WorldWideScience

Sample records for bargaining cooperatives

  1. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    This chapter focuses on 1981 cases relative to collective bargaining. The author notes that after a decline in litigation, as reported in the previous edition, the number of bargaining cases rose again during the past year. The dominant area of controversy involved grievance arbitration. The second largest number of cases, dwarfed by the first…

  2. A Nash-bargaining-solution Based Cooperation Scheme for Rational Cooperative Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the wireless broadcast, cooperative communication has this advantage to confront the severe fading effect on wireless communication. Resource allocation is one of the most important challenges in cooperation. In this study, we propose a Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS based cooperation scheme to optimal allocate resources for cooperation. In this symmetric cooperative network, nodes can act as both a data transmitter and a relay for each other and determine the amount of resources to share with its partner. We formulate this cooperative problem as a 2-person barging problem and analyze the proper channel condition for 2 nodes to share their resource for cooperation. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme could improve the system performance and the questions that when to cooperate and how to cooperate were answered.

  3. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    In his introductory statements, the author notes that grievance arbitration has been the major single source of litigation and that scope of bargaining has become a central issue. These issues reflect the growing fiscal pressures on school boards to reduce positions, close schools, and take other economy measures. The author also notes that the…

  4. Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Smith, Margaret D.

    An increasing amount of case law dealing with collective bargaining in education was evident in 1987. The more than 100 cases cited indicate that educational employers and their unionized employees are increasingly resorting to the courts rather than resolving issues at the negotiation or arbitration table. However, there were no United States…

  5. Multilateral Non-Cooperative Bargaining in a General Utility Space

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Vartiainen; Klaus Kultti

    2007-01-01

    We consider an n-player bargaining problem where the utility possibility set is compact, convex, and stricly comprehensive. We show that a stationary subgame perfect Nash equilibrium exists, and that, if the Pareto surface is differentiable, all such equilibria converge to the Nash bargaining solution as the length of a time period between offers goes to zero. Without the differentiability assumption, convergence need not hold.

  6. Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    This chapter discusses litigation touching on collective bargaining issues. The chapter is organized to follow the collective bargaining process, from cases dealing with union organizing to cases involving arbitration. Issues covered also include determination of bargaining units, scope of bargaining, union security, and unfair labor practices in…

  7. Ordered Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Raskovich

    2006-01-01

    When buyers choose the order in which they bargain with suppliers of known characteristics, prices are determined jointly by bargaining power and competitive intensity (the outside option to bargain with rival suppliers). Bargaining power becomes less important to the outcome as competition intensifies; prices fall to marginal cost in the limit. With positive visit costs and weak competition, some buyer power is necessary for trade. Incomplete buyer power may lead to inefficient choice of bar...

  8. Global energy bargaining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement in East-West relations, the lessons of the Gulf War, and concerns about global change point toward new forms of international cooperation between the industrialized and developing worlds. Energy decision-makers in developing countries face a triple threat of increasing demand for energy services, capital constraints, and environmental pressures. This article attempts to give shape to the relatively new concept of energy-environment-economic development bargaining. It describes characteristics and issues to be considered, identifies some of the opportunities for and barriers to bargaining, and suggests that a wide variety of experimentation is needed as well as teams of capable deal managers

  9. Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Steven M.

    This chapter deals with the legal process by which employers and employee organizations discuss matters related to employment. The chapter is organized to reflect the initial sequence of events in the collective bargaining process. Cases are reported and analyzed in nine sections: obligation and authority to bargain; unit determination and…

  10. Employment Law, Negotiation, and the Business Environment: A Cooperative Collective Bargaining Negotiation of the National Hockey League Lockout of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchetti, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    Employment law is a "must-cover" subject in business environment courses. Comparing the plethora of topics requiring coverage with the limited time devoted to employment law during a typical academic term, other important employment subjects--such as negotiation and collective bargaining--commonly receive short shrift. This article offers a…

  11. Bilateral Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendstrup, Bjarne; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Paarsch, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    We employ a simple two-person bargaining model to interpret wage data-demands(offers) by workers (firms) and acceptances by firms (workers). Under two polarextremebargaining solutions, we develop a strategy to recover estimates of themarginal-productivity and the opportunity-cost distributions. We...

  12. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  13. Searching and Bargaining with Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh; Subramanian, Vijay G.; Berry, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    We study decentralized markets with the presence of middlemen, modeled by a non-cooperative bargaining game in trading networks. Our goal is to investigate how the network structure of the market and the role of middlemen influence the market's efficiency and fairness. We introduce the concept of limit stationary equilibrium in a general trading network and use it to analyze how competition among middlemen is influenced by the network structure, how endogenous delay emerges in trade and how s...

  14. Efficiency wages and bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    2005-01-01

    I argue that in contrast to the literature to date efficiency wage and bargaining solutions will typically be independent. If the bargained wage satisfies the efficiency wage constraint efficiency wages are irrelevant. If it does not, typically we have the efficiency wage solution and bargaining is irrelevant.

  15. Bargaining in the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Andersen, Søren Kaj; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis weighed heavily on the 2010 collective bargaining rounds in the Danish and Swedish manufacturing sectors – the pattern-setting sectors in both countries. This article analyses and compares the bargaining rounds from agenda-setting to signing, pointing to the significant...... differences in bargaining structures, processes and output. On the whole, the crisis seems to have had little effect on the Danish bargaining system due to a strong centralization on the employer side through the Confederation of Danish Industries, union moderation and the coordination of bargaining areas by...

  16. Bargaining and the MISO Interference Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nokleby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the MISO interference channel under cooperative bargaining theory. Bargaining approaches such as the Nash and Kalai-Smorodinsky solutions have previously been used in wireless networks to strike a balance between max-sum efficiency and max-min equity in users' rates. However, cooperative bargaining for the MISO interference channel has only been studied extensively for the two-user case. We present an algorithm that finds the optimal Kalai-Smorodinsky beamformers for an arbitrary number of users. We also consider joint scheduling and beamformer selection, using gradient ascent to find a stationary point of the Kalai-Smorodinsky objective function. When interference is strong, the flexibility allowed by scheduling compensates for the performance loss due to local optimization. Finally, we explore the benefits of power control, showing that power control provides nontrivial throughput gains when the number of transmitter/receiver pairs is greater than the number of transmit antennas.

  17. Buyers' alliances for bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Suchan; Heidhues, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We provide a novel explanation as to why forming an alliance of buyers (or sellers) across separate markets can be advantageous when input prices are determined by bargaining. Our explanation helps to understand the prevalence of buyer cooperatives among small and medium sized firms. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Verhandlungsmacht durch Käuferkooperationen) Dieses Papier entwickelt eine neue Erklärung dafür, warum Zusammenschlüsse zwischen Käufern (oder Verkäufern), die in unterschiedlichen Märkten akti...

  18. Delegating bargaining and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper. a two-producers two-agent model is analyzed in which producers delegate sales and price negotiations to exclusive, separate, and independent agents. Producers first choose a pricing arrangement (two-part tariff versus linear tariff) and then set wholesale prices (and fixed fees) to their agents. Given this, agents announce prices to consumers as a basis for negotiations. Finally, consumers make their buying decision and bargain about the actually paid price once they arrive at an agent's location. We show that both franchise pricing and linear pricing can be supported as equilibrium outcomes depending on the agents' fixed costs and consumers' bargaining power. With ex ante unobservable two-part tariffs consumers may be worse off from the ability to bargain and more so the higher their bargaining power. In the case of linear pricing, consumers gain from the ability to bargain and more so the higher bargaining power they have. On the balance, however, consumers are worse off from higher bargaining power due to the fact that increasing bargaining power affects the manufacturers' equilibrium actions regarding pricing schemes to the consumers' disadvantage. /Author)

  19. The Seawall Bargaining Game

    OpenAIRE

    Rémy Delille; Jean-Christophe Pereau

    2014-01-01

    Agents located from downstream to upstream along an estuary and exposed to a flooding risk have to invest in facilities like a seawall (or dike). As the benefits of that local public good increase along the estuary, upstream agents have to bargain for monetary compensation with the most downstream agent in exchange for more protection effort. The paper analyses different bargaining protocols and determines the conditions under which agents are better off. The results show that upstream agents...

  20. Bargaining in Legislatures: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Knight

    2004-01-01

    While the theoretical literature on non-cooperative legislative bargaining has grown voluminous, there is little empirical work attempting to test a key prediction in this literature: proposal power is valuable. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the role of proposal power in the allocation of transportation projects across U.S. Congressional districts in 1991 and 1998. The evidence supports the key qualitative prediction of the Baron and Ferejohn legislative ...

  1. Bargaining agenda, timing, and entry

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Buccella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In a unionised Cournot duopoly, the present paper extensively re-examines the subject of the bargaining scope between firms and unions. It investigates the endogenous equilibrium agenda (Right-to-Manage vs Efficient Bargaining) that can arise under three timing specification of the bargaining game both for a given duopoly and monopoly with threat of entry. A novel result is that, in sequential negotiations, Efficient Bargaining emerges in equilibrium for a range of the unions’ power larger th...

  2. Quantum Bargaining Games

    OpenAIRE

    Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski

    2001-01-01

    We continue the analysis of quantum-like description of markets and economics. The approach has roots in the recently developed quantum game theory and quantum computing. The present paper is devoted to quantum bargaining games which are a special class of quantum market games without institutionalized clearinghouses.

  3. RIF and Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the modern case-law intersection between state legislation for school districts that applies to reduction-in-force (RIF) and other state legislation that applies to collective bargaining. One conclusion is that the implementation of RIF is more likely to be negotiable and arbitrable than the reasons for RIF. (96 footnotes) (MLF)

  4. Bargaining Power and Local Heroes

    OpenAIRE

    Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Bargaining Power of retailers is an important aspect of discourse in many industrialized countries, including Germany, Portugal, the UK, and the USA. In Germany the Federal Cartel Office argues that strong bargaining power of retailers presents danger for workable competition in the market. Furthermore, significant bargaining power on the retailer side is often assumed a priori without further investigation. Based on a treatment effect study using difference-in-differences techniques we show,...

  5. Flexicurity and Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    bargaining and agreements at sector level to the development of flexicurity in print and electrical contracting of the United Kingdom, Denmark and Spain, respectively. The study is primarily based on document analysis of the three countries' collective agreements in print and electrical contracting together...... regulation of flexibility and security and its effect on labour markets. However, just as important in many countries is collective bargaining which determines terms and conditions for a significant part of the labour markets in Europe. This report analyses and compares the contribution of collective...... with 22 interviews with social partners in the concerned sectors. The main finding of the study is that collective agreements in especially Denmark, but also the UK contribute to flexicurity whereas the Spanish agreements do this to a lesser extent. In general, framework agreements on wages in all three...

  6. Bargaining and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century. PMID:25024181

  7. The bargaining set of four-person balanced games

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Solymosi

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that in three-person transferable-utility cooperative games the bargaining set {\\cal M}i1 and the core coincide for any coalition structure, provided the latter solution is not empty. In contrast, five-person totally-balanced games are discussed in the literature in which the bargaining set {\\cal M}i1 (for the grand coalition) is larger then the core. This paper answers the equivalence question in the remaining four-person case. We prove that in any four-person game and for a...

  8. Intertemporal bargaining in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, George

    2013-01-01

    The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and non-humans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author's control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org. PMID:23966954

  9. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ainslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  10. Power asymmetry and escalation in bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Vollstädt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Bargaining is prevalent in economic interactions. Under complete information, game theory predicts efficient bargaining outcomes (immediate acceptance of first offer) (see Rubinstein, 1982). However, continuous rejections of offers leading to inefficient delays (escalation) have regularly been found in previous bargaining experiments even under complete information (see Roth, 1995). I test experimentally (1) whether power asymmetry leads to more escalation in bargaining and (2) whether perspe...

  11. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    . To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated...

  12. Hospital collective bargaining: structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, G W

    1980-01-01

    The increasing influence of third parties on collective bargaining has continued to interest labor relations practitioners. The authors discusses the role of third-party payers and state regulatory agencies in labor-management negotiations at voluntary hospitals. Highlighted is the bargaining strategy adopted by negotiators when collective bargaining operates under a prospective rate-setting system. Also presented are the economic variables by which the payers influence hospital-union relationships and their effect on the outcomes of bargaining. The author describes the political context of health-care bargaining and the growing significance of cost control on hospital negotiations. He concludes that third-party payers cause health-care bargaining to change from a bilateral structure to a multilateral dimension. PMID:10273216

  13. Bargaining for bribes under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Danila

    2008-01-01

    A corrupt transaction is often the result of bargaining between the parties involved. This paper models bribery as a double auction where a private citizen and a public official strategically interact as the potential buyer and the potential seller of a corrupt service. Individuals differ in the internalized moral cost generated by corruption, and may have only imperfect information on others' moral cost, i.e. their "corruptibility". This paper investigates the role that imperfect information...

  14. Wage Bargaining and Employer Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Falch, Torberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares union wage bargaining outcomes across different types of employers. Five different employer objectives are discussed; profit–, welfare– and output maximization, and two specifications of a Leviathan. The model shows that the ordering of the union wage level across employer types depends on the functional form of product demand. With constant elasticity of product demand, the wage tends to be lowest in the output maximization case, while with a linear product demand, the wa...

  15. Wage dispersion and decentralization of wage bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Le Maire, D.; Munch, Jacob R.

    2013-01-01

    's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression...

  16. n-person nonconvex bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    For n-person bargaining problems the family of proportional solutions (introduced and characterized by Kalai) is generalized to bargaining problems with non-convex payoff sets. The so-called "efficient proportional solutions" are characterized axiomatically using natural extensions of the original...

  17. Dowry and Intrahousehold Bargaining: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between a woman's intrahousehold bargaining position and her welfare within marriage using household data from rural China. Simultaneity problems are overcome by using dowry to proxy for bargaining position. Omitted variable bias is addressed by using grain shocks in the year preceding marriage as an instrument…

  18. Ultimatum salary bargaining with real effort

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gallego, Aurora; Georgantzis, Nikos; Jaramillo-Gutiérrez, Ainhoa

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental results on ultimatum salary bargaining with a real task performed by employee subjects. Compared to the baseline treatment with a hypothetical task, the introduction of a real task raises offers, accepted wages and rejection rates.

  19. Patent licensing, bargaining, and product positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2010-01-01

    Innovators who have developed advanced technologies, along with launching new products by themselves, often license these technologies to their rivals. When a firm launches a new product, product positioning is also an important matter. Using a standard linear city model with two firms, we investigate how the bargaining power of the licenser affects the product positions of the firms. We find that the inventor more likely chooses the central position when its bargaining power is weak. We also...

  20. Formation of Bargaining Networks Via Link Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Priazhkina, Sofia; PAGE, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model of collusive bargaining networks. Given a status quo network, game is played in two stages: in the first stage, pairs of sellers form the network by signing two-sided contracts that allow sellers to use connections of other sellers; in the second stage, sellers and buyers bargain for the product. We extend the notion of a pairwise Nash stability with transfers to pairwise Nash stability with contracts and characterize the subgame perfect equilibria. The equilibrium...

  1. Market Structure, Bargaining, and Technology Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Wey, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this paper analyzes the impact of horizontal mergers of suppliers or retailers on their respective bargaining power. In contrast to previous approaches, we suppose that parties resolve the bargaining problem efficiently. Moreover, by ensuring that demand is independent at all retailers we exclude monopolization effects. We find that downstream mergers are more likely (less likely) if suppliers have increasing (decreasing) unit costs, while upstream mergers are more likely (l...

  2. Bargaining agenda in public and private monopoly.

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Buccella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the choice of the bargaining agenda in a public/private unionised monopoly. Both the public and private monopolist always prefers the Right-To-Manage (RTM) to the Efficient Bargaining (EB) agenda. Private monopoly is socially preferred to the public one and conflict of interests on the preferred agenda arises between Government on one side and workers and consumers on the other side. In case of threat of market entry, the public (private) monopolist may strategically commi...

  3. Unions’ Bargaining Coordination in Multinational Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Buccella, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordination of bargaining activities among labor unions in a Multinational Enterprise (MNE) with plants in different countries. Making use of a threestage game where the parties sequentially decide whether o coordinate negotiations, it derives the bargaining regimes arising as sub-game perfect equilibria. In presence of workers perfect substitutes in production and symmetry in the plants' efficiency, it is shown that unions' transaction costs may attenuate the con...

  4. On the foundations of wage bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Snower, Dennis J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides strategic foundations for the insight that the bargaining power of employees depends on the firm’s labour turnover costs. The analysis shows how these costs determine the firm’s degree of substitutability between two sets of wage negotiations: (i) those the firm conducts with its incumbent employees; and (ii) the alternative negotiations it could conduct with new job seekers. In this context, labour turnover costs not only influence the negotiators’ alternatives to bargain...

  5. Pre-trial agreement and plea bargain: pragmatism without conflict with morality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative legal analysis of plea bargain in the continental Europe, England and the USA is conducted. The history of the plea bargain emergence in common law is examined, its features are shown. Such agreements to plead guilty are often reached after bringing a charge. The freedom of agreement is guaranteed by the powers of police, court and public prosecutor to decide on the severity of the charge, its change or dismissal (partial or complete. An obvious “conflict of interests” is shown: the economic benefit of plea agreement is complicated by ignoring the public morality principles. It doesn’t allow to use the same form of plea bargain in the Russian realities: the essence of the pre-trial agreement institute doesn’t imply that the defendant pleads guilty, but contributes to solving a crime (disclosure of information about accomplices, compensation for damage. The proposals to improve the regulation of the Russian pre-trial cooperation agreement are made. The foreign models of plea bargain are studied: German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. Their comparison allows to conclude that such deal can be used in different national legal systems and in various models of criminal procedure. It’s argued that the institution of pre-trial agreement is the objective response of the Russian law enforcement bodies to modern challenges. American model of plea bargain can be considered optimal despite its shortcomings. Other states don’t accept it unchanged. Russia also has to transform the western model of plea bargain, taking into account the requirements of the domestic legal culture.

  6. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  7. A Bad Bargain: How Teacher Collective Bargaining Affects Students' Employment and Earnings Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Willén, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than 60 percent of teachers in the United States work under a union contract. The rights of teachers to unionize and bargain together have expanded dramatically since the late 1950s, when states began passing "duty-to-bargain" (DTB) laws that required school districts to negotiate with teachers unions in good faith. Recently,…

  8. Bargaining with reference points-bargaining with claims: Egalitarian solutions reexamined

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrero Blanco

    1994-01-01

    A unified approach to the problems of bargaining with a reference point and of bargaining with claims is addressed. Then, two solutions are reexamined from this perspective: the lexicographic egalitarian and the lexicographic claim-egalitarian. New characterization results are also provided.

  9. Workers' Well-Being and Productivity: The Role of Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Bargaining that makes available facilities for satisfaction of workers' basic needs can contribute to increased productivity, which in turn enhances competitiveness. Such bargaining can be an effective means of extending and reinforcing national economic planning. (SK)

  10. Endogenous Wage-Bargaining Institutions in Oligopolistic Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Petrakis; Minas Vlassis

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the endogenous emergence of wage bargaining institutions in sectors with market power. We show that asymmetries in firms’ productivity and in unions’ risk aversion and/or bargaining power may generate various degrees of centralization in wage bargaining, which are often observable in real life. In the presence of such asymmetries, a winning coalition of all the unions and (typically) the efficient firms has an incentive to establish wage bargaining centralization at the se...

  11. Safeguarding compliance with supplier codes of conduct : Investigating how buying organizations ensure the compliance of suppliers with higher bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi; Löfgren, Erica

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are using Supplier Codes of Conduct to ensure socially responsible behavior in their supply chains. Previous research on SCCs have focused on powerful brand owning multinational corporations and have concluded that a cooperative approach, the cooperation model, has yielded better results than a more traditional approach based on monitoring and sanctions, the compliance model. This study will investigate how organizations with low bargaining power use these tw...

  12. One-dimensional bargaining with unanimity rule

    OpenAIRE

    Predtetchinski, A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines bargaining over a one--dimensional set of social states, with a unanimity acceptance rule. We consider a class of delta-equilibria, i.e. subgame perfect equilibria in stationary strategies that are free of coordination failures in the response stage.We show that along any sequence of delta-equilibria, as delta converges to one, the proposal of each player converges to the same limit. The limit, called the bargaining outcome, is uniquely determined by the set of players, the...

  13. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation in the...... individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems are...

  14. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  15. Collective Bargaining: Its Impact for Institutional Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    Central Michigan University was the first single campus, 4-year institution of higher education in the United States to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with its faculty. This first agreement in 1969 was followed by a multiyear contract for the year 1971-74 which represented the first instance of a second successful contract in a…

  16. Bargaining with Many Players: A Limit Result

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Kultti; Hannu Vartiainen

    2008-01-01

    We provide a simple characterization of the stationary subgame perfect equilibrium of an alternating offers bargaining game when the number of players increases without a limit. Core convergence literature is emulated by increasing the number of players by replication. The limit allocation is interpreted in terms of Walrasian market for being the first proposer.

  17. A Collaborative Approach to Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Clay, Mark

    1997-01-01

    School boards and labor unions can benefit from a shared-revenue model. Labor costs would be contractually tied to available revenue, rather than to fixed expenses. Labor would have greater fiscal authority than under traditional collective bargaining and a real incentive to manage its own fiscal resources, since it could keep what it saved. An…

  18. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary...

  19. Intergenerational bargaining in the EU: comparative report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tros; M. Keune

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that there are three advantages in promoting the ‘intergenerational’ dimension in social dialogue and collective bargaining: o It strengthens awareness of the specific labour market positions and needs of both younger and older workers. o It supports social partners’ role in unifying gen

  20. A MECHANISM FOR META-BARGAINING PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza; María del Carmen Marco

    1995-01-01

    Consider a two-person bargaining problem, where both agents have a particular notion of what would be a just solution outcome. In case their opinions differ, a procedure which leads to a compromise between t,he two different views is needed. In this paper we propose a mechanism to solve this kind of conflict. Furthermore, we characterize it axiomatically.

  1. 36 CFR 254.10 - Bargaining; arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine values. Bargaining or any other process must be based on an objective analysis of the valuation in... determine values. If arbitration occurs, it must be conducted in accordance with the real estate valuation... from the date of the arbitration decision. (b) Arbitration is limited to the disputed valuation of...

  2. The Future Role of Livestock Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeland, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, a total of 17 regional cooperatives marketed livestock. These cooperatives were created to provide greater competition, bargaining power, and market access for producers. Growth in direct marketing, bypassing the services of cooperatives, has occurred because the number of buyers has decreased and producers want to improve marketing efficiency or lower explicit costs. Less emphasis on providing convenient markets, more competitive service charges, supplementing buy-sell operations wi...

  3. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DYNAMICS IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Gbajumo-Sheriff (Mrs.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamics of collective bargaining machinery in both the public and private sectors in Nigeria; with a view to bringing to the fore the peculiarities associated with both sectors with regard to the practice of bargaining. To achieve this objective, the paper adopts a theoretical approach. The author observes that the practice of industrial relations as a discipline and that of collective bargaining in particular emanated from the private sector the world over. Thus, much of the practices of public sector collective bargaining are modelled after the private sector collective bargaining. However, in Nigeria, the obverse is the case as collective bargaining gained its root in the public sector owing to the near absence of private sector at the turn of the century. However, in Nigeria, the public sector pays lip-service to the collective bargaining machinery. Governments at all levels (Federal, State and Local have continued to set aside collective bargaining and to give wage awards to score political points in spite of its commitment to the ILO Convention 98 to freely bargain with workers. The State or the government in the course of regulating wages and employment terms and conditions revert to the use of wage commissions. Thus, wage determination is by fiat. This preference for wage commissions can at best be regarded as a unilateral system as collective bargaining is relegated to the background.Wage tribunals or commissions offer little opportunity for workers’ contribution in the determination of terms and conditions of employment and can hardly be viewed as bilateral or tripartite. Thus, the State preference for wage commissions is anti-collective bargaining. In spite of Nigeria’s commitment to Conventions of the ILO with particular reference to such Conventions as 87 of 1948 and 98 of 1949 which provide for freedom of association and the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively

  4. Capacity as philosophy: review of Lippke's Ethics of Plea Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Plea bargaining is a response to capacity overload in the criminal justice system. It both preserves and belies the right to trial, making possible its glorious display but only by denying it in most cases. While plea bargaining has been documented and analysed copiously in historical, sociological and legal terms, its ethical status as an institutional practice are hazy. Richard Lippke offers an account of plea bargaining that draws on the normative debates over responsibility, culpability a...

  5. Bargaining Power in Relational Contracts: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Salas, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence of the economic impact from shifting bargaining power in relational contracts. I implement an experimental design that adjusts the bargaining power of sellers (agents) and the enforceability of the contract. I find that the vast majority of contracts take the form of efficiency wage contracts instead of contingent performance contracts when enforcement is partially incomplete and sellers have more bargaining power than buyers. The total contracted and...

  6. Bargaining with endogenous disagreement: the extended Kalai-Smorodinsky solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bozbay Irem; Dietrich Franz; Peters Hans

    2010-01-01

    Following Vartiainen (2007) we consider bargaining problems in which no exogenous disagreement outcome is given. A bargaining solution assigns a pair of outcomes to such a problem, namely a compromise outcome as well as a disagreement outcome: the interpretation is that the latter results if the compromise outcome is not accepted. For this framework we propose and study an extension of the classical Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution. We present a characterization with an axiom of Independ...

  7. Unions' bargaining coordination in multi-unit firms

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Buccella

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the patterns of bargaining in a multi-unit firm in the presence of labor unions coordination activities. It derives the bargaining regimes arising as sub-game perfect equilibria, considering both simultaneous and sequential games where parties choose whether to coordinate wage negotiations. It shows that unions' coordination costs may attenuate the conflict of interests between bargaining parties as regards the centralization level at which negotiations should take place.

  8. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  9. The Factorial Distribution of Income in the Union Bargaining Model

    OpenAIRE

    Beenstock, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the implications of the Union Bargaining Model (UBM) for the factorial distribution of income. It is shown that when the contract curve is given, greater union bargaining power raises the wage share. We argue, however, that the factors that strengthen the bargaining power of unions are likely to induce offsetting shifts in the contract curve. A simulation exercise indicates that the shift in the contract curve is likely to be of secondary importance in determining the ...

  10. TOWARDS A NEW EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS: COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR IN BARGAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Lopez Paredes; Cesreo Hernndez Iglesias

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we show that simple cognitive learning models, in a Computational Organization set-up can predict very well the bargaining behaviour observed in laboratory experiments with human players. Economist are interested in bargaining because transactions are not determined by market forces, and the because conceptually is the opposite to the idealized perfect competition equilibrium models. In fact in bargaining the complexity of the "institutional" setting depends upon the way the str...

  11. Bargaining in vertical relationships and suppliers' R&D profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of bargaining in vertical relationships on the profitability of suppliers' R&D investments. Studies on the relationship between R&D and firm profitability mostly concentrate on the impact of horizontal market structure and neglect vertical interac-tions. Building on theoretical and empirical evidence about the effects of bargaining in vertical relationships, the crucial determinants of a supplier's bargaining power are identified as the market position and the d...

  12. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  13. Searching a bargain: power of strategic commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Ozyurt, Selcuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of reputation (in contact with inflexibility) on imperfectly competitive search markets where the sellers announce their initial demands prior to the buyer’s visit and the buyer directs his search for a better deal. The buyer facing multiple sellers can negotiate with only one at a time and can switch his bargaining partner with some cost. The introduction of commitment types that are inflexible in their demands, even with low probabilities, makes the equil...

  14. Prior Restrictions on Bargaining Contract Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.

    2001-01-01

    It is well-known that the efficient-bargain model imposes no general restrictions on the slope of the contract curve. As a result, both upward- and downward-sloping curves are consistent with the theory. Less is known, however, about the effect on the contract curve of changes in the demand and supply variables that underlie employer and union indifference maps and help determine curve's position. To aid empirical researchers, this paper analyzes the effects of demand and supply variables on ...

  15. Property Rights and Intra-Household Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Shing-Yi Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether an individual-level transfer of property rights increases the individual's bargaining power within the household. The question is analyzed in the context of a housing reform that occurred in China that gave existing tenants the opportunity to purchase the homes that they had been renting from their state employers. The rights to each housing unit were granted to a particular employee, so property rights were defined at the individual level rather than the household...

  16. Bargaining Between Retailers and their Suppliers.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys new research concerning bargaining within supply chains and its implications for buyer power. The paper explores the implications of the research on supermarket supply chains for primary, secondary and private-label branded goods. The empirical base in support of the theories is also discussed. This paper is an initial draft of a chapter for the book "Private Labels, Brands and Competition Policy" (OUP) edited by Ariel Ezrachi and Ulf Bernitz.

  17. Agency Problems and Commitment in Delegated Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbin Cai; Walter Cont

    2000-01-01

    In many economic situations, delegates are hired to play games for their principals. The principal-agent literature focuses on agency problems in the delegation relationships. Following Schelling (1960), the delegation literature emphasizes the commitment effects of delegation contracts against a third party. But not much attention has been paid to the interactions between agency problems and commitment considerations. In the context of one-sided delegated bargaining, we analyze how a princip...

  18. Crime Networks with Bargaining and Build Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Engelhardt

    2008-01-01

    How does the timing, targets and types of anti-crime policies affect a network when criminal retailers search sequentially for wholesalers and crime opportunities? Given the illicit nature of crime, I analyze a non-competitive market where players bargain over the surplus. In such a market, some anti-crime policies distort revenue sharing, reduce matching frictions and increase market activity or crime. As an application, the model provides a new perspective on why the U.S. cocaine market saw...

  19. Essays in Intellectual Property Bargaining and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Pyoungchan Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays on the dynamics of intellectual property bargaining and trade, particularly of patents. The first essay presents a game theoretic model examining the sale of intellectual property rights from small inventors with buyers of varying commercialization capacity across intellectual property rights regimes with full and no property rights protection. The essay finds that in Nash equilibrium in both single seller and infinite seller scenarios, sellers ge...

  20. Value solutions in cooperative games

    CERN Document Server

    McCain, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces new concepts for cooperative game theory, and particularly solutions that determine the distribution of a coalitional surplus among the members of the coalition. It also addresses several generalizations of cooperative game theory. Drawing on methods of welfare economics, new value solutions are derived for Non-Transferable Utility games with and without differences of bargaining power among the members of the coalition. Cooperation in intertemporal games is examined, and conditions that permit the reduction of these games to games in coalition function form are outlined.

  1. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N., E-mail: amenegaki@her.forthnet.g [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Languages, Literature and Civilization of Black Sea Countries, Polytechniou 7A, 69100 Komotini (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: {yields}The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. {yields}Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. {yields}A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might

  2. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: →The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. →Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. →A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising

  3. Collective Bargaining in Education, 1981: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward T.

    Whether or not collective bargaining in the public sector becomes a universal practice, work stoppages cannot be considered an acceptable method for resolving contract disputes. Public opposition to strikes by teachers is growing. School districts and teachers must realize that collective bargaining is a process of compromise, and that candor,…

  4. Bargaining Theory over Opportunity Assignments and the Egalitarian Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yongsheng; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of axiomatic bargaining problems over opportunity assignments. The fair arbitrator uses the principle of "equal opportunity" for all players to make the recommendation on resource allocations. A framework in such a context is developed and the egalitarian solution to standard bargaining problems is reformulated and axiomatically characterized.

  5. Wage bargaining, job loss fears and offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I present a simple theoretical model where firms and trade unions negotiate over wages. Firms have the possibility to offshore parts of the ir production and trade union members have a disutility from individual job loss fears. I show that higher job loss fears result in lower wages. As a Nash bargaining result, firms can use potential but non realized offshoring as a threat to enforce lower wages. Using a large German household survey, I can show evidence that increasing potent...

  6. Has international trade affected workers’ bargaining power?

    OpenAIRE

    BROCK, E; Dobbelaere, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether international trade has affected workers?wages and their bargaining power in particular in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1987-1995 by relying on a rent-sharing framework. Using a sample of more than 12 000 firms, we find that international trade has an effect on workers?wages through changes in the firms?profits. Our regression results reveal that increased foreign competition in the firm of lower export prices reduces both wages per ...

  7. Monopolistic Competition, Efficient Bargaining and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Hua Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets up an endogenous growth model with monopolistic competition in the product market and efficient bargaining in the labor market, and uses it to examine the impacts of union power, monopoly power and tax policy on the long-run economic growth rate. Some main findings emerge from the analysis. First, when the capital income tax rate exceeds the labor income tax rate, a rise in union power will always increase the economic growth rate. Secondly, how monopoly power affects the econ...

  8. Wage Drift and Bargaining: Evidence from Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Steinar

    1989-01-01

    Empirical equations, based on a theoretical bargaining model, are estimated on data for wage drift in six industries and in the aggregate manufacturing sector in Norway. It is shown that the central wage settlement has a strong impact on aggregate and relative wages in the short run, and that this effect is not offset by wage drift. Wage drift is also found to depend negatively on the size of inventories. This is interpreted as arising from the effect of the initial size of the inventories on...

  9. A BARGAINING APPROACH TO COORDINATION IN NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Meléndez-Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which players interact via the formation of costly links and the benefits of bilateral interactions are determined by a coordination game. A novel contribution of this paper is that the fraction of the cost borne by each player involved in a bilateral link is not fixed exogenously, but results from bargaining. We analyze the model both in a static and a dynamic setting. Whereas the static game has multiplicity of equilibria, we show that only one is stochastical...

  10. Bargaining power and supply base diversification

    OpenAIRE

    WAN, Zhixi; Damian R. Beil

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a supply base diversification problem faced by a buyer who periodically holds auctions to award short term supply contracts among a cohort of suppliers (i.e., the supply base). To mitigate significant cost shocks to procurement, the buyer can diversify her supply base by selecting suppliers from different regions. The authors find that the optimal degree of supply base diversification depends on the buyer’s bargaining power, i.e., the buyer’s ability to choo...

  11. Clever Agents in Young's Evolutionary Bargaining Model

    OpenAIRE

    Weibull, Jörgen W.; Saez-Marti, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the models of Young (1993a,b), boundedly rational individuals are recurrently matched to play a game, and they play myopic best replies to the recent history of play. It could therefore be an advantage to instead play a myopic best reply to the myopic best reply, something boundedly rational players might conceivably also do. We investigate this possibility in the context of Young's (1993b)bargaining model. It turns out that 'cleverness' in this respect indeed does have an advantage in som...

  12. From Bargaining Solutions to Claims Rules: A Proportional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Giménez-Gómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agents involved in a conflicting claims problem may be concerned with the proportion of their claims that is satisfied, or with the total amount they get. In order to relate both perspectives, we associate to each conflicting claims problem a bargaining-in-proportions set. Then, we obtain a correspondence between classical bargaining solutions and usual claims rules. In particular, we show that the constrained equal losses, the truncated constrained equal losses and the contested garment (Babylonian Talmud rules can be obtained throughout the Nash bargaining solution.

  13. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    over the wage (case 2). In both cases reducing tax progression increases working time of employed and, more interestingly, increases unambiguously wages and unemployment. Wages and unemployment rise more and working time and production less in case 1 compared to case 2; probably making case 2 countries......This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...

  14. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190. ISSN 0022-1996 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  15. The Strategic Positioning of Store Brands in Retailer - Manufacturer Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona M. Scott Morton; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2000-01-01

    We argue in this paper that retailers can strategically position store brands in product space to strengthen their bargaining position when negotiating supply terms with manufacturers of national brands. Using a bargaining framework we model a retailer's decision whether to carry an additional national brand or a store brand, and if the retailer chooses to introduce the latter, where in product space to locate the store brand. Store brands differ from other brands in being both unadvertised a...

  16. On the Role of Regulation in Union - Employer Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Stegman

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides some analysis of microeconomic criteria for the regulation of union - employer wage bargaining in the context of a decentralised wage determination system. Using a simple model, where the employer has monopoly power in the product market, it is shown that an efficient collusive bargain struck between union and employer will benefit the consumer. This result holds under quite weak assumptions about the objectives of the union. Under not unreasonable assumptions about the na...

  17. Bargaining in Technology Markets: An empirical study of biotechnology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kinukawa, Shinya; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We empirically examine the distribution of bargaining power between buyers and sellers on the biotechnology markets by estimating the extracted surplus in alliance agreements, which depends on each party's bargaining power. The results show that buyers have extracted more surplus than sellers. However, these also reveal that the surplus extracted by buyers has been decreasing while that of the sellers has been increasing. We construe that the prices of biotechnologies have been lower than the...

  18. Endogenous Contracts Under Bargaining in Competing Vertical Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Milliou, Chrysovalantou; Petrakis, Emmanuel; Vettas, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous determination of contracts in competing vertical chains where upstream and downstream firms bargain first over the type of contract and then over the contract terms. Upstream firms always opt for non-linear contracts, which specify the input quantity and its total price. Downstream firms also opt for non-linear contracts, unless their bargaining power is low, in which case they prefer wholesale price contracts. While welfare is maximized under two-part tariffs, t...

  19. Spousal Employment and Intra-Household Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    ANTMAN, FRANCISCA M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between work status and decision-making power of the head of household and his spouse. I use household fixed effects models to address the possibility that spousal work status may be correlated with unobserved factors that also affect bargaining power within the home. Consistent with the hypothesis that greater economic resources yield greater bargaining power, I find that the spouse of the head of household is more likely to be involved in decisions when...

  20. Bargaining with asymmetric information in non-stationary markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Trefler

    1999-01-01

    The Rubinstein and Wolinsky bargaining-in-markets framework is modified by the introduction of asymmetric information and non-stationarity. Non-stationarity is introduced in the form of an arbitrary stochastic Markov process which captures the dynamics of market entry and pairwise matching. A new technique is used for establishing existence and characterizing the unique outcome of a non-stationary market equilibrium. The impact of market supply and demand on bilateral bargaining outcomes and ...

  1. The Doha Talks and the Bargaining Surplus in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Furtan, William Hartley; Guzel, A.; Karantininis, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    The Doha Round has been slow to achieve a reduction in the level of agricultural protection. This remains the case notwithstanding the substantial economic benefits that would arise from a more liberal agricultural trading regime. We provide one explanation for this slowness using a simple bargaining model. We demonstrate that the bargaining countries received a substantial fiscal gain from reducing government expenditures in the run-up to the Uruguay Round. This fiscal pressure was sufficien...

  2. Equity considerations in health care: An axiomatic bargaining approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadras, Xavier; Pinto, Jos?? Luis; Abell??n, Jos?? M??

    2000-01-01

    The general issues of equity and efficiency are placed at the center of the analysis of resource allocation problems in health care. We examine them using axiomatic bargaining theory. We study different solutions that have been proposed and relate them to previous literature on health care allocation. In particular, we focus on the solutions based on axiomatic bargaining with claims and suggest that they may be particularly appealing as distributive criteria in hea...

  3. On centralized bargaining in a symmetric oligopolistic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Amrita; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study interactions between labor and product markets, in an imperfectly competitive industry with centralized wage bargaining. Firms jointly bargain with the union over wages and then compete in prices or quantities. We show that the negotiated wage is independent of the number of firms, the degree of substitutability of firms' products, and the type of market competition, in a broad c1ass of industry specifications, including the standard syrnmetric linear demand system-line...

  4. Bargaining agenda in a unionised monopoly with network effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Buccella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the bargaining agenda selection in a unionised monopoly with network effects. In contrast with the established result that monopolist always prefers Right-To-Manage (RTM), it is shown that monopolist prefers Sequential Efficient Bargaining (SEB), provided that the network effect is sufficiently intense and union’s power not too high. Since the union always prefers SEB, the presence of network effects may solve the traditional conflict of interests between parties and a...

  5. Bargaining Structures and Agendas in an Unconstrained Hotelling Model

    OpenAIRE

    Buccella, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the effects of bargaining structures and agendas on the quality differentiation/location in the final-goods market. The framework is a unionized duopoly industry in the context of an unconstrained Hotelling linear city model. The presence of labor union(s) and the bargaining processes (i.e., centralized vs. decentralized structure; right-to-manage vs. participatory framework agenda) change the locational incentives of the firms with respect to the case of exogen...

  6. A Bargaining Approach to Profit Sharing in Joint Ventures.

    OpenAIRE

    Darrough, Masako N; Stoughton, Neal M

    1989-01-01

    Profit-sharing arrangements in joint ventures are analyzed as a Bayesian bargaining game between two parents with incomplete information about each other's cost function for inputs provided. Using the mathematics of mechanism design, this article explores the sensitivity of the bargaining agreement to the timing of private information about costs. A condition on demand and costs is derived under which the balanced budget constraint does not preclude the joint venture from achieving an ex post...

  7. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  8. Centralized Bargaining, Multi-Tasking and Work Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck , Assar; Snower, Dennis J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the implications of an important aspect of the ongoing reorganization of work - the move from occupational specialization toward multi-tasking - for centralized wage bargaining. The analysis shows how, on account of this reorganization, centralized bargaining becomes increasingly inefficient and detrimental to firms' profit opportunities, since it prevents firms from offering their employees adequate incentives to perform the appropriate mix of tasks. The paper also shows h...

  9. The effect of decision weights in bargaining problems

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.J.M.; Koebberling, V.

    2002-01-01

    Bargaining problems are considered where the preferences of the bargainers deviate from expected utility but can be modelled according to rank dependent utility theory. Under rank dependent utility two factors influence the risk attitude of a decision maker: the utility function and the probability weighting function. Arising from the same definition of risk aversion, two forms of risk aversion can be distinguished: utility risk aversion and probabilistic risk aversion.The main finding is tha...

  10. A Simple Bargaining Model where Parties Make Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Essen, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a bargaining model where parties (or their intermediaries) make errors when reporting their bid. We characterize the Nash equilibria of the game and show that there is a unique equilibrium where trade takes place. This trade equilibrium is shown to converge to the Nash Bargaining Solution of the problem as trembles diminish. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of the previous literature providing a critique of the model and analysis found in Carlsson (1991).

  11. Experimental evidence of the importance of gender pairing in bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Matthias; Bosman, Ronald; Kocher, Martin; van Winden, Frans

    2003-01-01

    We study the influence of gender on economic decision making in a two-person bargaining game. By testing hypotheses derived from evolutionary psychology and social role theory, we find that (1) gender per se has no significant effect on behavior, whereas (2) gender pairing systematically affects behavior. In particular, we observe much more competition and retaliation and, thus, lower efficiency when the bargaining partners have the same gender than when they have the opposite gender. Implica...

  12. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but has not investigated its impact on regional wage differentiation. Empirical evidence in this paper for EU regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests that countries w...

  13. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner’s dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player’s cooperation choices in prisoner’s dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were ‘moral bargain hunters’ who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a ‘price list’ of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game. PMID:27296466

  14. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.518 - Duty to bargain, confer, and consult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of an existing collective bargaining agreement over a proposed change that is otherwise negotiable...) In promulgating Departmental policies and regulations that deal with otherwise negotiable subjects... those organizations on other appropriate matters. (3) Management has no obligation to bargain over...

  16. Direct and Indirect Bargaining Costs and the Scope of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Simester; Marc Knez

    2002-01-01

    We compare bargaining costs with internal and external suppliers using a unique data set describing internal and external transactions for the same categories of parts at a single firm. The findings confirm that direct bargaining costs are higher with external suppliers, at least in part because there is more to bargain over. We also observed higher indirect bargaining costs with external suppliers. Information that may hinder contractual negotiations is often suppressed or delayed. To enforc...

  17. On the Strategic Choice of Union-Oligopoly Bargaining Agenda: Further Results

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Buccella; Luciano Fanti

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the strategic selection of the bargaining agenda in a unionized industry with potential entry and decentralized negotiations for different competition modes. The incumbent chooses Right-to-Manage (RTM) or Efficient Bargaining (EB) considering two scenarios: (1) the agenda is imposed to the (potential) entrant (committed bargaining) and (2) the entrant can flexibly choose the agenda (flexible bargaining). In the mixed duopoly, the timing of the game is as follows: at stage ...

  18. Bargaining with a Shared Interest: The Impact of Employee Stock Ownership Plans on Labor Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Hamid Mehran; Joseph Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Bargaining often occurs between parties with some shared interest. Partnerships, joint ventures, and cross ownership are examples. We extend standard bargaining models to allow for joint ownership. Joint ownership reduces costly bargaining disputes, as bargainers’ interests are more aligned. We then test the theory with collective bargaining data, where employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are the source of joint ownership. The theory predicts that ESOPs will lead to a reduction in strike i...

  19. FIRM VALUATION IN VENTURE CAPITAL FINANCING ROUNDS: THE ROLE OF INVESTOR BARGAINING POWER

    OpenAIRE

    A. HEUGHEBAERT; S. MANIGART; -()

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bargaining power of venture capital (VC) firms on the valuation of their portfolio companies. We argue that VC firm types with greater bargaining power vis-à-vis the entrepreneur negotiate lower valuations compared to VC firm types with less bargaining power. We find that VC firm types with stronger bargaining power, namely university and government VC firms, value investments lower compared to independent VC firms. The valuations of captive VC firms equal th...

  20. 48 CFR 952.237-70 - Collective bargaining agreements-protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... collective bargaining agreements applicable to the work force under this contract, the Contractor shall use... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collective bargaining... Clauses 952.237-70 Collective bargaining agreements—protective services. As prescribed in 937.7040,...

  1. 29 CFR 103.30 - Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry. 103.30 Section 103.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD OTHER RULES Appropriate Bargaining Units § 103.30 Appropriate bargaining units in the health care industry. (a)...

  2. Labor-management cooperation: Antecedents and impact on organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Deery; Roderick D. Iverson

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the antecedents and outcomes of labor-management cooperation. Data were drawn from 305 branches of a large unionized Australian-based multinational banking organization. The authors find that perceptions of a cooperative labor relations climate were positively influenced by procedural justice, the union's willingness to adopt an integrative approach to bargaining, and management's willingness to share information freely with the union. The findings also indicate that a coo...

  3. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states. PMID:25512497

  4. Electricity trade and tariffs. Imports as a bargaining game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity transboundary trade could be characterized as a bilateral monopoly between two national electricity boards. The bargaining over prices that takes place between importer and exporter is considered in the framework of bargaining game theory. Strategies are strongly affected by the type of regulation of the national electric utility within the importing country. The most suitable tariff policy seems to be that based on marginal cost pricing because it reduces both tariff level and the consumers' welfare loss in respect to other pricing rules. 14 refs., 3 figs

  5. BARGAINING POWER IN THE NASH DEMAND GAME AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    JUANA SANTAMARIA-GARCIA

    2009-01-01

    A population of buyers and a population of sellers meet repeatedly in order to exchange a good. The price is fixed through a variant of the Nash demand game. This paper analyzes the prices that are robust to experimentation in the sense of stochastic stability. Under some conditions only one price is selected and it gives a share of the surplus to each side of the market that corresponds to the generalized Nash bargaining solution. The bargaining power of each party depends on the division of...

  6. Spousal Employment and Intra-Household Bargaining Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2014-05-01

    This paper considers the relationship between work status and decision-making power of the head of household and his spouse. I use household fixed effects models to address the possibility that spousal work status maybe correlated with unobserved factors that also affect bargaining power within the home. Consistent with the hypothesis that greater economic resources yield greater bargaining power, I find that the spouse of the head of household is more likely to be involved in decisions when she has been employed. Similarly, the head of household is less likely to be the sole decision-maker when his spouse works. PMID:25342928

  7. Spousal Employment and Intra-Household Bargaining Power*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between work status and decision-making power of the head of household and his spouse. I use household fixed effects models to address the possibility that spousal work status maybe correlated with unobserved factors that also affect bargaining power within the home. Consistent with the hypothesis that greater economic resources yield greater bargaining power, I find that the spouse of the head of household is more likely to be involved in decisions when she has been employed. Similarly, the head of household is less likely to be the sole decision-maker when his spouse works. PMID:25342928

  8. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  9. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2005-07-01

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  10. When is Bargaining Successful? Negotiated Division of Tournament Prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Goldreich, David; Pomorski, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    We study bargaining at the end of high-stakes poker tournaments, in which participants often negotiate a division of the prize money rather than bear the risk of playing the game until the end. This setting is ideal for studying bargaining: the stakes are substantial, there are no restrictions on the negotiations or the terms of a deal, outside options are clearly defined, there are no agency conflicts, and there is little private information. Even in this setting, we find that risk-reducing ...

  11. Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women’s Position in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene; Mabsout, Ramzi

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining literature there is a common paradoxical finding, namely that more access to and control over individual resources sometimes decreases rather than increases women‟s bargaining outcomes. With household...

  12. Teacher Unionism and Collective Bargaining in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    This article analyzes the teacher union movement and the system of teacher bargaining in England and Wales. The author traces the postwar history of teacher negotiations and shows that the present system of negotiation has experienced increasing difficulties in the past decade, such as a rise in teacher militancy. (Author/CT)

  13. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  14. Negotiating What Matters Most: Collective Bargaining and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a statutorily narrow scope of bargaining, the scope of topics of union-management discussions has widened over the last 20 years, resulting in the birth of reform, or professional, unionism. But over the last half decade, professional unionism has waned. School management often refuses to see unions as partners, politicians fail to view…

  15. States Eye Curbs on Collective Bargaining by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    First it was changes to pay, then evaluation systems, and then tenure laws. Now, lawmakers in several states are challenging collective bargaining, the foundation of teacher unionism. Leaders in Idaho, Indiana, and Tennessee are proposing bills that would limit what, if anything, teachers' unions could negotiate. None of the proposals has yet…

  16. On the Evolutionary Stability of 'Tough' Bargaining Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game such behavior survives. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary selection wipes out all tough behavior, as long as the...

  17. China’s Bargaining Strategies after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    Applying bargaining theory of international conflicts, we examine the successes and challenges of China’s strategic choices in its ascent after the Cold War. We suggest that China needs to alleviate information and commitment problems in order to rise peacefully. Since 2008, China’s “peaceful rise...

  18. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  19. The Impact of trade shocks on collective wage bargaining agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Carluccio, Juan; Fougere, Denis; Gautier, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of international trade on firm-level wage bargaining using a unique administrative firm-level dataset for French manufacturing. Exports have a positive effect on the probability of signing firm-level wage agreements, while offshoring has no significant effect. Results are consistent with the predictions of rent-sharing models of the export wage-premium.

  20. The Nature and Function of Argument in Organizational Bargaining Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Colleen M.

    Noting the call for research that links argument theory with negotiation, this paper examines the nature and function of argument negotiation in current organizational bargaining research theories. Five perspectives are extrapolated to define "argument" and demonstrate how different viewpoints can affect understanding of the negotiation process.…

  1. Bargaining among Nations: Culture, History, and Perceptions in Regime Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Ronnie D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of regimes (collective international schemes) for managing global problems depends on culture, history, and perceptions. The ways in which these elements affect bargaining among nations over issues of the global commons are discussed. Implications are reviewed for a regime to deal with atmospheric conditions and global warming. (SLD)

  2. The Effect of Wage Bargains on the Stock Market Value of the Firm.

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd

    1989-01-01

    The author estimates the change in the value of common stock resulting from an unexpected change in collectively bargained labor costs. Using bargaining unit wage data and NYSE stock returns, he estimates a dollar for dollar trade-off between these variables. This result is consistent with stock valuations based on present value maximizing managerial decisions; that is, the results are consistent with Hotelling's lemma. The author also finds support for the hypothesis that collective bargains...

  3. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...

  4. A Formal Theory of Firm Boundaries: A Trade-Off between Rent Seeking and Bargaining Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Mori

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of firm boundaries in the spirit of transaction cost analysis, in which trading parties engage in ex post value split. We show that ex post inefficient bargaining under non-integration creates a trade-off between rent seeking and bargaining costs: while non-integration incurs lower rent-seeking costs than integration, it suffers from bargaining delay and breakdown, which never occur under integration. This result explains why rent-seeking activities within firms are likely...

  5. Wage bargaining with on-the-job search: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre CAHUC; Postel-Vinay, Fabien; Robin, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The Nash wage bargaining model is ubiquitous in modern labour economics. Yet most applications of this model ignore inter-employer competition for labour services and attribute all of the workers’ rent to their bargaining power. In this Paper, we write and estimate an equilibrium model with strategic wage bargaining and on-the-job search and use it to take another look at the determinants of wages in France. There are three essential determinants of wages in our model: productivity, competiti...

  6. Globalisation and the Future of Central Collective Bargaining: The Example of the German Metal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, A.; Schulten, T.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the relationship of the German model of capitalism and the role of centralized collective bargaining within it. It is assumed that the system of central wage bargaining - leading to a relativel~e. galitarian wage structure and the absence of a non-union wage sector - is one of the major pillars of the national institutional framework of the German economy. Pressures towards the decentralization of collective bargaining will therefore not only affect the distribution of wa...

  7. List Prices, Bargaining and Resultant Productivity Diffusion Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Thanassoulis, John

    2005-01-01

    List prices are not completely credible as take it or leave it prices: buyers are able to seek reductions by bargaining with firms. We show that this realisation leads to the existence of a critical threshold number of competitors in an industry which depends on fundamentals. In industries with fewer competitors than the critical level, there is productivity diffuson delay: low and high cost firms coexist, list prices have no information value and transaction price dispersion exists. Above th...

  8. Factors affecting bargaining outcomes between pharmacies and insurers.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, J. M.; Doucette, W; Sorofman, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To model the bargaining power of pharmacies and insurers in price negotiations and test whether it varies with characteristics of the pharmacy, insurer, and pharmacy market. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from four sources. Pharmacy/insurer transactions were taken from Medstat's universe of 6.8 million pharmacy claims in their 1994 Marketscan database. Sources Informatics, Inc. supplied a three-digit zip code-level summary database containing pharmacy payments and self-reported c...

  9. Legislative Bargaining and Lobbying in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Roelfsema

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the effects of legislative bargaining in the EU on public goods provision and lobbying. We argue that delegation to a single policy maker at the centralized level -which we call supranational policy making- increases lobbying expenditures. When policy in the center is formulated by a committee consisting of national representatives -intergovernmental decision making- centralization causes lobbying expenditures fall, for centralization makes national policy makers ...

  10. Capacity and concessions : bargaining power in multilateral negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Realism and liberalism disagree over the source of bargaining power in international relations. Realists believe that the success of a negotiator is a linear function of the capabilities that its home state possesses. Liberals stress the crucial importance of either the relative salience a country attaches to a contested issue or the importance negotiating governments have to attribute to powerful domestic actors. In this essay, I clarify some of the channels through which these different fac...

  11. The Legal Framework for Collective Bargaining in Developing Economies

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    1996-01-01

    June 1996 This paper addresses the question, "How should the law treat labor unions and collective bargaining?" Because the answer to this question depends on what labor unions do, the first part of the paper describes the activities of unions and reviews the research designed to measure the consequences of unionism. The context of this review is a developing country which, by its very nature, cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as the more developed economies. This is partly because u...

  12. Changes in Collective Bargaining in the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Siebert, William Stanley

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps no other country in recent years has witnessed greater change in its collective bargaining framework than the UK. This paper describes the dramatic developments and their consequences. Like Gaul, it is in three parts. The first part charts the six major pieces of legislation – conventionally described as ?anti-union? – that were enacted by successive Conservative administrations between 1980 and 1993, and links them to the subsequent decline in unionism and to improvements in firm per...

  13. Testing the Unitary and Nash Bargaining Household Models in India

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lakshmanasamy

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the unitary or common preference approach versus the collective models of household behaviour in India. Using the independent female unearned income as an indicator of female’s control over resources within the household in the bargaining strategy, we study the effect of pooled unearned income versus independent unearned income of the spouses on five household decisions, viz., male and female labour supply, household expenditures on food, education and health. The OLS estimat...

  14. Money and Prices: A Model of Search and Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Shouyong Shi

    1995-01-01

    This paper makes commodities divisible and incorporates bargaining into the search-theoretic model of money to determine the purchasing power of money (or price). It is shown that two monetary equilibria always coexist where flat money is universally accepted. The two equilibria differ in price, output, welfare and the velocity of money. Sunspot monetary equilibria exist in which money is universally accepted in all states of the economy. Multiplicity has novel implications on the effectivene...

  15. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, Bilgehan; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190. ISSN 0022-1996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0666 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  16. Gender differences in education in a dynamic household bargaining model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Echevarria; Antonio Merlo

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the issue of gender differences in education in the context of a two-sexoverlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children conditional on gender, andparents are altruistic toward their children. We show that the difference in the education levels ofboys and girls implied by our model is smaller than the one that would result from a pureinvestment model. Also,...

  17. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  18. Saving for Retirement: Household Bargaining and Household Net Worth

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly J. Lundberg; Jennifer Ward-Batts

    2000-01-01

    Traditional economic models of savings treat the household as a single individual, and do not allow for the separate preferences of and possible conflicts of interest between husbands and wives. Since wives are typically younger than their husbands and life expectancy for women exceeds that for men, wives may prefer to save more for retirement than do their husbands. This suggests that households in which wives have greater relative bargaining power may accumulate greater net worth as they ap...

  19. A Note on Free Trade Agreement and Wage Bargaining Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Yohanes E.; Jung Hur

    2004-01-01

    Mezzeti and Dinopoulos (1991) show that a free trade agreement (trade liberalization) decreases wage rate. However, Naylor (1998) shows that trade liberalization increases wage rate. Both papers consider tariff as exogenously given. In this paper we show that these conflicting results can be nested into a model of international duopoly with a more general wage bargaining structure. Tariff is endogenously determined in our model. In addition, we also derive crucial implications of the wage bar...

  20. The effect of bargaining power on joint venture performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Ron

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the results of an empirical study focusing on the relationship between the relative bargaining power of partners in an IJV, the division of control between the partners, the level of trust, and the performance of the IJV. In this study, we combined the structural and the behavioural approaches towards IJV management and evaluated their respective effect on IJV performance. Survey research was used to collect data. Research evidence indicated that the division of control w...

  1. Strategic factor markets: Bargaining, scarcity, and resource complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbesan, Tunji

    2007-01-01

    Strategic factor market theory suggests that without luck or asymmetric expectations, firms can't appropriate gains from acquired resources. Adopting the bargaining perspective on resource advantage, we hold that this is only true in the absence of resource complementarity. We extend factor market theory to account for resource complementarity, and we show that firms can profit when they exhibit superior complementarity to target resources, even in the absence of asymmetric expectations. Thus...

  2. Product differentiation in a linear city and wage bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Grandner

    2007-01-01

    Economides (1986) has shown that within a linear city an equilibrium exists in a two-stage location-price game when the curvature of the transportation cost function is sufficiently high. One important point is that not all of these equilibria are at maximal differentiation. In this paper we include an additional stage with decentralized wage bargaining. This intensifies price competition resulting in locations that are nearer to the extremes of the city. The magnitude of this effect depends ...

  3. Sticky wage Nash bargaining model with incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Antosiewicz; Maciej Bukowski; Pawel Kowal

    2011-01-01

    We develop an alternative novel method of introducing real wage rigidity into an otherwise standard search and matching model. Wages are constantly renegotiated through Nash wage bargaining, however negotiations are based on imperfect information regarding the productivity level and consequently marginal productivity. The imperfect information mechanism is modeled by means of a Kalman filter. As a consequence, after a positive technology shock some of the increase in productivity is attribute...

  4. Efficiency Wages, Union-Firm Bargaining, and Strikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana MAULEON; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    We consider efficiency wage effects in a union-firm bargaining model with private information. We show that efficiency wage effects do not necessarily increase the wage level at equilibrium. However, if it is commonly known that the union is stronger than the firm and the productivity enhancing effects of paying higher wages are sufficiently large, then efficiency wage effects still increase the wage at equilibrium. More surprisingly, we show that efficiency wage effects increase the strike...

  5. Efficiency Wages, Unio-Firm Bargaining, and Strikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana MAULEON; VANNETLEBOSCH, Vincent J.

    2001-01-01

    We consider efficiency wage effects in a union-firm bargaining model with private information. We show that efficiency wage effects do not necessarily increase the wage level at equilibrium. However, if it is commonly known that the union is stronger than the firm and the productivity enhancing effects of paying higher wages are sufficiently large, then efficiency wage effects still increase the wage of equilibrium. More surprisingly, we show that efficiency wage effects increase the strike a...

  6. Bargaining over waiting time in ultimatum game experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roger; Rauhut, Heiko; Prade, Sandra; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    While preference-based explanations play an increasing role in economics and sociology, the accurate measurement of social preferences deserves more attention. Most laboratory experiments measure social preferences by studying the division of "a cake that nobody had to bake" (Güth and Kliemt, 2003). This article reports results of the first ultimatum game experiment with bargaining over waiting time. The experiment was created to avoid effects of windfall gains. In contrast to donated money, time is not endowed by the experimenter and implies a natural loss to subjects. This allows for a better measurement of the inherent conflict in the ultimatum game. We implemented three anonymity conditions; one baseline condition, one condition with anonymity among subjects and one double-blind condition in which the experimenter did not know the division of waiting time. While we expected to observe less other-regarding behavior in ultimatum game bargaining over time, our experimental results rather confirm previous ultimatum game experiments, in which people bargained over money. The modal offer was half of the waiting time and only one offer was rejected. Interestingly, anonymity did not change the results significantly. In conclusion, our experiment confirms other-regarding behavior in the ultimatum game. PMID:23017758

  7. The Scope of Collective Bargaining and Arbitration for Tenure of Public School Teachers: The New York Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Shows the scope of collective bargaining and arbitration for tenure that has developed in New York. Examines both the statutory background of the right of collective bargaining for tenure and the recent case law on the subject. (Author/IRT)

  8. Non-cooperative game theoretic approaches to bilateral exchange networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Prangle, D.

    2005-01-01

    Bilateral exchange networks are structures in which a finite set of players have a restricted framework of bargaining opportunities with each other. The key restrictions are that each player may participate in only one 'exchange' and each of these may only involve a pair of players. There is a large sociology literature which investigates these networks as a simplified model of social exchange. This literature contains many predictions and experimental results, but not a non-cooperative game ...

  9. 48 CFR 970.5222-1 - Collective Bargaining Agreements Management and Operating Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause: Collective Bargaining Agreements—Management and Operating Contracts (DEC 2000) When negotiating collective bargaining agreements applicable to the work force under this contract, the Contractor shall use... Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5222-1...

  10. A Case for the College Handbook in an Era of Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    With the growth of collective bargaining in California community colleges, the collective bargaining agreement has begun to replace faculty handbooks and college policy manuals as the statement of management/employee relations, work conditions, and benefits. This has led many to conclude that the college handbook is outmoded and inconsequential…

  11. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of dama

  12. The Role of Government in Collective Bargaining: Scandinavia and the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, Ank; Slomp, Hans

    1990-01-01

    This article compares the role of government in collective bargaining in five small West European countries. For the period until the second half of the 1970s, a distinction is made between countries in which government often interfered in wage bargaining, e. g. Denmark and The Netherlands, and coun

  13. A BARGAINING FRAMEWORK TO ESTABLISH OVER-ORDER PREMIUMS IN DAIRY MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Prasertsri, Peerapon; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Given the approximate bilateral monopoly nature of Florida dairy industry (producers and processors), the monthly projected over-order premiums (i.e., the dollar amount above the Class I price) are determined by the generalized Nash bargaining model through the relevant prices, costs, bargaining power, and risk attitudes. The implications of the results are discussed.

  14. Community College Collective Bargaining in New Jersey. Study Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begin, James P.; And Others

    This study's purpose was to analyze the operation of the bargaining systems in the 16 public two-year New Jersey colleges, to compare these systems with those in other states, and to develop policy recommendations. Research covered the history and origins of bargaining, employers' negotiating structures, faculty salary and compensation analysis,…

  15. Regional Energy Cooperation: National and International Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    I would like to summarize benefits from the cooperation among the Northeast Asian countries. First, the abundant energy reserves of Russian Far East can be the key source of alternative energy for the countries in the Northeast Asian region that can lessen the heavy dependency on the Middle East. Second, It will also be the cost-effective alternative because of the area adjacency. Third, abundance of environment-friendly natural gas and hydropower reserves in the region is the effective countermeasure for dealing with environmental issues. Fourth, the energy cooperation will permit land routes for energy supply to the countries that have depended entirely on marine transport for imports. Fifth, joint development of energy supply and construction of transportation facility will further promote efficient energy trades and facility use. Sixth, the efforts for energy cooperation will necessarily promote towards market liberalization, which will in turn raise the bargaining power of energy importers of the Northeast Asian region. The region does not currently command the bargaining power that is tantamount to the import volume or relative buyers' position in the world market.

  16. Ethical Bargaining and Parental Exclusion: A Clinical Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry-Grimes, Laura; Victor, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been significant attention in clinical ethics to when physicians should follow a parent's wishes, there has been much less discussion of the obligation to solicit viewpoints and decisions from all caregivers who have equal moral and legal standing in relation to a pediatric patient. How should healthcare professionals respond when one caregiver dominates decision making? We present a case that highlights how these problems played out in an ethical bargain. Ethical bargaining occurs when the parties involved choose not to pursue a morally preferable option for the sake of coming to a resolution. This case is not one of parental disagreement; rather, the medical team agreed to exclude the patient's mother from decision making if the patient's father promised to bring their son back to the hospital for necessary medical tests. We argue that there is an obligation to notice and acknowledge power asymmetries in the family unit, which, in this case, was manifested as the marginalization of the female decision maker by the male decision maker. In these scenarios, clinicians should be careful to avoid treating parents as one homogenous unit, and they should take action to enable caregivers' autonomy and voice. While there are moral and practical limits to how and when physicians should intervene in family dynamics, we discuss the steps that the medical team should have taken in this case to avoid undermining the parental authority of the mother. We conclude by offering recommendations to address and enable caregivers' autonomy at an institutional level, and we discuss the importance of tracking and responding to damaging family dynamics to prevent ethically impermissible bargaining. PMID:26399675

  17. An Experimental Analysis of Asymmetric Power in Conflict Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Reed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Demands and concessions in a multi-stage bargaining process are shaped by the probabilities that each side will prevail in an impasse. Standard game-theoretic predictions are quite sharp: demands are pushed to the precipice with nothing left on the table, but there is no conflict regardless of the degree of power asymmetry. Indeed, there is no delay in reaching an agreement that incorporates the (unrealized costs of delay and conflict. A laboratory experiment has been used to investigate the effects of power asymmetries on conflict rates in a two-stage bargaining game that is (if necessary followed by conflict with a random outcome. Observed demands at each stage are significantly correlated with power, as measured by the probability of winning in the event of disagreement. Demand patterns, however, are flatter than theoretical predictions, and conflict occurs in a significant proportion of the interactions, regardless of the degree of the power asymmetry. To address these deviations from the standard game-theoretic predictions, we also estimated a logit quantal response model, which generated the qualitative patterns that are observed in the data. This one-parameter generalization of the Nash equilibrium permits a deconstruction of the strategic incentives that cause demands to be less responsive to power asymmetries than Nash predictions.

  18. On the Strategic Choice of Union-Oligopoly Bargaining Agenda: Further Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Buccella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the strategic selection of the bargaining agenda in a unionized industry with potential entry and decentralized negotiations for different competition modes. The incumbent chooses Right-to-Manage (RTM or Efficient Bargaining (EB considering two scenarios: (1 the agenda is imposed to the (potential entrant (committed bargaining and (2 the entrant can flexibly choose the agenda (flexible bargaining. In the mixed duopoly, the timing of the game is as follows: at stage 1, the EB firm bargains over wage and employment with its union, while the RTM firm bargains over the wage; at stage 2, the RTM firm chooses employment. This paper shows that the strategic selection of the agenda strongly depends on the interaction between the degree of market competition, the union’s power, and the convergence or divergence between parties on the agenda’s choice. This complex interaction leads to a very rich set of equilibrium outcomes, including multiple and even (as regards the union’s preferences on the agenda asymmetric equilibria. Compared with alternative timings in the literature, this specification leads to substantial differences with flexible bargaining: EB emerges as equilibrium in Nash strategies for a noticeably increased set of cases.

  19. Choice of the Models for the Co-operative Innovation of Industries, Universities and Research Institutes by Game Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyang Fan; Youhua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper builds game model to analyze selection issues of IUR co-operation model through Nash bargaining theory. The result shows that, the stronger innovative capability, more economic benefits expected, less technical content of scientific research, companies more inclined to choose a higher degree of close model; otherwise, companies tend to choose more closely integrated degree lower mode.

  20. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Iacobini; Gaetano Lisi

    2012-01-01

    This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer) can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller...

  1. Strategic reasoning and bargaining in catastrophic climate change games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Lindgren, Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Two decades of international negotiations show that agreeing on emission levels for climate change mitigation is a hard challenge. However, if early warning signals were to show an upcoming tipping point with catastrophic damage, theory and experiments suggest this could simplify collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the actual threshold, no country would have a free-ride incentive to increase emissions over the tipping point, but it remains for countries to negotiate their emission levels to reach these agreements. We model agents bargaining for emission levels using strategic reasoning to predict emission bids by others and ask how this affects the possibility of reaching agreements that avoid catastrophic damage. It is known that policy elites often use a higher degree of strategic reasoning, and in our model this increases the risk for climate catastrophe. Moreover, some forms of higher strategic reasoning make agreements to reduce greenhouse gases unstable. We use empirically informed levels of strategic reasoning when simulating the model.

  2. Trade unions and local bargaining in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, S; Blundell, B

    1997-01-01

    Examines some effects of NHS Trusts moving away at varying speeds from complex national arrangements for determining terms and conditions towards local bargaining. Notes that while there has been some research into the extent and nature of this decentralization, the impact on trade unions has largely been ignored. This research suggests that, far from marginalizing stewards, senior managers have involved them in joint discussions. Although there has not been a renewal of local trade unionism, there has not been a decline, as membership has held up. Moreover, stewards have coped remarkably well with their enhanced roles, even though faced with the increasing and conflicting demands of their work and their union duties, compounded by problems in obtaining time off work because of lack of cover. PMID:10167874

  3. The collective bargaining reform in the law 3/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Alfonso Mellado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study analyses the reforms made in the legal regime governing collective negotiation by Law 3/2012 (preceded by RDL 3/2012 and RDL 20/2012, which have harmed and hindered some of the essential functions of collective negotiation avoiding vacuums of regulation, improving working conditions and limiting individualization and which have turned the balance of negotiation in favour of companies. This solution is far from a realistic one because the productive framework is dominated by micro enterprises and it gives greater power to the employer. The reforms have had particular effect on the collective agreement once its agreed period of application expired, bargaining structure (the pre-eminence of the companys agreement, procedures pertaining to non-compliance, suspension and modifications of the terms negotiated in the agreements, and the content of the agreements.

  4. Scale invariance versus translation variance in Nash bargaining problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kossovsky, Alex Ely

    2011-01-01

    Nash's solution in his celebrated article on the bargaining problem calling for maximization of product of marginal utilities is revisited; a different line of argument supporting such a solution is suggested by straightforward or more direct reasoning, and a conjecture is raised which purports uniqueness of algorithm, namely his solution. Other alternative inferior algorithms are also suggested. It is argued in this article that the scale invariance principle for utility functions should and could be applied here, namely that utility rescaling u'=a*u is allowed, while translations, adding a constant to utility functions u'=u+b could not be applied here, since it is not invariant and leads to contradictory behavior. Finally, special situations of ownership and utilities, where trading is predicted not to take place at all because none is profitable are examined, and then shown to be consistent with the scale invariance principle.

  5. Prosecuting Corruption and the Application of Plea Bargaining in Nigeria: A Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke, G. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the incidence and the prosecution of corruption in the Nigerian society with specific emphasis on plea bargaining which has been applied to prosecute some politicians (Politically Exposed Persons and other people in the upper echelons of the Nigerian society, and that is gradually becoming widespread in criminal prosecution in Nigeria. The origin and merits of plea bargaining, as its protagonists argued, were analysed. The central focus here is a critique of corruption prosecution through plea bargain based on moral and utilitist principles. The study precisely advocated for outright dropping of the plea bargain in corruption prosecution in Nigeria because of its tendency to deepen and extenuate, rather than making mild and abating corruption in Nigeria. Given the patron-client character of power relation in the Nigerian state, the stipulations of anti-graft laws should be strictly followed in order not to make corruption prosecution constitute another source or facilitator of corruption in Nigeria.

  6. Prosecution's Power, Procedural Rights, and Pleading Guilty: The Problem of Coercion in Plea Bargaining Drug Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Jerald W.

    1979-01-01

    The forms of psychological pressure placed on the defendant's pleading in drug cases are examined, with emphasis on the interplay between rational and emotional aspects of such situations. Three stages in plea bargaining negotiations are outlined. (Author/MC)

  7. Illustrated Examples of the Effects of Risk Preferences and Expectations on Bargaining Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes bargaining examples that use expected utility theory. Provides example results that are intuitive, shown graphically and algebraically, and offer upper-level student samples that illustrate the usefulness of the expected utility theory. (JEH)

  8. A theory of ethnic diversity and income distribution: a legislative bargaining approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto Menkyna, Fusako

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, June (2014), s. 52-67. ISSN 0176-2680 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : political economy * diversity * legislative bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  9. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Iacobini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller. The empirical results derived from multiple regression analysis support our theoretical assumptions. In fact, the variables created as proxies of bargaining power of the parties, and incorporated into the hedonic price function, are statistically significant and help to improve the performance of the hedonic model, thus reducing the differences between predicted and observed selling prices.

  10. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but the evidence on its impact on regional wage differentiation is scant. Empirical evidence in this paper for European Union regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests that countries with more coordinated wage bargaining systems have lower regional wage differentials, after controlling for regional productivity and unemployment differentials. Estimates from wage curves for Germany and Italy based on panels of regions also suggest some links between the estimated elasticities and the level of coordination in wage bargaining.

  11. Profit sharing and unemployment: An approach with bargaining and efficiency wage effects

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Stenbacka, Rune

    2003-01-01

    We offer a unified framework to analyze the determination of employment, employee effort, wages and profit sharing when firms face stochastic revenue shocks. We apply a generalized Nash bargaining solution, which extends the wage bargaining literature by incorporating efficiency wage considerations, profit sharing and exogenous capital structure. The profit sharing instrument is demonstrated to have positive effort-enhancing and wage-moderating effects, which exactly offset the negative dilut...

  12. The Evidence of Buyer Bargaining Power in The Stockholm Residential Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wilhelmsson

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to investigate whether uninformed buyers pay higher prices for single-family houses than do other buyers and test whether the bargaining power increases with information. We examine data on real estate prices and attributes, as well as household characteristics and buying process from Stockholm. Our results show that uninformed buyers seem to pay a higher price than informed buyers do. Bargaining power is not weaker for a first-time buyer but is weaker if the household has pa...

  13. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  14. Price Dispersion in the Housing Market: The Role of Bargaining and Search Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a matching model à la Pissarides (2000) in order to explain a basic fact of housing markets: price dispersion. The variance in house prices is basically due to both the ex-ante heterogeneity of the parties (i.e., bargaining power, tastes, asymmetric information) and the search costs of buyers and sellers. In fact, sellers and buyers spend time and money before concluding the deal. Furthermore, the house price is substantially determined by bargaining between the parties. T...

  15. A different point of view in collective bargaining: legal perspective versus business perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Putthiwanit, Chutinon; Santipiriyapon, Sawitree

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the different point of view in collective behavior between legal context and business context. As in business context, in which collective bargaining concerns about a monetary system, a group of farmers can use collective bargaining as a tool to deal with injustice negotiation. Nowadays, a number of goods and services produced/provided are discovered to be determinate; namely, higher or lower wage of the workers, resulted from winning or losing the collective barga...

  16. The Bargain Value Model and a Comparison of Managerial Implications with the Linear Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Keon

    1980-01-01

    A new stochastic brand choice model, the Bargain Value Model, is introduced. Using consumer panel data, the model predicts an individual household's probability of purchasing various brands as a function of the prevailing price of those brands. Based on consumer behavior constructs, the model differs sharply from the Linear Learning Model in its behavioral interpretation. This difference leads the models to have divergent managerial policy implications. After describing the Bargain Value Mode...

  17. Taking gender differences in bargaining power seriously: Equity, labor standards, and living wages.

    OpenAIRE

    Seguino, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Expanding women’s outside options, including paid work at living wages, is a mechanism for improving their well-being. But in developing countries, the dual phenomenon of women’s segregation in export industries and increased firm mobility constrain women’s ability to improve their wages, work conditions, and to bargain for more secure jobs. Efforts to bargain for higher compensation can lead to employment losses, if firms relocate to lower wage sites. These structural factors, rather than ge...

  18. The dynamics of wages and employment in a model of monopolistic competition and efficient bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Commendatore; Ingrid Kubin

    2003-01-01

    Modern macroeconomic models with a Keynesian flavour usually involve nominal rigidities in wages and commodity prices. A widely used conceptual framework is specifying a wage-setting and a price setting equation, while a more explicit microfoundation recurs to wage bargaining in the labour markets and monopolistic competition in the commodity markets; (Blanchard and Giavazzi, 2001). Characteristic for those approaches is that deregulating the labour markets (i.e. reducing the bargaining power...

  19. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  20. Autonomous agents in bargaining games : an evolutionary investigation of fundamentals, strategies, and business applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, EH

    2004-01-01

    Bargaining is becoming increasingly important due to developments within the field of electronic commerce, especially the development of autonomous software agents. Software agents are programs which, given instructions from a user, are capable of autonomously and intelligently realise a given task. By means of such agents, the bargaining process can be automated, allowing products and services together with related conditions, such as warranty and delivery time, to be flexible and tuned to t...

  1. Women’s Retirement Incomes in New Zealand: A Household Bargaining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    John Gibson; Trinh Van Le; Grant Scobie

    2004-01-01

    Bargaining models of household wealth accumulation point to a potential conflict of interest between husbands and wives. Since wives are typically younger than their husbands and have longer life expectancy, they have to finance a longer expected retirement period. Thus, it is argued that when women have greater relative bargaining power, households will accumulate higher levels of wealth. However, in this paper, exactly the opposite pattern is reported for New Zealand. To explain this contra...

  2. Continuity, change and crowding out: The reshaping of collective bargaining in UK local government

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines elements of continuity and change in systems of pay determination in UK local government, with a specific focus on the period of austerity since 2010. Spending cuts present significant challenges for collective bargaining through the National Joint Council (NJC), which also serves as a ‘critical case’ to test our understanding of contemporary collective bargaining and industrial relations. The research draws on 56 interviews with a total of 62 key actors from the employer...

  3. Plea Bargaining in International Criminal Justice - Can the International Criminal Court Afford to Avoid Trials?

    OpenAIRE

    Rauxloh, RE

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the question as to whether plea bargaining should be introduced in the International Criminal Court (ICC). It argues that although the different features and functions of international criminal law make practices such as plea arrangements ambiguous, there are circumstances in which this practice can make a valuable contribution. Plea bargaining should, however, be used only under very restrictive circumstances and not as a mere tool of efficiency. The first section ...

  4. Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but the evidence on its impact on regional wage differentiation is scant. Empirical evidence in this paper for European Union regions for the period 1980-2000 suggests ...

  5. Implications of wage bargaining systems on regional differentiation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita VOCHITA; George CIOBANU; Ciobanu, Andreea

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that centralized wage bargaining leads to lower wage inequality for different skills, industries and population groups, but has not investigated its impact on regional wage differentiation. Empirical evidence in this paper for EU regions suggests that countries with more coordinated wage...

  6. Honesty Pays: On the Benefits of Having and Disclosing Information in Coalition Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    van Beest, I.; Steinel, W.; J K Murnighan

    2011-01-01

    International audience People typically think of negotiations as competitive, which often leads them to engage in secrecy and even deception. In three experiments we show that this approach can backfire in coalition bargaining. Results show that, even though bargainers with an outcome advantage only obtain favorable outcomes when this information is public, they rarely choose to reveal this information. Fairness motivations fueled decisions to reveal this information and make attractive of...

  7. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  8. The New Great Debate about Unionism and Collective Bargaining in U.S. State and Local Governments

    OpenAIRE

    David Lewin; Jeffrey Keefe; Kochan, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Unionism and collective bargaining among U.S. state and local government employees are being widely debated, and some of these governments have sharply reduced or eliminated public employee unionism and bargaining rights. Such actions are based on a belief that fiscal adversity facing state and local governments stems mainly from the over-compensation of public employees that has ostensibly resulted from unionism, bargaining and supportive legislation enacted decades earlier. These changes, h...

  9. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  10. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  11. A Comparison of Working Conditions Between Community College Instructors in Collective Bargaining Contract Colleges and Traditional Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, John A., Jr.

    In order to assess the impact of collective bargaining on community college faculty working conditions, a 79-item questionnaire was sent in winter 1974 to the presidents of a random nationwide sample of 100 community colleges operating under collective bargaining contracts and 100 community colleges operating under traditional agreements. Of the…

  12. 29 CFR 1420.1 - Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations Act, as amended (hereinafter... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functions of the Service in health care industry bargaining under the Labor-Management Relations Act, as amended (hereinafter âthe Actâ). 1420.1 Section...

  13. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  14. Who will win the ozone game? On building and sustaining cooperation in the Montreal protocoll on substances that deplete the ozone layer

    OpenAIRE

    Heister, Johannes

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. It advances the view that the Developing World did not exploit its relatively strong bargaining position in negotiations over sidepayments and that the concessional ten-year grace period for Jess developed countries is a cause of instability of the agreement. The paper derives conditions under which sidepayments and sanctions can produce stable cooperation. It applies basic non-cooperative gam...

  15. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  16. The Staging of Venture Equity Capital and Venture Capitalist Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, G. Geoffrey; Dalgic, Orkunt; Young, Allan,

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we look at the effects of bargaining power on the types of entrepreneurial projects chosen by venture capitalists and show that a wealth-constrained venture capitalist prefers to provide equity financing to a two-stage rather than to a similar single-stage project. While the venture capitalist does not have bargaining power over the entrepreneur of a single-stage project and is thus unable to extract any surplus, the venture capitalist does have this advantage in a two-stage pro...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1012-2 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1012-2 Wage determinations based on collective... before commencement of the work shall be effective for purposes of the successor contract under section 4... contracting officer shall incorporate the collective bargaining agreement itself in a solicitation or...

  18. Policy Poison or Promise: Exploring the Dual Nature of California School District Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Katharine O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines policies set in the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and school boards and explores what kinds of districts have contract provisions that restrict district administrators, enhance administrative flexibility, and/or improve teachers' professional work lives and that have…

  19. Solving the Bargaining Democracy Problem Using a Constitutional Hierarchy for Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wihlborg, Clas

    2004-01-01

    The democratic deficit in the so-called bargaining democracy provides themotivation for constitutional efforts to limit the ability of different groups to formcoalitions that are able to grant benefits to themselves through legislation that moreor less directly benefit identifiable groups. A cons...

  20. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Niagara University and Niagara University Lay Teachers Association 1987-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niagara Univ., Niagara Falls, NY.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Niagara University (New York) and the Niagara University Lay Teachers Association, a chapter of the American Association of University Professors, covering the period 1987 to 1989 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: recognition, union security, dues checkoff, discrimination policy,…

  1. Pressure Point On Campus: Academic Program Planning and Resource Allocation in Conflict with the Bargaining Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond

    Considered are the nature and extent of some of the basic conflicts that arise when two, future-oriented, decision-making processes--institutional program planning/resource allocation and collective bargaining--are both present on the same campus. The identified conflicts come from the experiences of a university that was one of the first in the…

  2. Shared Governance in the Community College: An Analysis of Formal Authority in Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines shared governance in Washington State's community and technical colleges and provides an analysis of faculty participation in governance based on formal authority in collective bargaining agreements. Contracts from Washington's thirty community and technical college districts were reviewed in order to…

  3. Tenure, Support of Collective Bargaining, and Unionism in Higher Education: Some Challenging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlow, Carole; Giacquinta, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of a large educational faculty in a private university were used to examine support for collective bargaining and several propositions about unionism. The results indicate far greater union support and tenure's positive relationship with unionism, contrary to prevailing beliefs. (Editor/LBH)

  4. Bargaining Representation and Union Membership in the Federal Sector: A Free Rider's Paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Marick F.; Atkin, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Examines bargaining representation and union membership data among the three principal federal-employee unions. Finds that each union faces a free rider problem and the magnitude of the problem differs across unions. Discusses the financial implications of the problem and offers insights toward future directions. (JOW)

  5. Wage Bargaining and Turnover Costs with Heterogeneous Labour: The No-screening Case

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, J.

    1998-01-01

    We study the effects of mobility costs in a model of wage bargaining between workers and firms, where there is instantaneous matching, free firm entry, heterogeneous labour, and workers' individual productivities are discovered by firms only after being hired. We derive the employment level and the minimum quality standard, in the market solution and in the socially efficient solution.

  6. A COMPARISON OF A SIMPLE PROCUREMENT AUCTION AND GENERALIZED NASH BARGAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He HUANG; Hongyan XU; Jian CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison mechanism for a simple procurement auction and generalized Nash bargaining solution in a procurement circumstance. The buyer who hopes to fulfill a project has two options. First, she may award the project to the old provider with an efficient quality by bargaining. Second, she may give the project to the firm who submits the lowest bid through a simple procurement second-price sealed-bid auction with a pre-fixed quality. We compare the expected revenue in the uction with the deterministic profit of the bargaining. In different parameters cases, we find the borderline functions between the two options with respect to the buyer's bargaining power and the amount of bidders. We also compare our simple procurement auction (SPA) with the optimal multidimensional bid auction by Che (1993), and find our model protects the buyer's private valuation information by forfeiting some profits. Some properties of the difference between the two auctions are proposed, especially there is no revenue difference when the amount of bidders approaches infinity.

  7. Does Collective Bargaining Influence the Pay Satisfaction of Elementary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.; Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of collective bargaining on teacher pay satisfaction and offer knowledge of the factors contributing to the pay satisfaction of public elementary school teachers. The study focuses on how human capital, occupational characteristics, and job related characteristics impact the pay satisfaction of…

  8. Coalition Formation under Uncertainty: Bargaining Equilibria and the Bayesian Core Stability Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalkiadakis, G.; Markakis, V.; Boutillier, C.; Durfee, E.H.; Yokoo, M.; Huhns, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    Coalition formation is a problem of great interest in AI, allowing groups of autonomous, rational agents to form stable teams. Fur- thermore, the study of coalitional stability concepts and their re- lation to equilibria that guide the strategic interactions of agents during bargaining has lately at

  9. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions: Bibliography No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beth Hillman; Tata, Jasmine

    The 16th annual bibliography contains 923 citations concerning collective bargaining and other employment and labor relations issues for faculty at institutions of higher education and other professionals. The new category, "AIDS in the Workplace" has been added this year while the topics of contracts and contract issues, elections, non-faculty,…

  10. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa-tion...

  11. Beyond elite bargains: building democracy from below in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie King; Sam Hickey

    2015-01-01

    New theories of how democratic development is likely to emerge within developing countries obscure the effects of popular agency, and of ideas, offering an incomplete view of such historical processes and exaggerating the extent to which a particular sequencing of change is required. Insights from the experiences of non-governmental and cooperative organisations in rural Uganda, an unpromising context for the flourishing of democratic development, suggest that certain strategies can achieve m...

  12. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  13. What determines the price received by cocoa farmers in Cameroon? An empirical analysis based on bargaining theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamdem, Cyrille Bergaly; Galtier, Franck; Gockowski, James; Helene, David-Benz; Johny EGG; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that small-scale agricultural producers from developing countries do not generally obtain the potential gains of trade. To investigate what can be done to help them get better prices, we examine ways to increase their bargaining power. Using data from 1,854 cocoa transactions between traders and producers in Cameroon during the 2005/2006 season, we show that when the bargaining situation is least favorable to the producers (because prices are non-negotiable due to interlink...

  14. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  15. Bargaining Coalitions in the Agricultural Negotiations of the Doha Round: Similarity of Interests or Strategic Choices? An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Filippis, Fabrizio De; Costantini, Valeria; Crescenzi, Riccardo; Salvatici, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims at understanding the structural features of the bargaining coalitions in the Doha Round of the WTO. We provide an empirical assessment of the preferences of each negotiating actor looking at general economics indicators, development levels, structure of the agricultural sectors, and trade policies for agricultural products. Bargaining coalitions are analyzed by grouping countries through a cluster analysis procedure. The clusters are compared with existing coalitions, in order ...

  16. Cooperative Precoding/Resource Allocation Games under Spectral Mask and Total Power Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jie; Jiang, Hai

    2009-01-01

    The use of orthogonal signaling schemes such as time-, frequency-, or code-division multiplexing (T-, F-, CDM) in multi-user systems allows for power-efficient simple receivers. It is shown in this paper that by using orthogonal signaling on frequency selective fading channels, the cooperative Nash bargaining (NB)-based precoding games for multi-user systems, which aim at maximizing the information rates of all users, are simplified to the corresponding cooperative resource allocation games. The latter provides additional practically desired simplifications to transmitter design and significantly reduces the overhead during user cooperation. The complexity of the corresponding precoding/resource allocation games, however, depends on the constraints imposed on the users. If only spectral mask constraints are present, the corresponding cooperative NB problem can be formulated as a convex optimization problem and solved efficiently in a distributed manner using dual decomposition based algorithm. However, the NB...

  17. Cooperative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhuan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The current companies increasingly expect to involve more external sources to achieve more open innovation for value-added. However, the cooperation problem between internal organization and external parties still challenges the top management. This paper aims to find out the solution. The fast spring up Chinese IT market impacts the world market, especially mobile Internet. Therefore, this paper employ the fast growing Chinese Mobile Internet company--- Xiao Mi as the study case. By applying...

  18. Compliance with international food safety standards as an outcome of a Nash bargaining process: a case study on Kenyan small scale green beans farms

    OpenAIRE

    Nimenya, Nicodeme; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a stylized model on “Exit, voice and loyalty” as alternative strategic responses taken by Kenyan green beans farmers in the context of new and more stringent international food safety standards. On the analytical side, we use the Nash bargaining theory where the exporter and a representative grower bargain over the product quality level and the premium producer price. The comparative statics analysis shows that the producer bargaining power unlike the compliance costs has,...

  19. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. PMID:26849322

  20. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN ILO REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Paula LARION

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The international labour standards are the cornerstone of the ILO’s activities, and the freedom of association is undoubtedly the cornerstone of labour law at national and international level. Political, economic, and social transformations, which remain as influential even though we are in 2016, did not diminish the importance, significance, functions or purposes of collective bargaining, nor their role in industrial relations, although, in recent years, has advocated for the abandoning of labour law and replacing it with civil and commercial rules. Since 1947, the International Labour Organisation was concerned with the issue of freedom of association and the exercise of trade union rights. As a result of this concern, the organization has developed legal instruments governing freedom of association and right to collective bargaining, thus developing Convention no.87 / 1948 and the Convention No.98 / 1949.

  1. Applicability of the integrative bargaining process for negotiating and implementing federal facility environmental compliance agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to determine the potential usefulness of an integrative bargaining process for negotiating and implementing environmental compliance agreements among Federal facilities, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and state environmental regulatory agencies. To operationalize this objective a five-step process is proposed: provide historical background on federal facility environmental problems and compliance agreements, examine the process of determining integrative bargaining model potentiality, established by Richard Walton and Robert McKersie, suggest refinements to Walton and McKersie's process, apply the refined process to the case of negotiating federal facility compliance agreements, and suggest strengths and weakness of the integrative approach in negotiating and implementing federal facility compliance agreements. Tactics suggested by Walton and McKersie that support integrative approaches will be defined.

  2. Union Bargaining in an Oligopoly Market with Cournot-Bertrand Competition: Welfare and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schroeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the welfare effect of union activity in a relatively new oligopoly model, the Cournot-Bertrand model, where one firm competes in output (a la Cournot and the other firm competes in price (a la Bertrand. The Nash equilibrium prices, outputs, and profits are quite diverse in this model, with the competitive advantage going to the Cournot-type competitor. A comparison of the results from the Cournot-Bertrand model with those found in the traditional Cournot and Bertrand models reveals that firms and the union have a different preference ordering over labor market bargaining. These differences help explain why the empirical evidence does not support any one model of union bargaining. We also examine the welfare and policy implications of union activity in a Cournot-Bertrand setting.

  3. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjiang E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon. Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost sharing when they have different bargaining power. Lastly, the retailers decide whether to participate in the cooperative promotion campaign. We show that the retailers are likely to participate in the promotion if consumers become more price-sensitive. However, it does not imply that the retailers can benefit from the price promotion; the promotion decision game resembles the classical prisoner’s dilemma game. The retailers and suppliers can benefit from the cooperative promotion by designing an appropriate cost sharing contract. For a supply chain, the bargaining power between supplier and retailer, consumer price sensitivity, and competition intensity affect the fraction of the promotional cost sharing. We also find that equilibrium value of e-coupon set by the e-commerce platform is not optimal for all the parties.

  4. Activists and Corporate Behavior in Food Processing and Retailing: A Sequential Bargaining Game

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren; Lusk, Jayson L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the strategic interaction between food companies and activists using a game theoretic model of sequential bargaining in the absence of complete information. In a rather confined set of circumstances, findings indicate it is always in the best interest of the food company to comply with activists' demands. More frequently, however, there will be cases where compliance is not optimal, depending on the size of the expected effect of protest, cost of defending against protest,...

  5. Shifting the Balance of Power in Collective Bargaining: Australian Law, Industrial Action and Work Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Shae McCrystal

    2006-01-01

    The Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005 (Cth) effects significant changes to the provisions of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (Cth) governing industrial action in the federal workplace relations system. This paper examines these changes, situating them in the context of the historical relationship between law and industrial action in Australia, and evaluating the impact of the changes on the balance of power in voluntary collective bargaining. The paper argues that the Wor...

  6. Empirical analysis of countervailing power in business-to-business bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of countervailing power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of countervailing power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis for a pragmatic reduced form empirical pricing model are delineated. This model is readily implement...

  7. On the role of asymmetric bargaining power in intermediate industry for existence of spiral effect

    OpenAIRE

    Prog, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proves the existence of the spiral effect in different scenarios with different modeling approaches. With a spiral effect is called the hypothesis that if, due to his bargaining power, one buyer has better procurement conditions than other buyers, he can use them to strengthen his market position in the sales market, which in turn improve his procurement situation, e.g. as he is in a position to negotiate additional quantity discounts. The analysis is divided into three blocks. In...

  8. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  9. Terror as a Bargaining Instrument : A Case Study of Dowry Violence in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Francis; Rao, Vijayendra

    2000-01-01

    The authors examine how domestic violence may be used as a bargaining instrument, to extract larger dowries from a spouse's family. The phrase "dowry violence" refers not to the paid at the time of the wedding, but to additional payments demanded by the groom's family after the marriage. The additional dowry is often paid to stop the husband from systematically beating the wife. The authors base their case study of three villages in southern India on qualitative and survey data. Based on the ...

  10. Derecognising Unions and Centralising Bargaining: Analysing Dualism in the Oil and Chemicals Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Korczynski; Neil Ritson

    2000-01-01

    There has been a recent rise in employers derecognising unions. The oil and chemical industries have been identified as critical for the analysis and practice of derecognition. This paper presents data showing that major oil and chemical firms have, on the one hand, derecognised unions for key internal staff, but on the other hand, have enforced a centralised bargaining framework for their on-site contractors engaged in the out-sourced repair, maintenance and construction work. This centralis...

  11. Collective Bargaining Laws and Threat Effects of Unionism in the Determination of Police Compenstation

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman; Casey Ichniowski; Harrison Lauer

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the effect of public sector unions on compensation packages. The model of the compensation determination process incorporates distinctive institutional aspects of public sector labor relations, particularly the differences in collective bargaining laws across states. The model is estimated using data on over 800 municipal police departments. Our results indicate that the effect of public sector unions depend critically on these institutional features of the public sector. ...

  12. The Impact of Collective Bargaining: Can the New Facts Be Explained by Monopoly Unionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman; James L. Medoff

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on the question of whether union/nonunion differences in nonwage outcomes can, in fact, be explained in terms of standard price-theoretic responses to real wage effects, as opposed to the real effect of unionism on economic behavior. We reach three basic conclusions. First, unions and collective bargaining have real economic effects on diverse nonwage variables which cannot be explained either in terms of price-theoretic responses to union wage effects or ...

  13. Bargaining power and the evolution of un-fair, non-mutualistic moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    Mutualistic theory explains convincingly the prevalence of fairness norms in small societies of foragers and in large contemporary democratic societies. However, it cannot explain the U-shaped curve of egalitarianism in human history. A theory based on bargaining power is able to provide a more general account and to explain mutualism as a special case. According to this approach, social norms may be more variable and malleable than Baumard et al. suggest. PMID:23445591

  14. Outsourcing Cost and Tax Progression Under Nash Wage Bargaining with Flexible Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    It is analyzed the impacts of outsourcing cost and wage tax progression under labor market imperfections with Nash wage bargaining and flexible outsourcing. With sufficiently strong (weak) labor market imperfection, lower outsourcing cost has a wage-moderating (wage-increasing) effect so that there is a negative (positive) effect on equilibrium unemployment. Higher tax progression, to keep the relative tax burden per worker constant, has a wage moderating and a positive effect on employment a...

  15. Manager-union bargaining agenda under monopoly and with network effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Buccella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates the determination of the bargaining agenda in a unionised monopoly with managerial delegation, without and with network effects in consumption. First, we show that, in contrast with the received literature, monopolist hires a manager even in the absence of risk-sharing and asymmetric information considerations. Without network effects, in contrast to standard oligopoly results, managerial delegation benefits the monopolist, while harms consumers, workers and soc...

  16. Intrahousehold Bargaining, Domestic Violence Laws and Child Health Development in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Ahmed Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. I explore a unique exogenous instrument to examine how the intra-familial position of women influence health outcomes of their children using micro data from Ghana. Using the 2SLS-IV estimation technique, I build a model of household bargaining and child health development with perceptions of women regarding wife-beating and marital rape in the existence of domestic violence laws, in Ghana. Even though the initial OLS estimates suggest that women’s participation in decisions regardi...

  17. Breaking Bankruptcy Priority: How Rent-Seeking Upends the Creditors' Bargain

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Tung, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    “Bankruptcy reallocates value in a faltering firm. The bankruptcy apparatus eliminates some claims and alters others, leaving a reduced set of claims to match the firm’s diminished capacity to pay. This restructuring is done according to statutory and agreed-to contractual priorities, so that lower-ranking claims are eliminated first and higher-ranking ones are preserved to the extent possible. Bankruptcy scholarship has long conceptualized this reallocation as a hypothetical bargain among cr...

  18. Bargain effectiveness in differentiated store environments: When a good deal goes bad

    OpenAIRE

    Douce, Lieve; WILLEMS, Kim; Janssens, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation is necessary to survive in today’s homogeneous retail landscape. One way to differentiate is by making use of store atmospherics. However, other marketing tools such as offering a bargain might conflict with this store differentiation strategy. In study 1, an experimental consumer lab survey (n = 50) confirms that store environment differentiation generates positive consumer affect, evaluations and approach behaviour. In study 2, a 2x2 between-subjects lab experiment (n = 121)...

  19. Reputation in Marketing Channels: Repeated-Transactions Bargaining with Two-Sided Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl T. Banks; J. Wesley Hutchinson; Meyer, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Marketing channel interactions typically feature three characteristics that have not been incorporated together in an analytic study: (1) the parties can do business repeatedly over time, often under different terms of trade (e.g., prices may vary), (2) the terms that the seller offers one buyer may be different from those she offers another, giving each interaction the flavor of bilateral monopoly bargaining, and (3) the buyer and seller come to the interaction uncertain about the valuations...

  20. Bounded Rationality in Bargaining Games: Do Proposers Believe That Responders Reject an Equal Split?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Greiner

    2004-01-01

    Puzzled by the experimental results of the 'impunity game' by Bolton and Zwick (1995) we replicate the game and alter it in a systematic manner. We find that although almost nobody actually rejects an offered equal split in a bargaining game, proposers behave as if there would be a considerably large rejection rate for equal splits. This result is inconsistent with existing models of economic decision making. This includes models of selfish players as well as models of social utility and reci...

  1. A product of their bargaining environment: Explaining government duration in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Since the transition to democracy in the early 1990s, more than 60 percent of governments in Central and Eastern Europe have terminated prematurely. This article seeks to understand why some governments in the region survive longer than others. I argue that the nature of party system development in the region has facilitated the emergence of a pattern of party competition which takes place in polarized blocs. As the party system structures the government bargaining process, it is contended th...

  2. Estimation of relative bargaining power in markets for raw milk in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Byeong-Il Ahn; Sumner, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the empirical industrial organization literature by deriving and estimating the empirical equation containing the parameter for bargaining power and an indicator of competition between suppliers. We specify a reduced form of the price equation, which is composed of the minimum price specified in milk marketing orders and the reduced form of the upper bound for the price in regional raw milk markets in the United States. Estimation results indicate that the relative b...

  3. The more (complex), the better? The influence of epistemic motivation on integrative bargaining in complex negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, van der, J.; Beersma, B.; Kleef, van, J.; Dreu, de, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiating about a larger number of issues is often argued to enhance the potential for integrative bargaining. However, the enhanced complexity may also make negotiators more susceptible to bias, making it less likely for them to reach win-win agreements. We argue that epistemic motivation, the motivation to hold accurate perceptions of the world, provides a key to solve this paradox. In a negotiation experiment we manipulated complexity by having participants negotiate about 6 or 18 issues...

  4. The logic of compromise : monetary bargaining in Austria-Hungary 1867-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Flandreau, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the historical record of the Austro-Hungarian monetary union, focusing on its bargaining dimension. As a result of the 1867 Compromise, Austria and Hungary shared a common currency, although they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. By using repeated threats to quit, Hungary succeeded in obtaining more than proportional control and forcing the common central bank into a policy that was very favourable to it. Using insights from public economics, this paper exp...

  5. The effect of globalization on union bargaining and price-cost margins of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Filip; Konings, Joep; Vanormelingen, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Europe has witnessed an accelerated process of economic integration. Trade barriers were removed, the euro was introduced and ten new member states have joined the European Union. This paper analyzes how this process of increased economic integration has affected labor and product markets. To this end, we use a panel of Belgian manufacturing firms to estimate price-cost margins and union bargaining power and show how various measures of globalization affect them. Our fin...

  6. Toronto Civic Workers Bargaining Without a Base: The Significance of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fanelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the politics and economics of austerity has influenced collective bargaining between the CUPE Locals 79/416 and the city of Toronto. I explore the relationship between neoliberalism and workplace precarity, drawing attention to the importance of the municipal public sector to trade unionism and the political potential of urbanized Left-labour radicalism. Following this, I provide an overview of the repeated attempts by City Council to extract concessions from unionized workers with a focus on the concession-filled 2012 round of bargaining and its relationship to earlier rounds. In what follows I discuss the implications of austerity bargaining for Locals 79 and 416 members, drawing attention to the repercussions this may have for other public sector workers. To conclude, I propose an alternative political strategy for municipal public sector unions, stressing the importance of a radicalized labour approach. It is my contention that this requires the development of both alternative policies and an alternative politics rooted in demands for workplace democracy and social justice.

  7. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    aerosol forcing -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, consistent with an analysis of Murphy et al (2009) that suggests an aerosol forcing about -1.5 W m-2 (see discussion in Hansen et al (2011)). This large negative aerosol forcing reduces the net climate forcing of the past century by about half (IPCC 2007; figure 1 of Hansen et al 2011). Coincidentally, this leaves net climate forcing comparable to the CO2 forcing alone. Reduction of the net human-made climate forcing by aerosols has been described as a 'Faustian bargain' (Hansen and Lacis 1990, Hansen 2009), because the aerosols constitute deleterious particulate air pollution. Reduction of the net climate forcing by half will continue only if we allow air pollution to build up to greater and greater amounts. More likely, humanity will demand and achieve a reduction of particulate air pollution, whereupon, because the CO2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the surface climate system for millennia, the 'devil's payment' will be extracted from humanity via increased global warming. So is the new data we present here good news or bad news, and how does it alter the 'Faustian bargain'? At first glance there seems to be some good news. First, if our interpretation of the data is correct, the surge of fossil fuel emissions, especially from coal burning, along with the increasing atmospheric CO2 level is 'fertilizing' the biosphere, and thus limiting the growth of atmospheric CO2. Also, despite the absence of accurate global aerosol measurements, it seems that the aerosol cooling effect is probably increasing based on evidence of aerosol increases in the Far East and increasing 'background' stratospheric aerosols. Both effects work to limit global warming and thus help explain why the rate of global warming seems to be less this decade than it has been during the prior quarter century. This data interpretation also helps explain why multiple warnings that some carbon sinks are 'drying up' and could even become carbon sources, e.g., boreal

  8. Component Production and Replenishment Policy in ATO Supply Chain Based on Bargaining Game%基于讨价还价博弈的 ATO 供应链零部件生产及补货策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇雨; 黄波

    2014-01-01

    A bargaining cooperative game model for assemble-to-order ( ATO) supply chain composed of a final product manufacturer and two suppliers is proposed to study the component production and replenish -ment policy and the corresponding profit-sharing policy .The effect of participant's bargaining power chain on the optimal solution is analyzed .It is found that ATO supply chain should raise the component produc-tion with the rise of the final product price , and reduce it with the rise of assembly cost of finished product or production cost of components .With the improvement of the bargaining power of final product manufac-turer to one supplier , the transfer price of components and profits of this supplier is reduced , while those of another supplier are increased at the same time .The expected profits of the final product manufacturer in-crease if its bargaining power is stronger than another supplier , and otherwise it reduces .%通过建立ATO供应链中最终产品制造商与其两个供应商间的讨价还价合作模型,研究了ATO供应链的零部件生产补货策略和相应的利润分配策略,并探讨了供应链中各合作主体议价能力对最优解的影响。研究发现,ATO供应链应随着最终产品销售价格的提高而增加零部件产量,随最终产品组装成本或零部件生产成本的提高而减少零部件产量;随着最终产品制造商对其中一个供应商议价能力的增强,该供应商零部件的转移价格及其利润会降低,而另外一个供应商的零部件转移价格和利润会提高;若最终产品制造商比另外一个供应商的议价能力强,其期望利润会得到提高,反之,则会降低。

  9. 从交易及知识角度来认识准一体化组织%Knowing the Quasi-Integrative Organization from the Angle of Bargaining and Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世娟; 魏刚; 陈良猷

    2001-01-01

    With an illustration of the concept of quasi-integrative organization, this paper analyzes the input and output of enterprise management from the bargaining and the communion of knowledge. A general model of quasi-integrative organization is built. A bargaining framework of quasi-integrative organization from the bargaining frequency and the communion of knowledge is given.

  10. Collective Bargaining Agreement: Glendale Community College District and Glendale College Guide-Local 2276 of the American Federation of Teachers, November 16, 1988-June 30, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendale Community Coll. District, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Glendale Community College District and the Glendale College Guild is presented. This contract, covering the period from November 16, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; district rights; guild rights; grievance procedures; work stoppages; hours…

  11. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  12. 基于纳什谈判的供应商-销售商联合促销线性合约设计%Linear contract design for supplier-retailer joint promotion based on Nash bargaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫东; 代建生; 熊维勤; 周苹逢

    2013-01-01

    在供应链联合促销中,双边道德风险的存在使得供应商和销售商双方都有强烈的“搭便车”激励,而合理的利益分配对促进合作双方积极投入具有重要作用.运用纳什谈判解,构造了供应链联合促销的相互激励模型,并考察了最优线性合约的存在性.研究表明:在合作能产生净剩余的条件下,存在最优的批发价格使渠道收益达到极大;尽管谈判能力对最优批发价格没有影响,但合作收益在双方之间的分配却依赖于各自具有的谈判能力.研究指出:各方分得的合作剩余与自身的谈判能力成正比,与对方的谈判能力成反比.%In joint sale promotion of supply chains, the supplier and retailer have a strong incentive of "free riding" due to double moral hazard. It is helpful of the reasonable profit sharing rule to promote active inputs of both parties. By means of Nash bargaining concept, it established mutually incentive model and investigated existence of the optimal linear contract for supply chains joint promotion. It shows that the optimal wholesale price exists on the condition of existence of net cooperative residual and the bargaining powers, on which the allocation of net residual depends, have no impact on the optimal wholesale price. What's more, it points out that the ratio of net cooperative residuals acquired by the two parties is in proportion to the ratio of bargaining power factors.

  13. Good bargains and reputable sellers - An experimental investigation of electronic feedback systems

    OpenAIRE

    D. Colucci; S.Salotti; V.Valori

    2011-01-01

    Electronic reputation mechanisms aim at signaling the quality of traders and at hampering misbehavior. When a buyer rates a seller, the main aspect to keep into account should be the consistency between the good‟s advertised characteristics and the actual good itself. On the other hand, the buyer‟s satisfaction may also be related to the surplus stemming from the transaction, i.e. whether or not the purchase was a good bargain. This constitutes a possible source of distortion in the way selle...

  14. (In)determinacy, bargaining, and R&D policies in an economy with endogenous technological change

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows how the introduction of a bargaining game structure into a standard R&D endogenous growth model can be a potential source of local indeterminacy. He also shows that on a high-growth path, the government, by directly engaging in R&D activities and using R&D subsidies, may not enhance economic growth. On a low-growth path, the government, by directly engaging in R&D activities and using R&D subsidies, may enhance economic growth.

  15. The consequences of concluding codecision early: trilogues and intra-institutional bargaining success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne; Reh, Christine

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important changes in the history of codecision has been the steep increase in early agreements since 1999. Early agreements have enhanced the efficiency of European Union legislation, but they have been criticized for giving a subset of actors disproportionate control over...... the legislative agenda and negotiation process. Yet, no study has systematically shown whether and how early agreements have indeed redistributed influence between actors within the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. Our contribution fills this gap by comparing actors’ bargaining success across...

  16. A Bargaining Model for a First-Time Interaction Under Asymmetric Beliefs of Supply Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Haresh Gurnani; Mengze Shi

    2006-01-01

    We consider the case of a first-time interaction between a buyer and a supplier who is unreliable in delivery. The supplier declares her estimate of the ability to meet the order obligations, but the buyer may have a different estimate, which may be higher or lower than the supplier's estimate. We derive the Nash bargaining solution and discuss the role of using a down-payment or nondelivery penalty in the contract. For the case of buyer overtrust, the down-payment contract maximizes channel ...

  17. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest in...

  18. Expectations, attributions and behavior in bargaining with liked and disliked partners

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Each of the 128 subjects plays the Harsanyi-Selten bargaining game with incomplete information 8 times, allegedly each time with a randomly selected partner. Actually, in 4 games the partner is simulated by a computer program. Combined with an experimental variation of liking (liking - disliking), costs (low, mixed, high), and dependency, i.e. the possibility of awarding a bonus to the partner at the end of the game (dependent - not dependent) the experiment follows a 2x2x3x2 repeated meas...

  19. "Buy-It-Now" or "Sell-It-Now" auctions: Effects of changing bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in sequential trading mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the "Buy-It-Now" format, the seller offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the "Sell-It-No" format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest no effects of bargaining power on agg...

  20. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  1. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  2. New Cooperative Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Hardesty, Shermain D.; Shultz, Madeline; Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the increased interest in new cooperative development, factors for successful cooperative development, and strategies to improve the performance of new and emerging cooperatives. The article highlights issues identified by a panel of cooperative leaders, USDA specialists and academic experts

  3. The Influence of External Information on Collective Bargaining: Survey Evidence of Union and Firm Negotiators in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehr, A.R.; Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer two questions: 1- To what extent are negotiators in collective bargaining influenced by different types of external information? 2- How can differences in the influence of external information between negotiators be explained by the characteristics of the negotiators and b

  4. Collective Bargaining Agreement By and Between the County of Erie and the Faculty Federation of Erie Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie Community Coll., Buffalo, NY.

    This document presents the collective bargaining agreement by and between the County of Erie and the Faculty Federation of Erie Community College. The agreement encompasses a statement of purpose; legislative review; recognition; definition; position definitions; management rights; federations-administration relations; dues checkoff and…

  5. 26 CFR 1.419A-2T - Qualified asset account limitation for collectively bargained funds. (Temporary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefit fund, only the portion of the fund (as determined under allocation rules to be provided by the... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified asset account limitation for... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.419A-2T Qualified asset account limitation for collectively bargained...

  6. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  7. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  8. Telemedical work and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    In telemedicine, cooperation occurs via telecommunication. This represents a new situation for medical cooperation. Whether such cooperation works poorly or well will be important with an increasing volume of telemedicine. When personnel are involved in external cooperation, as in telemedicine, the question of cooperation within one's own organization also arises. To investigate these matters, qualitative interviews were performed with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. The results showed that cooperating by telecommunication mainly worked well. The cooperation may be influenced by factors such as personality, knowing each other personally, preparation and experience. Telemedical teamwork may be improved by factors like experience and education. Working with telemedicine did not reduce the personnel's cooperation within their own organizations, but rather improved it, although this effect was slight and most commonly involved improved knowledge of others. In general, the findings concerning cooperation and telemedicine were positive. PMID:11506756

  9. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J.; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  10. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Homayounfar

    Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in

  11. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their...

  12. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here a...

  13. 2-Player Nash and Nonsymmetric Bargaining Games: Algorithms and Structural Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vazirani, Vijay V

    2009-01-01

    The solution to a Nash or a nonsymmetric bargaining game is obtained by maximizing a concave function over a convex set, i.e., it is the solution to a convex program. We show that each 2-player game whose convex program has linear constraints, admits a rational solution and such a solution can be found in polynomial time using only an LP solver. If in addition, the game is succinct, i.e., the coefficients in its convex program are ``small'', then its solution can be found in strongly polynomial time. We also give a non-succinct linear game whose solution can be found in strongly polynomial time. The notion of flexible budget markets, introduced in \\cite{va.NB}, plays a crucial role in the design of these algorithms.

  14. Dynamic Online Bandwidth Adjustment Scheme Based on Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwook

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a cost effective method to provide integrated multimedia services. Usually heterogeneous multimedia data can be categorized into different types according to the required Quality of Service (QoS). Therefore, VPN should support the prioritization among different services. In order to support multiple types of services with different QoS requirements, efficient bandwidth management algorithms are important issues. In this paper, I employ the Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) for the development of an adaptive bandwidth adjustment algorithm. In addition, to effectively manage the bandwidth in VPNs, the proposed control paradigm is realized in a dynamic online approach, which is practical for real network operations. The simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the system performances.

  15. The austerity bargain and the social self: conceptual clarity surrounding health cutbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A

    2013-01-01

    As necessary austerity measures make major inroads into western health services, this paper investigates the philology of austerity and finds that there are two subtly similar yet importantly different derivations from the Latin and the Greek. The Latin austerus is an abstract term meaning dry, harsh, sour; whereas the Greek austeros has a more embodied and literal meaning of making the tongue dry. What seems an initially subtle difference between the metaphorical and the metonymic plays out as involving seriously different outcomes between harsh economic measures and the literal effects on the people suffering under measures that actually make the tongue dry. The paper argues that between the trope and the literal that which Wittgenstein described as 'a language game' ensues wherein the metaphorical through a sleight of grammar is passed off as being real while, the literal effects on real people is downplayed as metaphorical 'collateral damage'. The paper further argues that within this grammar that forces itself upon us, the game of capital is played out through what the author terms an austerity bargain that is levelled by the financial elites: healthy capitalism equals a healthy society. The paper then examines the six elements of the social determinants of health and what actually contributes to a healthy society. Rather than being under an individual threat of exclusion from what Marx termed a superabundance, the paper considers the irreducible differences between the game of capital's individualism, and, the social determinants of health's social inclusion, legitimization and that which Habermas termed public authentication. The paper concludes that not only do necessary austerity measures need to be critiqued but that they radically undermine what determines a healthy society. It follows also that the social determinants of health, radically undermine the bargain inherent for the privileged few within the game of capital. PMID:23279582

  16. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Espín

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ultimatum game (UG is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players’ payoffs (i.e., fairness is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based desire to minimize others’ payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals’ intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N=713. We find that impatience (short-run orientation predicts the rejection of low, unfair offers as responder and the proposal of low, unfair offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners’ share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other’s payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest, is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining.

  17. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Herrmann, Benedikt; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The ultimatum game (UG) is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players' payoffs (i.e., fairness) is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based) desire to minimize others' payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals' intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N = 713). We find that impatience (short-run orientation) predicts the rejection of low, "unfair" offers as responder and the proposal of low, "unfair" offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners' share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other's payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest), is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining. PMID:26347625

  18. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  19. Variations of welfare capitalism after the decline of state socialim: Bargaining societies on the basis of value orientations and resources of action

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Capitalist societies as market-bargaining societies on the basis of resources of action: The idealtypical bargain between capital and labour; an alternative to Marx' theory of exploitation - Discussion of the model 2. A general typology of paths of societies in history and a characterisation of state socialism - People's capitalisms as perspective of development - What remains from Marx' ideas? 3. Variations of welfare capitalism after the decline of state socialism 3.1 National ...

  20. Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article p...

  1. The Cooperative Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neu

  2. Poder de barganha dos sindicatos e negociações coletivas na indústria do Rio Grande do Sul, 1979-1995 Bargaining power of the unions and collective bargaining in the industry of the Rio Grande do Sul, 1979-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Horn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between bargaining outcomes in seventeen units regarding the manufacturing sector in Rio Grande do Sul, and change in the relevant economic environment from 1979 to 1995. Theories on the determinants of bargaining outcomes are discussed in order to provide a basis for hypothesizing about the specific case. Statistical outcomes suggest that collective bargaining have been basically influenced by unemployment, manufacturing relative prices, the stabilization policies starting in 1986, and, specifically for negotiated minimum wages, change in the official rates of minimum wages.

  3. Bargaining for power and information : an experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction between institutions, externalities and adverse selection

    OpenAIRE

    Siegenthaler, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Bargaining is the building block of many economic interactions, ranging from bilateral to multilateral encounters and from situations in which the actors are individuals to negotiations between firms or countries. In all these settings, economists have been intrigued for a long time by the fact that some projects, trades or agreements are not realized even though they are mutually beneficial. On the one hand, this has been explained by incomplete information. A firm may not be willing to offe...

  4. Payroll Taxation and the structure of qualifications and wages in a segmented frictional labor market with intrafirm bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Clément Carbonnier

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the incidence of payroll taxation - and more generally labor income taxation - in a search and matching model. The model considers a production function with different type of workers, allowing to understand the interactions between segmented labor markets. Furthermore, the equilibrium is reach through a double process of intra-firm wage bargaining ex post and labor demand ex ante. The model is derived analytically for linear tax function differentiated for work...

  5. A labour market extension for WorldScan; modelling labour supply, wage bargaining and unemployment in a CGE framework

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Boeters; Nico van Leeuwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a labour market extension for the CGE model "WorldScan". The labour market module features endogenous labour supply at two margins: participation and hours of work. Involuntary unemployment is captured through a collective bargaining ("right to manage") set-up. The paper explains how these two labour market mechanisms interact and how they are calibrated to empirical elasticities. Illustrative simulations that can be placed in the context of the "double dividend"...

  6. International joint venture negotiation behaviour outcome : the role of bargaining power, culture and trust (qualitative case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Skuna, J.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the literature on joint ventures (JVs) in developing countries has been viewed from the perspective of the foreign partners, ignoring the strategic imperatives and goals of the host country partners. Additionally, there has been very little research on international joint ventures (IJVs) in Thailand. Therefore, a study of the relationships between bargaining power, trust and culture affecting negotiation behaviour and outcomes (JV performance) could clarify and complement the results ...

  7. A Social Contract Account for CSR as Extended Model of Corporate Governance (Part I): Rational Bargaining and Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Sacconi, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a two parts essay aimed at giving a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. I fist present the heuristics of the scientific program meant to theorizing over an institution like a system of corporate governance, which is partitioned in two domains, the justification domain and the compliance domain. Bargaining theory, reputation game and reciprocity theories,...

  8. The Right Cognition Effect in Bargaining Game Decision-making%议价博弈决策的权利认知效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟; 皇甫桦彦; 李红

    2012-01-01

    The fact that the cognition factor plays a significant role in individual decision-making has been recognized by a majority of psychologists. Some economics and psychology research described a phenomenon that when players had a distinct right in a bargaining game, they manifested various strategies and decision behavior. But there were few investigators of mental mechanism and litle support of experiment data for this phenomenon. In a Nash bargaining game, tile two players had interdependent relations and identical fights. However, the two players in the ultimatum game had not only interdependent relations but also dissimilar rights. In the ultimatum game, the proposer and the respondent were both faced with the cognition issue understanding of the rights of his own and the other's. Based on the analysis of game tasks and theories, the author proposed the right cognition effect was a phenomenon in bargaining games and that the strategic choice and decision behavior of the decision maker were influenced because of his/her cognition degree about his/her right and the other player' s right. The Nash bargaining game (NG) and the ultimatum game (UG) were chosen to investigate the existence of the right cognition effect. 180 children and 60 university students averagely aged 6, 9, 12 and 20 participated in the experiment. In NG, they were requested to individually make a distribution number from 10 tokens to an anonymous peer. In UG, they made an offer from 10 tokens to another anonymous peer. All the tokens they got in the game would exchange with their favorite award, including candy, stationery or cash. Their NG scores were calculated by subtracting the distribution number from 10. Their UG scores were their offers. Every participant played NG and UG five times. After each game, they answered some questions about their strategies. In the end, the participants exchanged the tokens they gained for favorite rewards. The Paired-Samples T Test showed that each

  9. Multilateral Trade Cooperation: What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Vines, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper first briefly describes the role of the WTO and its history. It then lays out a simple bargaining model of international negotiations, which can be used for understanding the Doha round of talks. This simple framework is used to distil and discuss a number of potential explanations for the difficulties that have arisen in concluding these talks, as well as a number of systemic questions that confront WTO members. A key question is whether the WTO should concentrate primarily on mar...

  10. Cooperative Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have described how cooperation can benefit the different phases of the so called cognitive radio cycle. In particular we have focused on physical layer cooperation, showing that benefits can be obtained for both the primary and the secondary system in terms of spatial diversity, increased range and increased availability. In addition, we have modeled the critical interference management problem in a cooperative and cognitive system through a game theoretical approach, as w...

  11. Cooperative Machine Learning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan M. Al-Khatib

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to an approach where one or more team of learners work together towards reaching a better knowledge or understanding of a specified task. The purpose of this paper is to use this approach to describe a proposal for designing and building a cooperative machine learning system (Multi-Learning system) that contains two or more machine learners that cooperate together. The objective of the proposal in this paper is to improve the effectiveness of the machine learning...

  12. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  13. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  14. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  15. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  16. Conflict or cooperation over global warming policy? An analysis based on the interaction of countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response to climatic change due to global warming, rather than being the common response of humankind to a common problem, may well be the product of decisions made by countries with diverse and possibly divergent interests. This study analyzes the interactions of countries with diverse interests. The analysis begins with a one period, two-country case with a single fossil fuel and without binding agreements, without side payments between countries, and without prior history of fossil fuel use. The cases implied by relaxing restrictions are then analyzed. The study shows explicitly how countries' global warming policy decisions could define a prisoners dilemma game. It characterizes cooperative outcomes such as the Nash bargaining solution and Coasean bargaining. It compares non-side-payment outcomes with the side-payment outcomes implied by tradeable carbon-emission quotas. The small estimated elasticities suggest that economic growth may not be greatly reduced by restricting fossil fuel use and that economic growth may depend primarily on non-fossil fuel factors

  17. Power Allocation and Pricing in Multi-User Relay Networks Using Stackelberg and Bargaining Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qian; Jing, Yindi

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-user single-relay wireless network, where the relay gets paid for helping the users forward signals, and the users pay to receive the relay service. We study the relay power allocation and pricing problems, and model the interaction between the users and the relay as a two-level Stackelberg game. In this game, the relay, modeled as the service provider and the leader of the game, sets the relay price to maximize its revenue; while the users are modeled as customers and the followers who buy power from the relay for higher transmission rates. We use a bargaining game to model the negotiation among users to achieve a fair allocation of the relay power. Based on the proposed fair relay power allocation rule, the optimal relay power price that maximizes the relay revenue is derived analytically. Simulation shows that the proposed power allocation scheme achieves higher network sum-rate and relay revenue than the even power allocation. Furthermore, compared with the sum-rate-optimal so...

  18. Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

  19. Spot Natural Gas Prices: A Theoretical Party to Party Bargaining Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Whilst some regional energy markets appear to be integrating, modelling the pricing of natural gas exports in an imperfect global spot market remains a difficult task. For the sake of analysis, this paper proposes the expansion of a theoretical global party to party spot gas price bargaining model to capture lagged daily prices of the major competing fuels and values of a global economic indicator in the world stock market price index. Vector autoregressive based tests provide no evidence of cointegration, however tests of exogeneity show that gas prices and gas price changes are primarily influenced by oil prices and oil price changes. Within this framework, it is found that the oil price and oil price changes are influenced significantly by global stock price index values and index value changes and the coal price index values and index value changes. The model put forward is purely for preliminary analysis but it shows potential. All markets need to become larger, more globally integrated, more informationally efficient and mechanisms to arbitrage the various energy markets would need to be established before a final global gas spot price index is possible.

  20. Non-Egalitarian Allocations among Preschool Peers in a Face-to-Face Bargaining Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Alicia P.; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3–5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  1. Vertical Integration or Disintegration? A Bargaining Model of the Maquiladora's Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuho Kochi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analytical framework to study the demands of foreign and domestic factors of production of the maquiladora industry. We derive the net profitability of demanding high in72 9 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 stead of low quality inputs. We argue that differences in the quality of inputs between foreign and domestic factors can explain the low vertical integration of the maquiladora with the Mexican industry. We show that if the difference in quality and its positive effect in marginal production compensates the difference in prices, then the maquiladora can be induced to integrate vertically with foreign suppliers of inputs, even if the unitary cost to demand foreign inputs is strictly higher than that of domestic inputs. We also show that a depreciation of the Mexican exchange rate does not necessarily increase the maquiladora's demand of Mexican inputs. This explains recent empirical evidence showing this phenomenon. Conversely, a depreciation of the exchange rate might increase the maquiladora's demand of imported inputs if foreign and domestic factors are complementary. The above holds even if the domestic supplier participates in a bargaining game offering an efficient contract.

  2. Mesoscopic effects in an agent-based bargaining model in regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, David J; Santos, José I; Galán, José M; López-Paredes, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spatial structure has been proved very relevant in repeated games. In this work we propose an agent based model where a fixed finite population of tagged agents play iteratively the Nash demand game in a regular lattice. The model extends the multiagent bargaining model by Axtell, Epstein and Young modifying the assumption of global interaction. Each agent is endowed with a memory and plays the best reply against the opponent's most frequent demand. We focus our analysis on the transient dynamics of the system, studying by computer simulation the set of states in which the system spends a considerable fraction of the time. The results show that all the possible persistent regimes in the global interaction model can also be observed in this spatial version. We also find that the mesoscopic properties of the interaction networks that the spatial distribution induces in the model have a significant impact on the diffusion of strategies, and can lead to new persistent regimes different from those found in previous research. In particular, community structure in the intratype interaction networks may cause that communities reach different persistent regimes as a consequence of the hindering diffusion effect of fluctuating agents at their borders. PMID:21408019

  3. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  4. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  5. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  6. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (g

  7. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it...

  8. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  9. Revenue sharing in semiconductor industry supply chain: Cooperative game theoretic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikram K Bahinipati; Arun Kanda; S G Deshmukh

    2009-06-01

    This paper defines cooperation as the process of coordinating the objectives and activities of supply chain (SC) members. It also focuses on cooperation as a solution for hybrid coordination mechanism to form the basis for semiconductor industry supply chain management. In the complex and competitive environment of semiconductor industry supply chain, independent system members are facing the difficult task of providing/sharing incentives resulting from e-market activities in a fair and equitable manner. So, various other activities are necessary for the e-market to make revenue sharing operations more stable and reliable. In this context, the importance of coalition in enhancing the e-market capability, for revenue generation and sharing, is used to develop a possible mechanism for financial compensation to the supply chain members. Interpreting the supply chain as cooperation, the concepts of the Shapely value are used in this paper for analysing the revenue sharing problem. The motivation behind such a scheme is to align the supply chain members’ cost structure with the bidding value during auction and bargaining for e-procurement. The appropriateness of the Shapely value is verified to ensure that a stable solution exists. The practical implication of this paper is how to make right decisions about revenue sharing. The principal contribution of this approach is for establishing a pooling coalition in order to provide a stable and cooperative solution.

  10. The Strategies of Tofu and Fermented Soybean Cake Cooperation in Facing China-Asean Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the internal and external factor for encountering free trade China-Asean and to find some strategic model alternative that can be applied by Primkopti Semarang to develop their business. The analysis methods used were descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. The result of this research showed that internal factors for cooperation’s strength for encountering free trade including soybean distributor in form of cooperation in Semarang and experienced manager to carry out the business. The weakness one was the research and development of cooperation hasn’t been optimal and the management of information system hasn’t worked well. External factors for opportunity one including the soybean buyer or main customer was cooperation members having dual identity, as for the threat including no resistance for new competitor, increasing soybean import, soybean importer has strong bargain position. Compatible strategy for cooperation implementation in encountering free trade China-Asean was market penetration strategy and product development.

  11. 一个VMI系统中的纳什讨价还价模型%Nash Bargaining Model of a VMI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿前恺; 刘志学; 施文

    2012-01-01

    研究一个单供应商单制造商的VMI系统.通过将纳什讨价还价(议价)引入零部件价格决策过程,我们发现,制造商的收益总是随着其议价能力的增强而增加,而供应商的收益却可能会随着其议价能力的增强而减少;存在使供应商利润最大化的供应商最优议价能力.同时,供应商最优议价能力受供应商物流决策的影响.具体而言,最优议价能力在运输业务外包时可能增加或减小,在库存业务外包时增加.此外,供应商最优议价能力也受需求函数特性的影响.%This paper studies a VMI system with one supplier and one manufacturer. The Nash bargaining is incorporated into the process of determining the component' s price. We discover that the manufacturer's profit always increases with his bargaining power. However,the supplier's profit may decrease with her bargaining power; there exists an optimal bargaining power for the supplier. We also find that the optimal bargaining power for the supplier is impacted by the supplier's logistics decision; more specifically,it may increase or decrease if the business on transportation is outsourced and will increase if the business on inventory is outsourced. Furthermore, the optimal bargaining power for the supplier is also influenced by the characteristic of demand function.

  12. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  13. Exploring the bargaining space within international climate negotiations based on political, economic and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a conceptual framework for exploring the bargaining space within international climate negotiations based on important economic, political and environmental considerations. Based on it, we analyse combinations of the proposed emission reduction ranges for Annex I countries as a group (25-40% below 1990 levels) and non-Annex I as a group (15-30% below baseline) by 2020 to limit global warming to 2 deg. C. We use results of the FAIR model with costs estimates based on two energy system models. We conclude that the range of targets that comply with a set of criteria for economic, political and environmental considerations is smaller than that by environmental considerations alone. More specifically, we find that according to our criteria, a 30% Annex I reduction target below 1990 levels, combined with a 20% non-Annex I reduction target below baseline emission levels (i.e. 20 to 30% above 2005 levels), is the only combination of targets fulfilling all our criteria for both energy system models. Otherwise, reaching the 2 deg. C target becomes less likely, technically infeasible, or non-Annex I abatement costs are likely to exceed those of Annex I, a result, which we consider less plausible from a political viewpoint in our conceptual framework. - Highlights: → We study ranges of reduction targets for Annex I and non-Annex I regions by 2020 currently discussed in international negotiations (25-40%; 15-30%). → Trade-offs between the targets occur in terms of environmental, economic and political criteria. → A set of simple criteria results in reductions around 30% and 20% for Annex I and non-Annex I, respectively. → The global abatement costs for such targets are around 0.45-0.65 %-GDP in 2020. → Several factors such as trading, abatement cost estimates, regional allocation and international financing influence the outcomes.

  14. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Sharan

    2014-01-01

    Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the...

  15. International cooperation and exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA continued and enlarged bilateral cooperation with the nuclear energy developing countries and enhanced visiting for high rank leaders of regulatory authorities. Besides, the domestic units for implementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety were settled by coordination

  16. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  17. International cooperation between electricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the opening of the Montreal Forum 'Electricity: the New Millennium', Francois Ailleret as outgoing president of UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electricity) spoke in favour of maintaining and even developing international cooperation between electricians. As the liberalization of electrical systems throughout the world increases, leading to a certain competition between electricians, international cooperation may become difficult. The author recalls the remarkable results of this cooperation in the twentieth century and confirms that it remains an irreplaceable communal resource perfectly compatible with competition between electricity companies. This multifaceted cooperation will lead firstly to a whole variety of spin-off benefiting companies and customers. It will also foster the sustainable development of projects to save the environment and combat poverty in the world, clearly illustrated by the situation of these nearly two billion inhabitants of our planet who still today do not enjoy the irreplaceable services of electricity. (author)

  18. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  19. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  20. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached...

  1. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  2. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  3. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  4. Non-cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, E.E.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (games in normal form, and games in extensive form), as well as the main concepts that have been proposed to solve these games.Solution concepts predict the outcomes that might arise when the game is...

  5. Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz; Sładkowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox...

  6. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  7. Considering Cooperation: A Guide For New Cooperative Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Anderson, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    This publication reviews the key elements needed for successful formation and development of new cooperative businesses. The motivation for and process of forming cooperatives are discussed. Six phases of cooperative formation are presented including: 1) identifying the opportunity, 2) building consensus on the potential for a cooperative, 3) developing trust among potential members, 4) securing member commitment, 5) involving other stakeholders, and 6) starting up the cooperative enterprise....

  8. Does evidence really matter? An exploratory analysis of the role of evidence in plea bargaining in felony drug cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutateladze, Besiki L; Lawson, Victoria Z; Andiloro, Nancy R

    2015-10-01

    The majority of cases in the United States are disposed of through plea bargaining; however, this important discretionary point has received relatively little attention from researchers compared with trial and jury proceedings, and other discretionary points such as arrest and sentencing. Additionally, although evidence is considered an important factor in determining case outcomes, its influence on prosecutors' decisions regarding plea offers is less clear. In this study, we examined the potential impact of evidentiary factors, as well as other legal and extralegal factors, on two plea bargaining decisions, plea-to-a-lesser-charge offers and sentence offers, using data on felony drug cases processed by the New York County District Attorney's office. We found that prosecutors made more punitive charge offers when they had audio/video evidence, eyewitness identification(s), prerecorded buy money used by an undercover officer in a buy-and-bust operation, or had recovered currency. Of all evidence factors analyzed, only the recovery of currency predicted sentence offers. By contrast, three other factors-defendants' detention status, the presence of multiple plea offers, and prior prison sentence-had a much greater impact on charge and sentence offers. Although additional research is needed, it is possible that evidence has a greater impact at the initial stages of a case, particularly on the decision about whether to accept a case for prosecution, than it does on subsequent prosecutorial decisions. PMID:26052630

  9. Decision Making and Cooperation Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  10. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  11. Going beyond the surface: gendered intra-household bargaining as a social determinant of child health and nutrition in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Theobald, Sally; George, Asha; Kim, Julia C; Rudert, Christiane; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of gendered social determinants of child health, such as maternal education and women's status, for mediating child survival. This narrative review of evidence from diverse low and middle-income contexts (covering the period 1970-May 2012) examines the significance of intra-household bargaining power and process as gendered dimensions of child health and nutrition. The findings focus on two main elements of bargaining: the role of women's decision-making power and access to and control over resources; and the importance of household headship, structure and composition. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the light of lifecycle and intersectional approaches to gender and health. The relative lack of published intervention studies that explicitly consider gendered intra-household bargaining is highlighted. Given the complex mechanisms through which intra-household bargaining shapes child health and nutrition it is critical that efforts to address gender in health and nutrition programming are thoroughly documented and widely shared to promote further learning and action. There is scope to develop links between gender equity initiatives in areas of adult and adolescent health, and child health and nutrition programming. Child health and nutrition interventions will be more effective, equitable and sustainable if they are designed based on gender-sensitive information and continually evaluated from a gender perspective. PMID:22809796

  12. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Adrian College and Adrian College Association of Professors (MEA/NEA), September 1, 1984-September 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Adrian College and Adrian College Association of Professors, an affiliate of the Michigan and National Education Associations, covering the period September 1, 1984-September 1, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; definitions; rights of the Board of Trustees;…

  13. Food Safety Policies in Case of Economies of Scale in Meat Production: On WTA Compensations for Reduced Stocking, WTP for Antibiotic Reduction and Political Economy Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Nuppenau, Ernst-August

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a novel institutional economics approach for conflict solving in meat industries. We show how to apply a bargaining model in case of: (i) economies of scale and strong competition favouring large scale production as well as high stocking supported by increased antibiotic use, (ii) political power in regulation, and, in contrast, (iii) consumers' requests and WTP for change.

  14. Inconvenient Truth? Do Collective Bargaining Agreements Help Explain the Mobility of Teachers within School Districts? CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-­1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Lavery, Lesley; Theobald, Roddy

    2015-01-01

    We investigate patterns of teacher mobility in districts with different collective bargaining agreement (CBA) transfer provisions. We use detailed teacher-level longitudinal data from Washington State to estimate the probability that teachers of varying experience and effectiveness levels transfer out of their schools to another school in the…

  15. New Public Management, Public Service Bargains and the challenges of interdepartmental coordination: a comparative analysis of top civil servants in state administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Steen, Trui; de Jong, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    In this article we are interested in how the coordinating role of top civil servants is related to the argument that country-level differences in the adoption of New Public Management significantly alter the Public Service Bargains of top civil servants and consequently their capacity to accomplish...

  16. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  17. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  18. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  19. A Non-Cooperative Approach to the Joint Subcarrier and Power Allocation Problem in Multi-Service SCFDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Tsiropoulou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a joint resource allocation problem is studied in a multi-service Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA wireless network. Mobile users request various services with different Quality of Service (QoS characteristics and they determine in a distributed and non-cooperative manner a joint subcarrier and power allocation towards fulfilling their QoS prerequisites. Initially, a well-designed utility function is formulated to appropriately represent users’ diverse QoS prerequisites with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers allocation problem is solved based on a multilateral bargaining model, where users are able to select different discount factors to enter the bargaining game, thus better expressing their different needs in system resources with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers mapping is realized based either on the localized SC-FDMA method where the subcarriers are sequentially allocated to the users or the distributed SC-FDMA via considering the maximum channel gain policy, where each subcarrier is allocated to the user with the maximum channel gain. Given the subcarriers assignment, an optimization problem with respect to users’ uplink transmission power is formulated and solved, in order to determine the optimal power allocation per subcarrier assigned to each user. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via modeling and simulation and extensive numerical results are presented.

  20. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  1. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  2. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  3. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    for Nordic projects of common interests. This created the necessary critical knowledge base in new energy technologies, energy systems and energy markets. Nordic energy policy cooperation followed the ordinary Nordic governance structures, rules and mode of operation with Council of Ministers, supported...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  4. Subradiant split Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of Cavity Quantum Ele...

  5. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed that it was...... possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  6. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  7. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  8. Predicting Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  9. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  10. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  11. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  12. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  13. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  14. Cooperating with the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative Learning Skills :David Johnson and Roger Johnson (2009a) explain five elements that define true cooperative learning groups : (i) Positive interdependence ; (ii) Promotive interaction ; (iii) Individual accountability ; (iv) Collaborative and social skills ; (v) Group processing.

  16. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Arthur; André, Jean-Baptiste; Bredeche, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  17. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  18. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  19. Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Rebelatto, Joao Luiz; Uchoa-Filhoand, Bartolomeu F.; Vucetic, Branka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) prot...

  20. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  1. Merging Cooperatives: Planning, Negotiating, Implementing

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for reorganization of cooperatives through merger, acquisition, or consolidation are provided. Planning, negotiating, and implementing phases of reorganization are covered. Items from actual combinations of cooperatives are reported as they relate to phases of the reorganization process.

  2. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  3. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed

  4. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  5. Financial Performance of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Thomas H.

    1985-01-01

    Combined balance sheets and operating statements were used to develop benchmark financial ratios for dairy marketing cooperatives. Data from 291 cooperatives were summarized for five types of dairy cooperatives, then by three types and three size combinations. Both type and size of cooperative made differences in most of the 16 financial ratios calculated as well as in the common size balance sheets and operating statements.

  6. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  7. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  8. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  9. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  10. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  11. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  12. Comparative Literature in Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Donat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Beyond methodological or ideological principles, Comparative Literature depends upon, and flourishes in, cooperation between different systems, fields and disciplines. We introduce two projects developed by Munich’s Comparative Literature Department as examples of the specific challenges and opportunities afforded by this cooperation: in editing Roman Jakobson’s analyses of poetry, experts in 16 different languages and literatures worked together to present translations, interpretations and commentary on this corpus. In ongoing bilateral teaching and research projects with the German Department at Seoul National University, inter-lingual, inter-cultural and inter-disciplinary communication enables and informs studies focusing on Goethe’s concept of active and passive roles in Weltliteratur, as well as censorship and textual control in divided nations.

  13. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  14. Cooperation between employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  15. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  16. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  17. Cooperative Retransmissions Through Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Foh, Chuan Heng

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key capacity-limiting factors. Recently developed interference-embracing techniques show promising performance on turning collisions into useful transmissions. However, the interference-embracing techniques are hard to apply in practical applications due to their strict requirements. In this paper, we consider utilising the interference-embracing techniques in a common scenario of two interfering sender-receiver pairs. By employing opportunistic listening and analog network coding (ANC), we show that compared to traditional ARQ retransmission, a higher retransmission throughput can be achieved by allowing two interfering senders to cooperatively retransmit selected lost packets at the same time. This simultaneous retransmission is facilitated by a simple handshaking procedure without introducing additional overhead. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed cooperative retransmission.

  18. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  19. Le banche popolari cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Co-operative banks are an important reality of the credit system and they are spread in Italy and in Europe. These banks are a category different from other banks, as are characterized by a legal form which has some very specific characteristics. These banks may contribute to the development of human capital and the strengthening of social capital, but also to the development of the knowledge economy that thrives on knowledge and tacit knowledge passed down through the local culture. This ess...

  20. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  1. Quantized Cooperative Control

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Meng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis project, we consider the cooperative control of multi-agent systems under limited communication between the individual agents. In particular, quantized values of the relatives states between neighboring agents are used as the control parameters for each agent. As an introductory part, the theoretical framework for the distributed consensus problem under perfect communication is reviewed with the focus on the system stability and convergence. We start from the common problem set...

  2. A single buyer-single supplier bargaining problem with asymmetric information : theoretical approach and software implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sucky, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on the coordination of order and production policy between buyers and suppliers in supply chains. When a buyer and a supplier of an item work independently, the buyer will place orders based on his economic order quantity (EOQ). However, the buyer s EOQ may not lead to an optimal policy for the supplier. It can be shown that a cooperative batching policy can reduce total cost significantly. Should the buyer have the more powerful position to enforce his EOQ on the suppli...

  3. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  4. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  5. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  6. Designing Leadership models in a Three Level Unlimited Supply Chain: Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnehad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase overall supply chain system benefits. In order to achieve the overall objectives, many contradictions may occur between the components and different levels of supply chain and the contradictions that these disorders over time, result in decreased strength and competitiveness of the supply chain. Such conflicts, like marketing costs (advertising, pricing and inventory can occur during the supply chain life cycle. A Game Theory approach with respect to property is the appropriate tool for collaboration in the supply chain. This tool is used for collaborative making in any kind of supply chain such as cooperative supply chain and non-cooperative supply chain. In the present study and assuming a lack of cooperation between different levels of a supply chain, a dynamic game with complete information has been generated. In addition identifying appropriate leaders of various levels of the supply chain is considered. Non-Cooperative dynamic game mode (Stackelberg Game, for each of the three levels of supply chain including retailers, suppliers and manufacturers are modeled. Depending on the bargaining power and its position in the market, any level of supply chain can make a leader of the following rule. In the present study, the equilibrium model to play Stackelberg game may be led by a leader or leading players and ultimately identifying and modeling the appropriate unlimited three level supply chain are determined.

  7. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  8. Cooperation Between Equals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 MARKS the 55th anniversary of the start of contemporary friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu’s recent African trip gave another boost to the burgeoning China-Africa ties,said Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun.Hui visited five African countries - Mauritius, Zambia,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Cameroon and Senegal -from January 6 to 19.Agriculture and trade were some of the most promising areas of cooperation between China and these countries,said Zhai in a recent interview with ChinAfrica.Excerpts follow:

  9. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, K.; Kurian, A; Snowdon, C

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  10. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (Saguinus oedipus)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; KURIAN, AIMEE V.; Snowdon, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  11. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  12. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  13. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  14. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission ...

  15. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  16. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  17. Legal Issues of the Collective Bargaining System in China%我国集体谈判制度法律问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铁迪; 闫子良

    2015-01-01

    集体谈判是一种发挥劳动者集体的力量,通过劳动者集体的代表与企业直接对话、平等谈判,就劳动报酬、工作时间、休息休假、社会保障等内容双方达成一致并签订集体合同的制度。这种将劳动者团结在一起从而增强自身力量、平衡劳动者和企业悬殊地位的安排,已被理论和实践充分证明了其必要性和可行性,并且已经在我国推行了近二十年。但是,集体谈判却在诸多本应发挥其作用的领域表现欠佳,这不得不引人反思。如何在我国现有的用工环境和劳动关系背景下进一步完善集体谈判制度,使其有效运行,仍是我国劳动法理论界和实务界急需破解的困局。%Collective bargaining system could collect strength of workers .The representatives of the workers directly dialogue and negotiate with enterprises equally , in order to sign a collective contract to arrange the conditions of la-bor remuneration , working hours , rest and vacation , social security and so on .It has been fully proved by the theo-ry and practices that workers get together so as to enhance their strength and balance the power of workers and en -terprises .Collective bargaining has been in China for nearly two decades , and China's legislation has begun to carry out collective bargaining system resources .However , it is thought-provoking that collective bargaining performs poorly in many areas .It still is a dilemma for China's labor law theory and practical circles to further improve the system of collective bargaining in the context of our existing labor environment and labor relations .

  18. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  19. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  20. International cooperation and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For improve the nuclear safety regulatory level of China, it is an important way to absorb international experience widely and use them. In 1998, the NNSA dispatched abroad 34 delegations/90 person-time, and invited to China 9 delegations/73 person-time. The contents of dispatched delegations mainly included the international meetings and personnel training on nuclear safety, and the foreign review consultation and the components' manufacturing inspections related to Chinese nuclear power construction. The contents of invited delegations mainly included the lectures on surveillance technology, and the review consultation about the QSNPP's component purchase from several countries, JLNPP and CEFR. After reformed, the NNSA continues to bear the function on the international cooperation about nuclear safety

  1. Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution for optimal resource allocation over wireless DS-CDMA visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance applications usually require high levels of video quality, resulting in high power consumption. The existence of a well-behaved scheme to balance video quality and power consumption is crucial for the system's performance. In the present work, we adopt the game-theoretic approach of Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) to deal with the problem of optimal resource allocation in a multi-node wireless visual sensor network (VSN). In our setting, the Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) method is used for channel access, while a cross-layer optimization design, which employs a central processing server, accounts for the overall system efficacy through all network layers. The task assigned to the central server is the communication with the nodes and the joint determination of their transmission parameters. The KSBS is applied to non-convex utility spaces, efficiently distributing the source coding rate, channel coding rate and transmission powers among the nodes. In the underlying model, the transmission powers assume continuous values, whereas the source and channel coding rates can take only discrete values. Experimental results are reported and discussed to demonstrate the merits of KSBS over competing policies.

  2. M&A Cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. Nastych

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative game theory instruments application to the corporate finance M&A research issues provide an ability to extend the field considered and conclusions obtained. The paper presents the M&A cooperative games modeling and its empiri-cal implementation to analyze the airline strategic alliance as M&A deal.

  3. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  4. Property Rights for Fishing Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Leslie, Heather M.; Mack-Crane, Austen; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Sievanen, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Devolving property rights to local institutions has emerged as a compelling management strategy for natural resource management in developing countries. The use of property rights among fishing cooperatives operating in Mexico's Gulf of California provides a compelling setting for theoretical and empirical analysis. A dynamic theoretical model demonstrates how fishing cooperatives' managem...

  5. Cooperative answers in database systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  6. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  8. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  9. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more e

  10. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  11. Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glakas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)

  12. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  13. Cooperative Learning for Better Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, John J.; Russell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that linking music ensemble programs and cooperative learning strategies often has been overlooked. Describes the benefits of cooperative learning techniques for music performance preparation. Concludes that the small-group approach can enhance traditional music programs by offering students the chance to make their own decisions. (CFR)

  14. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education......The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...

  15. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  16. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  17. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  19. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies to cooperate in research, development, search for lawful alternatives, and...

  20. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  1. The Social Maintenance of Cooperation through Hypocrisy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread in human societies, but its maintenance at the group level remains puzzling if individuals benefit from not cooperating. Explanations of the maintenance of cooperation generally assume that cooperative and non-cooperative behavior in others can be assessed and copied accurately. However, humans have a well known capacity to deceive and thus to manipulate how others assess their behavior. Here, we show that hypocrisy - claiming to be acting cooperatively while acting ...

  2. Are Cooperatives Efficient When Membership is Voluntary?

    OpenAIRE

    Leathers, Howard D.

    2006-01-01

    If profit-maximizing farmers are free to join or not to join a cooperative, it may appear reasonable to assume that a cooperative will exist only when it has cost advantaged over non-cooperative marketing. This paper presents a model in which that result fails. Every individual farmer chooses either to join or not join a cooperative depending on whether transactions costs are lower from cooperative membership or nonmembership. As cooperative membership increases, transactions costs for member...

  3. THE MARKETING OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...

  4. Cooperative path planning and cooperative perception for UAVs swarm

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    In this research Pythagorean Hodograph based path planning and camera based cooperative perception are investigated separately and then these two entirely separate areas (Path Planning and Perception) are integrated for the application in online pop-up obstacle locating & avoidance and moving target tracking & surveillance in dynamic environments. The path planning is integrated with the cooperative perception to deal with the challenges posed by the dynamic environment. The aim of this integ...

  5. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  6. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  7. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  8. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  9. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  10. Planning and Implementing Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sylvia J.

    1978-01-01

    Implementing cooperative education requires careful planning, institutional support, and competent staffing. Suggestions for planning, setting objectives, recruiting students, job development, student counseling and placement, liaison with other colleges offices, and institutionalization are described. (Author/LBH)

  11. Cooperative quasi-Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, S V

    2014-01-01

    We study the features of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation arising when initially unmodulated electron (positron) bunches pass through a crystal (natural or artificial) under the conditions of dynamical diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the presence of shot noise. A detailed numerical analysis is given for cooperative THz radiation in artificial crystals. The radiation intensity above 200~MW$/$cm$^2$ is obtained in simulations. In two- and three-wave diffraction cases, the peak intensity of cooperative radiation emitted at small and large angles to particle velocity is investigated as a function of the particle number in an electron bunch. The peak radiation intensity appeared to increase monotonically until saturation is achieved. At saturation, the shot noise causes strong fluctuations in the intensity of cooperative parametric radiation. It is shown that the duration of radiation pulses can be much longer than the particle flight time through the crystal. This enables a thorough expe...

  12. CHINA Continuing cooperation with CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a visit to China in July, CERN Director General Carlo Rubbia signed an agreement with the Chinese Academy of Sciences which provides a reciprocal framework for CERN and China to continue and develop their scientific and technical cooperation

  13. Cooperative Learning: An Inside Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' reactions to a university physics class for engineering majors that was built around cooperative learning activities. Finds that student feedback supports research claims made about the learning benefits of this teaching method. (WRM)

  14. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  15. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  16. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  17. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka P.; Kemppinen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    The authors have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. They find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  18. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Mottonen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka; Kemppinen, Antti

    2006-01-01

    We have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. We find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper-pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  19. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-01-01

    The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  20. Cooperative Question Answering Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Dora; Rodrigues, Irene Pimenta; Nogueira, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input queries expressed in natural language and is able to return a cooperative answer obtained from resources in the Semantic Web, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language ...

  1. How cooperation became the norm

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Most of the contributions to Cooperation and Its Evolution grapple with the distinctive challenges presented by the project of explaining human sociality. Many of these puzzles have a ‘chicken and egg’ character: our virtually unparalleled capacity for large-scale cooperation is the product of psychological, behavioural, and demographic changes in our recent evolutionary history, and these changes are linked by complex patterns of reciprocal dependence. There is much we do not yet understand ...

  2. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  3. Expertness Measuring in Cooperative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadabadi, N.M.; Asadpour, M.; Khodaabakhsh, S.H.; Nakano, E.

    2000-01-01

    Cooperative Learning in a multi-agent system can improve the learning quality and learning speed. The improvement can be gained if each agent detects the expert agents and use their knowledge properly. In this paper, a new cooperative learning method, called Weighted Strategy Sharing (WSS) is introduced. Also some criteria are introduced to measure the expertness of agents. In WSS, based on the amount of its teammate expertness, each agent assigns a weight to their knowledge. These weights ar...

  4. Research on Plea Bargaining- Together With Discussion of Necessity of Plea Bargaining in Investigation of Corruption and Bribery%辩侦交易探析--兼论辩侦交易在贪污贿赂犯罪侦查中的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付传军

    2015-01-01

    Plea Bargaining can improve the efficiency of the investigation as a forensic means to a particular case. The characteristics of crimes of embezzlement and bribery and the new revision of the people's Republic ofChina Criminal Procedure Law determine the necessity of introducing the Plea Bargaining into the investigation of corrup-tion and bribery process and it is feasible.The use of Plea Bargaining should be strictly limited as the practice might cause some risks or relevant problems.The application should be in line with the rule of law principle,ne-cessity principle,limited moderation principle,the duel voluntary principle and the principle of trust and faith.In practice,the approximate form of Plea Bargaining in our country is similar to “frankness and leniency”criminal policy,“criminal free responsibility system”and the “guilty witness immunity system”of the United States.Al-though they do not have all the factors of Plea Bargaining,they do have the kernel and intention of the Plea Bar-gaining.%辩侦交易作为一种取证手段适用于特定案件,可以提高侦查效益。贪污贿赂犯罪的特点和新的《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》的有关修改,决定了将辩侦交易引入贪污贿赂犯罪侦查过程是必要的,且具有可行性。辩侦交易在实践中可能会存在一定的风险或出现相关问题,应遵循一定的原则严格使用,包括贯彻法治原则、必要性原则、有限适度原则、双方自愿原则和诚实信用原则等。在实践中,辩侦交易的近似形态有我国“坦白从宽”刑事政策和贿赂犯罪的有关规定、美国“刑事免责”制度,以及“污点证人豁免”制度,它们虽然不具有前述辩侦交易的全部要件,却具有辩侦交易的内核和意旨。

  5. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  6. Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Luiz Rebelatto, Joao; Uchoa-Filho, Bartolomeu F.; Vucetic, Branka

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) protocol, in which the source and relay harvest energy from the AP in the downlink and work cooperatively in the uplink for the source's information transmission. Considering a delay-limited transmission mode, the approximate closed-form expression for the average throughput of the proposed protocol is derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Subsequently, this analysis is extended to the multi-relay scenario, where the approximate throughput of the HTC protocol with two popular relay selection schemes is derived. The asymptotic analyses for the throughput performance of the considered schemes at high signal-to-noise radio are also provided. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as time allocation, relay number, and relay position, on the throughput performance are extensively investigated.

  7. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  8. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    OpenAIRE

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946) we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  9. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the human environment. The selection and responsibilities of a cooperating agency are described in... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section... Cooperating agency. Cooperating agency means any Federal agency other than a lead agency which...

  10. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  11. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  12. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  13. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  14. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  15. 美国工资集体谈判制度及其立法借鉴%Collective Bargaining System in the United States and Legislative Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊聪俐

    2011-01-01

    The development of wage collective bargaining system in United States has being mature.It is an important means to solve conflict between employers and employees,and plays a very important role to balance the status of them.Through the analysis on collective bargaining subject,content,honest obligations and negotiation results,our country can think of it as a role model.We can set the supervision mechanism of electing representatives,increase the penal regulations which refuses to consult,and give some discretion to the employers.%美国的工资集体谈判制度发展已趋于成熟,是解决劳资双方冲突的重要手段,对于平衡双方地位起到了很重要的作用。对美国的工资集体谈判主体、内容、诚实义务、谈判结果等方面介绍分析,可以通过借鉴其谈判代表选派的监督机制、增加对企业拒绝协商的罚则及在严格执行工资协商制度下赋予企业一定的工资裁量权等方面完善我国的工资集体协商立法。

  16. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  17. Expulsion of Members by Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, John D.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between farmer members and their cooperatives is unique, a combination of contract, business, and membership interests. Cooperatives may have occasion to terminate the relationship by expelling a member. This article explore legal authority of cooperatives to expel members, conditions under which expulsion is an acceptable action by cooperatives, and legal consequences of improper expulsion are described, and procedures are suggested to protect member and cooperative interest...

  18. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  19. The parents' opinions on cooperation with kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šenica, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between kindergartens and families has been changing throughout history. People did not used to place great importance on such cooperation, but legislation today obligates kindergartens to cooperate with parents. Since it is the role of both parents and kindergarten teacher to care for and stimulate children's development, cooperation is even more important. The foundations for good cooperation are willingness on the side of parents and of teacher, mutual trust and open relationsh...

  20. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic and social attributes. Several formal models are formulated to address the interaction between cooperative governance structure and the different dimensions of cooperative social capital. The coopera...

  1. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...

  2. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  3. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Western Montana College Faculty Association (Local 4323, MFT, AFT, AFL-CIO) and the Board of Regents of Higher Education, Montana University System, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Univ. System, Helena.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Regents of Montana University System and Western Montana College Faculty Association, an American Federation of Teachers affiliate, covering the period July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; dues deduction; dues checkoff;…

  4. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Board of Trustees of the University of Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Society of Professors, Faculty Staff Union, MTA/NEA, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the University of Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Society of Professors, Faculty Staff Union (1,643 members) of the National Education Association, covering the period July 1, 1983-June 30, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition,…

  5. Teacher Union Official and Central Office Administrator Descriptions of the Level of Difficulty and Importance for Negotiating Selected Elements of Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) into Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between teacher union officials and central office administrators' descriptions of the level of importance and the level of difficulty when negotiating Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) language into a teachers' union collective bargaining agreement was examined. Relationships were investigated using the New…

  6. "EEOC v. Board of Governors of State Colleges and Universities": Collective Bargaining Agreements and Age Discrimination in Employment Act Claims: What Counts as Retaliation under ADEA Section 4(D)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    Court litigation in which the claim (to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) that a faculty collective bargaining agreement violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act is examined. Focus is on arbitration of wrongful termination cases. Conflicting judicial rationales applied in two cases are discussed, and a practical solution is…

  7. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  8. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  9. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  10. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    governance framework in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social...

  11. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  12. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  13. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  14. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the...... production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or...

  15. [Cooperation between medicine and education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2004-05-01

    In cooperation between medicine and education, a reciprocal understanding is important. For this reason, we researched the needs of medical and educational professionals by questionnaires. Many child neurology specialists agreed that their medical profiled are unveiled in public about attending developmental disabilities. Some educational professionals felt it necessary to be given to offer medical informations of students such as treatments and/or diagnosis of their disease, to attend to seminars and lectures on developmental disabilities, and to obtain consultations of doctor more easily. From the above results, we propose an ideal cooperation between medicine and education. PMID:15176589

  16. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... and their cooperative. The economic justification for cooperatives, explaining their long-stan competitiveness and viability in some economic sectors, is to be found in monopoly problems or transaction costs accounting for the need for interest alignment. 4. Being a federative type of organization, the agricultural...

  17. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dussel, G G; Dukelsky, J; Sarriguren, P

    2007-01-01

    We consider the development of Cooper pairs in a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes. Results are presented at the level of a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson ansatz. While projected BCS captures much of the pairing correlation energy that is absent from BCS, it still misses a sizable correlation energy, typically of order $1 MeV$. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the exact Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective.

  18. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  19. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  20. A Comparison of Multidimensional Procurement Auction and Multidimensional Asymmetric Nash Bargaining%多属性采购拍卖与多属性不对称纳什谈判的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河; 王峰

    2011-01-01

    As common and effective ways of selecting suppliers in procurement, auction and bargaining both have their supports in the current theory, from the perspective of the purchaser. By u-sing the classical multidimensional auction model in and multidimensional asymmetric Nash bargaining model, to compare the expected revenue of auction with the earnings of bargaining, it is found that the boundary of the two mechanisms relates to the power of bargaining and the number of bidders. By dividing the interval of them, the boundary conditions of auction and bargaining and their respective appropriate ranges are also found.%拍卖与谈判作为采购中有效选择交易对象的常见方式,从最大化采购方收益的角度看,现有理论对这2种方式各有支持.通过运用经典的多属性拍卖模型和多属性不对称纳什谈判模型,将拍卖的期望收益和谈判的收益进行比较,发现2种机制的分界与谈判力量和投标人数这2个指标有关,通过划分谈判力量和投标人数取值的不同区间,找到了拍卖或谈判这2种方式的边界条件以及它们各自的适宜范围.