework of bargaining opportunities with each other. The key restrictions are that each player may participate in only one 'exchange' and each of these may only involve a pair of players. There is a large sociology literature which investigates these networks as a simplified model of social exchange. This literature contains many predictions and experimental results, but not a non-cooperative game ...

  5. An Experimental Analysis of Asymmetric Power in Conflict Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Reed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Demands and concessions in a multi-stage bargaining process are shaped by the probabilities that each side will prevail in an impasse. Standard game-theoretic predictions are quite sharp: demands are pushed to the precipice with nothing left on the table, but there is no conflict regardless of the degree of power asymmetry. Indeed, there is no delay in reaching an agreement that incorporates the (unrealized costs of delay and conflict. A laboratory experiment has been used to investigate the effects of power asymmetries on conflict rates in a two-stage bargaining game that is (if necessary followed by conflict with a random outcome. Observed demands at each stage are significantly correlated with power, as measured by the probability of winning in the event of disagreement. Demand patterns, however, are flatter than theoretical predictions, and conflict occurs in a significant proportion of the interactions, regardless of the degree of the power asymmetry. To address these deviations from the standard game-theoretic predictions, we also estimated a logit quantal response model, which generated the qualitative patterns that are observed in the data. This one-parameter generalization of the Nash equilibrium permits a deconstruction of the strategic incentives that cause demands to be less responsive to power asymmetries than Nash predictions.

  6. Regional Energy Cooperation: National and International Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    I would like to summarize benefits from the cooperation among the Northeast Asian countries. First, the abundant energy reserves of Russian Far East can be the key source of alternative energy for the countries in the Northeast Asian region that can lessen the heavy dependency on the Middle East. Second, It will also be the cost-effective alternative because of the area adjacency. Third, abundance of environment-friendly natural gas and hydropower reserves in the region is the effective countermeasure for dealing with environmental issues. Fourth, the energy cooperation will permit land routes for energy supply to the countries that have depended entirely on marine transport for imports. Fifth, joint development of energy supply and construction of transportation facility will further promote efficient energy trades and facility use. Sixth, the efforts for energy cooperation will necessarily promote towards market liberalization, which will in turn raise the bargaining power of energy importers of the Northeast Asian region. The region does not currently command the bargaining power that is tantamount to the import volume or relative buyers' position in the world market.

  7. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Iacobini; Gaetano Lisi

    2012-01-01

    This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer) can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller...

  8. Strategic reasoning and bargaining in catastrophic climate change games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Lindgren, Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Two decades of international negotiations show that agreeing on emission levels for climate change mitigation is a hard challenge. However, if early warning signals were to show an upcoming tipping point with catastrophic damage, theory and experiments suggest this could simplify collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the actual threshold, no country would have a free-ride incentive to increase emissions over the tipping point, but it remains for countries to negotiate their emission levels to reach these agreements. We model agents bargaining for emission levels using strategic reasoning to predict emission bids by others and ask how this affects the possibility of reaching agreements that avoid catastrophic damage. It is known that policy elites often use a higher degree of strategic reasoning, and in our model this increases the risk for climate catastrophe. Moreover, some forms of higher strategic reasoning make agreements to reduce greenhouse gases unstable. We use empirically informed levels of strategic reasoning when simulating the model.

  9. Illustrated Examples of the Effects of Risk Preferences and Expectations on Bargaining Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes bargaining examples that use expected utility theory. Provides example results that are intuitive, shown graphically and algebraically, and offer upper-level student samples that illustrate the usefulness of the expected utility theory. (JEH)

  10. Prosecuting Corruption and the Application of Plea Bargaining in Nigeria: A Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke, G. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the incidence and the prosecution of corruption in the Nigerian society with specific emphasis on plea bargaining which has been applied to prosecute some politicians (Politically Exposed Persons and other people in the upper echelons of the Nigerian society, and that is gradually becoming widespread in criminal prosecution in Nigeria. The origin and merits of plea bargaining, as its protagonists argued, were analysed. The central focus here is a critique of corruption prosecution through plea bargain based on moral and utilitist principles. The study precisely advocated for outright dropping of the plea bargain in corruption prosecution in Nigeria because of its tendency to deepen and extenuate, rather than making mild and abating corruption in Nigeria. Given the patron-client character of power relation in the Nigerian state, the stipulations of anti-graft laws should be strictly followed in order not to make corruption prosecution constitute another source or facilitator of corruption in Nigeria.

  11. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Iacobini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller. The empirical results derived from multiple regression analysis support our theoretical assumptions. In fact, the variables created as proxies of bargaining power of the parties, and incorporated into the hedonic price function, are statistically significant and help to improve the performance of the hedonic model, thus reducing the differences between predicted and observed selling prices.

  12. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but the evidence on its impact on regional wage differentiation is scant. Empirical evidence in this paper for European Union regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests that countries with more coordinated wage bargaining systems have lower regional wage differentials, after controlling for regional productivity and unemployment differentials. Estimates from wage curves for Germany and Italy based on panels of regions also suggest some links between the estimated elasticities and the level of coordination in wage bargaining.

  13. Choice of the Models for the Co-operative Innovation of Industries, Universities and Research Institutes by Game Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyang Fan; Youhua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper builds game model to analyze selection issues of IUR co-operation model through Nash bargaining theory. The result shows that, the stronger innovative capability, more economic benefits expected, less technical content of scientific research, companies more inclined to choose a higher degree of close model; otherwise, companies tend to choose more closely integrated degree lower mode.

  14. Honesty Pays: On the Benefits of Having and Disclosing Information in Coalition Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    van Beest, I.; Steinel, W.; J K Murnighan

    2011-01-01

    International audience People typically think of negotiations as competitive, which often leads them to engage in secrecy and even deception. In three experiments we show that this approach can backfire in coalition bargaining. Results show that, even though bargainers with an outcome advantage only obtain favorable outcomes when this information is public, they rarely choose to reveal this information. Fairness motivations fueled decisions to reveal this information and make attractive of...

  15. Profit sharing and unemployment: An approach with bargaining and efficiency wage effects

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Stenbacka, Rune

    2003-01-01

    We offer a unified framework to analyze the determination of employment, employee effort, wages and profit sharing when firms face stochastic revenue shocks. We apply a generalized Nash bargaining solution, which extends the wage bargaining literature by incorporating efficiency wage considerations, profit sharing and exogenous capital structure. The profit sharing instrument is demonstrated to have positive effort-enhancing and wage-moderating effects, which exactly offset the negative dilut...

  16. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  17. The dynamics of wages and employment in a model of monopolistic competition and efficient bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Commendatore; Ingrid Kubin

    2003-01-01

    Modern macroeconomic models with a Keynesian flavour usually involve nominal rigidities in wages and commodity prices. A widely used conceptual framework is specifying a wage-setting and a price setting equation, while a more explicit microfoundation recurs to wage bargaining in the labour markets and monopolistic competition in the commodity markets; (Blanchard and Giavazzi, 2001). Characteristic for those approaches is that deregulating the labour markets (i.e. reducing the bargaining power...

  18. The Evidence of Buyer Bargaining Power in The Stockholm Residential Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wilhelmsson

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to investigate whether uninformed buyers pay higher prices for single-family houses than do other buyers and test whether the bargaining power increases with information. We examine data on real estate prices and attributes, as well as household characteristics and buying process from Stockholm. Our results show that uninformed buyers seem to pay a higher price than informed buyers do. Bargaining power is not weaker for a first-time buyer but is weaker if the household has pa...

  19. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  20. Price Dispersion in the Housing Market: The Role of Bargaining and Search Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a matching model à la Pissarides (2000) in order to explain a basic fact of housing markets: price dispersion. The variance in house prices is basically due to both the ex-ante heterogeneity of the parties (i.e., bargaining power, tastes, asymmetric information) and the search costs of buyers and sellers. In fact, sellers and buyers spend time and money before concluding the deal. Furthermore, the house price is substantially determined by bargaining between the parties. T...

  1. A different point of view in collective bargaining: legal perspective versus business perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Putthiwanit, Chutinon; Santipiriyapon, Sawitree

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the different point of view in collective behavior between legal context and business context. As in business context, in which collective bargaining concerns about a monetary system, a group of farmers can use collective bargaining as a tool to deal with injustice negotiation. Nowadays, a number of goods and services produced/provided are discovered to be determinate; namely, higher or lower wage of the workers, resulted from winning or losing the collective barga...

  2. Autonomous agents in bargaining games : an evolutionary investigation of fundamentals, strategies, and business applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, EH

    2004-01-01

    Bargaining is becoming increasingly important due to developments within the field of electronic commerce, especially the development of autonomous software agents. Software agents are programs which, given instructions from a user, are capable of autonomously and intelligently realise a given task. By means of such agents, the bargaining process can be automated, allowing products and services together with related conditions, such as warranty and delivery time, to be flexible and tuned to t...

  3. Plea Bargaining in International Criminal Justice - Can the International Criminal Court Afford to Avoid Trials?

    OpenAIRE

    Rauxloh, RE

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the question as to whether plea bargaining should be introduced in the International Criminal Court (ICC). It argues that although the different features and functions of international criminal law make practices such as plea arrangements ambiguous, there are circumstances in which this practice can make a valuable contribution. Plea bargaining should, however, be used only under very restrictive circumstances and not as a mere tool of efficiency. The first section ...

  4. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but the evidence on its impact on regional wage differentiation is scant. Empirical evidence in this paper for European Union regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests ...

  5. Implications of wage bargaining systems on regional differentiation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita VOCHITA; George CIOBANU; Ciobanu, Andreea

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but has not investigated its impact on regional wage differentiation. Empirical evidence in this paper for EU regions suggests that countries with more coordinated wage...

  6. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  7. Campus Bargaining in the Eighties: A Retrospective and a Prospective Look. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education (8th, New York, New York, April 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1980 conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education, which focused on campus bargaining the eighties, are presented. Contents are as follows: "The Economic Environment in the Eighties: the Necessity for Joint Action," by Gerie Bledsoe; "The Legal Environment: The Yeshiva Decision,"…

  8. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  9. A Comparison of Working Conditions Between Community College Instructors in Collective Bargaining Contract Colleges and Traditional Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, John A., Jr.

    In order to assess the impact of collective bargaining on community college faculty working conditions, a 79-item questionnaire was sent in winter 1974 to the presidents of a random nationwide sample of 100 community colleges operating under collective bargaining contracts and 100 community colleges operating under traditional agreements. Of the…

  10. A New Resource Allocation Model for Grid Networks based on Bargaining in a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Haghtalabi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is an important subject in Grid computing environment. Many types of non-similar resources exist in the grid computing environment which can also be considered from economics' point of view. Moreover, suppliers and customers are independent subjects with two very different environments in the grid computing environment. Therefore negotiations are considered very important. Bargaining is one of the most functional methods of negotiation in economic grid. In this paper a new resource allocation algorithm based on bargaining in a competitive market is proposed. The presented paper tries to increase the number and speed of successful negotiation by considering the meaning of competition in the market and deadline in the bargaining model. The proposed model is suitable for real-time software implementation to illustrate the concept of buying from seller's competitive market. The Simulation results on prototype data show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  12. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  13. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  14. 48 CFR 22.1010 - Notification to interested parties under collective bargaining agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to interested parties under collective bargaining agreements. 22.1010 Section 22.1010 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1010 Notification to interested parties...

  15. Exploring the bargaining space within international climate negotiations based on political, economic and environmental considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza Beltran, A.; den Elzen, M.G.J.; Hof, Andries; van Vuuren, D.P.; van Vliet, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for exploring the bargaining space within international climate negotiations based on important economic, political and environmental considerations. Based on it, we analyse combinations of the proposed emission reduction ranges for Annex I countries as a g

  16. 48 CFR 22.1012-2 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1012-2 Wage determinations based on collective... before commencement of the work shall be effective for purposes of the successor contract under section 4... contracting officer shall incorporate the collective bargaining agreement itself in a solicitation or...

  17. Policy Poison or Promise: Exploring the Dual Nature of California School District Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Katharine O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines policies set in the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and school boards and explores what kinds of districts have contract provisions that restrict district administrators, enhance administrative flexibility, and/or improve teachers' professional work lives and that have…

  18. Pressure Point On Campus: Academic Program Planning and Resource Allocation in Conflict with the Bargaining Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond

    Considered are the nature and extent of some of the basic conflicts that arise when two, future-oriented, decision-making processes--institutional program planning/resource allocation and collective bargaining--are both present on the same campus. The identified conflicts come from the experiences of a university that was one of the first in the…

  19. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Niagara University and Niagara University Lay Teachers Association 1987-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niagara Univ., Niagara Falls, NY.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Niagara University (New York) and the Niagara University Lay Teachers Association, a chapter of the American Association of University Professors, covering the period 1987 to 1989 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: recognition, union security, dues checkoff, discrimination policy,…

  20. Essays on Women’s Bargaining Power and Intra-household Resource in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Dito

    2011-01-01

    textabstractxv Abstract This thesis investigates the effect of a woman’s bargaining power on her welfare and that of her children in rural Ethiopia. The issue is of particular concern because, as empirical evidence shows, intra-household inequalities in welfare are frequently the direct consequence

  1. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  2. Bargaining Representation and Union Membership in the Federal Sector: A Free Rider's Paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Marick F.; Atkin, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Examines bargaining representation and union membership data among the three principal federal-employee unions. Finds that each union faces a free rider problem and the magnitude of the problem differs across unions. Discusses the financial implications of the problem and offers insights toward future directions. (JOW)

  3. Coalition Formation under Uncertainty: Bargaining Equilibria and the Bayesian Core Stability Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalkiadakis, G.; Markakis, V.; Boutillier, C.; Durfee, E.H.; Yokoo, M.; Huhns, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    Coalition formation is a problem of great interest in AI, allowing groups of autonomous, rational agents to form stable teams. Fur- thermore, the study of coalitional stability concepts and their re- lation to equilibria that guide the strategic interactions of agents during bargaining has lately at

  4. Ohio Vote to Scrap Bargaining a Labor Victory--For Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Voters in Ohio sent an unequivocal message to the state's Republican governor and lawmakers that they went too far in reining in collective bargaining for teachers and other public employees. But analysts say the conflict between the GOP and teachers' unions in Ohio and elsewhere is not over. By an overwhelming, 22-percentage-point margin,…

  5. Tackling the Crisis through Concession Bargaining: Five Company Cases from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagelmeyer, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present an analysis of the nature and drivers of company‐level concession bargaining during the financial crisis 2008‐10 in Germany. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on five company case studies. Data collection methods include document analysis and semi

  6. Shared Governance in the Community College: An Analysis of Formal Authority in Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines shared governance in Washington State's community and technical colleges and provides an analysis of faculty participation in governance based on formal authority in collective bargaining agreements. Contracts from Washington's thirty community and technical college districts were reviewed in order to…

  7. Teachers' Unions and Compensation: The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Salary Schedules and Performance Pay Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kristine Lamm; Mykerezi, Elton

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact that collective bargaining has on multiple dimensions of teacher compensation, including average and starting salaries, early and late returns to experience, returns to graduate degrees, and the incidence of different pay for performance schemes. Using data from the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and a more recent…

  8. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...

  9. National Faculty Associations in Collective Bargaining: A Comparative Discussion. Special Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Virginia Lee

    This study examines national and local chapter positions of the three national faculty associations engaged in collective bargaining (AAUP, AFT, and NEA). It explores four areas - history, negotiating objectives, strategies, and politics. Organizational competition and, more importantly, local issues have resulted in wide diversity among the…

  10. Does Collective Bargaining Influence the Pay Satisfaction of Elementary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.; Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of collective bargaining on teacher pay satisfaction and offer knowledge of the factors contributing to the pay satisfaction of public elementary school teachers. The study focuses on how human capital, occupational characteristics, and job related characteristics impact the pay satisfaction of…

  11. A COMPARISON OF A SIMPLE PROCUREMENT AUCTION AND GENERALIZED NASH BARGAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He HUANG; Hongyan XU; Jian CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison mechanism for a simple procurement auction and generalized Nash bargaining solution in a procurement circumstance. The buyer who hopes to fulfill a project has two options. First, she may award the project to the old provider with an efficient quality by bargaining. Second, she may give the project to the firm who submits the lowest bid through a simple procurement second-price sealed-bid auction with a pre-fixed quality. We compare the expected revenue in the uction with the deterministic profit of the bargaining. In different parameters cases, we find the borderline functions between the two options with respect to the buyer's bargaining power and the amount of bidders. We also compare our simple procurement auction (SPA) with the optimal multidimensional bid auction by Che (1993), and find our model protects the buyer's private valuation information by forfeiting some profits. Some properties of the difference between the two auctions are proposed, especially there is no revenue difference when the amount of bidders approaches infinity.

  12. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... on regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  13. What determines the price received by cocoa farmers in Cameroon? An empirical analysis based on bargaining theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamdem, Cyrille Bergaly; Galtier, Franck; Gockowski, James; Helene, David-Benz; Johny EGG; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that small-scale agricultural producers from developing countries do not generally obtain the potential gains of trade. To investigate what can be done to help them get better prices, we examine ways to increase their bargaining power. Using data from 1,854 cocoa transactions between traders and producers in Cameroon during the 2005/2006 season, we show that when the bargaining situation is least favorable to the producers (because prices are non-negotiable due to interlink...

  14. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  15. The Role of Country-of-origin Characteristics for Foreign Direct Investment and Technical Cooperation in Post-reform India

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2011-01-01

    The decisions of foreign investors on technical cooperation versus equity engagements and on the degree of ownership in FDI projects are likely to depend on their relative bargaining position vis-à-vis the host country. India provides an interesting case for analyzing the interplay between country-of origin-characteristics and host-country-characteristics and their respective effects on ownership decisions since opening up its economy to FDI in the early 1990s. We perform negative binominal r...

  16. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN ILO REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Paula LARION

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The international labour standards are the cornerstone of the ILO’s activities, and the freedom of association is undoubtedly the cornerstone of labour law at national and international level. Political, economic, and social transformations, which remain as influential even though we are in 2016, did not diminish the importance, significance, functions or purposes of collective bargaining, nor their role in industrial relations, although, in recent years, has advocated for the abandoning of labour law and replacing it with civil and commercial rules. Since 1947, the International Labour Organisation was concerned with the issue of freedom of association and the exercise of trade union rights. As a result of this concern, the organization has developed legal instruments governing freedom of association and right to collective bargaining, thus developing Convention no.87 / 1948 and the Convention No.98 / 1949.

  17. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. PMID:26849322

  18. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume.

  19. Empirical analysis of countervailing power in business-to-business bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of countervailing power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of countervailing power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis for a pragmatic reduced form empirical pricing model are delineated. This model is readily implement...

  20. On the role of asymmetric bargaining power in intermediate industry for existence of spiral effect

    OpenAIRE

    Prog, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proves the existence of the spiral effect in different scenarios with different modeling approaches. With a spiral effect is called the hypothesis that if, due to his bargaining power, one buyer has better procurement conditions than other buyers, he can use them to strengthen his market position in the sales market, which in turn improve his procurement situation, e.g. as he is in a position to negotiate additional quantity discounts. The analysis is divided into three blocks. In...

  1. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  2. A product of their bargaining environment: Explaining government duration in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Since the transition to democracy in the early 1990s, more than 60 percent of governments in Central and Eastern Europe have terminated prematurely. This article seeks to understand why some governments in the region survive longer than others. I argue that the nature of party system development in the region has facilitated the emergence of a pattern of party competition which takes place in polarized blocs. As the party system structures the government bargaining process, it is contended th...

  3. Estimation of relative bargaining power in markets for raw milk in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Byeong-Il Ahn; Sumner, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the empirical industrial organization literature by deriving and estimating the empirical equation containing the parameter for bargaining power and an indicator of competition between suppliers. We specify a reduced form of the price equation, which is composed of the minimum price specified in milk marketing orders and the reduced form of the upper bound for the price in regional raw milk markets in the United States. Estimation results indicate that the relative b...

  4. A New Resource Allocation Model for Grid Networks based on Bargaining in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Somayyeh Haghtalabi; Reza Javidan; Ali Harounabadi

    2014-01-01

    Resource allocation is an important subject in Grid computing environment. Many types of non-similar resources exist in the grid computing environment which can also be considered from economics' point of view. Moreover, suppliers and customers are independent subjects with two very different environments in the grid computing environment. Therefore negotiations are considered very important. Bargaining is one of the most functional methods of negotiation in economic grid. In this paper a new...

  5. Breaking Bankruptcy Priority: How Rent-Seeking Upends the Creditors' Bargain

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Tung, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    “Bankruptcy reallocates value in a faltering firm. The bankruptcy apparatus eliminates some claims and alters others, leaving a reduced set of claims to match the firm’s diminished capacity to pay. This restructuring is done according to statutory and agreed-to contractual priorities, so that lower-ranking claims are eliminated first and higher-ranking ones are preserved to the extent possible. Bankruptcy scholarship has long conceptualized this reallocation as a hypothetical bargain among cr...

  6. The more (complex), the better? The influence of epistemic motivation on integrative bargaining in complex negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, van der, J.; Beersma, B.; Kleef, van, J.; Dreu, de, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiating about a larger number of issues is often argued to enhance the potential for integrative bargaining. However, the enhanced complexity may also make negotiators more susceptible to bias, making it less likely for them to reach win-win agreements. We argue that epistemic motivation, the motivation to hold accurate perceptions of the world, provides a key to solve this paradox. In a negotiation experiment we manipulated complexity by having participants negotiate about 6 or 18 issues...

  7. Gender of Children, Bargaining Power, and Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixing; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the prevalent son preference in China, this paper proposes a new measure of relative bargaining power within the household. Using data from China Health and Nutrition Survey, we show that a woman with a first-born son has a 3.9 percentage points' greater role in household decision-making than a woman with a first-born daughter. Having a…

  8. Terror as a Bargaining Instrument : A Case Study of Dowry Violence in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Francis; Rao, Vijayendra

    2000-01-01

    The authors examine how domestic violence may be used as a bargaining instrument, to extract larger dowries from a spouse's family. The phrase "dowry violence" refers not to the paid at the time of the wedding, but to additional payments demanded by the groom's family after the marriage. The additional dowry is often paid to stop the husband from systematically beating the wife. The authors base their case study of three villages in southern India on qualitative and survey data. Based on the ...

  9. Reputation in Marketing Channels: Repeated-Transactions Bargaining with Two-Sided Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl T. Banks; J. Wesley Hutchinson; Meyer, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Marketing channel interactions typically feature three characteristics that have not been incorporated together in an analytic study: (1) the parties can do business repeatedly over time, often under different terms of trade (e.g., prices may vary), (2) the terms that the seller offers one buyer may be different from those she offers another, giving each interaction the flavor of bilateral monopoly bargaining, and (3) the buyer and seller come to the interaction uncertain about the valuations...

  10. Bounded Rationality in Bargaining Games: Do Proposers Believe That Responders Reject an Equal Split?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Greiner

    2004-01-01

    Puzzled by the experimental results of the 'impunity game' by Bolton and Zwick (1995) we replicate the game and alter it in a systematic manner. We find that although almost nobody actually rejects an offered equal split in a bargaining game, proposers behave as if there would be a considerably large rejection rate for equal splits. This result is inconsistent with existing models of economic decision making. This includes models of selfish players as well as models of social utility and reci...

  11. The effect of globalization on union bargaining and price-cost margins of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Filip; Konings, Joep; Vanormelingen, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Europe has witnessed an accelerated process of economic integration. Trade barriers were removed, the euro was introduced and ten new member states have joined the European Union. This paper analyzes how this process of increased economic integration has affected labor and product markets. To this end, we use a panel of Belgian manufacturing firms to estimate price-cost margins and union bargaining power and show how various measures of globalization affect them. Our fin...

  12. The logic of compromise : monetary bargaining in Austria-Hungary 1867-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Flandreau, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the historical record of the Austro-Hungarian monetary union, focusing on its bargaining dimension. As a result of the 1867 Compromise, Austria and Hungary shared a common currency, although they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. By using repeated threats to quit, Hungary succeeded in obtaining more than proportional control and forcing the common central bank into a policy that was very favourable to it. Using insights from public economics, this paper exp...

  13. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  14. Component Production and Replenishment Policy in ATO Supply Chain Based on Bargaining Game%基于讨价还价博弈的 ATO 供应链零部件生产及补货策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇雨; 黄波

    2014-01-01

    A bargaining cooperative game model for assemble-to-order ( ATO) supply chain composed of a final product manufacturer and two suppliers is proposed to study the component production and replenish -ment policy and the corresponding profit-sharing policy .The effect of participant's bargaining power chain on the optimal solution is analyzed .It is found that ATO supply chain should raise the component produc-tion with the rise of the final product price , and reduce it with the rise of assembly cost of finished product or production cost of components .With the improvement of the bargaining power of final product manufac-turer to one supplier , the transfer price of components and profits of this supplier is reduced , while those of another supplier are increased at the same time .The expected profits of the final product manufacturer in-crease if its bargaining power is stronger than another supplier , and otherwise it reduces .%通过建立ATO供应链中最终产品制造商与其两个供应商间的讨价还价合作模型,研究了ATO供应链的零部件生产补货策略和相应的利润分配策略,并探讨了供应链中各合作主体议价能力对最优解的影响。研究发现,ATO供应链应随着最终产品销售价格的提高而增加零部件产量,随最终产品组装成本或零部件生产成本的提高而减少零部件产量;随着最终产品制造商对其中一个供应商议价能力的增强,该供应商零部件的转移价格及其利润会降低,而另外一个供应商的零部件转移价格和利润会提高;若最终产品制造商比另外一个供应商的议价能力强,其期望利润会得到提高,反之,则会降低。

  15. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjiang E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon. Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost sharing when they have different bargaining power. Lastly, the retailers decide whether to participate in the cooperative promotion campaign. We show that the retailers are likely to participate in the promotion if consumers become more price-sensitive. However, it does not imply that the retailers can benefit from the price promotion; the promotion decision game resembles the classical prisoner’s dilemma game. The retailers and suppliers can benefit from the cooperative promotion by designing an appropriate cost sharing contract. For a supply chain, the bargaining power between supplier and retailer, consumer price sensitivity, and competition intensity affect the fraction of the promotional cost sharing. We also find that equilibrium value of e-coupon set by the e-commerce platform is not optimal for all the parties.

  16. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  17. Cooperative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhuan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The current companies increasingly expect to involve more external sources to achieve more open innovation for value-added. However, the cooperation problem between internal organization and external parties still challenges the top management. This paper aims to find out the solution. The fast spring up Chinese IT market impacts the world market, especially mobile Internet. Therefore, this paper employ the fast growing Chinese Mobile Internet company--- Xiao Mi as the study case. By applying...

  18. 从交易及知识角度来认识准一体化组织%Knowing the Quasi-Integrative Organization from the Angle of Bargaining and Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世娟; 魏刚; 陈良猷

    2001-01-01

    With an illustration of the concept of quasi-integrative organization, this paper analyzes the input and output of enterprise management from the bargaining and the communion of knowledge. A general model of quasi-integrative organization is built. A bargaining framework of quasi-integrative organization from the bargaining frequency and the communion of knowledge is given.

  19. Collective Bargaining Agreement: Glendale Community College District and Glendale College Guide-Local 2276 of the American Federation of Teachers, November 16, 1988-June 30, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendale Community Coll. District, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Glendale Community College District and the Glendale College Guild is presented. This contract, covering the period from November 16, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; district rights; guild rights; grievance procedures; work stoppages; hours…

  20. Good bargains and reputable sellers - An experimental investigation of electronic feedback systems

    OpenAIRE

    D. Colucci; S.Salotti; V.Valori

    2011-01-01

    Electronic reputation mechanisms aim at signaling the quality of traders and at hampering misbehavior. When a buyer rates a seller, the main aspect to keep into account should be the consistency between the good‟s advertised characteristics and the actual good itself. On the other hand, the buyer‟s satisfaction may also be related to the surplus stemming from the transaction, i.e. whether or not the purchase was a good bargain. This constitutes a possible source of distortion in the way selle...

  1. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest in...

  2. (In)determinacy, bargaining, and R&D policies in an economy with endogenous technological change

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows how the introduction of a bargaining game structure into a standard R&D endogenous growth model can be a potential source of local indeterminacy. He also shows that on a high-growth path, the government, by directly engaging in R&D activities and using R&D subsidies, may not enhance economic growth. On a low-growth path, the government, by directly engaging in R&D activities and using R&D subsidies, may enhance economic growth.

  3. Coalition-driven initiatives in the Ugandan dairy sector: Elites, conflict, and bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    The dairy sector is one of the only agricultural sectors in Uganda that has enjoyed sustained high growth since the late 1980s. Milk and the cold dairy chain developed especially in the south-western part of the country. This paper explains why this is so by the sector’s relation to the ruling co...... was enforced to a considerable extent was the organization of dairy farmers and traders and the bargaining and compromise with the Dairy Development Authority this organization of industry actors enabled...

  4. The consequences of concluding codecision early: trilogues and intra-institutional bargaining success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne; Reh, Christine

    2013-01-01

    the legislative agenda and negotiation process. Yet, no study has systematically shown whether and how early agreements have indeed redistributed influence between actors within the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. Our contribution fills this gap by comparing actors’ bargaining success across...... readings under codecision in a dataset of salient files. Contrary to our theoretical predictions, we do not find evidence of distributional consequences when controlling for inter-institutional conflict and file characteristics. Where codecision is concluded early, the final legislative outcomes...

  5. "Buy-It-Now" or "Sell-It-Now" auctions: Effects of changing bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the "Buy-It-Now" format, the seller offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the "Sell-It-No" format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest no effects of bargaining power on agg...

  6. 基于纳什谈判的供应商-销售商联合促销线性合约设计%Linear contract design for supplier-retailer joint promotion based on Nash bargaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫东; 代建生; 熊维勤; 周苹逢

    2013-01-01

    在供应链联合促销中,双边道德风险的存在使得供应商和销售商双方都有强烈的“搭便车”激励,而合理的利益分配对促进合作双方积极投入具有重要作用.运用纳什谈判解,构造了供应链联合促销的相互激励模型,并考察了最优线性合约的存在性.研究表明:在合作能产生净剩余的条件下,存在最优的批发价格使渠道收益达到极大;尽管谈判能力对最优批发价格没有影响,但合作收益在双方之间的分配却依赖于各自具有的谈判能力.研究指出:各方分得的合作剩余与自身的谈判能力成正比,与对方的谈判能力成反比.%In joint sale promotion of supply chains, the supplier and retailer have a strong incentive of "free riding" due to double moral hazard. It is helpful of the reasonable profit sharing rule to promote active inputs of both parties. By means of Nash bargaining concept, it established mutually incentive model and investigated existence of the optimal linear contract for supply chains joint promotion. It shows that the optimal wholesale price exists on the condition of existence of net cooperative residual and the bargaining powers, on which the allocation of net residual depends, have no impact on the optimal wholesale price. What's more, it points out that the ratio of net cooperative residuals acquired by the two parties is in proportion to the ratio of bargaining power factors.

  7. Cooperative Game-Based Energy Efficiency Management over Ultra-Dense Wireless Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Pengpeng; Gao, Shouwan

    2016-09-13

    Ultra-dense wireless cellular networks have been envisioned as a promising technique for handling the explosive increase of wireless traffic volume. With the extensive deployment of small cells in wireless cellular networks, the network spectral efficiency (SE) is improved with the use of limited frequency. However, the mutual inter-tier and intra-tier interference between or among small cells and macro cells becomes serious. On the other hand, more chances for potential cooperation among different cells are introduced. Energy efficiency (EE) has become one of the most important problems for future wireless networks. This paper proposes a cooperative bargaining game-based method for comprehensive EE management in an ultra-dense wireless cellular network, which highlights the complicated interference influence on energy-saving challenges and the power-coordination process among small cells and macro cells. Especially, a unified EE utility with the consideration of the interference mitigation is proposed to jointly address the SE, the deployment efficiency (DE), and the EE. In particular, closed-form power-coordination solutions for the optimal EE are derived to show the convergence property of the algorithm. Moreover, a simplified algorithm is presented to reduce the complexity of the signaling overhead, which is significant for ultra-dense small cells. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative bargaining game-based and simplified schemes.

  8. Cooperative Game-Based Energy Efficiency Management over Ultra-Dense Wireless Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Pengpeng; Gao, Shouwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-dense wireless cellular networks have been envisioned as a promising technique for handling the explosive increase of wireless traffic volume. With the extensive deployment of small cells in wireless cellular networks, the network spectral efficiency (SE) is improved with the use of limited frequency. However, the mutual inter-tier and intra-tier interference between or among small cells and macro cells becomes serious. On the other hand, more chances for potential cooperation among different cells are introduced. Energy efficiency (EE) has become one of the most important problems for future wireless networks. This paper proposes a cooperative bargaining game-based method for comprehensive EE management in an ultra-dense wireless cellular network, which highlights the complicated interference influence on energy-saving challenges and the power-coordination process among small cells and macro cells. Especially, a unified EE utility with the consideration of the interference mitigation is proposed to jointly address the SE, the deployment efficiency (DE), and the EE. In particular, closed-form power-coordination solutions for the optimal EE are derived to show the convergence property of the algorithm. Moreover, a simplified algorithm is presented to reduce the complexity of the signaling overhead, which is significant for ultra-dense small cells. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative bargaining game-based and simplified schemes. PMID:27649170

  9. Treaty-Making in the European Union: Bargaining, Issue Linkages, and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Mateo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the results of the six most recent Intergovernmental Conferences (IGCs in the European Union (EU indicates that member governments' success in achieving substantial compromises based on issue linkages differs across cases. An examination of supranational and intergovernmental bargaining theory shows that both fail to provide a satisfactory explanation for this variation. Instead, we argue that the problem that all participants to a negotiation have an incentive to maximise individual rather than overall gains often leads to efficiency losses. In IGCs, EU member states established two procedures to surmount this problem: a preparatory phase precedes the actual negotiations, and the Council presidency acts as a mediator in the negotiations. Lack of time for preparation, a biased presidency, or external shocks that reduce the capacity of the presidency to guide the negotiations, however, can cause efficiency losses in IGCs since under these conditions the two procedures fall short of facilitating bargaining efficiency. In an empirical analysis of all IGCs from the Single European Act to the Constitutional Treaty, we find support for our argument.

  10. Collective Bargaining in a Period of Retrenchment. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (11th, New York, NY, April 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Legal and economic issues pertaining to collective bargaining in a retrenchment situation are considered in 18 conference papers. Titles and authors are as follows: "Retrenchment in State Government: Its Consequences for Higher Education" (James R. Mingle); "A Chancellor's Perspective on Retrenchment" (Joseph S. Murphy); "An Analysis of the AAUP's…

  11. The Influence of External Information on Collective Bargaining: Survey Evidence of Union and Firm Negotiators in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehr, A.R.; Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer two questions: 1- To what extent are negotiators in collective bargaining influenced by different types of external information? 2- How can differences in the influence of external information between negotiators be explained by the characteristics of the negotiators and b

  12. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  13. Transforming gender relations through the market: Smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining power in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Ruben, R.; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining position in Ethiopia, using a quasi-experiment and propensity score matching. In market participant households, milk income is higher and its control has shifted from women to men. Our data

  14. Collective Bargaining and District Costs for Teacher Health Insurance: An Examination of the Data from the BLS and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    District costs for teachers' health insurance are, on average, higher then employer costs for private-sector professionals. How much of this is attributable to collective bargaining? This article examines the question using data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the state of Wisconsin. In…

  15. 29 CFR 1420.1 - Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations Act, as amended (hereinafter âthe Actâ). 1420.1 Section 1420.1... MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE-ASSISTANCE IN THE HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY § 1420.1 Functions of the...

  16. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J.; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  17. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Homayounfar

    Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in

  18. Dynamic Online Bandwidth Adjustment Scheme Based on Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwook

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a cost effective method to provide integrated multimedia services. Usually heterogeneous multimedia data can be categorized into different types according to the required Quality of Service (QoS). Therefore, VPN should support the prioritization among different services. In order to support multiple types of services with different QoS requirements, efficient bandwidth management algorithms are important issues. In this paper, I employ the Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) for the development of an adaptive bandwidth adjustment algorithm. In addition, to effectively manage the bandwidth in VPNs, the proposed control paradigm is realized in a dynamic online approach, which is practical for real network operations. The simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the system performances.

  19. Driving a hard bargain: sex ratio and male marriage success in a historical US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel

    2008-02-23

    Evolutionary psychologists have documented a widespread female preference for men of high status and resources, and evidence from several populations suggests that this preference has real effects on marriage success. Here, we show that in the US population of 1910, socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive effect on men's chances of marrying. We also test a further prediction from the biological markets theory, namely that where the local sex ratio produces an oversupply of men, women will be able to drive a harder bargain. As the sex ratio of the states increases, the effect of SES on marriage success becomes stronger, indicating increased competition between men and an increased ability to choose on the part of women.

  20. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Herrmann, Benedikt; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The ultimatum game (UG) is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players' payoffs (i.e., fairness) is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based) desire to minimize others' payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals' intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N = 713). We find that impatience (short-run orientation) predicts the rejection of low, "unfair" offers as responder and the proposal of low, "unfair" offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners' share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other's payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest), is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining. PMID:26347625

  1. The austerity bargain and the social self: conceptual clarity surrounding health cutbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A

    2013-01-01

    As necessary austerity measures make major inroads into western health services, this paper investigates the philology of austerity and finds that there are two subtly similar yet importantly different derivations from the Latin and the Greek. The Latin austerus is an abstract term meaning dry, harsh, sour; whereas the Greek austeros has a more embodied and literal meaning of making the tongue dry. What seems an initially subtle difference between the metaphorical and the metonymic plays out as involving seriously different outcomes between harsh economic measures and the literal effects on the people suffering under measures that actually make the tongue dry. The paper argues that between the trope and the literal that which Wittgenstein described as 'a language game' ensues wherein the metaphorical through a sleight of grammar is passed off as being real while, the literal effects on real people is downplayed as metaphorical 'collateral damage'. The paper further argues that within this grammar that forces itself upon us, the game of capital is played out through what the author terms an austerity bargain that is levelled by the financial elites: healthy capitalism equals a healthy society. The paper then examines the six elements of the social determinants of health and what actually contributes to a healthy society. Rather than being under an individual threat of exclusion from what Marx termed a superabundance, the paper considers the irreducible differences between the game of capital's individualism, and, the social determinants of health's social inclusion, legitimization and that which Habermas termed public authentication. The paper concludes that not only do necessary austerity measures need to be critiqued but that they radically undermine what determines a healthy society. It follows also that the social determinants of health, radically undermine the bargain inherent for the privileged few within the game of capital.

  2. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Espín

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ultimatum game (UG is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players’ payoffs (i.e., fairness is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based desire to minimize others’ payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals’ intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N=713. We find that impatience (short-run orientation predicts the rejection of low, unfair offers as responder and the proposal of low, unfair offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners’ share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other’s payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest, is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining.

  3. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M.; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Herrmann, Benedikt; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The ultimatum game (UG) is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players’ payoffs (i.e., fairness) is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based) desire to minimize others’ payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals’ intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N = 713). We find that impatience (short-run orientation) predicts the rejection of low, “unfair” offers as responder and the proposal of low, “unfair” offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners’ share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other’s payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest), is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining. PMID:26347625

  4. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  5. New Cooperative Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Hardesty, Shermain D.; Shultz, Madeline; Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the increased interest in new cooperative development, factors for successful cooperative development, and strategies to improve the performance of new and emerging cooperatives. The article highlights issues identified by a panel of cooperative leaders, USDA specialists and academic experts

  6. Cooperative Fuzzy Games Approach to Setting Target Levels of ECs in Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD can provide a means of translating customer requirements (CRs into engineering characteristics (ECs for each stage of product development and production. The main objective of QFD-based product planning is to determine the target levels of ECs for a new product or service. QFD is a breakthrough tool which can effectively reduce the gap between CRs and a new product/service. Even though there are conflicts among some ECs, the objective of developing new product is to maximize the overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, there may be room for cooperation among ECs. A cooperative game framework combined with fuzzy set theory is developed to determine the target levels of the ECs in QFD. The key to develop the model is the formulation of the bargaining function. In the proposed methodology, the players are viewed as the membership functions of ECs to formulate the bargaining function. The solution for the proposed model is Pareto-optimal. An illustrated example is cited to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed approach.

  7. Cooperative fuzzy games approach to setting target levels of ECs in quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Chen, Yizeng; Yin, Yunqiang

    2014-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) can provide a means of translating customer requirements (CRs) into engineering characteristics (ECs) for each stage of product development and production. The main objective of QFD-based product planning is to determine the target levels of ECs for a new product or service. QFD is a breakthrough tool which can effectively reduce the gap between CRs and a new product/service. Even though there are conflicts among some ECs, the objective of developing new product is to maximize the overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, there may be room for cooperation among ECs. A cooperative game framework combined with fuzzy set theory is developed to determine the target levels of the ECs in QFD. The key to develop the model is the formulation of the bargaining function. In the proposed methodology, the players are viewed as the membership functions of ECs to formulate the bargaining function. The solution for the proposed model is Pareto-optimal. An illustrated example is cited to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Cooperative fuzzy games approach to setting target levels of ECs in quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Chen, Yizeng; Yin, Yunqiang

    2014-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) can provide a means of translating customer requirements (CRs) into engineering characteristics (ECs) for each stage of product development and production. The main objective of QFD-based product planning is to determine the target levels of ECs for a new product or service. QFD is a breakthrough tool which can effectively reduce the gap between CRs and a new product/service. Even though there are conflicts among some ECs, the objective of developing new product is to maximize the overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, there may be room for cooperation among ECs. A cooperative game framework combined with fuzzy set theory is developed to determine the target levels of the ECs in QFD. The key to develop the model is the formulation of the bargaining function. In the proposed methodology, the players are viewed as the membership functions of ECs to formulate the bargaining function. The solution for the proposed model is Pareto-optimal. An illustrated example is cited to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed approach. PMID:25097884

  9. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  10. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  11. Bargaining for power and information : an experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction between institutions, externalities and adverse selection

    OpenAIRE

    Siegenthaler, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Bargaining is the building block of many economic interactions, ranging from bilateral to multilateral encounters and from situations in which the actors are individuals to negotiations between firms or countries. In all these settings, economists have been intrigued for a long time by the fact that some projects, trades or agreements are not realized even though they are mutually beneficial. On the one hand, this has been explained by incomplete information. A firm may not be willing to offe...

  12. A Social Contract Account for CSR as Extended Model of Corporate Governance (Part I): Rational Bargaining and Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Sacconi, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a two parts essay aimed at giving a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. I fist present the heuristics of the scientific program meant to theorizing over an institution like a system of corporate governance, which is partitioned in two domains, the justification domain and the compliance domain. Bargaining theory, reputation game and reciprocity theories,...

  13. Telemedical work and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    In telemedicine, cooperation occurs via telecommunication. This represents a new situation for medical cooperation. Whether such cooperation works poorly or well will be important with an increasing volume of telemedicine. When personnel are involved in external cooperation, as in telemedicine, the question of cooperation within one's own organization also arises. To investigate these matters, qualitative interviews were performed with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. The results showed that cooperating by telecommunication mainly worked well. The cooperation may be influenced by factors such as personality, knowing each other personally, preparation and experience. Telemedical teamwork may be improved by factors like experience and education. Working with telemedicine did not reduce the personnel's cooperation within their own organizations, but rather improved it, although this effect was slight and most commonly involved improved knowledge of others. In general, the findings concerning cooperation and telemedicine were positive. PMID:11506756

  14. Poder de barganha dos sindicatos e negociações coletivas na indústria do Rio Grande do Sul, 1979-1995 Bargaining power of the unions and collective bargaining in the industry of the Rio Grande do Sul, 1979-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Horn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between bargaining outcomes in seventeen units regarding the manufacturing sector in Rio Grande do Sul, and change in the relevant economic environment from 1979 to 1995. Theories on the determinants of bargaining outcomes are discussed in order to provide a basis for hypothesizing about the specific case. Statistical outcomes suggest that collective bargaining have been basically influenced by unemployment, manufacturing relative prices, the stabilization policies starting in 1986, and, specifically for negotiated minimum wages, change in the official rates of minimum wages.

  15. The Right Cognition Effect in Bargaining Game Decision-making%议价博弈决策的权利认知效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟; 皇甫桦彦; 李红

    2012-01-01

    The fact that the cognition factor plays a significant role in individual decision-making has been recognized by a majority of psychologists. Some economics and psychology research described a phenomenon that when players had a distinct right in a bargaining game, they manifested various strategies and decision behavior. But there were few investigators of mental mechanism and litle support of experiment data for this phenomenon. In a Nash bargaining game, tile two players had interdependent relations and identical fights. However, the two players in the ultimatum game had not only interdependent relations but also dissimilar rights. In the ultimatum game, the proposer and the respondent were both faced with the cognition issue understanding of the rights of his own and the other's. Based on the analysis of game tasks and theories, the author proposed the right cognition effect was a phenomenon in bargaining games and that the strategic choice and decision behavior of the decision maker were influenced because of his/her cognition degree about his/her right and the other player' s right. The Nash bargaining game (NG) and the ultimatum game (UG) were chosen to investigate the existence of the right cognition effect. 180 children and 60 university students averagely aged 6, 9, 12 and 20 participated in the experiment. In NG, they were requested to individually make a distribution number from 10 tokens to an anonymous peer. In UG, they made an offer from 10 tokens to another anonymous peer. All the tokens they got in the game would exchange with their favorite award, including candy, stationery or cash. Their NG scores were calculated by subtracting the distribution number from 10. Their UG scores were their offers. Every participant played NG and UG five times. After each game, they answered some questions about their strategies. In the end, the participants exchanged the tokens they gained for favorite rewards. The Paired-Samples T Test showed that each

  16. The Right Cognition Effect in Bargaining Game Decision-making%议价博弈决策的权利认知效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟; 皇甫桦彦; 李红

    2012-01-01

    The fact that the cognition factor plays a significant role in individual decision-making has been recognized by a majority of psychologists. Some economics and psychology research described a phenomenon that when players had a distinct right in a bargaining game, they manifested various strategies and decision behavior. But there were few investigators of mental mechanism and litle support of experiment data for this phenomenon. In a Nash bargaining game, tile two players had interdependent relations and identical fights. However, the two players in the ultimatum game had not only interdependent relations but also dissimilar rights. In the ultimatum game, the proposer and the respondent were both faced with the cognition issue understanding of the rights of his own and the other's. Based on the analysis of game tasks and theories, the author proposed the right cognition effect was a phenomenon in bargaining games and that the strategic choice and decision behavior of the decision maker were influenced because of his/her cognition degree about his/her right and the other player' s right. The Nash bargaining game (NG) and the ultimatum game (UG) were chosen to investigate the existence of the right cognition effect. 180 children and 60 university students averagely aged 6, 9, 12 and 20 participated in the experiment. In NG, they were requested to individually make a distribution number from 10 tokens to an anonymous peer. In UG, they made an offer from 10 tokens to another anonymous peer. All the tokens they got in the game would exchange with their favorite award, including candy, stationery or cash. Their NG scores were calculated by subtracting the distribution number from 10. Their UG scores were their offers. Every participant played NG and UG five times. After each game, they answered some questions about their strategies. In the end, the participants exchanged the tokens they gained for favorite rewards. The Paired-Samples T Test showed that each

  17. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  18. Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article p...

  19. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  20. The Cooperative Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neu

  1. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  2. Power Allocation and Pricing in Multi-User Relay Networks Using Stackelberg and Bargaining Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qian; Jing, Yindi

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-user single-relay wireless network, where the relay gets paid for helping the users forward signals, and the users pay to receive the relay service. We study the relay power allocation and pricing problems, and model the interaction between the users and the relay as a two-level Stackelberg game. In this game, the relay, modeled as the service provider and the leader of the game, sets the relay price to maximize its revenue; while the users are modeled as customers and the followers who buy power from the relay for higher transmission rates. We use a bargaining game to model the negotiation among users to achieve a fair allocation of the relay power. Based on the proposed fair relay power allocation rule, the optimal relay power price that maximizes the relay revenue is derived analytically. Simulation shows that the proposed power allocation scheme achieves higher network sum-rate and relay revenue than the even power allocation. Furthermore, compared with the sum-rate-optimal so...

  3. Vertical Integration or Disintegration? A Bargaining Model of the Maquiladora's Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuho Kochi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analytical framework to study the demands of foreign and domestic factors of production of the maquiladora industry. We derive the net profitability of demanding high in72 9 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 stead of low quality inputs. We argue that differences in the quality of inputs between foreign and domestic factors can explain the low vertical integration of the maquiladora with the Mexican industry. We show that if the difference in quality and its positive effect in marginal production compensates the difference in prices, then the maquiladora can be induced to integrate vertically with foreign suppliers of inputs, even if the unitary cost to demand foreign inputs is strictly higher than that of domestic inputs. We also show that a depreciation of the Mexican exchange rate does not necessarily increase the maquiladora's demand of Mexican inputs. This explains recent empirical evidence showing this phenomenon. Conversely, a depreciation of the exchange rate might increase the maquiladora's demand of imported inputs if foreign and domestic factors are complementary. The above holds even if the domestic supplier participates in a bargaining game offering an efficient contract.

  4. To publish and perish: A Faustian bargain or a Hobson's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariappa, M P; Dalal, S S; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    As a matter of career choice, doctors have to choose between becoming an 'academic' or a 'practitioner.' To conduct research and publish articles in scientific journals is compulsory for the academic professional and mostly optional for the latter. The Medical Council of India has revised the eligibility qualifications for medical teachers over the past decade, and has now come out with regulations for streamlining the process of promotion by focusing on scientific papers, apart from clarifying on required experience and qualifications. 'Predatory publishers' are proliferating across the world, exploiting the reach of the Internet, and are enticing naïve professionals to publish their research work with them. The pitfalls of paid publishing in such journals may tarnish upcoming careers if doctors are not cautious. For a price, there are many publishers who will process articles without even rudimentary peer review; and for the sake of padding up of the resume, this Faustian bargain may eventually prove detrimental to authors, and thus with their professional credibility at stake, may prove to be a Hobson's choice. It is suggested for authors to make a wise choice and a correct decision when selecting a journal to submit their manuscripts. PMID:27274612

  5. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Zanolie

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.

  6. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered.......This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...

  7. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  8. 一个VMI系统中的纳什讨价还价模型%Nash Bargaining Model of a VMI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿前恺; 刘志学; 施文

    2012-01-01

    研究一个单供应商单制造商的VMI系统.通过将纳什讨价还价(议价)引入零部件价格决策过程,我们发现,制造商的收益总是随着其议价能力的增强而增加,而供应商的收益却可能会随着其议价能力的增强而减少;存在使供应商利润最大化的供应商最优议价能力.同时,供应商最优议价能力受供应商物流决策的影响.具体而言,最优议价能力在运输业务外包时可能增加或减小,在库存业务外包时增加.此外,供应商最优议价能力也受需求函数特性的影响.%This paper studies a VMI system with one supplier and one manufacturer. The Nash bargaining is incorporated into the process of determining the component' s price. We discover that the manufacturer's profit always increases with his bargaining power. However,the supplier's profit may decrease with her bargaining power; there exists an optimal bargaining power for the supplier. We also find that the optimal bargaining power for the supplier is impacted by the supplier's logistics decision; more specifically,it may increase or decrease if the business on transportation is outsourced and will increase if the business on inventory is outsourced. Furthermore, the optimal bargaining power for the supplier is also influenced by the characteristic of demand function.

  9. Cooperative Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have described how cooperation can benefit the different phases of the so called cognitive radio cycle. In particular we have focused on physical layer cooperation, showing that benefits can be obtained for both the primary and the secondary system in terms of spatial diversity, increased range and increased availability. In addition, we have modeled the critical interference management problem in a cooperative and cognitive system through a game theoretical approach, as w...

  10. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  11. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  12. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  13. The Strategies of Tofu and Fermented Soybean Cake Cooperation in Facing China-Asean Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the internal and external factor for encountering free trade China-Asean and to find some strategic model alternative that can be applied by Primkopti Semarang to develop their business. The analysis methods used were descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. The result of this research showed that internal factors for cooperation’s strength for encountering free trade including soybean distributor in form of cooperation in Semarang and experienced manager to carry out the business. The weakness one was the research and development of cooperation hasn’t been optimal and the management of information system hasn’t worked well. External factors for opportunity one including the soybean buyer or main customer was cooperation members having dual identity, as for the threat including no resistance for new competitor, increasing soybean import, soybean importer has strong bargain position. Compatible strategy for cooperation implementation in encountering free trade China-Asean was market penetration strategy and product development.

  14. Revenue sharing in semiconductor industry supply chain: Cooperative game theoretic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikram K Bahinipati; Arun Kanda; S G Deshmukh

    2009-06-01

    This paper defines cooperation as the process of coordinating the objectives and activities of supply chain (SC) members. It also focuses on cooperation as a solution for hybrid coordination mechanism to form the basis for semiconductor industry supply chain management. In the complex and competitive environment of semiconductor industry supply chain, independent system members are facing the difficult task of providing/sharing incentives resulting from e-market activities in a fair and equitable manner. So, various other activities are necessary for the e-market to make revenue sharing operations more stable and reliable. In this context, the importance of coalition in enhancing the e-market capability, for revenue generation and sharing, is used to develop a possible mechanism for financial compensation to the supply chain members. Interpreting the supply chain as cooperation, the concepts of the Shapely value are used in this paper for analysing the revenue sharing problem. The motivation behind such a scheme is to align the supply chain members’ cost structure with the bidding value during auction and bargaining for e-procurement. The appropriateness of the Shapely value is verified to ensure that a stable solution exists. The practical implication of this paper is how to make right decisions about revenue sharing. The principal contribution of this approach is for establishing a pooling coalition in order to provide a stable and cooperative solution.

  15. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  16. Cooperative Wideband OFDM Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, major attention is paid to cooperative diversity as an alternative way to achieve spatial diversity when the multiple antenna structure is not an option. By adopting the cooperative relay nodes to forward information, we can mitigate the fading effects, increase the capacity, lower t

  17. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (g

  18. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  19. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  20. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it...

  1. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  2. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  3. The Impact of Ownership on Bargaining Power of Firms in China%所有制性质对中国企业议价能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 蒋婷婷; 吴龙

    2012-01-01

    The idea of Schelling-Muthoo bargaining theory is that the smaller concession cost is, the less benefit receives. There are soft budget constraints, loss transition ability for some Chinese enterprises, which can weaken incentives of stick its position, so these firms would concede too much. The authors forwardly prove Schelling-Muthoo Negotiation Solution, and illustrate the result using four-quadrant mapping method. Then the authors make an empirical test using more than 1.5 millions firm-level data, and find that the purchasing cost of state-owned and collective enterprises are significantly higher than those of private enterprise. Those results reflect the bargaining power of state-owned enterprises is lower, therefore market economy reforms should be promoted to optimize resource allocation and defense the interest of international cooperation.%Schelling-Muthoo讨价还价思想认为,谈判中让步的成本越小,获得的谈判收益越少。我国部分企业由于存在预算软约束、损失转嫁、多重委托代理等问题,弱化了据理力争的激励,因而在谈判中容易过度让步。本文运用正向求解方法证明了Schelling-Muthoo谈判解,并用自己发展出来的四象限作图方法展示了这一结果。进而运用1999—2007年中国150多万家企业的微观数据进行实证检验,结果发现国有企业和集体企业的中间投入品购买成本显著高于民营企业,表明国有企业和集体企业讨价还价能力较低,因而中国只有继续推进市场化改革,才能对内优化资源配置、对外捍卫国际合作利益。

  4. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  5. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    , not least in the power sector. Over the years, five focus areas have been addressed. Energy security of supply triggered the Nordic cooperation with the need to develop a long-term energy policy. This required decision-making support and energy systems analyses based on reliable and valid data, modelling...... and policy scenarios. Energy markets developed from a political wish to make the important oil and gas sector an area of cooperation that led finally to the recognition that there was no common ground for closer cooperation in this field. However, power utilities and grid companies cooperated across...... the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...

  6. Newsletter, National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions, Vol. 8, No. 4, November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the area of academic collective bargaining are examined. Issues pertaining to interest and final offer arbitration are discussed, with attention to authority of judicial arbitrators and interest arbitrators, standards for the interest arbitrator, and public sector problems. Information on strikes in the fall of 1980 indicate no…

  7. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Adrian College and Adrian College Association of Professors (MEA/NEA), September 1, 1984-September 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Adrian College and Adrian College Association of Professors, an affiliate of the Michigan and National Education Associations, covering the period September 1, 1984-September 1, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; definitions; rights of the Board of Trustees;…

  8. New Public Management, Public Service Bargains and the challenges of interdepartmental coordination: a comparative analysis of top civil servants in state administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Steen, Trui; de Jong, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    In this article we are interested in how the coordinating role of top civil servants is related to the argument that country-level differences in the adoption of New Public Management significantly alter the Public Service Bargains of top civil servants and consequently their capacity to accompli...

  9. Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Hein

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.

  10. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  11. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  12. NBA集体谈判协议及其所面临的挑战%NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement and the Challenges It Faces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智

    2011-01-01

    Collective bargaining is the way to handle labor relationships in Western society, and the contracts are formed on the basis of consensus between labor unions and employers. The United States is an early country recognized collective bargaining and applied it into professional sports fields gradually,and developed its characteristics. In NBA's collective bargaining agreement, include some restrictive measures,such as the age requirement of players access to league, freedom of movement, salary cap, and so on, the purpose of these rules is to balance the competition between teams. Now, NBA's collective bargaining system faces the challenges from developing overseas basketball markets,so,NBA needs reconsider of its global strategy and the upcoming collective bargaining in 2011.%美国是较早确认集体谈判机制的国家,后逐渐将其适用于职业体育领域,并形成其特点。NBA的集体谈判协议中安排了球员准入年龄、自由流动及工资帽等限制性措施,其目的是为了平衡球队间的竞争。在海外篮球市场的冲击下,其集体谈判机制面临挑战,NBA需对其全球战略及即将进行的2011年集体谈判进行重新考量。

  13. International cooperation and exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA continued and enlarged bilateral cooperation with the nuclear energy developing countries and enhanced visiting for high rank leaders of regulatory authorities. Besides, the domestic units for implementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety were settled by coordination

  14. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  15. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached...

  16. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  17. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  18. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  19. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  20. Fruitful International Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingfa; Wang Zhongqiao

    1997-01-01

    @@ Dagang Oilfield Group Ltd.Company, one of the 100 enterprises under the pilot reform test on modern enterprise system in China, has made great achievements in foreign cooperation, technical exchange, and project contracting abroad.

  1. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  2. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  3. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  4. Non-cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, E.E.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (games in normal form, and games in extensive form), as well as the main concepts that have been proposed to solve these games.Solution concepts predict the outcomes that might arise when the game is...

  5. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  6. Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz; Sładkowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox...

  7. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  8. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  9. Divisional power, intra-firm bargaining and rent-seeking behavior in multidivisional corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Navarra; Ram Mudambi

    2004-01-01

    Increasing divisional operational responsibilities and the dispersal of knowledge creating activities within the firm have loosened the traditional hierarchical structure of multi-divisional firms. In this paper we argue that a similar mixture of competition and cooperation that is found in inter-firm relationships now characterizes intra-firm relationships. Our model describes a situation in which divisional managers have their own objectives that may diverge from those of the firm as a whol...

  10. More equal than others: Equity norms as an integration of cognitive heuristics and contextual cues in bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Rustichini, Aldo

    2013-09-01

    Behavior in one-shot bargaining games, like the Ultimatum Game (UG), has been interpreted as an expression of social preferences, such as inequity aversion and negative reciprocity; however, the traditional UG design limits the range of possible psychological interpretation of the results. Here, we employed three different designs for ultimatum games, finding support for a more comprehensive theory: behavior is driven by cognitive factors implementing rules such as equal splitting, speaking up for the idea that equity works as a cognitive heuristic, applicable when the environment provides no reason to behave otherwise. Instead subjects deviate from this rule when environment changes, as, for instance, when personal interest is at stake. Results show that behavior varies systematically with contextual cues, balancing the self-interest with the automatic application of the equity heuristic. Thus, the context suggests the rule to be applied in a specific situation. PMID:23739580

  11. Considering Cooperation: A Guide For New Cooperative Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Anderson, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    This publication reviews the key elements needed for successful formation and development of new cooperative businesses. The motivation for and process of forming cooperatives are discussed. Six phases of cooperative formation are presented including: 1) identifying the opportunity, 2) building consensus on the potential for a cooperative, 3) developing trust among potential members, 4) securing member commitment, 5) involving other stakeholders, and 6) starting up the cooperative enterprise....

  12. A Non-Cooperative Approach to the Joint Subcarrier and Power Allocation Problem in Multi-Service SCFDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Tsiropoulou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a joint resource allocation problem is studied in a multi-service Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA wireless network. Mobile users request various services with different Quality of Service (QoS characteristics and they determine in a distributed and non-cooperative manner a joint subcarrier and power allocation towards fulfilling their QoS prerequisites. Initially, a well-designed utility function is formulated to appropriately represent users’ diverse QoS prerequisites with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers allocation problem is solved based on a multilateral bargaining model, where users are able to select different discount factors to enter the bargaining game, thus better expressing their different needs in system resources with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers mapping is realized based either on the localized SC-FDMA method where the subcarriers are sequentially allocated to the users or the distributed SC-FDMA via considering the maximum channel gain policy, where each subcarrier is allocated to the user with the maximum channel gain. Given the subcarriers assignment, an optimization problem with respect to users’ uplink transmission power is formulated and solved, in order to determine the optimal power allocation per subcarrier assigned to each user. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via modeling and simulation and extensive numerical results are presented.

  13. International Cooperation at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  14. A single buyer-single supplier bargaining problem with asymmetric information : theoretical approach and software implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sucky, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on the coordination of order and production policy between buyers and suppliers in supply chains. When a buyer and a supplier of an item work independently, the buyer will place orders based on his economic order quantity (EOQ). However, the buyer s EOQ may not lead to an optimal policy for the supplier. It can be shown that a cooperative batching policy can reduce total cost significantly. Should the buyer have the more powerful position to enforce his EOQ on the suppli...

  15. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  16. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  17. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  18. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  19. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  20. Subradiant split Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of Cavity Quantum Ele...

  1. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  2. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  3. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  4. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  5. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  6. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  7. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  8. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  9. Quantum Cooperative Games

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, A

    2002-01-01

    We study two forms of a symmetric cooperative game played by three players, one classical and other quantum. In its classical form making a coalition gives advantage to players and they are motivated to do so. However in its quantum form the advantage is lost and players are left with no motivation to make coalition.

  10. Cooperating with the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  11. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  12. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Philippine President Benigno Aquino Ⅲ recently completed a five-day visit to China,his first state visit to China since he took office last year.The two countries reached consensus on promoting all-round cooperation,especially in trade and the economy,and downplayed disputes in the South China Sea.

  13. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  14. 集体谈判制度的发展困境及完善%Development Plight and Perfection of the Collective Bargaining System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志玲

    2016-01-01

    Collective bargaining system is an effective way to resolve labor conflicts.The system in our country is only at a preliminary stage.It is faced with the plight from employees,employers and the Government.Collectivized labor force is not formed to safeguard their rights,Strong employers and strong control of the government restricted the development of the collective bargaining system in Chi-na.We were perfect from the following aspects:to establish of a multi -level system of collective bargaining,and improve relevant laws ,and straighten the role of government,and training professionals.%集体谈判制度是解决劳资矛盾的一种有效方式,在我国尚处于起步阶段。一方面,劳方未形成集体化力量维权,另一方面,资方的过于强势和政府的强力控制又制约了集体谈判制度在我国的发展。应从以下几个方面进行完善:建立多层次的集体谈判制度、健全相关法律、摆正政府角色、培养专业人才。

  15. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  16. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  17. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed

  18. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  19. Legal Issues of the Collective Bargaining System in China%我国集体谈判制度法律问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铁迪; 闫子良

    2015-01-01

    集体谈判是一种发挥劳动者集体的力量,通过劳动者集体的代表与企业直接对话、平等谈判,就劳动报酬、工作时间、休息休假、社会保障等内容双方达成一致并签订集体合同的制度。这种将劳动者团结在一起从而增强自身力量、平衡劳动者和企业悬殊地位的安排,已被理论和实践充分证明了其必要性和可行性,并且已经在我国推行了近二十年。但是,集体谈判却在诸多本应发挥其作用的领域表现欠佳,这不得不引人反思。如何在我国现有的用工环境和劳动关系背景下进一步完善集体谈判制度,使其有效运行,仍是我国劳动法理论界和实务界急需破解的困局。%Collective bargaining system could collect strength of workers .The representatives of the workers directly dialogue and negotiate with enterprises equally , in order to sign a collective contract to arrange the conditions of la-bor remuneration , working hours , rest and vacation , social security and so on .It has been fully proved by the theo-ry and practices that workers get together so as to enhance their strength and balance the power of workers and en -terprises .Collective bargaining has been in China for nearly two decades , and China's legislation has begun to carry out collective bargaining system resources .However , it is thought-provoking that collective bargaining performs poorly in many areas .It still is a dilemma for China's labor law theory and practical circles to further improve the system of collective bargaining in the context of our existing labor environment and labor relations .

  20. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  1. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von;

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  2. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  3. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  4. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  5. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  6. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  7. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  8. Cooperative photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xianjun; Zhao, Jincai; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-05-31

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis has been experiencing a renaissance in response to topical interest in renewable energy and green chemistry. The latest progress in this area indicates that cooperation between photoredox catalysis and other domains of catalysis could provide effective results. Thus, we advance the concept of cooperative photoredox catalysis for organic transformations. It is important to note that this concept can bridge the gap between visible-light photoredox catalysis and other types of redox catalysis such as transition-metal catalysis, biocatalysis or electrocatalysis. In doing so, one can take advantage of the best of both worlds in establishing organic synthesis with visible-light-induced redox reaction as a crucial step. PMID:27094803

  9. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  10. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  11. Le banche popolari cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Co-operative banks are an important reality of the credit system and they are spread in Italy and in Europe. These banks are a category different from other banks, as are characterized by a legal form which has some very specific characteristics. These banks may contribute to the development of human capital and the strengthening of social capital, but also to the development of the knowledge economy that thrives on knowledge and tacit knowledge passed down through the local culture. This ess...

  12. Growth, Cooperation And Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping called for strengthened cconomic,political and cultural ties with Bangladesh,Laos,New Zealand and Australia during his visits to these countries from June 14-24. In a speech at a trade forum in Canberra,Xi suggested China and Australia deepen cooperation in energy and resources.The two countries' governments and companies should work together to build "'long-term and stable"relations for trade and investment in these fields.

  13. Quantized Cooperative Control

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Meng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis project, we consider the cooperative control of multi-agent systems under limited communication between the individual agents. In particular, quantized values of the relatives states between neighboring agents are used as the control parameters for each agent. As an introductory part, the theoretical framework for the distributed consensus problem under perfect communication is reviewed with the focus on the system stability and convergence. We start from the common problem set...

  14. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Perrucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  15. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  16. Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution for optimal resource allocation over wireless DS-CDMA visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance applications usually require high levels of video quality, resulting in high power consumption. The existence of a well-behaved scheme to balance video quality and power consumption is crucial for the system's performance. In the present work, we adopt the game-theoretic approach of Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) to deal with the problem of optimal resource allocation in a multi-node wireless visual sensor network (VSN). In our setting, the Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) method is used for channel access, while a cross-layer optimization design, which employs a central processing server, accounts for the overall system efficacy through all network layers. The task assigned to the central server is the communication with the nodes and the joint determination of their transmission parameters. The KSBS is applied to non-convex utility spaces, efficiently distributing the source coding rate, channel coding rate and transmission powers among the nodes. In the underlying model, the transmission powers assume continuous values, whereas the source and channel coding rates can take only discrete values. Experimental results are reported and discussed to demonstrate the merits of KSBS over competing policies.

  17. 客机交易议价模型研究%The Bargaining Model for Commercial Airplane Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星晨

    2016-01-01

    由于交易的特殊性,客机的成交价格和目录价格之间往往存在较大差异,而且具体差异程度由于商业保密的原因难以被外界获知。本文从不完全信息动态博弈的角度,利用Zeuthen模型,对客机交易的过程和结果进行了研究,分析了交易双方在不同报价策略情况下合同成交价格的变化,并讨论了交易双方的议价能力,得到的结果具有合理性和参考价值。%Due to the highly business sensitivity and confidentiality, the list price and contract price of airplane often have huge difference, the extent of which is unknown to the public. Based on Zeuthen model, took an example of the dynamic game of incomplete information, this paper analyzed the process of negotiation, studied the relationships between ending contract prices and initial bids, as well as discussed the implications of bidding strategy on bargaining powers. The results are reasonable and helpful for decision-making.

  18. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55216). In order to avoid an overlap in... Employment and Training Administration Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper... workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc.,...

  19. Designing Leadership models in a Three Level Unlimited Supply Chain: Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnehad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase overall supply chain system benefits. In order to achieve the overall objectives, many contradictions may occur between the components and different levels of supply chain and the contradictions that these disorders over time, result in decreased strength and competitiveness of the supply chain. Such conflicts, like marketing costs (advertising, pricing and inventory can occur during the supply chain life cycle. A Game Theory approach with respect to property is the appropriate tool for collaboration in the supply chain. This tool is used for collaborative making in any kind of supply chain such as cooperative supply chain and non-cooperative supply chain. In the present study and assuming a lack of cooperation between different levels of a supply chain, a dynamic game with complete information has been generated. In addition identifying appropriate leaders of various levels of the supply chain is considered. Non-Cooperative dynamic game mode (Stackelberg Game, for each of the three levels of supply chain including retailers, suppliers and manufacturers are modeled. Depending on the bargaining power and its position in the market, any level of supply chain can make a leader of the following rule. In the present study, the equilibrium model to play Stackelberg game may be led by a leader or leading players and ultimately identifying and modeling the appropriate unlimited three level supply chain are determined.

  20. Research on Plea Bargaining- Together With Discussion of Necessity of Plea Bargaining in Investigation of Corruption and Bribery%辩侦交易探析--兼论辩侦交易在贪污贿赂犯罪侦查中的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付传军

    2015-01-01

    辩侦交易作为一种取证手段适用于特定案件,可以提高侦查效益。贪污贿赂犯罪的特点和新的《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》的有关修改,决定了将辩侦交易引入贪污贿赂犯罪侦查过程是必要的,且具有可行性。辩侦交易在实践中可能会存在一定的风险或出现相关问题,应遵循一定的原则严格使用,包括贯彻法治原则、必要性原则、有限适度原则、双方自愿原则和诚实信用原则等。在实践中,辩侦交易的近似形态有我国“坦白从宽”刑事政策和贿赂犯罪的有关规定、美国“刑事免责”制度,以及“污点证人豁免”制度,它们虽然不具有前述辩侦交易的全部要件,却具有辩侦交易的内核和意旨。%Plea Bargaining can improve the efficiency of the investigation as a forensic means to a particular case. The characteristics of crimes of embezzlement and bribery and the new revision of the people's Republic ofChina Criminal Procedure Law determine the necessity of introducing the Plea Bargaining into the investigation of corrup-tion and bribery process and it is feasible.The use of Plea Bargaining should be strictly limited as the practice might cause some risks or relevant problems.The application should be in line with the rule of law principle,ne-cessity principle,limited moderation principle,the duel voluntary principle and the principle of trust and faith.In practice,the approximate form of Plea Bargaining in our country is similar to “frankness and leniency”criminal policy,“criminal free responsibility system”and the “guilty witness immunity system”of the United States.Al-though they do not have all the factors of Plea Bargaining,they do have the kernel and intention of the Plea Bar-gaining.

  1. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  2. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short...

  3. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  4. Cooperation Between Equals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 MARKS the 55th anniversary of the start of contemporary friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu’s recent African trip gave another boost to the burgeoning China-Africa ties,said Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun.Hui visited five African countries - Mauritius, Zambia,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Cameroon and Senegal -from January 6 to 19.Agriculture and trade were some of the most promising areas of cooperation between China and these countries,said Zhai in a recent interview with ChinAfrica.Excerpts follow:

  5. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, K.; Kurian, A; Snowdon, C

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  6. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (Saguinus oedipus)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; KURIAN, AIMEE V.; Snowdon, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  7. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  8. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission ...

  9. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  10. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  11. On Construction of Plea Bargaining System in China%论辩诉交易制度在我国的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秋远

    2015-01-01

    辩诉交易制度产生于美国,是美国特有的一项司法制度,它具有结案快、效率高等优点。在我国,司法机关也进行了有益尝试,取得了一定的效果,显示了该制度的可行性,应当引入并加以借鉴。应从辩诉交易在我国的制度名称、应遵循的基本原则、适用范围、适用条件、审查机制和救济机制等方面,结合国情对现行的刑事诉讼制度进行相应修改和完善,构建起具有中国特色的辩诉交易制度。%Plea bargaining system, originated in the United States, is a unique American judicial system, which has advantages of coping with cases fast and effectively. In our country, the judicial organs have carried on some beneficial attempts and obtained certain effect, which shows the feasibility of the system that can be introduced and drew lessons from them. In order to establish the plea bargaining system with Chinese characteristics, we should research on the name, the basic principles, scope, applicable conditions, review and relief mechanism of the plea bargaining system in our country, and combine with national conditions of the current criminal litigation system to carry on the corresponding modification and improvement.

  12. 协商评价中评价者动态影响力的计算方法%Calculation Method of Evaluators’ Dynamic Influence on Bargaining Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛强; 郭亚军

    2014-01-01

    For the limitations of the lack of considering evaluators ’ influence on existing bargaining evaluation , a calculation method of evaluators ’ dynamic influence in bargaining evaluation is proposed .First, evaluation con-text is set and research hypothesis is proposed .In addition , related concepts and definitions of evaluators ’ dynamic influence are given , and then calculation methods of initial value of evaluators ’ dynamic influence , bar-gaining weight and value-added of evaluators ’ dynamic influence are proposed .What ’ s more, the parameter sensitivity is analyzed .Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the practicability and maneuverability of the proposed method .%针对现有协商评价方法中缺乏考虑评价者影响力的局限性,提出一种协商评价中评价者动态影响力的计算方法。首先设定评价情境,提出研究前提假设;然后给出动态影响力的相关概念和定义,提出评价者动态影响力初值、协商权重以及动态影响力增值的计算方法,并对参数敏感性进行了分析;最后通过一个算例验证了方法的实用性和可操作性。

  13. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  14. 论中国辩诉交易制度的构建%On Obstacles to the Implementation of Plea Bargaining with the System Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳

    2012-01-01

    It is only natural that plea bargaining system originated from the United States and then got widely spread. On the one hand, the plea bargaining system gets the defendant actively involved in litigation, making it possible for the defendant to strive for their own rigbts and interests. On the other hand, the existence of plea bargaining system balances the state power and the contradiction between individual rights and provides a rational dialogue platform for both parties. Finally, the modern social harmony and human rights protection does not simply rely on punishment itself, it 'also helps to meet most people's litigation rights, thus making it possible to solve social contradictions and maintain social order. But in China constructing plea bargaining system can not be achieved in one day. We should have an in - depth understanding of China's national conditions and the systems concerned.%辩诉交易制度最早起源于美国,而后得到广泛传播是有其内在合理性的:一方面,辩诉交易制度给予了被告人充分参与诉讼的机会,使被告人可以为自己的权益而奋斗;另一方面,辩诉交易制度的存在平衡了国家权力与个人权利之间的矛盾,为双方权利的行驶提供了一个理性对话的平台;最后,现代社会的和谐与人权的保障并不简单依靠刑罚其本身,辩诉交易通过满足多数人的诉讼权益,从而迅速解决社会矛盾、稳定社会秩序。但是在中国构建辩诉交易制度绝非一朝一夕之事,要在深入了解我国国情以及与辩诉交易有关的制度环境的基础上,借鉴与改造,使其成为我国刑事司法制度的重要组成部分。

  15. International cooperation and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For improve the nuclear safety regulatory level of China, it is an important way to absorb international experience widely and use them. In 1998, the NNSA dispatched abroad 34 delegations/90 person-time, and invited to China 9 delegations/73 person-time. The contents of dispatched delegations mainly included the international meetings and personnel training on nuclear safety, and the foreign review consultation and the components' manufacturing inspections related to Chinese nuclear power construction. The contents of invited delegations mainly included the lectures on surveillance technology, and the review consultation about the QSNPP's component purchase from several countries, JLNPP and CEFR. After reformed, the NNSA continues to bear the function on the international cooperation about nuclear safety

  16. Research on Plea Bargaining- Together With Discussion of Necessity of Plea Bargaining in Investigation of Corruption and Bribery%辩侦交易探析--兼论辩侦交易在贪污贿赂犯罪侦查中的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付传军

    2015-01-01

    Plea Bargaining can improve the efficiency of the investigation as a forensic means to a particular case. The characteristics of crimes of embezzlement and bribery and the new revision of the people's Republic ofChina Criminal Procedure Law determine the necessity of introducing the Plea Bargaining into the investigation of corrup-tion and bribery process and it is feasible.The use of Plea Bargaining should be strictly limited as the practice might cause some risks or relevant problems.The application should be in line with the rule of law principle,ne-cessity principle,limited moderation principle,the duel voluntary principle and the principle of trust and faith.In practice,the approximate form of Plea Bargaining in our country is similar to “frankness and leniency”criminal policy,“criminal free responsibility system”and the “guilty witness immunity system”of the United States.Al-though they do not have all the factors of Plea Bargaining,they do have the kernel and intention of the Plea Bar-gaining.%辩侦交易作为一种取证手段适用于特定案件,可以提高侦查效益。贪污贿赂犯罪的特点和新的《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》的有关修改,决定了将辩侦交易引入贪污贿赂犯罪侦查过程是必要的,且具有可行性。辩侦交易在实践中可能会存在一定的风险或出现相关问题,应遵循一定的原则严格使用,包括贯彻法治原则、必要性原则、有限适度原则、双方自愿原则和诚实信用原则等。在实践中,辩侦交易的近似形态有我国“坦白从宽”刑事政策和贿赂犯罪的有关规定、美国“刑事免责”制度,以及“污点证人豁免”制度,它们虽然不具有前述辩侦交易的全部要件,却具有辩侦交易的内核和意旨。

  17. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  18. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  19. Cooperative answers in database systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  20. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  1. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  2. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glakas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)

  4. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  5. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  6. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more e

  7. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...

  8. Cooperative Learning for Better Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, John J.; Russell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that linking music ensemble programs and cooperative learning strategies often has been overlooked. Describes the benefits of cooperative learning techniques for music performance preparation. Concludes that the small-group approach can enhance traditional music programs by offering students the chance to make their own decisions. (CFR)

  9. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  10. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  11. 美国工资集体谈判制度及其立法借鉴%Collective Bargaining System in the United States and Legislative Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊聪俐

    2011-01-01

    The development of wage collective bargaining system in United States has being mature.It is an important means to solve conflict between employers and employees,and plays a very important role to balance the status of them.Through the analysis on collective bargaining subject,content,honest obligations and negotiation results,our country can think of it as a role model.We can set the supervision mechanism of electing representatives,increase the penal regulations which refuses to consult,and give some discretion to the employers.%美国的工资集体谈判制度发展已趋于成熟,是解决劳资双方冲突的重要手段,对于平衡双方地位起到了很重要的作用。对美国的工资集体谈判主体、内容、诚实义务、谈判结果等方面介绍分析,可以通过借鉴其谈判代表选派的监督机制、增加对企业拒绝协商的罚则及在严格执行工资协商制度下赋予企业一定的工资裁量权等方面完善我国的工资集体协商立法。

  12. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  13. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  14. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  15. Are Cooperatives Efficient When Membership is Voluntary?

    OpenAIRE

    Leathers, Howard D.

    2006-01-01

    If profit-maximizing farmers are free to join or not to join a cooperative, it may appear reasonable to assume that a cooperative will exist only when it has cost advantaged over non-cooperative marketing. This paper presents a model in which that result fails. Every individual farmer chooses either to join or not join a cooperative depending on whether transactions costs are lower from cooperative membership or nonmembership. As cooperative membership increases, transactions costs for member...

  16. The Social Maintenance of Cooperation through Hypocrisy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread in human societies, but its maintenance at the group level remains puzzling if individuals benefit from not cooperating. Explanations of the maintenance of cooperation generally assume that cooperative and non-cooperative behavior in others can be assessed and copied accurately. However, humans have a well known capacity to deceive and thus to manipulate how others assess their behavior. Here, we show that hypocrisy - claiming to be acting cooperatively while acting ...

  17. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit. PMID:9625663

  18. "EEOC v. Board of Governors of State Colleges and Universities": Collective Bargaining Agreements and Age Discrimination in Employment Act Claims: What Counts as Retaliation under ADEA Section 4(D)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    Court litigation in which the claim (to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) that a faculty collective bargaining agreement violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act is examined. Focus is on arbitration of wrongful termination cases. Conflicting judicial rationales applied in two cases are discussed, and a practical solution is…

  19. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Board of Trustees of the University of Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Society of Professors, Faculty Staff Union, MTA/NEA, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the University of Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Society of Professors, Faculty Staff Union (1,643 members) of the National Education Association, covering the period July 1, 1983-June 30, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition,…

  20. Teacher Union Official and Central Office Administrator Descriptions of the Level of Difficulty and Importance for Negotiating Selected Elements of Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) into Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between teacher union officials and central office administrators' descriptions of the level of importance and the level of difficulty when negotiating Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) language into a teachers' union collective bargaining agreement was examined. Relationships were investigated using the New…

  1. Exploring Reputation-Based Cooperation:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, Daniele; Giardini, Francesca; Paolucci, Mario

    In dyadic models of indirect reciprocity, the receivers' history of giving has a significant impact on the donor's decision. When the interaction involves more than two agents things become more complicated, and in large groups cooperation can hardly emerge. In this work we use a Public Goods Game to investigate whether publicly available reputation scores may support the evolution of cooperation and whether this is affected by the kind of network structure adopted. Moreover, if agents interact on a bipartite graph with partner selection, cooperation can quickly thrive in large groups.

  2. THE MARKETING OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...

  3. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  4. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  5. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  6. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  7. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  8. Cooperative quasi-Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, S V

    2014-01-01

    We study the features of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation arising when initially unmodulated electron (positron) bunches pass through a crystal (natural or artificial) under the conditions of dynamical diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the presence of shot noise. A detailed numerical analysis is given for cooperative THz radiation in artificial crystals. The radiation intensity above 200~MW$/$cm$^2$ is obtained in simulations. In two- and three-wave diffraction cases, the peak intensity of cooperative radiation emitted at small and large angles to particle velocity is investigated as a function of the particle number in an electron bunch. The peak radiation intensity appeared to increase monotonically until saturation is achieved. At saturation, the shot noise causes strong fluctuations in the intensity of cooperative parametric radiation. It is shown that the duration of radiation pulses can be much longer than the particle flight time through the crystal. This enables a thorough expe...

  9. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  10. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  11. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  12. Cooperation with Complement is Better

    CERN Document Server

    Yildirim, Ilker

    2008-01-01

    In a setting where heterogeneous agents interact to accomplish a given set of goals, cooperation is of utmost importance, especially when agents cannot achieve their individual goals by exclusive use of their own efforts. Even when we consider friendly environments and benevolent agents, cooperation involves several issues: with whom to cooperate, reciprocation, how to address credit assignment and complex division of gains, etc. We propose a model where heterogeneous agents cooperate by forming groups and formation of larger groups is promoted. Benefit of agents is proportional to the performance and the size of the group. There is a time pressure to form a group. We investigate how preferring similar or complement agents in group formation affects an agent's success. Preferring complement in group formation is found to be better, yet there is no need to push the strategy to the extreme since the effect of complementing partners is saturated.

  13. Planning and Implementing Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sylvia J.

    1978-01-01

    Implementing cooperative education requires careful planning, institutional support, and competent staffing. Suggestions for planning, setting objectives, recruiting students, job development, student counseling and placement, liaison with other colleges offices, and institutionalization are described. (Author/LBH)

  14. A Comparison of Multidimensional Procurement Auction and Multidimensional Asymmetric Nash Bargaining%多属性采购拍卖与多属性不对称纳什谈判的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河; 王峰

    2011-01-01

    As common and effective ways of selecting suppliers in procurement, auction and bargaining both have their supports in the current theory, from the perspective of the purchaser. By u-sing the classical multidimensional auction model in and multidimensional asymmetric Nash bargaining model, to compare the expected revenue of auction with the earnings of bargaining, it is found that the boundary of the two mechanisms relates to the power of bargaining and the number of bidders. By dividing the interval of them, the boundary conditions of auction and bargaining and their respective appropriate ranges are also found.%拍卖与谈判作为采购中有效选择交易对象的常见方式,从最大化采购方收益的角度看,现有理论对这2种方式各有支持.通过运用经典的多属性拍卖模型和多属性不对称纳什谈判模型,将拍卖的期望收益和谈判的收益进行比较,发现2种机制的分界与谈判力量和投标人数这2个指标有关,通过划分谈判力量和投标人数取值的不同区间,找到了拍卖或谈判这2种方式的边界条件以及它们各自的适宜范围.

  15. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  16. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-01-01

    The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  17. Expertness Measuring in Cooperative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadabadi, N.M.; Asadpour, M.; Khodaabakhsh, S.H.; Nakano, E.

    2000-01-01

    Cooperative Learning in a multi-agent system can improve the learning quality and learning speed. The improvement can be gained if each agent detects the expert agents and use their knowledge properly. In this paper, a new cooperative learning method, called Weighted Strategy Sharing (WSS) is introduced. Also some criteria are introduced to measure the expertness of agents. In WSS, based on the amount of its teammate expertness, each agent assigns a weight to their knowledge. These weights ar...

  18. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  19. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  20. How cooperation became the norm

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Most of the contributions to Cooperation and Its Evolution grapple with the distinctive challenges presented by the project of explaining human sociality. Many of these puzzles have a ‘chicken and egg’ character: our virtually unparalleled capacity for large-scale cooperation is the product of psychological, behavioural, and demographic changes in our recent evolutionary history, and these changes are linked by complex patterns of reciprocal dependence. There is much we do not yet understand ...

  1. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  2. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  3. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss.

  4. Bargaining over Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Tomas; Vardardottir, Arna

    and utilize a source of exogenous variation in sex-specific labor demand to show that its distribution among spouses is a driving force in the aggregation of spouses' preferences in financial decision making. As the decision power of female spouses grows, participation in the equity market decreases......, participation in other risky asset markets increases, the share of wealth allocated to risky investments decreases, the riskiness of the portfolio decreases, and idiosyncratic risk decreases. We also study the effect of underdiversification on household welfare and find that women exert the in uence...

  5. Bargaining for Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Arendt, Jacob Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the short- and medium-term effects of the PensionDanmark Health Scheme, the largest privately administered health program for workers in Denmark, which provides prevention and early management of work-related injuries. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits...... evidence of significant positive effects on several labor market outcomes, suggesting that the program enables some work-injured individuals to maintain their work and earnings capacity. In view of its low costs, the program appears to be cost-effective overall....

  6. Bargaining with the Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald E.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a clarification of morality, ethics, and moral development, as well as a definition of justice. Also examines a theological perspective of moral development and the implications of this perspective for the education of young students. Includes examples of classroom situations where the concept of "justice-plus" can be developed as a moral…

  7. Bargaining with Double Jeopardy

    OpenAIRE

    Saul Levmore; Ariel Porat

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every burden of proof is influenced by a rule regarding relitigation. In criminal law, the prosecutor is prevented from repeatedly drawing from the urn, as it were, by the double-jeopardy rule, which reinforces the beyond-a-reasonable-doubt standard. We suggest that if law were to permit defendants to waive double-jeopardy protection, private and social benefits might follow. The benefits derive from the likelihood that prosecutors--like most people who can take a test but once--ove...

  8. The hardest bargainer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>There are thousands of art forms in this ancient land. Kung Fu, Traditional Chinese Medicine and making fried noodles are legendary paradigms of Chinese genius over on the western side of the planet. But there are countless others that one must really visit the country to master, and marketplace haggling is one of them.

  9. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  10. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  11. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  12. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    OpenAIRE

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946) we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  13. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  14. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  15. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  16. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  17. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  18. Preparing for increased union organizing. A commitment to deal justly with employees is the best response to the new bargaining unit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, K B

    1991-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently upheld a National Labor Relations Board regulation giving unions of healthcare workers the right to organize as many as eight different kinds of hospital bargaining units. With the Court's decision, hospital administrators must prepare for increased union organizing by maintaining policies that evidence the institution's commitment to social justice in the workplace. Hospital administrators can reduce the potential for labor-management conflict by stressing the institution's commitment to social justice and establishing programs to educate managers and other employees about Catholic teaching on social justice. Facility administrators should also establish a written philosophy statement outlining the institution's position on unionization, institute labor relations training, survey employees' opinions of management and their work environment, conduct audits of managers' perceptions of the organization's effectiveness, and periodically review the state of labor relations in the organization.

  19. 论辩诉交易在贿赂犯罪司法中的引入%On the Introduction of Plea Bargaining into Bribery Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅锦

    2015-01-01

    As a crime symmetrical to each other , the bribery has no real victim . Therefore , the person with the coordination of the crime is very important to detect the case .Meanwhile ,it also needs the both sides for howing an executable agreement . Compared with “tainted witness” , plea bargaining has a wider range of options , and can better achieve the purpose of the criminal law . T he offender is very special in bribery , and the Code of Criminal Procedure has enhanced the status of the lawyer . All above contribute the introduction of plea bargaining into bribery justice .%作为一种对行性犯罪,贿赂犯罪手段隐蔽又无直接被害人,此时犯罪人一方的配合对于该类案件的侦破尤为必要,而这以双方能达成一份具有执行力的协议为保障。相较于“污点证人制度”而言,辩诉交易制度具有更大的选择范围,更有利于司法公正的实现。贿赂犯罪中犯罪人地位的特殊性、刑事诉讼法对辩护律师地位的提升,都为辩诉交易引入贿赂犯罪司法领域提供了有利条件。

  20. 国际酒店集团的议价能力与控制方式%On Bargaining Position and Ways of Control of International Hotel Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 张俐俐

    2014-01-01

    How to co-manage the hotel with owners is currently an important issue for Multinational Hotel Corporations (MNHCs). Based on literature review about internationalization and control, combined with the background of the reality of China’s economic transformation, this paper builds MNHCs control mode according to bargaining power perspective. This paper argues that the degree of control of the activities of the MNHCs depends on its relatively bargaining power, while the regional characteristics of different markets in China have an impact on its relationship. The model has theoretical and practical significance for the interpretation of MNHCs control behavior, and to solve conflicts between hotel manager and owner.%如何与业主共同管理酒店,是目前进入中国的国际集团面临的棘手问题。在回顾国际合作控制领域相关文献的基础上,本文结合中国经济转型背景,构建了基于议价能力视角的国际酒店集团控制模式。国际酒店集团对酒店价值创造活动的控制程度,取决于其议价能力的大小,而中国不同市场区域特征,对议价能力与控制程度关系具有调节作用。

  1. Cooperation and Globalization: Mutation or Confrontation

    OpenAIRE

    Caceres, Javier; Lowe, James C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995 the ICA adopted a revised set of cooperative principles to guide the movement through the global era of deregulation and competitiveness. This paper, on the basis of the cooperative experience in Canada and emerging trends, deals with the appropriateness of the new ICA principles in reaffirming cooperative values at the member, cooperative and movement levels. Because cooperatives seem to be evolving toward a corporate business logic, consequences are outlined and assessed to bring in...

  2. Expulsion of Members by Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, John D.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between farmer members and their cooperatives is unique, a combination of contract, business, and membership interests. Cooperatives may have occasion to terminate the relationship by expelling a member. This article explore legal authority of cooperatives to expel members, conditions under which expulsion is an acceptable action by cooperatives, and legal consequences of improper expulsion are described, and procedures are suggested to protect member and cooperative interest...

  3. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  4. The parents' opinions on cooperation with kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šenica, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between kindergartens and families has been changing throughout history. People did not used to place great importance on such cooperation, but legislation today obligates kindergartens to cooperate with parents. Since it is the role of both parents and kindergarten teacher to care for and stimulate children's development, cooperation is even more important. The foundations for good cooperation are willingness on the side of parents and of teacher, mutual trust and open relationsh...

  5. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  6. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  7. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  8. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  9. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  10. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  11. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  12. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  13. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  14. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dussel, G G; Dukelsky, J; Sarriguren, P

    2007-01-01

    We consider the development of Cooper pairs in a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes. Results are presented at the level of a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson ansatz. While projected BCS captures much of the pairing correlation energy that is absent from BCS, it still misses a sizable correlation energy, typically of order $1 MeV$. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the exact Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective.

  15. [Cooperation between medicine and education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2004-05-01

    In cooperation between medicine and education, a reciprocal understanding is important. For this reason, we researched the needs of medical and educational professionals by questionnaires. Many child neurology specialists agreed that their medical profiled are unveiled in public about attending developmental disabilities. Some educational professionals felt it necessary to be given to offer medical informations of students such as treatments and/or diagnosis of their disease, to attend to seminars and lectures on developmental disabilities, and to obtain consultations of doctor more easily. From the above results, we propose an ideal cooperation between medicine and education. PMID:15176589

  16. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  17. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  18. Bargaining Power, Supplier-Reseller Networks in Practice: A Case Study of the Hungarian Meat Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Lakner; Attila Réti

    2006-01-01

    In era of intensifying competition on domestic market, the network-building and the relations between the channel members are gaining in importance. The aim of the current article is the analysis of cooperation between the members of an actual product-chain. The Hungarian meat-market can be characterised by intensive transitions both in market actors and product-structure. There is a decrease in the consumption of pork meat, and at the same time in this category, an increase in the number of ...

  19. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  20. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  1. Dynamical Organization of Cooperation in Complex Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Gardenes, J; Floria, L M; Moreno, Y

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of cooperative phenomena in natural and social systems has been the subject of intense research during decades. In this paper, we address the problem of how cooperation is organized in complex topologies by analyzing the Prisoner's Dilemma. We characterize in-depth the microscopic structure of cooperation and show that the stationary level of cooperation consists of individuals with frozen as well as fluctuating strategies. Our results also show that the paths towards cooperation (or defection) strongly depend on the underlying structure and explain why cooperation in SF networks is favored.

  2. AZERBAIJAN-GERMANY: COOPERATION VECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinalova, Sudaba

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at cooperation between Azerbaijan and Germany in the context of European integration and presents a brief overview of how the political dialog, economic relations, and cultural ties between the Azerbaijan Republic and the Federative Republic of Germany have been developing over the past 15 years.

  3. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, Anne van

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking in

  4. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency…

  5. The financing of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative enterprise has an important role as voluntary association instrument aimed at socio-economic equilibrium of a world crisis. Its stability is linked to the economic mechanisms that ensure their birth, development and maintenance as a solvent and active competitor.

  6. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...

  7. Cooperative Games and Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Airiau

    2013-01-01

    Forming coalitions is a generic means for cooperation: people, robots, web services, resources, firms; they can all improve their performance by joining forces. The use of coalitions has been successful in domains such as task allocations, sensor networks, and electronic marketplaces. Forming effici

  8. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  9. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social in

  10. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  11. The transformation of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sacristán Bergia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Cooperative´s transformation process. The Author study the positions of creditors and members, and the general assembly decisions. This paper systematizes the transformation into private limited company.Received: 12.06.10Accepted: 28.06.10

  12. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign...

  13. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  14. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  15. Investment financing in cooperative firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cuomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By general agreement, one of the main obstacles to the growth of producer cooperatives is difficult investment financing, due to inadequate Capitalisation levels and the resulting inability to lodge sufficient collateral with lenders. Moreover, worker-owned firms are considered not very reliable because they suffer from problems of moral hazard and insufficient commitment. Unfortunately, the literature on this issue is not extensive and has weaknesses that are highlighted in the paper. By means of its critical analysis, it is possible to provide evidence that the funding difficulties caused by the particular structure of cooperative firms can be effectively tackled by creating an institutional framework within which cooperatives would be offered a wider range of organizational options comparable to those open to traditional enterprises. Finally, it is proved that the willingness of the members to fund the operations of their cooperative with loan capital may not be enough to mobilize external credit. For member financings to persuade potential providers of funds to place trust in a firm, third-party claims must necessarily qualify as senior debt and be repaid before the claims of the partners are settled.

  16. 中国社会转型期政府对集体谈判制度的推进研究%Study on the Government in the Promotion of Collective Bargaining System in Social Transformation Period of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闽红; 李玲慧

    2012-01-01

    处于社会转型期的中国,随着经济的进一步发展,我国的劳资关系呈现多元化、复杂化的趋势,劳资矛盾日渐尖锐。集体谈判制度作为缓解劳资矛盾的重要手段,其作用在我国也日益凸显。在2011年3月举行的十一届全国人大四次会议中,全国总工会副主席、书记处书记张鸣表示,已经建立了工会的企业,今年底要有60%实行工资集体协商,到2013年底,力争实行工资集体协商制度的企业占已建工会企业的80%以上。但近年来的实践表明,我国的集体谈判制度发展并不是一帆风顺的。政府应如何在这一关键时期积极推进集体谈判制度在中国的发展是文章讨论的重点内容。%Collective bargaining system is a system in which employers and employees bargain wages and working conditions equally, and then reach a common agreement. A very important mechanism of collective bargaining system is to form nice labor relations, and it is also very important to help to build up a harmonious society. Nowadays our country faces many difficulties, be- cause China has come to the social transformation period. So there are a lot of troubles in the economic and labour relations, and many workers can' t protect their legal rights. Chinese government has already realized the problems of labour relations and promoted the collective bargaining system in social transformation period of China. But during the period, there are many difficulties and troubles, and this paper studys on the difficulties and troubles and try to find a way to solve the problems. The paper firstly talks about the basic theory of the collective bargaining system, and the development of the collective bargaining system in China. Then, the paper focuses on the experience of other western countries like Britain, America, Germany and Japan. At last, the methods of solving these problems are proposed. If the collective bargaining system goes well in China, the collective

  17. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  18. A Global Governance Shift in Development : A study on how transnational corporation´s CSR initiative can address Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining and how that can facilitate development

    OpenAIRE

    Runesson, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Through globalization non-state actors including transnational corporations (TNC), have taken on a more important global governance role from the nation state, where they through their CSR initiatives, impact social issues surrounding development. There are however conflicting views whether CSR could contribute to development in the society. TNCs CSR engagement mainly concerns social issues at the workplace such as complying with labour rights. But workers right to organize and bargain collec...

  19. Evolution of cooperation driven by zealots

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results with humans involved in social dilemma games suggest that cooperation may be a contagious phenomenon and that the selection pressure operating on evolutionary dynamics (i.e., mimicry) is relatively weak. I propose an evolutionary dynamics model that links these experimental findings and evolution of cooperation. By assuming a small fraction of (imperfect) zealous cooperators, I show that a large fraction of cooperation emerges in evolutionary dynamics of social dilemma games. Even if defection is more lucrative than cooperation for most individuals, they often mimic cooperation of fellows unless the selection pressure is very strong. Then, zealous cooperators can transform the population to be even fully cooperative under standard evolutionary dynamics.

  20. The international environmental law of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The author puts the question of whether the international environmental law can be called an international law of cooperation and examines its particular features and the available instruments for transboundary cooperation on various levels. (Orig./CB)

  1. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  2. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  3. Abordajes sobre la negociación colectiva durante la convertibilidad: Aportes para interrogar al presente Approaches concerning collective bargaining on convertibility: Contributions to ask at the present time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Anigstein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, ¿se ha reestablecido la "pauta tradicional" de negociación colectiva luego de un paréntesis demarcado por el régimen de convertibilidad? ¿O mantiene vigencia la pauta de negociación instaurada con la flexibilización laboral?. Estos interrogantes reclaman una revisión de las argumentaciones que se articularon en torno a los cambios en los patrones de la negociación colectiva durante la década de los noventa y de sus premisas conceptuales. El propósito es construir un punto de partida conceptual que nos habilite un abordaje del presente, sino exento, al menos advertido de algunas perspectivas normativas.At present, the guideline was re-established the " traditional guideline " of collective bargaining after a parenthesis limited by the regime of convertibility? Or, does it follow in force the guideline of collective bargaining installed in the decade of the nineties?. These questions claim a review of the argumentations that were articulated concerning the changes in the bosses of the collective bargaining during the decade of the nineties and of his conceptual premises. The intention is to construct a point of conceptual item that a boarding of the present enables us, but exempt, at least warned of some normative perspectives.

  4. More Cooperation, Much Stronger%More Cooperation, Much Stronger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    To further boost the cooperation between China and Germany on sustainable industrial textiles, China-Germany for Sustainable Solutions with Technical Textiles Performance show was held on Sep.15th by China Nonwovens & Industrial Textiles Association associated with the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT and Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry, vice president of CNTAC Xu Kunyuan, vice president of CNTAC Wang Tiankai, Peter Schwartze,

  5. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  6. A cooperative hyper-heuristic search framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ouelhadj, Djamila; Petrovic, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the role of cooperation between low level heuristics within a hyper-heuristic framework. Since different low level heuristics have different strengths and weaknesses, we believe that cooperation can allow the strengths of one low level heuristic to compensate for the weaknesses of another. We propose an agent-based cooperative hyper-heuristic framework composed of a population of heuristic agents and a cooperative hyper-heuristic agent. The heuristic agent...

  7. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolv...

  8. UAV Cooperative Control with Stochastic Risk Models

    OpenAIRE

    Geramifard, Alborz; Redding, Joshua; Roy, Nicholas; How, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and reward are fundamental concepts in the cooperative control of unmanned systems. This paper focuses on a constructive relationship between a cooperative planner and a learner in order to mitigate the learning risk while boosting the asymptotic performance and safety of agent behavior. Our framework is an instance of the intelligent cooperative control architecture (iCCA) where a learner (Natural actor-critic, Sarsa) initially follows a “safe” policy generated by a cooperative planner ...

  9. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  10. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  11. What Determines Productivity Growth of Agricultural Cooperatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Chatura B.; Featherstone, Allen M; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines productivity of a sample of grain marketing and farm supply cooperatives from 1990 to 1998. The cooperative industry’s productivity or growth was mainly due to improvement in technology rather than improvement in pure efficiency or scale. The cooperative industry’s productivity was primarily associated with the grain, fertilizer, and agrochemical product lines. Policies that raise fertilizer prices would encourage a cooperative to be technically more productive. In gen...

  12. Performance Consequences of the Agricultural Cooperative Exemption

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill

    1993-01-01

    The Capper-Volstead Act, passed in 1922, is the magna carta of agricultural cooperatives. The act has two sections. The first section generally defines what a Capper-Volstead cooperative is and the second section prohibits under price enhancement. Congress clearly intended that farmers be able to organize cooperatives and capture a share of market sufficient to raise price. However, Congress did not want to allow cooperatives with large market shares to unduly enhance the prices in the market...

  13. Cooperative Decision Making in a Stochastic Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative game theory, however, only apply to cases where these benefits are deterministic. In this thesis we abandon this assumption and allow for stochastic benefits. Examples of such situations...

  14. Using Isolation Spheres for Cooperative Processes Correctness

    OpenAIRE

    Guabtni, Adnene; Charoy, François; Godart, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Managing cooperation in Business Processes still represents a challenge because of several problems. Concurrent access to common data, coherence of the results, organisation and cooperation correctness are some of them. Looking at isolation problems in the database world and at their solutions using SQL isolation levels, we try to adapt them to the cooperative dimension of processes. In this paper, we identify the phenomena that happen during cooperation in business processes. Then we propose...

  15. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  16. Cooperation Agreement Signed Between CPAFFC and HSF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An agreement on cooperation between theCPAFFC and the Hanns Seidel Foundation was signed in Beijing on October 24, 2003. The agreement sets forth the framework of cooperation between the two sides and concrete forms and programmes of cooperation. The two sides will regularly carry out exchanges between parlia-

  17. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide...

  18. Human cooperation in groups : Variation begets variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Piet; Molleman, Lucas; Junikka, Jaakko; Puurtinen, Mikael; Weissing, Franz J

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments on human cooperation have revealed that individuals differ systematically in their tendency to cooperate with others. It has also been shown that individuals condition their behaviour on the overall cooperation level of their peers. Yet, little is known about how individuals respond

  19. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) the recovery potential of the species; (3) the taxonomic status, e.g., giving full species priority... Project Agreement can be approved for endangered or threatened species projects. A cooperative agreement... SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement....

  20. Didactic specific features of cooperation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffarova Feruza Bakhriddinovna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the issues of pedagogical cooperation, strategies and modalities of how the coordinated interactions of educational process actors are defined. The need for cooperation strategies in problem situations caused by pedagogical contradictions is strongly emphasized, and the ways of overcoming them and establishing relations of cooperation and mutual support are recommended.