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Sample records for bare silicate grain

  1. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  2. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G. [Observatoire de Paris/Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mutschke, H. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory, Friedrich Schiller University Jena Schillergässchen 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, T., E-mail: tolou.sabri@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  3. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  4. Oxygen diffusion and reactivity at low temperature on bare amorphous olivine-type silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M., E-mail: marco.minissale@obspm.fr; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F. [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2014-02-21

    The mobility of O atoms at very low temperatures is not generally taken into account, despite O diffusion would add to a series of processes leading to the observed rich molecular diversity in space. We present a study of the mobility and reactivity of O atoms on an amorphous silicate surface. Our results are in the form of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption spectra of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} produced via two pathways: O + O and O{sub 2} + O, investigated in a submonolayer regime and in the range of temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. All the experiments show that ozone is formed efficiently on silicate at any surface temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. The derived upper limit for the activation barriers of O + O and O{sub 2} + O reactions is ∼150 K/k{sub b}. Ozone formation at low temperatures indicates that fast diffusion of O atoms is at play even at 6.5 K. Through a series of rate equations included in our model, we also address the reaction mechanisms and show that neither the Eley–Rideal nor the hot atom mechanisms alone can explain the experimental values. The rate of diffusion of O atoms, based on modeling results, is much higher than the one generally expected, and the diffusive process proceeds via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism enhanced by tunnelling. In fact, quantum effects turn out to be a key factor that cannot be neglected in our simulations. Astrophysically, efficient O{sub 3} formation on interstellar dust grains would imply the presence of huge reservoirs of oxygen atoms. Since O{sub 3} is a reservoir of elementary oxygen, and also of OH via its hydrogenation, it could explain the observed concomitance of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ices.

  5. Investigation of Barely Grain Yield Improvement during the Last Half Century across Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajipoor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Barely (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most important cereal after wheat, corn and rice. Regarding the role of breeding to increase barley grain yield a large number of studies have been done in different countries. However, a few studies have been performed across Golestan Province, in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted to know what barley traits have changed with grain yield during recent years. How these traits will further improve the barley grain yield in the future breeding programs? Materials and Methods In order to study barely grain yield improvement during the last half century across Golestan Province, this expriment carried out at randomized complete block desing with 4 replications in Gonbad kavous university research field in 2013-2014. Treatments were included nine barley cultivars: Sahra, Dasht, Torkaman, Gorgan4, Nimruz, Mahoor, Khoram, Reyhan and Yousef. We analysed the results using ANOVA in the statistical software package SAS. Step by step regression analysis and pathway analysis was done to evaluate the relative proportion of different traits on yield and direct and indirect impacts of yield components on grain yield, respectively. Results and Discussion The results showed that the values of the studied parameters were significantly different in different cultivars. Results illustrated that the hieghest and the lowest grain weight were related to Mahoor (37.33 mg and Torkaman (22.66 mg, respectively. Due to the high number of rows per spike in barely cultivars, grains are closer together and there are less space for growth and phothosynthetic material storage. In addition, total assimilation was not enough to fill the grain of cultivars which have the more grain numbers per spike and it caused low grain weight. Although thousand grain weight is among the main grain yield components with high heritability, it influenced by other components such as the number of spikes and its length. The highest and the

  6. Identification of an Extremely 180-Rich Presolar Silicate Grain in Acfer 094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar silicate grains have been abundantly identified since their first discovery less than a decade ago [1,2,3]. The O isotopic compositions of both silicate and oxide stardust indicate the vast majority (>90%) condensed around Orich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Though both presolar phases have average sizes of 300 nm, grains larger than 1 m are extremely uncommon for presolar silicates. Thus, while numerous isotopic systems have been measured in presolar oxide grains [4], very few isotopic analyses for presolar silicates exist outside of O and Si [2,5]. And still, these measurements suffer from isotopic dilution with surrounding matrix material [6]. We conduct a search for presolar silicates in the primitive carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094 and in some cases obtain high spatial resolution, high precision isotopic ratios.

  7. Grain growth across protoplanetary discs: 10 μm silicate feature versus millimetre slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, D.J.P.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Wright, C.M.; Min, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Young stars are formed with dusty discs around them. The dust grains in the disc are originally of the same size as interstellar dust, i.e., of the order of 0.1 μm. Models predict that these grains will grow in size through coagulation. Observations of the silicate features around 10 and 20

  8. Heterogeneous condensation of ice mantle around silicate core grain in molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Interstellar water ice grains are observed in the cold and dense regions such as molecular clouds, HII regions and protostellar objects. The water ice is formed from gas phase during the cooling stage of cosmic gas with solid grain surfaces of high temperature silicate minerals. It is a question whether the ice is formed through the homogeneous condensation process (as the ice alone) or the heterogeneous one (as the ice around the pre-existing high temperature mineral grains). (author)

  9. The evolution of grain mantles and silicate dust growth at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Viti, Serena; Balucani, Nadia; Taquet, Vianney

    2018-05-01

    In dense molecular clouds, interstellar grains are covered by mantles of iced molecules. The formation of the grain mantles has two important consequences: it removes species from the gas phase and promotes the synthesis of new molecules on the grain surfaces. The composition of the mantle is a strong function of the environment that the cloud belongs to. Therefore, clouds in high-zeta galaxies, where conditions - like temperature, metallicity, and cosmic ray flux - are different from those in the Milky Way, will have different grain mantles. In the last years, several authors have suggested that silicate grains might grow by accretion of silicon-bearing species on smaller seeds. This would occur simultaneously with the formation of the iced mantles and be greatly affected by its composition as a function of time. In this work, we present a numerical study of the grain mantle formation in high-zeta galaxies, and we quantitatively address the possibility of silicate growth. We find that the mantle thickness decreases with increasing redshift, from about 120 to 20 layers for z varying from 0 to 8. Furthermore, the mantle composition is also a strong function of the cloud redshift, with the relative importance of CO, CO2, ammonia, methane, and methanol highly varying with z. Finally, being Si-bearing species always a very minor component of the mantle, the formation of silicates in molecular clouds is practically impossible.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of four carbon stars with 9.8 micron emission from silicate grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.L.; Smith, V.V.; Hinkle, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution K band and low resolution 4 micron spectra were obtained for four carbon stars showing IR emission by silicate grains. The results of the analysis of the K band spectra show that they are J-type stars. These results, together with published spectral classifications, show that all known carbon stars with a silicate emission feature are J-type stars. The 4 micron spectra are very similar to the spectra of classical J-type carbon stars, and do not show SiO bands that might come from a M giant companion. A binary model with a luminous M giant companion as a source of the silicate grain is rejected. It is proposed that the silicate grains formed from gas ejecta at or before the He-core flash, and that the flash initiates severe mixing, leading to the star's conversion to a J-type carbon star. The ejecta are stored in an accretion disk around a low mass unevolved companion. If it can be shown that the hypothesized accretion disk is stable and may be heated adequately, this binary model appears to account for these peculiar carbon stars. 41 refs

  11. A Model of Silicate Grain Nucleation and Growth in Circumstellar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, John A.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2011-01-01

    Based on its abundance, high bond energy, and recent measurements of its vapor pressure SiO is a natural candidate for dust nucleation in circumstellar outflows around asymptotic giant branch stars. In this paper, we describe a model of the nucleation and growth of silicate dust in such outflows. The sensitivity of the model to varying choices of poorly constrained chemical parameters is explored, and the merits of using scaled rather than classical nucleation theory are briefly considered, An elaboration of the model that includes magnesium and iron as growth species is then presented and discussed. The composition of the bulk of the grains derived from the model is consistent with olivines and pyroxenes, but somewhat metal-rich grains and very small, nearly pure SiO grains are also produced,

  12. Identification of a Compound Spinel and Silicate Presolar Grain in a Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among these minimally altered CP IDPs varies widely. "Isotopically primitive" IDPs distinguished by anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions, numerous 15N-rich hotspots, and some C isotopic anomalies have higher average abundances of presolar grains (375 ppm) than IDPs with isotopically normal bulk N (<10 ppm) [5]. Some D and N isotopic anomalies have been linked to carbonaceous matter, though this material is only rarely isotopically anomalous in C [1, 5, 6]. Previous studies of the bulk chemistry and, in some samples, the mineralogy of select anhydrous CP IDPs indicate a link between high C abundance and pyroxene-dominated mineralogy [7]. In this study, we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of samples that were analyzed by [7] to characterize isotopically anomalous materials and to establish possible correlations with C abundance.

  13. Ultraviolet interstellar linear polarization. I - Applicability of current dust grain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Meade, Marilyn R.

    1993-01-01

    UV spectropolarimetric observations yielding data on the wavelength-dependence of interstellar polarization along eight lines of sight facilitate the evaluation of dust grain models previously used to fit the extinction and polarization in the visible and IR. These models pertain to bare silicate/graphite grains, silicate cores with organic refractory mantles, silicate cores with amorphous carbon mantles, and composite grains. The eight lines-of-sight show three different interstellar polarization dependences.

  14. The Deep Impact Coma of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 as a Time-of-Flight Experiment Motivates DDSCAT Models for Porous Aggregate Grains with Silicate Crystal Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Richard, D. T.; Kolokolova, L.; Moreno, F.

    2010-10-01

    Spitzer IRS spectra of short-period Ecliptic Comets (ECs) have silicate features, and many have distinct crystalline silicate peaks. These Spitzer spectra, when fitted with thermal models after subtraction of the relatively strong contribution of the nuclear flux to the IR spectrum (e.g., Harker et al. 2007), demonstrate ECs have weaker silicate features than long-period Nearly-Isotropic Comets (NICs). There are exceptions, however, as some NICs also have weak features like most ECs. Grains with lower porosities (lower fraction of vacuum) can explain weaker silicate features (Kelley and Wooden 2009; Kolokolova et al. 2007). Alternatively, omitting the smallest (submicron) solid grains can reduce the contrast of the silicate feature (Lisse et al. 2006). However, so far, only models for solid submicron crystals fit the crystalline peaks in spectra of comets with weak silicate features. This presents a dilemma: how can the coma be devoid of small grains except for the crystals? The Spitzer spectra of the Deep Impact event with EC 9P/Tempel 1 provides a data set to model larger porous grains with crystal inclusions because the post-impact coma was a time-of-flight experiment: an impulsive release of grains were size-sorted in time by their respective gas velocities so that the smaller grains departed the inner coma quicker than larger grains. A velocity law derived from fitting small beam Gemini spectra (Harker et al. 2007) indicates that at 20 hour post-impact the (pre-impact subtracted) Spitzer IRS spectrum contained grains larger than 10-20 micron radii, moving at 20 m/s, that produced a weak silicate feature with an 11.2 micron crystalline olivine peak. Furthermore, this feature looks like the silicate feature from the nominal coma. We present some results of a computational effort to model discrete crystals and mixed-mineral porous aggregate grains with silicate crystal inclusions using DDSCAT on the NAS Pleiades supercomputer.

  15. Influence of synthetic calcium silicates on the strength properties of fine-grained concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarusova, S. B.; Gordienko, P. S.; Kozin, A. V.; Zhevtun, I. G.; Perfilev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of additives based on acicular calcium hydrosilicates (xonotlite and tobermorite) and wollastonite, obtained from boric acid production waste in autoclave synthesis at a temperature of 220 °C, on the strength of fine-grained concrete, has been studied in this paper. It was shown that when the calcium hydrosilicates and wollastonite are introduced, an increase in the strength characteristics of concrete is observed. After heat and moisture treatment, the maximum increase in strength is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of calcium hydrosilicates and 6% of mass content of wollastonite. After 28 days of hardening under normal conditions, the maximum increase in strength of concrete is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of both types of additives. It was shown that the water absorption of concrete decreases with a maximum when 4% of mass content is added, as in the case of the introduction of calcium hydrosilicates, and wollastonite. With a further increase in the number of additives, the amount of water absorption increases, but these values remain below the values for the control sample without additives.

  16. SOFT X-RAY IRRADIATION OF SILICATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DUST EVOLUTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Jiménez-Escobar, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Venezia, A. M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [ISMN—CNR, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The processing of energetic photons on bare silicate grains was simulated experimentally on silicate films submitted to soft X-rays of energies up to 1.25 keV. The silicate material was prepared by means of a microwave assisted sol–gel technique. Its chemical composition reflects the Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} stoichiometry with residual impurities due to the synthesis method. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. We found that soft X-ray irradiation induces structural changes that can be interpreted as an amorphization of the processed silicate material. The present results may have relevant implications in the evolution of silicate materials in X-ray-irradiated protoplanetary disks.

  17. Presolar silicates in the matrix and fine-grained rims around chondrules in primitive CO3.0 chondrites: Evidence for pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the rims in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Zega, Thomas J.; Croat, Thomas K.; Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Carpenter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the origin of fine-grained rims around chondrules (FGRs), we compared presolar grain abundances, elemental compositions and mineralogies in fine-grained interstitial matrix material and individual FGRs in the primitive CO3.0 chondrites Allan Hills A77307, LaPaz Icefield 031117 and Dominion Range 08006. The observation of similar overall O-anomalous (∼155 ppm) and C-anomalous grain abundances (∼40 ppm) in all three CO3.0 chondrites suggests that they all accreted from a nebular reservoir with similar presolar grain abundances. The presence of presolar silicate grains in FGRs combined with the observation of similar estimated porosity between interstitial matrix regions and FGRs in LAP 031117 and ALHA77307, as well as the identification of a composite FGR (a small rimmed chondrule within a larger chondrule rim) in ALHA77307, all provide evidence for a formation of FGRs by accretion of dust grains onto freely-floating chondrules in the solar nebula before their aggregation into their parent body asteroids. Our study also shows systematically lower abundances of presolar silicate grains in the FGRs than in the matrix regions of CO3 chondrites, while the abundances of SiC grains are the same in all areas, within errors. This trend differs from CR2 chondrites in which the presolar silicate abundances are higher in the FGRs than in the matrix, but similar to each other within 2σ errors. This observation combined with the identification of localized (micrometer-scaled) aqueous alteration in a FGR of LAP 031117 suggests that the lower abundance of presolar silicates in FGRs reflects pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the fine-grained material in the FGRs. This pre-accretionary alteration could be due to either hydration and heating of freely floating rimmed chondrules in icy regions of the solar nebula or melted water ice associated with 26Al-related heating inside precursor planetesimals, followed by aggregation of FGRs into the CO chondrite parent-body.

  18. The Globe laid bare

    CERN Multimedia

    Fortunati, Lucien

    2015-01-01

    If you’re at CERN at the moment, you will certainly have noticed the work under way on the Globe. The structure, which has been in pride of place opposite the Laboratory for over ten years, has never been so completely laid bare. But, as we explained in a previous article (see here), it is all for a good cause. The Globe is built entirely from wood and certain parts of it need to be replaced.

  19. Influência da escória silicatada na acidez do solo e na produtividade de grãos do arroz de terras altas Influence of calcium silicate slag on soil acidity and upland rice grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Pereira Barbosa Filho

    2004-04-01

    this investigation were to evaluate in two consecutive years, soil acidity correction, grain yield and Si uptake in upland rice. Six doses of calcium silicate slag with 20% of total SiO2 (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1 in form of calcium silicate slag, a subproduct of phosphorus processed in electric furnace was applied to oxisoil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with five repetitions. Application of calcium silicate slag resulted in significant grain yield increase, tissue silicon content and silicon accumulation in straw and the filled grain percentage in the first and in the second year of rice cultivation. The critical Si level in the rice straw required for obtaining satisfactory yield was 2,25 g kg-1 of dry matter. In soil, the application of calcium silicate slag reduced soil acidity and increased available P, Si, exchangeable Ca, and saturation of bases. There was significant correlation between soluble Si extracted in acetic acid extraction 0.5 mol L-1 and water, in relation to soluble Si content found in soil after rice cultivation.

  20. The formation of molecular hydrogen on silicate dust analogs: The rotational distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l' Observatoire de Paris et de l' Université de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320, USA. (United States); Sabri, T.; Jæger, C., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory experiments continue to explore how the formation of molecular hydrogen is influenced by dust and how dust thereby affects hydrogen molecules adsorbed on its surface. In Sabri et al., we present the preparation of nanometer-sized silicate grain analogs via laser ablation. These analogs illustrate extremes in structure (fully crystalline or fully amorphous grains), and stoichiometry (the forsterite and fayalite end-members of the olivine family). These were inserted in FORMOLISM, an ultra-high vacuum setup where they can be cooled down to ∼5 K. Atomic beams are directed at these surfaces and the formation of new molecules is studied via REMPI(2+1) spectroscopy. We explored the rotational distribution (0 ≤ J'' ≤ 5) of v'' = 0 of the ground electronic state of H{sub 2}. The results of these measurements are reported here. Surprisingly, molecules formed and ejected from crystalline silicates have a cold (T {sub rot} ∼ 120 K) rotational energy distribution, while for molecules formed on and ejected from amorphous silicate films, the rotational temperature is ∼310 K. These results are compared to previous experiments on metallic surfaces and theoretical simulations. Solid-state surface analysis suggests that flatter grains could hinder the 'cartwheel' rotation mode. A search for hot hydrogen, predicted as a result of H{sub 2} formation, hints at its production. For the first time, the rotational distribution of hydrogen molecules formed on silicate dust is reported. These results are essential to understanding the chemistry of astrophysical media containing bare dust grains.

  1. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  2. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  3. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

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    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Sargent, B. A., E-mail: sfogerty@pas.rochester.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  4. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I.; Sargent, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  5. The Globe laid bare

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    If you’re at CERN at the moment, you will certainly have noticed the work under way on the Globe. The structure, which has been in pride of place opposite the Laboratory for over ten years, has never been so completely laid bare. But, as we explained in a previous article (see here), it is all for a good cause. The Globe is built entirely from wood and certain parts of it need to be replaced.   The Globe after the removal of all the sun baffles. Image: Lucien Fortunati. Picture the general structure of the Globe. In simple terms, the building consists of two spheres, one inside the other. The inner sphere houses the Universe of Particles exhibition and the conference room and is connected to the outer sphere by two access ramps. “Each of these two spheres is made up of eighteen large supporting arcs,” explains Amaya Martínez García of the GS department, who is supervising the Globe renovation project. “These eighteen arcs are ...

  6. Silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  7. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  8. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  9. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    OpenAIRE

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type, the determiner shows agreement with the first conjunct, while the second conjunct is bare, as in the Spanish example el hornero y hornera cobraban en panes (‘thesg.m bakersg.m and bakersg.f werepl p...

  10. Supersonic bare metal cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress continued this past year on two principal fronts in the study of bare metal clusters: photoelectron spectroscopy of mass selected negative ions, and surface chemisorption of cluster ions levitated in a superconducting magnet as monitored by fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  11. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  12. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  13. Bare Quantum Null Energy Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2018-02-16

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured relation between a null version of quantum field theory energy and derivatives of quantum field theory von Neumann entropy. In some cases, divergences cancel between these two terms and the QNEC is intrinsically finite. We study the more general case here where they do not and argue that a QNEC can still hold for bare (unrenormalized) quantities. While the original QNEC applied only to locally stationary null congruences in backgrounds that solve semiclassical theories of quantum gravity, at least in the formal perturbation theory at a small Planck length, the quantum focusing conjecture can be viewed as the special case of our bare QNEC for which the metric is on shell.

  14. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  15. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  16. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  17. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  18. Application of Sodium Silicate Enhances Cucumber Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Alters Soil Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous silicates can enhance plant resistance to pathogens and change soil microbial communities. However, the relationship between changes in soil microbial communities and enhanced plant resistance remains unclear. Here, effects of exogenous sodium silicate on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (FOC were investigated by drenching soil with 2 mM sodium silicate. Soil bacterial and fungal community abundances and compositions were estimated by real-time PCR and high-throughput amplicon sequencing; then, feedback effects of changes in soil biota on cucumber seedling resistance to FOC were assessed. Moreover, effects of sodium silicate on the growth of FOC and Streptomyces DHV3-2, an antagonistic bacterium to FOC, were investigated both in vitro and in the soil environment. Results showed that exogenous sodium silicate enhanced cucumber seedling growth and resistance to FOC. In bare soil, sodium silicate increased bacterial and fungal community abundances and diversities. In cucumber-cultivated soil, sodium silicate increased bacterial community abundances, but decreased fungal community abundances and diversities. Sodium silicate also changed soil bacterial and fungal communality compositions, and especially, decreased the relative abundances of microbial taxa containing plant pathogens but increased these with plant-beneficial potentials. Moreover, sodium silicate increased the abundance of Streptomyces DHV3-2 in soil. Soil biota from cucumber-cultivated soil treated with sodium silicate decreased cucumber seedling Fusarium wilt disease index, and enhanced cucumber seedling growth and defense-related enzyme activities in roots. Sodium silicate at pH 9.85 inhibited FOC abundance in vitro, but did not affect FOC abundance in soil. Overall, our results suggested that, in cucumber-cultivated soil, sodium silicate increased cucumber seedling

  19. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  20. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Grain flour starch pasting and malt qualities were analyzed. .... bags and stored in a cool place (ca. ... Pasting properties of four malting barely varieties grain flour starches and the effect of three fungicide (propiconazole) spray.

  1. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does not...

  2. The Rosseland mean opacity of interstellar grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; El Shalaby, M.A.; El-Nawawy, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    We have calculated the opacity of interstellar grains in the temperature range 10 deg. K - 1500 deg. K. Two composite grain models have been considered. One of them consists of silicate coated with ice mantle and the second has a graphite core coated also with ice mantle. These models are compared with isolated grain models. An exact analytical and computational development of Guettler's formulae for composite grain models has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient. It has been found that the thickness of the mantle affects the opacity of the interstellar grains. The opacity of composite models differs from that of the isolated models. The effect of the different species (ice, silicate and graphite) is also clear. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Influence of the type of aqueous sodium silicate on the stabilization and rheology of kaolin clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izak, Piotr; Ogłaza, Longin; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Mastalska-Popławska, Joanna; Stempkowska, Agata

    2018-05-01

    To avoid agglomeration and sedimentation of grains, ceramic slurries should be modified by stabilizers in order to increase the electrostatic interactions between the dispersed particles. In this study we present the spectral analysis of aqueous sodium silicates obtained by different synthesis methods and their influence on the rheological properties of kaolin based slurries. Infrared and Raman spectra can be used to describe the structure of silicate structural units present in aqueous sodium silicates. It was confirmed that the best stabilization results possess aqueous sodium silicates of the silicate moduli of about 2 and the optimal concentration of the used fluidizer is 0.3 wt% to the kaolin clay dry mass. One of the most important conclusions is that the synthesis method of the fluidizer has no significant effect on its stabilization properties but used medium does create adequate stabilization mechanism depending on the silicate structures present in the sodium silicate solution.

  4. Does Silicate Weathering of Loess Affect Atmospheric CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.

    2002-12-01

    Weathering of glacial loess may be a significant, yet unrecognized, component of the carbon cycle. Glaciers produce fine-grained sediment, exposing vast amounts of mineral surface area to weathering processes, yet silicate mineral weathering rates at glacier beds and of glacial till are not high. Thus, despite the tremendous potential for glaciers to influence global weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 levels, this effect has not been demonstrated. Loess, comprised of silt-clay sizes, may be the key glacial deposit in which silicate weathering rates are high. Loess is transported by wind off braid plains of rivers, and deposited broadly (order 100 km from the source) in vegetated areas. Both the fine grain size, and hence large mineral surface area, and presence of vegetation should render loess deposits highly susceptible to silicate weathering. These deposits effectively extend the geochemical impact of glaciation in time and space, and bring rock flour into conditions conducive to chemical weathering. A simple 1-d model of silicate weathering fluxes from a soil profile demonstrates the potential of loess deposition to enhance CO2 consumption. At each time step, computed mineral dissolution (using anorthite and field-based rate constants) modifies the size of mineral grains within the soil. In the case of a stable soil surface, this results in a gradual decline in weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption through time, as finer grain sizes dissolve away. Computed weathering fluxes for a typical loess, with an initial mean grain size of 25 μm, are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes from a non-loess soil that differs only in having a mean grain size of 320 μm. High weathering fluxes are maintained through time if loess is continually deposited. Deposition rates as low as 0.01 mm/yr (one loess grain thickness per year) can lead to a doubling of CO2 consumption rates within 5 ka. These results suggest that even modest loess deposition rates can significantly

  5. Electrical conductivity studies of nanocrystalline lanthanum silicate synthesized by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallamuthu, N.; Prakash, I.; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanocrystalline La 10 Si 6 O 27 material was synthesized by sol-gel method. → TG/DTA curves predicted the thermal behavior of the material. → FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of SiO 4 and La-O network in the La 10 Si 6 O 27 . → XRD patterns confirmed the formation of pure crystalline La 10 Si 6 O 27 phase. → The grain interior and the grain boundary conductivities are evaluated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline apatite type structured lanthanum silicate (La 10 Si 6 O 27 ) sample was synthesized by sol-gel process. Thermal behavior of the dried gel of lanthanum silicate sample was studied using TG/DTA. The structural coordination of the dried gel of lanthanum silicate, calcined at various temperatures, was identified from the observed FTIR spectral results. The observed XRD patterns of the calcined dried gel were compared with the ICDD data and confirmed the formation of crystalline lanthanum silicate phase. The average crystalline size of La 10 Si 6 O 27 was calculated using the Scherrer formula and it is found to be ∼80 nm. The observed SEM images of the lanthanum silicate indicate the formation of the spherical particles and the existence of O, Si and La in the lanthanum silicate are confirmed from the SEM-EDX spectrum. The grain and grain boundary conductivities are evaluated by analyzing the measured impedance data, using winfit software, obtained at different temperatures, of La 10 Si 6 O 27 sample. Also, the observed grain and grain boundary conductivity behaviors of the La 10 Si 6 O 27 sample are analysed using brick layer model. The electrical permittivity and electrical modulus were calculated from the measured impedance data and were analyzed by fitting through the Havriliak and Negami function to describe the dielectric relaxation behavior of the nanocrystalline lanthanum silicate.

  6. ION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF COSMIC SILICATES: A POSSIBLE FORMATION PATHWAY TO GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, C.; Sabri, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wendler, E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Th., E-mail: cornelia.jaeger@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Ion-induced processing of dust grains in the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary and planetary disks plays an important role in the entire dust cycle. We have studied the ion-induced processing of amorphous MgFeSiO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} grains by 10 and 20 keV protons and 90 keV Ar{sup +} ions. The Ar{sup +} ions were used to compare the significance of the light protons with that of heavier, but chemically inert projectiles. The bombardment was performed in a two-beam irradiation chamber for in situ ion-implantation at temperatures of 15 and 300 K and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to monitor the alteration of the silicate composition under ion irradiation. A depletion of oxygen from the silicate structure by selective sputtering of oxygen from the surface of the grains was observed in both samples. The silicate particles kept their amorphous structure, but the loss of oxygen caused the reduction of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and the formation of iron inclusions in the MgFeSiO{sub 4} grains. A few Si inclusions were produced in the iron-free magnesium silicate sample pointing to a much less efficient reduction of Si{sup 4+} and formation of metallic Si inclusions. Consequently, ion-induced processing of magnesium-iron silicates can produce grains that are very similar to the glassy grains with embedded metals and sulfides frequently observed in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The metallic iron inclusions are strong absorbers in the NIR range and therefore a ubiquitous requirement to increase the temperature of silicate dust grains in IR-dominated astrophysical environments such as circumstellar shells or protoplanetary disks.

  7. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  8. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  9. Radioanalysis of siliceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both natural and induced radioactivity as well as man-made radiotracers may be applied to assess quality and its maintenance a widely varying range of siliceous materials. One example of industrial application is given for each of these three branches. Natural Radioactivity: The measurement of 222-Rn emanation from building material components serves the determination of the internal diffusion and thus of the effective porosity as well as the usual environmental control. Radiotracers: The specific surface area of silica components can be obtained from measurements of the chemisorptions of fluoride and its kinetics, using acid fluoride solutions and carrier-free 18-F, Tl/2 = 110 min, as the radiotracer. This also enables the determination of fluoride in drinking water at the (sub-) ppm level by spiking isotope dilution and substoichiometric adsorption to small glass beads. Neutron activation analysis (NAA): Concentration profiles down to the micro m-range of trace elements in small electronic components of irregular shape are derived from combination of NAA with controlled sequential etching flux in dilute HF-solutions. The cases of Na, Mn, Co and Se by instrumental NAA and that of W by chemical isolation from the reagent solution are considered. (author)

  10. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  11. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  12. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  13. Ikke bare porno på mobilen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2013-01-01

    Den britiske børne- og ungdomsforsker professor Sonia Livingstone ved London School of Economics viser gennem en række interviews, at billeder af eksplicitte sexhandlinger er en velkendt del af den ungdommelige cirkulation af ’hverdagspornografisk’ materiale (Ringrose et al. 2012). ’Sexting’ er a...... altså ikke bare porno på en mobilplatform. Det er handlinger og værgestrategier, som unge piger er nødt til at forholde sig til i hverdagen, mens drengene umiddelbart ser ud til at slippe relativt let udenom den chikane, der kan ligge i ’sexting’....

  14. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  15. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Aberdeen); (UC); (Dartmouth)

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  16. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  17. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  18. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... with a spectacular improvement up to 300 % in impact strength were obtained. In the second part of this study, layered silicate bio-nanomaterials were obtained starting from natural compounds and taking into consideration their biocompatibility properties. These new materials may be used for drug delivery systems...... and as biomaterials due to their high biocompatible properties, and because they have the advantage of being biodegradable. The intercalation process of natural compounds within silicate platelets was investigated. By uniform dispersing of binary nanohybrids in a collagen matrix, nanocomposites with intercalated...

  19. On crystallochemistry of uranil silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, G.A.; Moroz, I.Kh.; Zhil'tsova, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    A crystallochemical analysis has been made of uranil silicates. It is shown that on crystallochemical grounds it is justified to distinguish among them uranophane-kasolite, soddyite and viksite groups differing in the uranil-anion [SiO 4 ] -4 ratio and, as a consequence, in their crystallochemical structures. Widespread silicates of the uranophane-kasolite group is the formation of polytype modifications where, depending on the interlaminar cation, crystalline structures are formed with various packing of single-type uranil-anion layers. It has been shown experimentally that silicates of the uranophanekasolite group contain no oxonium ion in their crystalline structures. Minerals of the viksite group belong to a group of isostructural (homeotypic) laminated formation apt to form phases of different degrees of hydration. Phases with a smaller interlaminar cation form hydrates with a greater number of water molecules in the formulas unit

  20. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  1. The bare parameters of Gribov's Langrangian are understood and determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)

  2. The formation of small grains in shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony P.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous and silicate grains swept up, and betatron accelerated, by supernova-generated shock waves in the interstellar medium are exposed to grain destructive processing. The degree of grain destruction is determined by the differential gas-grain and grain-grain velocities, which lead to sputtering of the grain surface and grain core disruption (deformation, vaporization and shattering), respectively. The threshold pressure for grain shattering in grain-grain collisions (100 k bar) is considerably lower than that for vaporization (approximately 5 M bar). Therefore, collisions between grains shatter large grains into smaller fragments (i.e., small grains and PAH's). Using a new algorithms for the destructive processes, it was possible to model the formation fo small grain fragments in grain-grain collisions in the warm phase of the interstellar medium. It was found that in one cycle through the warm medium (approximately 3 x 10(sup 6) years) of order 1-2% of the total grain mass is shattered into particles with radii of less than 50 A.

  3. Mid-infrared spectra of cometary dust: the evasion of its silicate mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Chigai, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2008-04-01

    Infrared spectra of dust in cometary comae provide a way to identify its silicate constituents, and this is crucial for correctly understanding the condition under which our planetary system is formed. Recent studies assign a newly detected peak at a wavelength of 9.3 μm to pyroxenes and regard them as the most abundant silicate minerals in comets. Here we dispense with this pyroxene hypothesis to numerically reproduce the infrared features of cometary dust in the framework of our interstellar dust models. Presolar interstellar dust in a comet is modeled as fluffy aggregates consisting of submicrometer-sized organic grains with an amorphous-silicate core that undergoes nonthermal crystallization in a coma. We assert that forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is the carrier of all the observed features, including the 9.3 μm peak and that the major phase of iron is sulfides rather than iron-rich silicates.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  5. Adjunction, Labeling, and Bare Phrase Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Hornstein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim in this paper is to propose a phrase structure for adjunction that is compatible with the precepts of Bare Phrase Structure (BPS. Current accounts are at odds with the central vision of BPS and current practice leans more to descriptive eclecticism than to theoretical insight. A diagnosis for this conceptual disarray is suggested here: It stems from a deeply held though seldom formulated intuition; the tacit view that adjuncts are the abnormal case while arguments describe the grammatical norm. In actuality, it is argued, adjuncts are so well behaved that they require virtually no grammatical support to function properly. Arguments, in contrast, are refractory and require grammatical aid to allow them to make any propositional contribution. This last remark should come as no surprise to those with neo-Davidsonian semantic sympathies. Connoisseurs of this art form are well versed in the important role that grammatical (aka, thematic roles play in turning arguments into modifiers of events. Such fulcra are not required for meaningfully integrating adjuncts. into sentences. In what follows, we take this difference to be of the greatest significance and we ask ourselves what this might imply for the phrase structure of adjunction.

  6. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  7. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  8. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  9. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  10. Comet Grains: Their IR Emission and Their Relation to ISM Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Comets and the chodritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that they shed in their comae are reservoirs of primitive solar nebula materials. The high porosity and fragility of cometary grains and CP IDPs, and anomalously high deuterium contents of highly fragile, pyroxene-rich Cluster IDPs imply these aggregate particles contain significant abundances of grains from the interstellar medium (ISM). IR spectra of comets (3 - 40 micron) reveal the presence of a warm (nearIR) featureless emission modeled by amorphous carbon grains. Broad and narrow resonances near 10 and 20 microns are modeled by warm chondritic (50% Fe and 50% Mg) amorphous silicates and cooler Mg-rich crystalline silicate minerals, respectively. Cometary amorphous silicates resonances are well matched by IR spectra of CP IDPs dominated by GEMS (0.1 micron silicate spherules) that are thought to be the interstellar Fe-bearing amorphous silicates produced in AGB stars. Acid-etched ultramicrotomed CP IDP samples, however, show that both the carbon phase (amorphous and aliphatic) and the Mg-rich amorphous silicate phase in GEMS are not optically absorbing. Rather, it is Fe and FeS nanoparticles embedded in the GEMS that makes the CP IDPs dark. Therefore, CP IDPs suggest significant processing has occurred in the ISM. ISM processing probably includes in He' ion bombardment in supernovae shocks. Laboratory experiments show He+ ion bombardment amorphizes crystalline silicates, increases porosity, and reduces Fe into nanoparticles. Cometary crystalline silicate resonances are well matched by IR spectra of laboratory submicron Mg-rich olivine crystals and pyroxene crystals. Discovery of a Mg-pure olivine crystal in a Cluster IDP with isotopically anomalous oxygen indicates that a small fraction of crystalline silicates may have survived their journey from AGB stars through the ISM to the early solar nebula. The ISM does not have enough crystalline silicates (ISM Mg-rich crystals leads to the

  11. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  12. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  14. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  15. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers

  16. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  17. Grain temperature, radiation pressure and electric potential in the vicinity of main sequence and white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiknes, J.; Havnes, O. (University of Tromso, Auroral Observatory (Norway))

    1984-08-01

    We present results of calculations of the grain physical parameters temperature, lifetime against evaporation, radiation pressure and electric potential for spherical grains near main sequence stars, hydrogen type (DA) white dwarfs and helium type (DB) white dwarfs. These parameters are essential in determining the behaviour of grains near such stars. The grain temperature as a function of stellar distance is calculated for grains of sizes 0.1 and 1 ..mu.. (micron) for grain materials of silicate (obsidian), iron and graphite. The lifetime due to thermal evaporation as a function of grain temperature of these materials is also given. The radiation pressure is given for grain sizes from 0.01 to 10 ..mu.. for the same three grain materials. Grain potentials have been calculated as functions of stellar distance for one photoelectron high yield material (silicate) and one low yield material (graphite) for grains of radius 0.1 ..mu.. embedded in a thermal plasma of temperature T = 10/sup 4/ K.

  18. 8-13 μm spectrophotometry of V1016 Cyg and the shape of the 'silicate' feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.; Spenser, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    8 to 13μm spectrophotometry of V1016 Cyg shows a broad emission feature attributed to radiation from silicate grains. This emission feature more closely resembles that of the circumstellar shells of oxygen-rich supergiants than the more dilute feature, typical of the interstellar medium, which is observed from the Trapezium source in the Orion nebula. It appears to be possible to distinguish the evolutionary status of an object from the form of its silicate excess. (author)

  19. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  20. The Influence of Abrasion on Martian Dust Grains: Evidence from a Study of Antigorite Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, M. Darby

    2003-01-01

    Grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite grains in a study by Drief and Nieto. Grinding is likely to influence the structure of most clay mineral grains and has been shown recently to influence the structure of kaolinite. The antigorite structure includes curved waves of layered silicate as shown by D dony et al.. Our study was performed in order to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. This project includes a combination of SEM, reflectance spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  1. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  2. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicate enamel for alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ket'ko, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of silicate enamels in the metallurgical industry is discussed. Presented are the composition and the physico-chemical properties of the silicate enamel developed at the factory 'Krasnyj Oktyabr'. This enamel can be used in the working conditions both in the liquid and the solid state. In so doing the enamel is melted at 1250 to 1300 deg C, granulated and then reduced to a fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 mm. The greatest homogeneity is afforded by a granulated enamel. The trials have shown that the conversion of the test ingots melted under a layer of enamel leads to the smaller number of the ingots rejected for surface defect reasons and the lower metal consumption for slab cleaning. The cost of the silicate enamel is somewhat higher than that of synthetic slags but its application to the melting of stainless steels is still economically beneficial and technologically reasonable. Preliminary calculations only for steel EhI4IEh have revealed that the use of this enamel saves annually over 360000 roubles [ru

  4. Effects of surface application of dolomitic limestone and calcium-magnesium silicate on soybean and maize in rotation with green manure in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lime is currently the material most frequently used to ameliorate soil acidity in Brazil, silicate could efficiently replace this source because of its greater solubility and its greater silicon content, which are beneficial for plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of superficial lime and silicate application on soil chemical attributes as well as on soybean and maize nutrition and grain yields when these crops are grown in rotation with green manure. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with sixteen replicates. Plots were treated with one of two materials for acidity correction (dolomitic lime and calcium/magnesium silicate or with no soil correction, as a control. Silicate corrected soil acidity and increased exchangeable base levels in soil at greater depths faster than does liming. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased N, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations, and all yield components and grain yield in soybean; but in maize, just silicate also increased N and Si when compared with lime, whereas both acidity-correcting increased just two yield components: grains per ear and mass of 100 grains, resulting in highest grain yield. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased dry matter production of green manures, but for pigeon pea the silicate provided the best result in this dry-winter region.

  5. Durability of bare and anodised aluminium in atmosphere of very different corrosivities I. Bare aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Escudero, E.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Morcillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of bare aluminium is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. In atmospheres of low or moderate aggressivity aluminium behaves as a passive material, though the insignificant corrosion that is produced is sufficient to spoil its appearance. In contrast, at salinity levels of 50 mg Cl''- m''-2 ''-1 or above, aluminium is susceptible to pitting corrosion even in the first year of atmospheric exposure, or in the second year at salinities of ≤ 10 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. For comparative purposes, results are included for aluminium protected with an anodic film of 28 μm thickness exposed at the same testing stations. A 28 μm anodic film, correctly sealed, prevents the risk of localised corrosion even in the most unfavourable situations. (Author) 23 refs

  6. Temporal construals of bare predicates in Mandarin Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hongyuan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the research on tense and eventualities across languages. It presents the first systematic investigation and detailed theoretical analysis of the temporal interpretations of sentences with bare (aspectually unmarked) predicates in Mandarin. Traditionally considered

  7. Grain boundary engineering of highly deformable ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartney, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Highly deformable ceramics can be created with the addition of intergranular silicate phases. These amorphous intergranular phases can assist in superplastic deformation by relieving stress concentrations and minimizing grain growth if the appropriate intergranular compositions are selected. Examples from 3Y-TZP and 8Y-CSZ ceramics are discussed. The grain boundary chemistry is analyzed by high resolution analytical TEM is found to have a strong influence on the cohesion of the grains both at high temperature and at room temperature. Intergranular phases with a high ionic character and containing large ions with a relatively weak bond strength appear to cause premature failure. In contrast, intergranular phases with a high degree of covalent character and similar or smaller ions than the ceramic and a high ionic bond strength are the best for grain boundary adhesion and prevention of both cavitation at high temperatures and intergranular fracture at room temperature

  8. Semantic coherence in English accusative-with-bare-infinitive constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2013-01-01

    -with-bare-infinitive construction. The main methodological framework is that of covarying collexeme analysis, which, through statistical corpus analysis, allows for the analyst to address the semantics of a construction. Using this method on data from the BNC, the ultimate purpose of the paper is to address the underlying semantic...... relations of English accusatives-with-bare-infinitives through the relations of semantic coherence between the two VPs....

  9. Bare and effective fluid description in brane world cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel; Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)

    2010-03-15

    An effective fluid description, for a brane world model in five dimensions, is discussed for both signs of the brane tension. We found several cosmological scenarios where the effective equation differs widely from the bare equation of state. For universes with negative brane tension, with a bare fluid satisfying the strong energy condition, the effective fluid can cross the barrier {omega} {sub eff}=-1. (orig.)

  10. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  11. Role of water in the tribochemical removal of bare silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng; Xiao, Chen [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Xiaodong [Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lei; Qi, Yaqiong [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qian, Linmao, E-mail: linmao@swjtu.edu.cn [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The wear of bare silicon against SiO{sub 2} micro-spherical tip is a tribochemical process with participation of water. • The water amount at Si/SiO{sub 2} interface plays a significant role on the wear of bare silicon. • The role of water relies on the hydroxylation by auto-ionized OH{sup −}, the hydrolysis of H{sub 2}O molecules, and the dissolution of SiO{sub m}H{sub n} in water. - Abstract: Nanowear tests of bare silicon against a SiO{sub 2} microsphere were conducted in air (relative humidity [RH] = 0%–89%) and water using an atomic force microscope. Experimental results revealed that the water played an important role in the tribochemical wear of the bare silicon. A hillock-like wear trace with a height of 0.7 nm was generated on the bare silicon surface in dry air. As the RH increased, the wear depth increased and reached the maximum level in water. Analysis of frictional dissipated energy suggested that the wear of the bare silicon was not dominated by mechanical interactions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy detection demonstrated that the silicon atoms and crystal lattice underneath the worn area maintained integral perfectly and thus further confirmed the tribochemical wear mechanism of the bare silicon. Finally, the role of water in the tribochemical wear of the bare silicon may be explained by the following three aspects: the hydroxylation by hydroxyl ions auto-ionized in water, the hydrolytic reaction of water molecules, and the dissolution of the tribochemical product SiO{sub m}H{sub n} in liquid water. With increasing RH, a greater water amount would adsorb to the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface and induce a more serious tribochemical wear on the bare silicon surface. The results of this paper may provide further insight into the tribochemical removal mechanism of bare monocrystalline silicon and furnish the wider reaction cognition for chemical mechanical polishing.

  12. Silicate bonded ceramics of laterites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Douse, V.

    1989-05-01

    Sodium silicate is vacuum impregnated in bauxite waste (red mud) at room temperature to develop ceramics of mechanical properties comparable to the sintered ceramics. For a concentration up to 10% the fracture toughness increases from 0.12 MNm -3/2 to 0.9 MNm -3/2 , and the compressive strength from 7 MNm -2 to 30 MNm -2 . The mechanical properties do not deteriorate, when soaked in water for an entire week. The viscosity and the concentration of the silicate solution are crucial, both for the success of the fabrication and the economics of the process. Similar successful results have been obtained for bauxite and lime stone, even though the latter has poor weathering properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis, an attempt is made to identify the crystals formed in the composite, which are responsible for the strength. The process is an economic alternative to the sintered ceramics in the construction industry in the tropical countries, rich in lateritic soils and poor in energy. Also the process has all the potential for further development in arid regions abundant in limestone. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  14. Reduction experiment of FeO-bearing amorphous silicate: application to origin of metallic iron in GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Junya; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Miyake, Akira [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Noguchi, Ryo [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ichikawa, Satoshi, E-mail: jmatsuno@kueps.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Nano-science Design, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-09-10

    Glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS) are amorphous silicates included in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and can provide information about material evolution in our early solar system. Several formation processes for GEMS have been proposed so far, but these theories are still being debated. To investigate a possible GEMS origin by reduction of interstellar silicates, we synthesized amorphous silicates with a mean GEMS composition and performed heating experiments in a reducing atmosphere. FeO-bearing amorphous silicates were heated at 923 K and 973 K for 3 hr, and at 1023 K for 1-48 hr at ambient pressure in a reducing atmosphere. Fe grains formed at the interface between the silicate and the reducing gas through a reduction. In contrast, TEM observations of natural GEMS show that metallic grains are uniformly embedded in amorphous silicates. Therefore, the present study suggests that metallic inclusions in GEMS could not form as reduction products and that other formation process such as condensation or irradiation are more likely.

  15. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  16. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  17. The effective delayed neutron fraction for bare-metal criticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1999-01-01

    Given sufficient material, a large number of actinides could be used to form bare-metal criticals. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical comprised of a fissile material is comparable with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical composed of a fissionable material is reduced by factors of 2 to 10 when compared with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. When the effective delayed neutron fraction is small, the difference between delayed and prompt criticality is small, and extreme caution must be used in critical assemblies of these materials. This study uses an approximate but realistic model to survey the actinide region to compare effective delayed neutron fractions with absolute delayed neutron fractions

  18. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Evidence for a silicate regolith from spitzer space telescope spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Hanuš, Josef; Lim, Lucy F.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche is a unique, metal-rich object belonging to the "M" taxonomic class. It may be a remnant protoplanet that has been stripped of most silicates by a hit-and-run collision. Because Psyche offers insight into the planetary formation process, it is the target of NASA's Psyche mission, set to launch in 2023. In order to constrain Psyche's surface properties, we have carried out a mid-infrared (5-14 μm) spectroscopic study using data collected with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. Our study includes two observations covering different rotational phases. Using thermophysical modeling, we find that Psyche's surface is smooth and likely has a thermal inertia Γ = 5-25 J/m2/K/s1/2 and bolometric emissivity ɛ = 0.9, although a scenario with ɛ = 0.7 and thermal inertia up to 95 J/m2/K/s1/2 is possible if Psyche is somewhat larger than previously determined. The smooth surface is consistent with the presence of a metallic bedrock, which would be more ductile than silicate bedrock, and thus may not readily form boulders upon impact events. From comparisons with laboratory spectra of silicate and meteorite powders, Psyche's 7-14 μm emissivity spectrum is consistent with the presence of fine-grained (Psyche's surface. We conclude that Psyche is likely covered in a fine silicate regolith, which may also contain iron grains, overlying an iron-rich bedrock.

  19. Semantic coherence in English accusative-with-bare-infinitive constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on usage-based cognitively oriented construction grammar, this paper investigates the patterns of coattraction of items that appear in the two VP positions (the VP in the matrix clause, and the VP in the infinitive subordinate clause) in the English accusative-with-bare-infinitive constru......Drawing on usage-based cognitively oriented construction grammar, this paper investigates the patterns of coattraction of items that appear in the two VP positions (the VP in the matrix clause, and the VP in the infinitive subordinate clause) in the English accusative...... relations of English accusatives-with-bare-infinitives through the relations of semantic coherence between the two VPs....

  20. Performance Evaluation of a Multipurpose Bare PC Gateway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsetse, Anthony; Appiah-Kubi, Patrick; Loukili, Alae

    2015-01-01

    . Different solutions (6to4 tunneling, IVI translation, NAT64, DNS64 etc.), have being proposed but these are all standalone systems. In this paper we discuss the design,implementation and performance evaluation of a multipurpose Bare PC Gateway which incorporates Network Address translation (NAT), 6to4...... results indicate a relatively better performance (18%-45%) of the Bare PC gateway compared to a Linux gateway (running the functionalities as standalone systems). We believe the proposed solution could easily scale to wide area networks and also provide a cost efficient solution...

  1. Is Bare Band Description of Carrier Transport Appropriate in Pentacene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John D.; Giuggioli, Luca; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-03-01

    Experiments on injected charges in pentacene single crystals reveal mobilities typical of inorganic semiconductors and temperature dependence (for TSchein, C. B. Duke, and A.R. McGhie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 197 (1978); L. B. Schein, W. Warta, and N. Karl, Chem. Phys. Lett. 100, 34 (1983)) Because the low temperature mobility values in pentacene suggest moderately large bandwidths, we address two questions. Does a bare wide (effectively infinite) band description work for pentacene for T<400K? And, is a bare finite band description compatible with those data? These questions are answered by modifications of a theory originally constructed for inorganic materials and a newly developed mobility theory.

  2. Radiative warming of the air observed near a bare-soil surface on calm clear nights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, N.; Kobayahsi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The radiative flux in the lowest three meters above a bare-soil surface was directly measured on calm nights with little cloud cover. Although divergence of upward radiative flux occurred above 1m, convergence was often observed between 0.2m and 1m all through the night. Almost the same results were obtained for the net flux except that the transitional height between divergence and convergence was some tens of centimeters, which means that radiative warming occurred just above the bare-soil surface during the night. This phenomenon can be explained by postulating that cold air is produced by conduction at the surface of small heat-insulated projections (HIPs) such as soil grains on the ground surface, while the ground releases the heat stored during the day by radiation through the pores between HIPs and warms the air immediately above the surface at night. This “HIP hypothesis” can also account for the so-called “raised minimum (RM)” phenomenon. (author)

  3. Formation of dust grains with impurities in red giant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Among the several proposed carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIB's) are impurities in small dust grains, especially in iron oxide grains (Huffman 1977) and silicate grains (Huffman 1970). Most promising are single ion impurities since they can reproduce the observed band widths (Whittet 1992). These oxygen-rich grains are believed to originate mostly in the mass flows from red giants and in supernovae ejecta (e.g. Gehrz 1989). A question of considerable impact for the origin of DIB's is therefore, whether these grains are produced as mainly clean crystals or as some dirty materials. A formalism has been developed that allows tracking of the heterogeneous growth of a dust grain and its internal structure during the dust formation process. This formalism has been applied to the dust formation in the outflow from a red giant star.

  4. Dust Spectroscopy and the Nature of Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based, air-borne and space-based, infrared spectra of a wide variety of objects have revealed prominent absorption and emission features due to large molecules and small dust grains. Analysis of this data reveals a highly diverse interstellar and circumstellar grain inventory, including both amorphous materials and highly crystalline compounds (silicates and carbon). This diversity points towards a wide range of physical and chemical birthsites as well as a complex processing of these grains in the interstellar medium. In this talk, I will review the dust inventory contrasting and comparing both the interstellar and circumstellar reservoirs. The focus will be on the processes that play a role in the lifecycle of dust in the interstellar medium.

  5. Het paracervicale block tijdens de baring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Flu (Peter Kalev)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractDe baring is het enige fysiologische gebeuren dat met pijn gepaard gaat. Dit wordt reeds aangeduid door het Nederlandse woord 11wee" en equivalente woorden in vele andere talen (dolor, douleur, pains, Wehe e.a.). De pijn is aanvankelijk vooral gelocaliseerd in de onderbuik en onder in de

  6. BARE retrotransposons are translated and replicated via distinct RNA pools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chang

    Full Text Available The replication of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, which can constitute over 80% of higher plant genomes, resembles that of retroviruses. A major question for retrotransposons and retroviruses is how the two conflicting roles of their transcripts, in translation and reverse transcription, are balanced. Here, we show that the BARE retrotransposon, despite its organization into just one open reading frame, produces three distinct classes of transcripts. One is capped, polyadenylated, and translated, but cannot be copied into cDNA. The second is not capped or polyadenylated, but is destined for packaging and ultimate reverse transcription. The third class is capped, polyadenylated, and spliced to favor production of a subgenomic RNA encoding only Gag, the protein forming virus-like particles. Moreover, the BARE2 subfamily, which cannot synthesize Gag and is parasitic on BARE1, does not produce the spliced sub-genomic RNA for translation but does make the replication competent transcripts, which are packaged into BARE1 particles. To our knowledge, this is first demonstration of distinct RNA pools for translation and transcription for any retrotransposon.

  7. Hemoretroperitoneum associated with liver bare area injuries: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miele, V.; Adami, L.; Andreoli, C.; De Cicco, M.L.; David, V.

    2002-01-01

    In hepatic injury restricted to the postero-superior region of segment VII (bare area), hemoperitoneum may be absent and this condition may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum. The aim of this paper is to present the association between bare area injuries and hemoretroperitoneum evaluated by CT. The CT examinations of 32 patients with blunt liver trauma were reviewed and the number and location of lesions were evaluated. Right lobe involvement was identified, focusing on the bare area lesions. The presence of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum were determined. In the 32 patients 44 parenchymal lesions were detected. Segment VII was involved in 16 cases: 5 patients presented an intraparenchymal lesion, 11 patients a lesion emerging to the liver surface. In 8 cases the lesion was localized in the bare area. In the 16 patients presenting a segment-VII lesion, hemoperitoneum was detected in 3 cases, hemoretroperitoneum in 4 cases, and both conditions in 4 cases. A traumatic hepatic lesion may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum rather than hemoperitoneum. This justifies the absence of clinical signals of peritoneal irritation; the negativity of both US scan and peritoneal lavage may cause an inappropriate therapeutic management. Computed tomography yields both the detection of the parenchymal damage and the correct localization of the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of diurnal dynamics in evaporation rate between bare ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between bare soil and moss-crusted soil are expected to be predicted by soil water content. 1. Introduction ... tion of BSCs with clay and silt cap the soil sur- face, clog soil ..... Dew forma- tion characteristics in a revegetation-stabilized desert ...

  9. Hemoretroperitoneum associated with liver bare area injuries: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, V.; Adami, L. [Department of Radiology, Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Andreoli, C.; De Cicco, M.L.; David, V. [I Chair of Radiology, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2002-04-01

    In hepatic injury restricted to the postero-superior region of segment VII (bare area), hemoperitoneum may be absent and this condition may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum. The aim of this paper is to present the association between bare area injuries and hemoretroperitoneum evaluated by CT. The CT examinations of 32 patients with blunt liver trauma were reviewed and the number and location of lesions were evaluated. Right lobe involvement was identified, focusing on the bare area lesions. The presence of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum were determined. In the 32 patients 44 parenchymal lesions were detected. Segment VII was involved in 16 cases: 5 patients presented an intraparenchymal lesion, 11 patients a lesion emerging to the liver surface. In 8 cases the lesion was localized in the bare area. In the 16 patients presenting a segment-VII lesion, hemoperitoneum was detected in 3 cases, hemoretroperitoneum in 4 cases, and both conditions in 4 cases. A traumatic hepatic lesion may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum rather than hemoperitoneum. This justifies the absence of clinical signals of peritoneal irritation; the negativity of both US scan and peritoneal lavage may cause an inappropriate therapeutic management. Computed tomography yields both the detection of the parenchymal damage and the correct localization of the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. (orig.)

  10. Basic science of nuclear medicine the bare bone essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kai H

    2015-01-01

    Through concise, straightforward explanations and supporting graphics that bring abstract concepts to life, the new Basic Science of Nuclear Medicine—the Bare Bone Essentials is an ideal tool for nuclear medicine technologist students and nuclear cardiology fellows looking for an introduction to the fundamentals of the physics and technologies of modern day nuclear medicine.

  11. Physical ageing of silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemilov, S.V. [S. I. Vavilov State Optical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-01

    The presented review has been devoted to the problem of volume-determined properties relaxation of silicate glasses at room temperature. It is shown that the experimental data are described by the simple Debye exponential law or by a superposition of two exponents. Their parameters are calculated and systematized. A molecular-kinetic model is proposed for these ageing processes. It proceeds from the possibility of volume relaxation due to the cooperative β-relaxation mechanism with no change in the system's topology. The characteristic ageing times can be calculated according to equations obtained based on the viscosity data in the glass transition range. The precision of the calculations is about {+-} 15% at the time variations from a few weeks up to about 15 years. The system of calculated parameters is proposed which characterizes the completeness of ageing and its rate at any glass age. Optical and thermometric glasses have been ranked by their tendency to ageing. The scheme of future investigations predetermined by practice is defined. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  13. Adsorption of aqueous silicate on hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Ticknor, K.V.

    1997-08-01

    During radioisotope sorption studies, adsorption of silicate from synthetic groundwaters by synthetic hematite was observed. To further investigate this observation, the adsorption of silicate onto hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder from a neutral, aqueous NaC1 solution (0.1 mol/dm 3 ), containing 2.56 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 of Si added as Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O, was measured at ∼21 deg C. Equilibrium adsorption of silicate amounted to ∼1.93 μmol/m 2 (one Si(O,OH) 4 moiety per 86 A 2 ). It is important to take this adsorption into account when evaluating the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other species, especially anions, from groundwaters. Silicate adsorption is known to diminish the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other anions. (author)

  14. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  15. Appropriate bare potentials for studying fusion induced by 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, E; Chamon, L.C; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are some recent studies questioning the use of the same optical potential to explain simultaneously fusion and quasi-elastic experimental data [1] or even to explain deep sub-barrier- and above-barrier fusion [2], during the last decades, the bare nuclear interaction between the nuclei at near barrier energies has been widely represented by a frozen potential with a Woods-Saxon shape. Another well established fact is the strong dependence of nuclear reaction calculations on the choice of the primary interaction. Of course, comparison between data and theoretical calculations are strongly potential-dependent. So, the choice of an appropriate nuclear bare interaction between two colliding nuclei, although it is a difficult task, is a crucial step in the data interpretation. As one has not direct access to the true bare potential, some procedures have been developed in order to constrain the choice of the bare potential to be used. The first procedure is the analysis of the elastic scattering data within the context of an optical potential, where an imaginary potential is added to the real potential, in order to take into account the flux deviated from the elastic channel. The optical potential that gives the best fit to the elastic scattering data is then used to describe other reaction channels, even in coupled channel calculations including inelastic and transfer reactions in the coupling matrix. However, this kind of calculation suffers from several inconsistencies. Another procedure that has been widely used to obtain the bare potential is the fit of the high-energy fusion data by a single barrier penetration model (BPM). However this method also has its uncertainties, since there might be channels that hinder the fusion cross section at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. Hence, the bare potential extracted through this method can be contaminated by different processes. The derivation of experimental barrier distributions probably is the

  16. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  17. Wear and chemistry of zirconium-silicate, aluminium-silicate and zirconium-aluminium-silicate glasses in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, C.G.; Lemos Guenaga, C.M. de

    1984-01-01

    A study of the chemical durability, in alkaline solutions, of zirconium silicate, aluminium silicate, zirconium/aluminium silicate glasses as a function of glass composition is carried out. The glasses were tested using standard DIN-52322 method, where the glass samples are prepared in small polished pieces and attacked for 3 hours in a 800 ml solution of 1N (NaOH + NA 2 CO 3 ) at 97 0 C. The results show that the presence of ZrO 2 in the glass composition increases its chemical durability to alkaline attack. Glasses of the aluminium/zirconium silicate series were melted with and without TiO 2 . It was shown experimentally that for this series of glasses, the presence of both TiO 2 and ZrO 2 gave better chemical durability results. However, the best overall results were obtained from the simpler zirconium silicate glasses, where it was possible to make glasses with higher values of ZrO 2 . (Author) [pt

  18. Single ionization of diatomic molecules by bare ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular three-Coulomb wave model (M3CW) has been extensively used to study the double-differential ionization cross sections (DDCS) of diatomic molecules by the impact of bare ions at intermediate and high energies. In this model, the distortion of the initial channel by the incoming projectile is also included. The present DDCS results are found to be in good accord both with the experiment of Baran et al 2008 as well as with other theory

  19. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: imaging findings in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vandevenne, J.E.; De Schepper, A.M.; Lambert, J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare primary immune disorder characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on lymphocytes, often resulting in extensive and recurrent multi-organ infections. We describe a previously undiagnosed case of an adult woman who presented with radiological findings of severe bronchiectases, near-total granulomatous destruction of facial bones, and osteomyelitis. Diagnosis of BLS should be considered when evaluating children with unexplained bronchiectases or adults with long history of chronic multi-organ infections. (orig.)

  20. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  1. Interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption on functional response of osteoblasts: ultrafine-grained versus coarse-grained substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R D K; Nune, C; Pesacreta, T C; Somani, M C; Karjalainen, L P

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adsorption of proteins is the starting and primary biological response that occurs when a biomedical device is implanted in the physiological system. The biological response, however, depends on the surface characteristics of the device. Considering the significant interest in nano-/ultrafine surfaces and nanostructured coatings, we describe here, the interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption (bovine serum albumin: BSA) on osteoblasts functions by comparing nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) and coarse-grained (CG: grain size in the micrometer range) substrates by investigating cell-substrate interactions. The protein adsorption on NG/UFG surface was beneficial in favorably modulating biological functions including cell attachment, proliferation, and viability, whereas the effect was less pronounced on protein adsorbed CG surface. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions on protein adsorbed NG/UFG surface. The functional response followed the sequence: NG/UFG(BSA) > NG/UFG > CG(BSA) > CG. The differences in the cellular response on bare and protein adsorbed NG/UFG and CG surfaces are attributed to cumulative contribution of grain structure and degree of hydrophilicity. The study underscores the potential advantages of protein adsorption on artificial biomedical devices to enhance the bioactivity and regulate biological functions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The kinetic fragility of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Daniele; Dingwell, Donald B

    2003-01-01

    Newtonian viscosities of 19 multicomponent natural and synthetic silicate liquids, with variable contents of SiO 2 (41-79 wt%), Al 2 O 3 (10-19 wt%), TiO 2 (0-3 wt%), FeO tot (0-11 wt%); alkali oxides (5-17 wt%), alkaline-earth oxides (0-35 wt%), and minor oxides, obtained at ambient pressure using the high-temperature concentric cylinder, the low-temperature micropenetration, and the parallel plates techniques, have been analysed. For each silicate liquid, regression of the experimentally determined viscosities using the well known Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation allowed the viscosity of all these silicates to be accurately described. The results of these fits, which provide the basis for the subsequent analysis here, permit qualitative and quantitative correlations to be made between the VFT adjustable parameters (A VFT , B VFT , and T 0 ). The values of B VFT and T 0 , calibrated via the VFT equation, are highly correlated. Kinetic fragility appears to be correlated with the number of non-bridging oxygens per tetrahedrally coordinated cation (NBO/T). This is taken to infer that melt polymerization controls melt fragility in liquid silicates. Thus NBO/T might form an useful ingredient of a structure-based model of non-Arrhenian viscosity in multicomponent silicate melts

  3. Composite grains: Application to circumstellar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA we calculate the absorption efficiency of the composite grain, made up of a host silicate spheroid and inclusions of graphite, in the spectral region 5.0-25.0μm. We study the absorption as a function of the voulume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, we study the variation in the 10.0μm and 18.0μm emission features with the volume fraction of the inclusions. Using the extinction efficiencies, of the composite grains we calculate the infrared fluxes at several dust temperatures and compare the model curves with the observed infrared emission curves (IRAS-LRS, obtained for circumstellar dust shells around oxygen rich M-type stars.

  4. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  5. A SEED OF SOLAR FORSTERITE AND POSSIBLE NEW EVOLUTIONAL SCENARIO OF COSMIC SILICATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments suggest that magnesium silicide (Mg 2 Si) grains could be produced in the hydrogen dominant gas outflow from evolved stars in addition to amorphous oxide minerals. If the magnesium silicide grains were incorporated into the primitive solar nebula, the magnesium silicide would easily become forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) by oxidation as it reacted with the relatively oxygen-rich, solar composition gas. This hypothesis can explain the existence of abundant forsterite grains with solar oxygen composition in meteorites, i.e., magnesium silicide could be the precursor of much of the forsterite found in our solar system. In addition, if a significant fraction of the solar forsterite is derived from magnesium silicide, it could explain the apparent low abundance of presolar forsterite. Furthermore, the lower degree of crystallinity observed in silicates formed in outflows of lower mass-loss-rate stars might be caused by the formation of magnesium silicide in this relatively hydrogen-rich environment.

  6. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.; Chae, S. R.; Benmore, C. J.; Wenk, H. R.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  7. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  8. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  9. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  10. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light.

  11. Rethinking biopower: posthumanism, bare life, and emancipatory work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2010-01-01

    This article answers a call, recently published in Advances in Nursing Science, to more fully explore the use of Italian political philosopher Giorgio Agamben's theory of biopower in nursing research and scholarship. Giorgio Agamben argues that biopower is not a modern phenomenon, and critical analysis of the historical origins of Western political practice shows how humanist discourse has been complicit in a long tradition of marginalization and violence, accomplished in each era by designating certain classes of human beings as "bare life." I discuss how I have used Agamben's theory to frame my own research, and the challenges of applying this theory in emancipatory work.

  12. A UNIFIED MODEL OF GRAIN ALIGNMENT: RADIATIVE ALIGNMENT OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS WITH MAGNETIC INCLUSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The radiative torque (RAT) alignment of interstellar grains with ordinary paramagnetic susceptibilities has been supported by earlier studies. The alignment of such grains depends on the so-called RAT parameter q {sup max}, which is determined by the grain shape. In this paper, we elaborate on our model of RAT alignment for grains with enhanced magnetic susceptibility due to iron inclusions, such that RAT alignment is magnetically enhanced, which we term the MRAT mechanism. Such grains can be aligned with high angular momentum at the so-called high- J attractor points, achieving a high degree of alignment. Using our analytical model of RATs, we derive the critical value of the magnetic relaxation parameter δ {sub m} to produce high- J attractor points as functions of q {sup max} and the anisotropic radiation angle relative to the magnetic field ψ . We find that if about 10% of the total iron abundance present in silicate grains is forming iron clusters, this is sufficient to produce high- J attractor points for all reasonable values of q {sup max}. To calculate the degree of grain alignment, we carry out numerical simulations of MRAT alignment by including stochastic excitations from gas collisions and magnetic fluctuations. We show that large grains can achieve perfect alignment when the high- J attractor point is present, regardless of the values of q {sup max}. Our obtained results pave the way for the physical modeling of polarized thermal dust emission as well as magnetic dipole emission. We also find that millimeter-sized grains in accretion disks may be aligned with the magnetic field if they are incorporated with iron nanoparticles.

  13. Silicate reduces cadmium uptake into cells of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Kabir, Ahmad H.; Landberg, Tommy; Maity, Pooja J.; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health threat all over the world and high Cd content in wheat causes high Cd intake. Silicon (Si) decreases cadmium content in wheat grains and shoot. This work investigates whether and how silicate (Si) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake at the cellular level in wheat. Wheat seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of Si with or without Cd. Cadmium, Si, and iron (Fe) accumulation in roots and shoots was analysed. Leaf protoplasts from plants grown without Cd were investigated for Cd uptake in the presence or absence of Si using the fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM. Roots and shoots of plants subjected to all four treatments were investigated regarding the expression of genes involved in the Cd uptake across the plasma membrane (i.e. LCT1) and efflux of Cd into apoplasm or vacuole from the cytosol (i.e. HMA2). In addition, phytochelatin (PC) content and PC gene (PCS1) expression were analysed. Expression of iron and metal transporter genes (IRT1 and NRAMP1) were also analysed. Results indicated that Si reduced Cd accumulation in plants, especially in shoot. Si reduced Cd transport into the cytoplasm when Si was added both directly during the uptake measurements and to the growth medium. Silicate downregulated LCT1 and HMA2 and upregulated PCS1. In addition, Si enhanced PC formation when Cd was present. The IRT1 gene, which was downregulated by Cd was upregulated by Si in root and shoot facilitating Fe transport in wheat. NRAMP1 was similarly expressed, though the effect was limited to roots. This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake on the cellular level. - Highlights: • Si decreases accumulation and translocation of Cd in plants at tissue level. • This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake. • Si decreases Cd uptake into cell and downregulates heavy metal transporter LCT1. • Si downregulates HMA2 transporter, which regulates Cd transport from root to shoot. • Si increases phytochelatin formation

  14. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sorbable and durable materials for orthopaedic and dental implants, that are capable of bearing high stress ... Other studies showed that these silicate ceramics also possess good in vivo bioactivity (Hench 1998; ... ceramic powders without the intermediate decomposition and/or calcining steps has attracted a good deal of ...

  15. Synthesis of non-siliceous mesoporous oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-07

    Mesoporous non-siliceous oxides have attracted great interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Since the discovery of mesoporous silicates in 1990s, organic-inorganic assembly processes by using surfactants or block copolymers as soft templates have been considered as a feasible path for creating mesopores in metal oxides. However, the harsh sol-gel conditions and low thermal stabilities have limited the expansion of this method to various metal oxide species. Nanocasting, using ordered mesoporous silica or carbon as a hard template, has provided possibilities for preparing novel mesoporous materials with new structures, compositions and high thermal stabilities. This review concerns the synthesis, composition, and parameter control of mesoporous non-siliceous oxides. Four synthesis routes, i.e. soft-templating (surfactants or block copolymers as templates), hard-templating (mesoporous silicas or carbons as sacrificial templates), colloidal crystal templating (3-D ordered colloidal particles as a template), and super lattice routes, are summarized in this review. Mesoporous metal oxides with different compositions have different properties. Non-siliceous mesoporous oxides are comprehensively described, including a discussion of constituting elements, synthesis, and structures. General aspects concerning pore size control, atomic scale crystallinity, and phase control are also reviewed.

  16. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  17. Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V.; Heuschele, Jan; Gillard, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    the major sink in the global Si cycle. Dissolved silicic acid (dSi) availability frequently limits diatom productivity and influences species composition of communities. We show that benthic diatoms selectively perceive and behaviourally react to gradients of dSi. Cell speed increases under d...

  18. Bare-Bones Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm which simulates the teaching-learning process of the class room is one of the recently proposed swarm intelligent (SI algorithms. In this paper, a new TLBO variant called bare-bones teaching-learning-based optimization (BBTLBO is presented to solve the global optimization problems. In this method, each learner of teacher phase employs an interactive learning strategy, which is the hybridization of the learning strategy of teacher phase in the standard TLBO and Gaussian sampling learning based on neighborhood search, and each learner of learner phase employs the learning strategy of learner phase in the standard TLBO or the new neighborhood search strategy. To verify the performance of our approaches, 20 benchmark functions and two real-world problems are utilized. Conducted experiments can been observed that the BBTLBO performs significantly better than, or at least comparable to, TLBO and some existing bare-bones algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm is competitive to some other optimization algorithms.

  19. Bare ice fields developed in the inland part of the Antarctic ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Takahashi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations of a bare ice field were carried out at Seal Rock in the Sor Rondane area, East Antarctica. A large sublimation rate, 200 to 280mm/a, was observed on the bare ice field. Air temperature on the bare ice was about 1℃ higher than that on the snow surface. The large sublimation rate was explained from the low albedo of bare ice; its value was roughly estimated from heat budget considerations. The bare ice fields were classified into 4 types according to origin.

  20. Silicic acid competes for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) immobilization by the iron hydroxide plaque mineral goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Michael; Daus, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    A surface complexation modeling approach was used to extend the knowledge about processes that affect the availability of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the soil rhizosphere in presence of a strong sorbent, e.g., Fe plaques on rice roots. Published spectroscopic and molecular modeling information suggest for the organoarsenical agent to form bidentate-binuclear inner-sphere surface complexes with Fe hydroxides similar to the inorganic As oxyanions. However, since also the ubiquitous silicic acid oxyanion form the same bidentate binuclear surface complexes, our hypothesis was that it may have an effect on the adsorption of DMA by Fe hydroxides in soil. Our experimental batch equilibrium data show that DMA is strongly adsorbed in the acidic pH range, with a steep adsorption edge in the circumneutral pH region between the DMA acidity constant (pKa=6.3) and the point of zero charge value of the goethite adsorbent (pHpzc=8.6). A 1-pK CD-MUSIC surface complexation model was chosen to fit the experimental adsorption vs. pH data. The same was done for silicic acid batch equilibrium data with our goethite adsorbent. Both model parameters for individual DMA and silicic acid adsorption were then merged into one CD-MUSIC model to predict the binary DMA+Si adsorption behavior. Silicic acid (500 μM) was thus predicted by the model to strongly compete for DMA with up to 60% mobilization of the latter at a pH6. This model result could be verified subsequently by experimental batch equilibrium data with zero adjustable parameters. The thus quantified antagonistic relation between DMA and silicic acid is discussed as one of factors to explain the increase of the DMA proportion in rice grains as observed upon silica fertilization of rice fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  3. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the miniature rose.

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1980-07-01

    Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m 0 C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed

  6. CM and CO chondrites: A common parent body or asteroidal neighbors? Insights from chondrule silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Davidson, Jemma

    2017-10-01

    By investigating the petrology and chemical composition of type II (FeO-rich) chondrules in the Mighei-like carbonaceous (CM) chondrites we constrain their thermal histories and relationship to the Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites. We identified FeO-rich relict grains in type II chondrules by their Fe/Mn ratios; their presence indicates chondrule recycling among type II chondrules. The majority of relict grains in type II chondrules are FeO-poor olivine grains. Consistent with previous studies, chemical similarities between CM and CO chondrite chondrules indicate that they had similar formation conditions and that their parent bodies probably formed in a common region within the protoplanetary disk. However, important differences such as mean chondrule size and the lower abundance of FeO-poor relicts in CM chondrite type II chondrules than in CO chondrites suggest CM and CO chondrules did not form together and they likely originate from distinct parent asteroids. Despite being aqueously altered, many CM chondrites contain pre-accretionary anhydrous minerals (i.e., olivine) that are among the least thermally metamorphosed materials in chondrites according to the Cr2O3 content of their ferroan olivine. The presence of these minimally altered pre-accretionary chondrule silicates suggests that samples to be returned from aqueously altered asteroids by the Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return missions, even highly hydrated, may contain silicates that can provide information about the pre-accretionary histories and conditions of asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, respectively.

  7. Low-voltage bendable pentacene thin-film transistor with stainless steel substrate and polystyrene-coated hafnium silicate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-04-01

    The hafnium silicate and aluminum oxide high-k dielectrics were deposited on stainless steel substrate using atomic layer deposition process and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and polystyrene (PS) were treated improve crystallinity of pentacene grown on them. Besides, the effects of the pentacene deposition condition on the morphologies, crystallinities and electrical properties of pentacene were characterized. Therefore, the surface treatment condition on dielectric and pentacene deposition conditions were optimized. The pentacene grown on polystyrene coated high-k dielectric at low deposition rate and temperature (0.2-0.3 Å/s and R.T.) showed the largest grain size (0.8-1.0 μm) and highest crystallinity among pentacenes deposited various deposition conditions, and the pentacene TFT with polystyrene coated high-k dielectric showed excellent device-performance. To decrease threshold voltage of pentacene TFT, the polystyrene-thickness on high-k dielectric was controlled using different concentration of polystyrene solution. As the polystyrene-thickness on hafnium silicate decreases, the dielectric constant of polystyrene/hafnium silicate increases, while the crystallinity of pentacene grown on polystyrene/hafnium silicate did not change. Using low-thickness polystyrene coated hafnium silicate dielectric, the high-performance and low voltage operating (pentacene thin film transistor (μ: ~2 cm(2)/(V s), on/off ratio, >1 × 10(4)) and complementary inverter (DC gains, ~20) could be fabricated.

  8. Infrared spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) - A bare nucleus revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Aitken, D. K.; Knacke, R.; Mccorkle, S.; Roche, P. F.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the central core and surrounding coma of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) were obtained at 8-13 microns on May 11 and 2-4 microns on May 12, 1983. Spatially resolved measurements at 10 microns with a 4-arcsec beam showed that the central core was more than 100 times brighter than the inner coma only 8 arcsec away; for radially outflowing dust, the brightness ratio would be a factor of 8. The observations of the central core are consistent with direct detection of a nucleus having a radius of approximately 5 km. The temperature of the sunlit hemisphere was greater than 300 K. Spectra of the core are featureless, while spectra of the coma suggest weak silicate emission. The spectra show no evidence for icy grains. The dust production rate on May 11.4 was about 100,000 g/sec, assuming that the gas flux from the dust-producing areas on the nucleus was about 0.00001 g/sq cm per sec.

  9. Iron and Silicate Dust Growth in the Galactic Interstellar Medium: Clues from Element Depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Henning, Thomas; Dobbs, Clare

    2018-04-01

    The interstellar abundances of refractory elements indicate a substantial depletion from the gas phase, which increases with gas density. Our recent model of dust evolution, based on hydrodynamic simulations of the life cycle of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), proves that the observed trend for [Sigas/H] is driven by a combination of dust growth by accretion in the cold diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and efficient destruction by supernova (SN) shocks. With an analytic model of dust evolution, we demonstrate that even with optimistic assumptions for the dust input from stars and without destruction of grains by SNe it is impossible to match the observed [Sigas/H]–n H relation without growth in the ISM. We extend the framework developed in our previous work for silicates to include the evolution of iron grains and address a long-standing conundrum: “Where is the interstellar iron?” Much higher depletion of Fe in the warm neutral medium compared to Si is reproduced by the models, in which a large fraction of interstellar iron (70%) is locked as inclusions in silicate grains, where it is protected from efficient sputtering by SN shocks. The slope of the observed [Fegas/H]–n H relation is reproduced if the remaining depleted iron resides in a population of metallic iron nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 1–10 nm. Enhanced collision rates due to the Coulomb focusing are important for both silicate and iron dust models to match the slopes of the observed depletion–density relations and the magnitudes of depletion at high gas density.

  10. GEMS Revealed: Spectrum Imaging of Aggregate Grains in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Christoffersen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of cometary origin contain abundant materials that formed in the early solar nebula. These materials were transported outward and subsequently mixed with molecular cloud materials and presolar grains in the region where comets accreted [1]. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of these primitive anhydrous IDPs, along with crystalline Mg-rich silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, carbonaceous material, and other trace phases. Some GEMS grains (5%) are demonstrably presolar based on their oxygen isotopic compositions [2]. However, most GEMS grains are isotopically solar and have bulk chemical compositions that are incompatible with inferred compositions of interstellar dust, suggesting a solar system origin [3]. An alternative hypothesis is that GEMS grains represent highly irradiated interstellar grains whose oxygen isotopic compositions were homogenized through processing in the interstellar medium (ISM) [4]. We have obtained the first quantitative X-ray maps (spectrum images) showing the distribution of major and minor elements in individual GEMS grains. Nanometer-scale chemical maps provide critical data required to evaluate the differing models regarding the origin of GEMS grains.

  11. The Bare Critical Assembly of Natural Uranium and Heavy Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1958-07-01

    The first reactor built in Yugoslavia was the bare zero energy heavy water and natural uranium assembly at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade. The reactor went critical on April 29, 1958. The possession of four tons of natural uranium metal and the temporary availability of seven tons of heavy water encouraged the staff of the Institute to build a critical assembly. A critical assembly was chosen, rather than high flux reactor, because the heavy water was available only temporarily. Besides, a 10 MW, enriched uranium, research reactor is being built at the same Institute and should be ready for operation late this year. It was supposed that the zero energy reactor would provide experience in carrying out critical experiments, operational experience with nuclear reactors, and the possibility for an extensive program in reactor physics. (author)

  12. Bare AGN: an Unobscured View of the Innermost Accretion Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M.; Dauser, T.; Beuchert, T.; Jeffreson, S.; Tawabutr, J.; Wilms, J.; Garcia, J.; Walton, D.

    2017-10-01

    In a systematic study of the relativistic reflection spectra and coronal properties for a sample of bare AGN we analyze high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories utilizing state-of-the-art reflection codes. Features of blurred reflection off an ionized accretion disk are modelled using different flavors of the relativistic ray-tracing code Relxill. We show that the more physically motivated and self-consistent lamp-post geometry is largely consistent with fits of broken power-law emissivity profiles. We provide good constraints on parameters describing the compact reprocessing corona, i.e., the reflection fraction and the lamp-post height. The latter are found to be prevalent within 1-10 r_{g}, while our models generally find close-to-maximal black hole spins. These results are discussed and compared with previous studies by Walton et al. (2013).

  13. Corrosion of bare and galvanized steel in gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, Mercedes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is a relatively low-cost building material much abounding in our country. When it is put in contact with steel, it may produce high corrosion rates due to its pH value (close to 7. This work reports the results obtained in studying the corrosion rates of bare and galvanized steel in contact with gypsum and plaster, as well as the influence curing thermal treatment applied to gypsum, enviromental relative humidity and addition of compounds with different natures and purposes may have in such process. In-situ observations, as well as the measurement of the Polarization Resistance and the weight loss have been used as measurement technics. From the results obtained it has been possible to deduce that galvanized steel has better behaviour in dry enviroments than bare steel in the same conditions and moist atmosphere induces proportionally more corrosion in galvanized steel than in bare one. Additions to gypsum do not modified these conclusions, though it may be pointed out that addition of nitrites or lime improves the behaviour of bare steel, while galvanized behaviour is not modified. The addition of lime is not recommended because phenomena of dilated along time expansion may take place.

    El yeso es un material de construcción de relativo bajo coste y que, además, es muy abundante en nuestro país. Debido a su pH cercano a la neutralidad, cuando entra en contacto con el acero, este puede corroerse a elevadas velocidades. En esta comunicación se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre la velocidad de corrosión del acero desnudo y galvanizado en contacto con yeso y escayola y la influencia que tienen: el tratamiento térmico del curado del yeso, la humedad relativa ambiental y la adición de aditivos de diversa naturaleza y finalidad. Como técnicas de medida se han utilizado la medida de la Resistencia de Polarización y de la pérdida de peso, así como observaciones visuales. De los resultados se puede deducir que en

  14. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  16. Insight into silicate-glass corrosion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleteau, C; Angeli, F; Gin, S; Jollivet, P [CEA VALRHO, DEN, Lab Etude Comportement Long Terme, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Devreux, F [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Mat Condensee, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Jestin, J [CEA, CNRS, Lab Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Spalla, O [CEA, DSM, Lab Interdisciplinaire Org Nanometr et Supramol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2008-07-01

    The remarkable chemical durability of silicate glass makes it suitable for a wide range of applications. The slowdown of the aqueous glass corrosion kinetics that is frequently observed at long time is generally attributed to chemical affinity effects (saturation of the solution with respect to silica). Here, we demonstrate a new mechanism and highlight the impact of morphological transformations in the alteration layer on the leaching kinetics. A direct correlation between structure and reactivity is revealed by coupling the results of several structure-sensitive experiments with numerical simulations at mesoscopic scale. The sharp drop in the corrosion rate is shown to arise from densification of the outer layers of the alteration film, leading to pore closure. The presence of insoluble elements in the glass can inhibit the film restructuring responsible for this effect. This mechanism may be more broadly applicable to silicate minerals. (authors)

  17. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.

    2004-01-01

    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  18. Effects of ionization on silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.

    1982-02-01

    This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures

  19. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  20. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  1. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: pengfei.wang@dit.ie [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic [Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Farrell, Gerald [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2015-02-09

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 μm diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 μm (single-stem) and 48 μm (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 10{sup 5} (single-stem) and 7 × 10{sup 6} (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  2. Effect of three rotation systems on weed seed bank of barely fields in Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa oveysi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotation can be used as an approach for weed management, because density and combination of weed seed bank may be affected by rotation. In this study effect of rotation in diversity and density of weed seed was studied in three rotation systems (fallow – barely, maize – barely and canola – barely. Results showed that fallow – barely rotation system have high population density in seed bank and highest amount of Shannon diversity index (H = 0.84. In canola – barely rotation system because of different herbicide uses and special traits of canola, population of weed seeds in seed bank was significantly lower that other rotation systems. Results showed that canola – barely rotation system because of combination special herbicide and agronomical and biological characteristic of canola, in comparison with other rotation systems is more successful in decreasing of weed seed bank.

  3. A NEAR-INFRARED SEARCH FOR SILICATES IN JOVIAN TROJAN ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Jewitt, David

    2011-01-01

    We obtained near-infrared (NIR; 0.8-2.5 μm) spectra of seven Jovian Trojan asteroids that have been formerly reported to show silicate-like absorption features near 1 μm. Our sample includes the Trojan (1172) Aneas, which is one of the three Trojans known to possess a comet-like 10 μm emission feature, indicative of fine-grained silicates. Our observations show that all seven Trojans appear featureless in high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. The simultaneous absence of the 1 μm band and the presence of the 10 μm emission can be understood if the silicates on (1172) Aneas are iron-poor. In addition, we present NIR observations of five optically gray Trojans, including three objects from the collisionally produced Eurybates family. The five gray Trojans appear featureless in the NIR with no diagnostic absorption features. The NIR spectrum of Eurybates can be best fitted with the spectrum of a CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, which hints that the C-type Eurybates family members may have experienced aqueous alteration.

  4. INFLUENCE OF SILICEOUS AND CALCAREOUS FLY-ASHES ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monika Rutkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. Construction and building industries have the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of cement mortars – tests of compressive and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing – for normative mortars and mortars containing fly ashes – calcareous and siliceous ash – in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 32,5 R, 42,5R and natural aggregate with graining of 0–2 mm were used. Concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in six lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 2%, 5%, 10% of the cement mass or the 2%, 5%, 10% of cement was replaced by ashes. After the tests, it was stated that the siliceous fly-ash admixture increases the compressive and bending strength in comparison to the mortars with the calcareous ash admixtures.

  5. Silicate emission feature in the spectrum of comet Mueller 1993a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Hackwell, John A.; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.

    1994-01-01

    An 8- to 13-micron spectrum of comet Mueller 1993a, a dynamically new comet, was acquired when the comet was at R = 2 AU. Strong, structured silicate emission is present, closely resembling that seen in Comet P/Halley at smaller R. For the first time in a new comet, the 11.2-micron peak of crystalline olivine was detected, demonstrating that crystalline olivine particles were widespread in the solar nebula. Crystalline olivine particles could have formed in the inner protosolar nebula at temperatures greater than 1200 K; extensive radial mixing would have been required to transport these grains to the region of comet formation. Either there was more radial mixing in the solar nebula than some current theories predict or the olivine grains have a presolar origin.

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired on June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using

  7. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  8. The influence of grain size, grain color, and suspended-sediment concentration on light attenuation: why fine-grained terrestrial sediment is bad for coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; Norris, Benjamin; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Sediment has been shown to be a major stressor to coral reefs globally. Although many researchers have tested the impact of sedimentation on coral reef ecosystems in both the laboratory and the field and some have measured the impact of suspended sediment on the photosynthetic response of corals, there has yet to be a detailed investigation on how properties of the sediment itself can affect light availability for photosynthesis. We show that finer-grained and darker-colored sediment at higher suspended-sediment concentrations attenuates photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) significantly more than coarser, lighter-colored sediment at lower concentrations and provide PAR attenuation coefficients for various grain sizes, colors, and suspended-sediment concentrations that are needed for biophysical modeling. Because finer-grained sediment particles settle more slowly and are more susceptible to resuspension, they remain in the water column longer, thus causing greater net impact by reducing light essential for photosynthesis over a greater duration. This indicates that coral reef monitoring studies investigating sediment impacts should concentrate on measuring fine-grained lateritic and volcanic soils, as opposed to coarser-grained siliceous and carbonate sediment. Similarly, coastal restoration efforts and engineering solutions addressing long-term coral reef ecosystem health should focus on preferentially retaining those fine-grained soils rather than coarse silt and sand particles.

  9. VARIATIONS OF THE 10 μm SILICATE FEATURES IN THE ACTIVELY ACCRETING T TAURI STARS: DG Tau AND XZ Tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bary, Jeffrey S.; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed multiple epochs of 11 actively accreting T Tauri stars in the nearby Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. In total, 88 low-resolution mid-infrared spectra were collected over 1.5 years in Cycles 2 and 3. The results of this multi-epoch survey show that the 10 μm silicate complex in the spectra of two sources-DG Tau and XZ Tau-undergoes significant variations with the silicate feature growing both weaker and stronger over month- and year-long timescales. Shorter timescale variations on day- to week-long timescales were not detected within the measured flux errors. The time resolution coverage of this data set is inadequate for determining if the variations are periodic. Pure emission compositional models of the silicate complex in each epoch of the DG Tau and XZ Tau spectra provide poor fits to the observed silicate features. These results agree with those of previous groups that attempted to fit only single-epoch observations of these sources. Simple two-temperature, two-slab models with similar compositions successfully reproduce the observed variations in the silicate features. These models hint at a self-absorption origin of the diminution of the silicate complex instead of a compositional change in the population of emitting dust grains. We discuss several scenarios for producing such variability including disk shadowing, vertical mixing, variations in disk heating, and disk wind events associated with accretion outbursts.

  10. Molluscan assemblages of seagrass-covered and bare intertidal flats on the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, in relation to characteristics of sediment and organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkoop, Pieter J. C.; Berghuis, Eilke M.; Holthuijsen, Sander; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Piersma, Theunis

    2008-11-01

    biomass of A. senilis had increased almost 10-fold and D. hepatica, previously found in very small numbers, had become the most numerous species. However, the total biomass excluding that of A. senilis was similar. Concentrations of phytopigments were similar to those observed at temperate mudflats, indicating that the Banc d'Arguin might not be as oligotrophic as previously thought. Per unit of dry sediment mass, smaller amounts of phytopigments were found in bare than in seagrass areas. Per unit of dry organic material, bare sediments contained most (fresh) phytopigments. This suggests that in seagrass-covered meadows the organic material is more degraded than in bare sediments. Overall, the composition of phytopigments, quite surprisingly, indicated a benthic-diatom-dominated trophic system. Multivariate statistics revealed that patterns of zoobenthic assemblages were correlated with patterns of a combination of four environmental parameters: grain size of the sediment, amount of fresh phytopigments and amounts of leaves and roots of seagrass.

  11. Water evaporation from bare soil at Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa; Antonino, Antonio Celso D.; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de O.; Maciel Netto, Andre; Silva, Ivandro de Franca da; Souza, Jeffson Cavalcante de

    2002-01-01

    Measurements were accomplished in a 4,0 ha area in Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, Areia City, Paraiba State, Brazil (6 deg C 58'S, 35 deg C 41'W and 645 m), aiming to determine water evaporation from bare soil, by energy and water balance approaches. Rain gauge, net radiometer, pyranometer and sensor for measuring the temperature and the relative humidity of the air and the speed of the wind, in two levels above the soil surface, were used to solve the energy balance equations. In the soil, two places were fitted with instruments, each one with two thermal probes, installed horizontally in the depths z1 = 2,0 cm and z2 = 8,0 cm, and a heat flux plate, for the measurement of the heat flux in the soil, the z1 = 5,0 cm. The measured data were stored every 30 minutes in a data logger. For the calculation of the water balance, three tensio-neutronics sites were installed, containing: an access tube for neutrons probe and eight tensiometers. The values of soil evaporation obtained by water balance were lower than obtained by energy balance because of the variability of the water balance terms. (author)

  12. Nd-YAG laser welding of bare and galvanised steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.C.; Norris, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Until recently, one of the problems that has held back the introduction of lasers into car body fabrication has been the difficulty of integrating the lasers with robots. Nd-YAG laser beams can be transmitted through fibre optics which, as well as being considerably easier to manipulate than a mirror system, can be mounted on more lightweight accurate robots. Although previously only available at low powers, recent developments in Nd-YAG laser technology mean that lasers of up to 1kW average power will soon be available, coupled to a fibre optic beam delivery system. The increasing usage of zinc coated steels in vehicle bodies has led to welding problems using conventional resistance welding as well as CO 2 laser welding. The use of Nd-YAG lasers may be able to overcome these problems. This paper outlines work carried out at The Welding Institute on a prototype Lumonics 800W pulsed Nd-YAG laser to investigate its welding characteristics on bare and zinc coated car body steels

  13. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  14. Properties of bare strange stars associated with surface electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picanco Negreiros, Rodrigo; Mishustin, Igor N.; Schramm, Stefan; Weber, Fridolin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the electrodynamic surface properties of bare strange quark stars. The surfaces of such objects are characterized by the formation of ultrahigh electric surface fields which might be as high as ∼10 19 V/cm. These fields result from the formation of electric dipole layers at the stellar surfaces. We calculate the increase in gravitational mass associated with the energy stored in the electric dipole field, which turns out to be only significant if the star possesses a sufficiently strong net electric charge distribution. In the second part of the paper, we explore the intriguing possibility of what happens when the electron layer (sphere) rotates with respect to the stellar strange matter body. We find that in this event magnetic fields can be generated which, for moderate effective rotational frequencies between the electron layer and the stellar body, agree with the magnetic fields inferred for several central compact objects. These objects could thus be comfortably interpreted as strange stars whose electron atmospheres rotate at frequencies that are moderately different (∼10 Hz) from the rotational frequencies of the strange star itself.

  15. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  16. CONCURRENT FORMATION OF CARBON AND SILICATE DUST IN NOVA V1280 SCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate Schools of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sako, Shigeyuki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ohsawa, Ryou [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nozawa, Takaya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kimura, Yuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, Takuya [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Arai, Akira [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University , 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: isakon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We present infrared multi-epoch observations of the dust-forming nova V1280 Sco over ∼2000 days from the outburst. The temporal evolution of the infrared spectral energy distributions at 1272, 1616, and 1947 days can be explained by the emissions produced by amorphous carbon dust of mass (6.6–8.7) × 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.01 μm and astronomical silicate dust of mass (3.4–4.3) × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.3–0.5 μm. Both of these dust species travel farther away from the white dwarf without apparent mass evolution throughout those later epochs. The dust formation scenario around V1280 Sco suggested from our analyses is that the amorphous carbon dust is formed in the nova ejecta followed by the formation of silicate dust either in the expanding nova ejecta or as a result of the interaction between the nova wind and the circumstellar medium.

  17. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  18. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  19. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  20. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  1. New silicates of rare earths and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, I.F.; Shevyakov, A.M.; Smorodina, T.P.; Semenov, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex silicates of the third subgroup elements of lanthanides and calcium were synthesized: Ca 3 Er 2 Si 6 O 18 , Ca 3 Lu 2 Si 6 O 18 and Ca 3 Yb 2 Si 6 O 18 . To specify these compounds their physical and chemical properties were studied by means of roentgenographic, IR spectroscopic and crystaloptical methods. The values of Ng, Np,Δn,m,p were determined, the elementary cell parameters: a,b,c,α,β,γ were computed. Existence of such compounds and their analogy in ternary systems MeO-Ln 2 O 3 -SiO 2 were forcasted

  2. Tribo-exoemission from some silicate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, G.; Lesz, J.; Otto, W.

    1983-01-01

    The tribo-exoemission from some minerals has been investigated in view of applications in the porcelain industries. Milling and sample preparation were performed under defined (liquid and solvent free) conditions. Quartz and the members of the alumo-silicate family feldspar, kaolin, and pegmatite are characterised by a strongly overlapped TSEE-peak between 100 0 C and 200 0 C, growing strongly with the mechanical dispersion of the powders. Thermal (TSEE) as well as optical (OSEE) stimulation reveal pegmatite as the strongest emitter with a very low fading of the tribo-signal at room temperature. (author)

  3. Structure peculiarities of mixed alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, V.A.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Egorov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal porperties and structure of alkali and mixed alkali (Li, Na, K) silicate glasses by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the positron annihilation method, X-ray fluorescence and infrared (300-30 cm -1 ) spectroscopy were studied. Introduction of different alkali cations in glass results in nonadditive change in their electron structure (bond covalence degree growth) and the thermal behaviour. The different manifestations of mixed alkali effect can be explained by the lessening of long distance Coulomb interactions and strengthening the short-range forces in the mixed alkali glasses. (orig.)

  4. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  5. Location of silicic caldera formation in arc settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Gwyneth R; Mahood, Gail A [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, 450 Serra, Mall, Building 320, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Silicic calderas are the surface expressions of silicic magma chambers, and thus their study may yield information about what tectonic and crustal features favor the generation of evolved magma. The goal of this study is to determine whether silicic calderas in arc settings are preferentially located behind the volcanic front. After a global analysis of young, arc-related calderas, we find that silicic calderas at continental margins do form over a wide area behind the front, as compared to other types of arc volcanoes.

  6. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic bare heavy ions: Nuclear and electronic contributions in amorphous and crystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2013-01-01

    A charged particle emits bremsstrahlung while traversing matter. We calculate the radiation cross section for bare heavy ions penetrating amorphous materials and single crystals at highly relativistic energies. The main component originates in scattering of the virtual photons of screened target...... in a pronounced directional dependence of the energy loss of bare heavy ions at extreme relativistic energies....

  7. Effect of Barely flour on jaundice in full-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2005-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study indicated that phototherapy in conjuction with barely flour therapy is more effective than phototherapy alone. But, people must be informed that affected neonates have to be underwent medical therapy, and barely flour therapy alone is not a reliable treatment.

  8. Karst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case study

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Dai; Z. Liu; H. Shao; Z. Yang

    2015-01-01

    The influence on soil erosion by different bedrock bareness ratios, different rainfall intensities, different underground pore fissure degrees and rainfall duration are researched through manual simulation of microrelief characteristics of karst bare slopes and underground karst crack construction in combination with artificial simulation of rainfall experiment. The results show that firstly, when the rainfall intensity is small (30 and 50 mm h−1), no ...

  9. 30 CFR 77.515 - Bare signal or control wires; voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare signal or control wires; voltage. 77.515 Section 77.515 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.515 Bare signal or control wires; voltage. The voltage on...

  10. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  11. On interstellar light polarization by diamagnetic silicate and carbon dust in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of diamagnetic dust particles in interstellar magnetic fields is studied numerically with several different sets of parameters. Two types of behaviour are observed, depending on the value of the critical number R, which is a function of the grain inertia, the magnetic susceptibility of the material and of the strength of rotation braking. If R ≤ 10, the grain ends up in a static state and perfectly aligned with the magnetic field, after a few braking times. If not, it goes on precessing and nutating about the field vector for a much longer time. Usual parameters are such that the first situation can hardly be observed. Fortunately, in the second and more likely situation, there remains a persistent partial alignment that is far from negligible, although it decreases as the field decreases and as R increases. The solution of the complete equations of motion of grains in a field helps understanding the details of this behaviour. One particular case of an ellipsoidal forsterite silicate grain is studied in detail and shown to polarize light in agreement with astronomical measurements of absolute polarization in the infrared. Phonons are shown to contribute to the progressive flattening of extinction and polarization towards long wavelengths. The measured dielectric properties of forsterite qualitatively fit the Serkowski peak in the visible.

  12. Pre-accretional sorting of grains in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Price, M. C.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are an important class of extraterrestrial material since their properties are consistent with a cometary origin and they show no evidence of significant post-accretional parent body alteration. Consequently, they can provide information about grain accretion in the comet-forming region of the outer solar nebula. We have previously reported our comparative study of the sizes and size distributions of crystalline silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs, in which we found these components exhibit a size-density relationship consistent with having been sorted together prior to accretion. Here we extend our data set and include GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), the most abundant amorphous silicate phase observed in CP IDPs. We find that while the silicate and sulfide sorting trend previously observed is maintained, the GEMS size data do not exhibit any clear relationship to these crystalline components. Therefore, GEMS do not appear to have been sorted with the silicate and sulfide crystals. The disparate sorting trends observed in GEMS and the crystalline grains in CP IDPs present an interesting challenge for modeling early transport and accretion processes. They may indicate that several sorting mechanisms operated on these CP IDP components, or alternatively, they may simply be a reflection of different source environments.

  13. Tip-induced nanoreactor for silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Ma, Liran; Liang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale scientific issues have attracted an increasing amount of research interest due to their specific size-effect and novel structure-property. From macro to nano, materials present some unique chemical reactivity that bulk materials do not own. Here we introduce a facile method to generate silicate with nanoscale control based on the establishment of a confined space between a meso/nanoscale tungsten tip and a smooth silica/silicon substrate. During the process, local water-like droplets deposition can be obviously observed in the confinement between the Si/SiO2 surfaces and the KOH-modified tungsten tip. By the combination of in-situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we were able to take a deep insight of both the product composition and the underlying mechanism of such phenomena. It was indicated that such nanoreactor for silicate could be quite efficient as a result of the local capillarity and electric field effect, with implications at both nano and meso scales.

  14. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  15. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, Hugh; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R

    2008-05-22

    It has long been assumed that seismogenic faulting is confined to cool, brittle rocks, with a temperature upper limit of approximately 600 degrees C (ref. 1). This thinking underpins our understanding of volcanic earthquakes, which are assumed to occur in cold rocks surrounding moving magma. However, the recent discovery of abundant brittle-ductile fault textures in silicic lavas has led to the counter-intuitive hypothesis that seismic events may be triggered by fracture and faulting within the erupting magma itself. This hypothesis is supported by recent observations of growing lava domes, where microearthquake swarms have coincided with the emplacement of gouge-covered lava spines, leading to models of seismogenic stick-slip along shallow shear zones in the magma. But can fracturing or faulting in high-temperature, eruptible magma really generate measurable seismic events? Here we deform high-temperature silica-rich magmas under simulated volcanic conditions in order to test the hypothesis that high-temperature magma fracture is seismogenic. The acoustic emissions recorded during experiments show that seismogenic rupture may occur in both crystal-rich and crystal-free silicic magmas at eruptive temperatures, extending the range of known conditions for seismogenic faulting.

  16. Plasma-Sprayed Fine-grained Zirconium Silicate and Its Dielectric Properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2388-2393 ISSN 1059-9495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : electrical properties * insulators * plasma spraying * silica-substituted zirconia * zircon Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2016

  17. Clinical and angiographic outcomes after intracoronary bare-metal stenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chang Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data from a large patient population regarding very long-term outcomes after BMS implantation are inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate the very long-term (8-17 years clinical and long-term (3-5 years angiographic outcomes after intracoronary bare-metal stenting (BMS. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Cardiovascular Atherosclerosis and Percutaneous TrAnsluminal INterventions (CAPTAIN registry, a total of 2391 patients with 2966 lesions treated with 3190 BMSs between November 1995 and May 2004 were evaluated. In total, 1898 patients with 2364 lesions, and 699 patients with 861 lesions underwent 6-month and 3- to 5- year angiographic follow-up, respectively. During a mean follow-up period of 149 ± 51 months, 18.6% of the patients died (including 10.8% due to cardiac death, 6.1% developed reinfarction, 16.2% had target lesion revascularization (including 81% of the patients within the first year, 14.5% underwent new lesion stenting (including 72% of the patients after 3 years, 2.4% underwent coronary bypass surgery, and 1.6% had definite stent thrombosis. The overall cardiovascular event-free survival rate was 58.5%. The 6-month angiographic study indicated a 20% restenosis rate. The minimal luminal diameter increased from 0.65 ± 0.44 mm to 3.02 ± 0.46 mm immediately after stenting, decreased to 2.06 ± 0.77 mm at the 6-month follow-up, and increased to 2.27 ± 0.68 mm at the 3- to 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides clinical and angiographic results from a large population of patients who underwent BMS implantations after a long-term follow-up period (149 ± 51 months. The progression of coronary atherosclerosis developed over time, and presented with new lesion required stent implantation. The follow-up angiographic findings reconfirmed the late and sustained improvement in luminal diameter between 6 months and 3-5 years.

  18. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  19. Modeling Silicate Weathering for Elevated CO2 and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    A reactive transport model (RTM) is used to assess CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering over a wide range of temperature, pCO2, and infiltration rates for basalts and granites. Although RTM's have been used extensively to model weathering of basalts and granites for present-day conditions, we extend such modeling to higher CO2 that could have existed during the Archean and Proterozoic. We also consider a wide range of surface temperatures and infiltration rates. We consider several model basalt and granite compositions. We normally impose CO2 in equilibrium with the various atmospheric ranges modeled and CO2 is delivered to the weathering zone by aqueous transport. We also consider models with fixed CO2 (aq) throughout the weathering zone as could occur in soils with partial water saturation or with plant respiration, which can strongly influence pH and mineral dissolution rates. For the modeling, we use Kinflow: a model developed at Yale that includes mineral dissolution and precipitation under kinetic control, aqueous speciation, surface erosion, dynamic porosity, permeability, and mineral surface areas via sub-grid-scale grain models, and exchange of volatiles at the surface. Most of the modeling is done in 1D, but some comparisons to 2D domains with heterogeneous permeability are made. We find that when CO2 is fixed only at the surface, the pH tends toward higher values for basalts than granites, in large part due to the presence of more divalent than monovalent cations in the primary minerals, tending to decrease rates of mineral dissolution. Weathering rates increase (as expected) with increasing CO2 and temperature. This modeling is done with the support of the Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  20. Grain Formation Processes in Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Outflows: Testing the Metastable Eutectic Condensation Hypothesis and Measuring Atom-Grain & Grain-Grain Sticking Coefficients (A Sub-orbital Investigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph

    An experimentally-based model of grain formation in oxygen-rich circumstellar outflows that includes vapor-solid nucleation, grain growth, thermal annealing and grain aggregation in sufficient detail to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the shells for comparison with observations of a wide range of stellar sources still lacks critical data. In order to gather this data we propose to conduct a series of laboratory experiments using our proven experimental system and microgravity condensation, growth and grain aggregation experiments on sounding rockets with a flight-proven payload provided by Dr. Yuki Kimura of Hokkaido University. We have proposed that solids from a hydrogen-rich, supersaturated, Fe-Mg-SiO vapor condense at metastable eutectic points in this ternary phase diagram. Because the FeOMgO system is totally miscible (has no eutectic or metastable eutectic compositions), this predicts that condensates will be pure Mg-silicate or Fe-silicate grains and that no primary condensate will be a mixed Fe-Mg-silicate. We have shown that this observation leads to a logical explanation as to why pure magnesium olivine and enstatite minerals are detected in circumstellar winds rather than the mixed Mg-Fe-silicate grains that might otherwise be expected (Rietmeijer, Nuth & Karner, 1999). This simplifying hypothesis has been built into our models of circumstellar condensation and growth. However, these experimental results require confirmation and testing since they should apply to other, quite similar condensable systems. We propose to test this hypothesis by condensing solids from the Fe-Mg-AlO ternary vapor system. Since FeO-MgO miscibility also applies to this system, the primary condensates from such a vapor should consist of pure amorphous Fe-aluminates and Mg-aluminates. No mixed Fe-Mg-spinels should be detected as primary condensates if this hypothesis is correct, just as none were detected for the FeO-MgO-SiO system. Confirmation of this

  1. Spectral properties of porphyrins in the systems with layered silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceklovsky, A.

    2009-03-01

    This work is focused on investigation of hybrid materials based on layered silicates, representing host inorganic component, and porphyrin dyes as organic guest. Aqueous colloidal dispersions, as well as thin solid films of layered silicate/porphyrin systems were studied. Modification of photophysical properties, such as absorption and fluorescence of molecules, adsorbed or incorporated in layered silicate hosts, were studied mainly to spread the knowledge about the environments suitable for incorporating aromatic compounds, providing photoactive properties of potential technological interest. TMPyP cations interact with the surfaces of layered silicates via electrostatic interactions. The extent of dye adsorption on colloidal particles of the silicates is influenced by the CEC values and swelling ability of silicates. Interaction of porphyrins with layered silicate hosts leads to significant changes of dye spectral properties. One of the key parameters that has a crucial impact on this interaction is the layer charge of silicate template. Other factors influence the resulting spectral properties of hybrid systems, such as the method of hybrid material preparation, the material's type (colloid, film), and the modification of the silicate host. Molecular orientation studies using linearly-polarized spectroscopies in VIS and IR regions revealed that TMPyP molecules were oriented in almost parallel fashion with respect to the silicate surface plane. Slightly higher values of the orientation angle of TMPyP transition moment were observed for the TMPyP/FHT system. Thus, flattening of the guest TMPyP molecules is the next important factor (mainly in the systems with lower layer charge), influencing its spectral properties upon the interaction with layered silicates. Fluorescence was effectively quenched in the systems based on solid films prepared from the high concentration of the dye (10-3 mol.dm-3). The quenching is most probably related to the structure of the

  2. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C 3 S, C 2 S) and aluminates (C 3 A, C 4 AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm -1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1 H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide

  3. Inclusion of Solar Elevation Angle in Land Surface Albedo Parameterization Over Bare Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wei, Zhigang; Wen, Zhiping; Dong, Wenjie; Li, Zhenchao; Wen, Xiaohang; Zhu, Xian; Ji, Dong; Chen, Chen; Yan, Dongdong

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a significant parameter for maintaining a balance in surface energy. It is also an important parameter of bare soil surface albedo for developing land surface process models that accurately reflect diurnal variation characteristics and the mechanism behind the solar spectral radiation albedo on bare soil surfaces and for understanding the relationships between climate factors and spectral radiation albedo. Using a data set of field observations, we conducted experiments to analyze the variation characteristics of land surface solar spectral radiation and the corresponding albedo over a typical Gobi bare soil underlying surface and to investigate the relationships between the land surface solar spectral radiation albedo, solar elevation angle, and soil moisture. Based on both solar elevation angle and soil moisture measurements simultaneously, we propose a new two-factor parameterization scheme for spectral radiation albedo over bare soil underlying surfaces. The results of numerical simulation experiments show that the new parameterization scheme can more accurately depict the diurnal variation characteristics of bare soil surface albedo than the previous schemes. Solar elevation angle is one of the most important factors for parameterizing bare soil surface albedo and must be considered in the parameterization scheme, especially in arid and semiarid areas with low soil moisture content. This study reveals the characteristics and mechanism of the diurnal variation of bare soil surface solar spectral radiation albedo and is helpful in developing land surface process models, weather models, and climate models.

  4. Dynamic weakening of serpentinite gouges and bare surfaces at seismic slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. P.; Mitchell, T. M.; Hirth, G.; Goldsby, D.; Zorzi, F.; Platt, J. D.; Di Toro, G.

    2014-11-01

    To investigate differences in the frictional behavior between initially bare rock surfaces of serpentinite and powdered serpentinite ("gouge") at subseismic to seismic slip rates, we conducted single-velocity step and multiple-velocity step friction experiments on an antigorite-rich and lizardite-rich serpentinite at slip rates (V) from 0.003 m/s to 6.5 m/s, sliding displacements up to 1.6 m, and normal stresses (σn) up to 22 MPa for gouge and 97 MPa for bare surfaces. Nominal steady state friction values (μnss) in gouge at V = 1 m/s are larger than in bare surfaces for all σn tested and demonstrate a strong σn dependence; μnss decreased from 0.51 at 4.0 MPa to 0.39 at 22.4 MPa. Conversely, μnss values for bare surfaces remained ~0.1 with increasing σn and V. Additionally, the velocity at the onset of frictional weakening and the amount of slip prior to weakening were orders of magnitude larger in gouge than in bare surfaces. Extrapolation of the normal stress dependence for μnss suggests that the behavior of antigorite gouge approaches that of bare surfaces at σn ≥ 60 MPa. X-ray diffraction revealed dehydration reaction products in samples that frictionally weakened. Microstructural analysis revealed highly localized slip zones with melt-like textures in some cases gouge experiments and in all bare surfaces experiments for V ≥ 1 m/s. One-dimensional thermal modeling indicates that flash heating causes frictional weakening in both bare surfaces and gouge. Friction values for gouge decrease at higher velocities and after longer displacements than bare surfaces because strain is more distributed.

  5. Stress-corrosion mechanisms in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The present review is intended to revisit the advances and debates in the comprehension of the mechanisms of subcritical crack propagation in silicate glasses almost a century after its initial developments. Glass has inspired the initial insights of Griffith into the origin of brittleness and the ensuing development of modern fracture mechanics. Yet, through the decades the real nature of the fundamental mechanisms of crack propagation in glass has escaped a clear comprehension which could gather general agreement on subtle problems such as the role of plasticity, the role of the glass composition, the environmental condition at the crack tip and its relation to the complex mechanisms of corrosion and leaching. The different processes are analysed here with a special focus on their relevant space and time scales in order to question their domain of action and their contribution in both the kinetic laws and the energetic aspects.

  6. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  7. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  8. Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.

    2009-12-01

    This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)

  9. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  10. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  11. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  12. Visible and ultraviolet (800--130 nm) extinction of vapor-condensed silicate, carbon, and silicon carbide smokes and the interstellar extinction curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The extinction curves from 800 to 130 nm (1.25--7.7 μm -1 ) of amorphous silicate smokes nominally of olivine and pyroxene composition, carbon smokes, and crystalline SiC smokes are presented. The SiC smoke occurred in the low-temperature (β) cubic structural form. The mean grain radius ranged from 5 to 13 nm. The extinction profiles of the amorphous olivine smokes were similar in the ultraviolet to the measured extinction curves of crystalline olivine of nearly the same grain size. The SiC smoke showed an absorption edge which occurred at significantly longer wavelengths than the calculated extinction profile of the hexagonal SiC form previously used to calculate the interstellar extinction profile. Neither SiC nor amorphous silicates show an extinction band similar to the observed 6.6 μm -1 astronomical extinction band

  13. The (φ4)3+1 theory with infinitesimal bare coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsuyanagi, I.

    1987-01-01

    We study the (φ 4 ) 3+1 theory by means of a variational method improved with a BCS-type vacuum state. We examine the theory with both negative and positive infinitesimal bare coupling constants, where the theory has been suggested to exist nontrivially and stably in the infinite ultraviolet cutoff limit. When the cutoff is sent to infinity, we find the instability of the vacuum energy at the end point value of the variational parameter in the case of the negative bare coupling constant. For the positive bare coupling constant, we can renormalize the vacuum energy without using the extremal condition with respect to the variational mass parameter. We do not find an instability for the whole range of parameters including the end point. We still have a possibility that the theory with this bare coupling constant is nontrivial and stable. (orig.)

  14. Nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jongmin; Jang, Jaeduk

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of the radially symmetric nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model. We also verify the Chern-Simons limit for those solutions

  15. Designing Bare Base Systems for Logistics Efficiency in the Joint Operational Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trautmann, Jr, William D

    2007-01-01

    .... In recent conflicts, the lack of joint doctrine or joint bare base architecture has hampered the ability of the services to achieve fully operational forward locations within a satisfactory length of time...

  16. Potentiality, Sovereignty and Bare Life A Critical Reading of Giorgio Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Eduardo Primera Villamizar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical account of Agamben’s understanding of the logic of sovereignty and of the notion bare life, particularly Agamben’s approach to the paradox of sovereignty and its relation to Aristotle’s metaphysical category of potentiality. With regards to bare life, it brings together an analysis of the figure of the homo sacer with an account of Agamben’s use of paradigms as methodological tools. The first part of the paper argues that Agamben ontologises sovereignty by dramatising the paradox of its structure as im-potentiality. The second part claims that even though an account of Agamben’s methodology serves to respond to the different critiques that his notion of bare life has raised, Agamben’s notions of sovereignty and of bare life ultimately rely on Schmitt’s decisionism.

  17. PROPERTIES OF DUST GRAINS PROBED WITH EXTINCTION CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Fukugita, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Modern data of the extinction curve from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared are revisited to study properties of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirm that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be q = 3.5 ± 0.2 for the size distribution a –q and the maximum radius a max = 0.24 ± 0.05 μm, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B – V)/N H . If we take the solar elemental abundance as the standard for the MW, >56% of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is dust /ρ H = 1 / (120 +10 -16 ) for the MW and 1 / (760 +70 -90 ) for the SMC under the elemental abundance constraints. We underline the importance of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve in the near-infrared in constructing the dust model: if A λ ∝λ –γ with γ ≅ 1.6, the power-law grain-size model fails, whereas it works if γ ≅ 1.8-2.0.

  18. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  19. First physical volcanological description of a Miocene, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall complex in the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Tamás; Hencz, Mátyás; Karátson, Dávid; Márton, Emő; Bradák-Hayashi, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    The study reports the basic physical volcanological and stratigraphical features of a hitherto unrecognized silicic phreatomagmatic fall succession from the Bükk Foreland Volcanic Area (Hungary), known as part of the extensive Miocene ignimbrite volcanism of the northern CPR. The complex have been identified at two sites, in the vicinity of Bogács and Tibolddaróc villages. Tens of mm to several dm thick layers make up the 20 m thick entire succession. The complex could be subdivided into three eruption cycles by two, intercalated well-developed paleosoil horizons, which indicate longer repose periods. The eruption cycles consist of several individual eruptive events. The volcano-sedimentological field approach was completed by granulometrical and low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies. Combined dry sieving and laser diffraction particle size analysis were performed to get information on median grain size (MdΦ) and sorting (σΦ) of friable layers. AMS was used to infer the emplacement processes. Based on the following features the succession is proposed to record a large-scale, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall activity: i) Presence of very fine ash and abundant ash aggregates, ii) General poor sorting, and often bimodal grain-size distributions; ii) Extremely weak magnetic fabric compared to dilute, thin pyroclastic density current deposits. On the basis of comparison of the recorded grain size characteristics with data from other silicic phretomagmatic fall deposits worldwide, several units in the succession can be considered as phreatoplinian fall deposit (sensu lato), described for the first time in the CPR.

  20. Karst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case study

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Dai; Z. Liu; H. Shao; Z. Yang

    2015-01-01

    The influence on soil erosion by different bedrock bareness ratios, different rainfall intensities, different underground pore fissure degrees and rainfall duration are researched through manual simulation of microrelief characteristics of karst bare slopes and underground karst crack construction in combination with artificial simulation of rainfall experiment. The results show that firstly, when the rainfall intensity is small (30 and 50 mm h−1), no bottom load loss is pro...

  1. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-12-01

    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  2. Localized fluid collection of hepatic bare area in children with blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Gi; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ok Hwa [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and significance of localized fluid collection in the hepatic bare area resulting from blunt abdominal trauma in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans and medical records of eighty children with blunt abdominal trauma and evaluated the incidence of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. The findings were correlated with the presence of injury to adjacent organs. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area was noted in 23 of 80 patients (28.7%). Associated organ injuries included liver laceration (17/23), contusion of the right hemidiaphragm (7/23), right adrenal injury (5/23), and right renal injury (5/23). In one patient, organic injury was not detected in spite of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. Eight of 23 patients (34.8%) showed fluid collection in this area, but not intraperitoneally. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area after blunt abdominal trauma was noted in about 30% of patients and was frequently accompanied by injury to adjacent organs. Since right hemidiaphragmatic contusion associated with fluid collection in the bare area was not a uncommon CT finding, close observation of the condition is warranted. (author)

  3. Localized fluid collection of hepatic bare area in children with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Gi; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ok Hwa

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and significance of localized fluid collection in the hepatic bare area resulting from blunt abdominal trauma in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans and medical records of eighty children with blunt abdominal trauma and evaluated the incidence of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. The findings were correlated with the presence of injury to adjacent organs. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area was noted in 23 of 80 patients (28.7%). Associated organ injuries included liver laceration (17/23), contusion of the right hemidiaphragm (7/23), right adrenal injury (5/23), and right renal injury (5/23). In one patient, organic injury was not detected in spite of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. Eight of 23 patients (34.8%) showed fluid collection in this area, but not intraperitoneally. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area after blunt abdominal trauma was noted in about 30% of patients and was frequently accompanied by injury to adjacent organs. Since right hemidiaphragmatic contusion associated with fluid collection in the bare area was not a uncommon CT finding, close observation of the condition is warranted. (author)

  4. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  5. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: ice and silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Adamson, A.J.; McFadzean, A.D.; Aitken, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra are presented of the 3 μm water-ice and 10 μm silicate dust features for stars in the direction of the extensive dark cloud complex in Taurus. A total of 22 stars were observed at 3 μm, and 16 at 10 μm. Our sample includes both dust-embedded objects and background field stars seen through the cloud. New and previously published results are combined to investigate the correlation of the strengths of both features with visual extinction A v , and we demonstrate the existence of a very close linear correlation between the peak optical depth in the 3 μm feature and A v for field stars. Ice is detected in all cases where A v exceeds a threshold value of 3.3 ± 0.1 mag, a result which provides a firm observational basis for models of volatile mantle growth on grains in the dark cloud environment. In contrast, the silicate feature is rather poorly correlated with A v . (author)

  7. DUST IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANOMALOUS SILICATE TO OPTICAL EXTINCTION RATIOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Dust plays a central role in the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, little is known about the nature (e.g., size, composition) of the dust that forms a torus around the AGN. In this Letter, we report a systematic exploration of the optical extinction (A{sub V} ) and the silicate absorption optical depth (Δτ{sub 9.7}) of 110 type 2 AGNs. We derive A{sub V} from the Balmer decrement based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and Δτ{sub 9.7} from the Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph data. We find that with a mean ratio of (A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7}) ≲ 5.5, the optical-to-silicate extinction ratios of these AGNs are substantially lower than that of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) for which A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ≈ 18.5. We argue that the anomalously low A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ratio could be due to the predominance of larger grains in the AGN torus compared to that in the Galactic diffuse ISM.

  8. Mechanical and physical properties of calcium silicate/alumina composite for biomedical engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F S; Mehrali, M; Oshkour, A A; Metselaar, H S C; Kadri, N A; Abu Osman, N A

    2014-02-01

    The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Aluminium silicate fertilization in the quality of wheat seeds under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Iván Suárez Castellanos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is used as raw material in the production of several foods and it is the first cereal as in the world production of grains. However, the agricultural production is limited for the salinity effect in about 50% of irrigated areas in the world. An alternative to reduce the salt stresses caused in the plants is the silicon use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fertilizing effect with aluminum silicate using kaolin as a source, on seed quality of wheat produced under salt stress. The experiment was accomplished in greenhouse using wheat seeds of Quartzo cultivar sowed in pots of 10 L containing soil and maintained until harvest. The kaolin (77.9% SiO2 was applied in doses of 0 (control; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000 kg ha-1. Salt stress was simulated through irrigation with NaCl solutions in the concentrations of 0 (control, 8 and 16 mM. Agronomic characteristics and the physiologic seed quality were evaluated. The results showed that the salt irrigation caused decrease in the number of ears per plant, number of ears with seeds, in the weight of the ears without threshing and in the weight of the produced seeds. The aluminum silicate use increased the weight of a thousand seeds independent of the presence of salt stress. Silicon application contributed to increase the percentage of germination of the produced seeds when the plants were not exposed to the salt stress.

  10. Nanodiamonds and silicate minerals in ordinary chondrites as determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Bhaskar J.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao; Borah, Rashmi R.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the Raman spectroscopic study of silicate and carbonaceous minerals in three ordinary chondrites with the aim to improve our understanding the impact process including the peak metamorphic pressures present in carbon-bearing ordinary chondites. The characteristic Raman vibrational peaks of olivines, pyroxenes, and plagioclase have been determined on three ordinary chondrites from India, Dergaon (H5), Mahadevpur (H4/5), and Kamargaon (L6). The Raman spectra of these meteorite samples show the presence of nanodiamonds at 1334-1345 cm-1 and 1591-1619 cm-1. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of Raman peaks for Mahadevpur and Dergaon reflect the nature of shock metamorphism in these meteorites. The frequency shift in Raman spectra might be because of shock effects during the formation of the diamond/graphite grains.

  11. Possible Gems and Ultra-Fine Grained Polyphase Units in Comet Wild 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Z.; Butterworth, A. L.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D.; Ogliore, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bechtel, H. A.; Ebel, D. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    GEMS and ultrafine grained polyphase units (UFG-PU) in anhydrous IDPs are probably some of the most primitive materials in the solar system. UFG-PUs contain nanocrystalline silicates, oxides, metals and sulfides. GEMS are rounded approximately 100 nm across amorphous silicates containing embedded iron-nickel metal grains and sulfides. GEMS are one of the most abundant constituents in some anhydrous CPIDPs, often accounting for half the material or more. When NASA's Stardust mission returned with samples from comet Wild 2 in 2006, it was thought that UFG-PUs and GEMS would be among the most abundant materials found. However, possibly because of heating during the capture process in aerogel, neither GEMS nor UFG-PUs have been clearly found.

  12. Electronic structure calculations of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterne, P.A.; Meike, A.

    1995-11-01

    Many phases in the calcium-silicate-hydrate system can develop in cement exposed over long periods of time to temperatures above 25 C. As a consequence, chemical reactions involving these phases can affect the relative humidity and water chemistry of a radioactive waste repository that contains significant amounts of cement. In order to predict and simulate these chemical reactions, the authors are developing an internally consistent database of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrate structures. The results of first principles electronic structure calculations on two such phases, wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) and xonotlite (Ca 6 Si 6 O 17 (OH) 2 ), are reported here. The calculated ground state properties are in very good agreement with experiment, providing equilibrium lattice parameters within about 1--1.4% of the experimentally reported values. The roles of the different types of oxygen atoms, which are fundamental to understanding the energetics of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrates are briefly discussed in terms of their electronic state densities. The good agreement with experiment for the lattice parameters and the consistency of the electronic density of states features for the two structures demonstrate the applicability of these electronic structure methods in calculating the fundamental properties of these phases

  13. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  14. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohsen

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... suppressive effects of sodium silicate in the polymer form were confirmed against powdery mildew and ... crops (such as rice) controls diseases and could reduce ... negative charge and sodium ions with a positive charge.

  15. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  16. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  17. Synthesis of the Tube Silicate Litidionite and Structural Relationships between It and Some Other Silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-17

    CuSi4015 Others are agrellite, NaCa2Si4O0oF, 1 6 narsarsukite, Na2TiSi4O 1 7 miserite, KCa5 i2 07 Si601 5 (OH)F,18 and probably canasite , Na4K2Ca 5...and canasite are rare. Litidionite is apparently very rare, the only reported occurrence of it being in the crater of Mt. Vesuvius. Both litidionite1...narsarsukite, miserite, and probably canasite contain, like 13-19 lititionite, tube silicate ions. The first three contain ions that are the same as that in

  18. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  19. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  20. Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaralian, Sanam; Majd, Ahmad; Irian, Saeed; Najafi, Farzaneh; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO 2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO 2 -nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF CALC-SILICATE SCHISTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKONKOWO

    2012-02-29

    silicate reaction bands have higher contents of CaO and Sr and lower concentrations of K2O, Rb, Ni, and Ba relative to the calc-silicate schists; and relatively higher SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 and lower ...

  2. THE COMPOSITION OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS TOWARD ζ OPHIUCHI: CONSTRAINING THE ELEMENTAL BUDGET NEAR THE DIFFUSE-DENSE CLOUD TRANSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteet, Charles A.; Whittet, Douglas C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Draine, Bruce T., E-mail: charles.poteet@gmail.com [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward ζ Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H{sub 2}O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H{sub 2}O ice mantles on large (a ≈ 2.8 μm) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of the Mg and Si atoms along the line of sight reside in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of the elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of elemental O is largely inconsistent with the adopted reference abundances, indicating that as much as ∼156 ppm of interstellar O is missing along the line of sight. After taking into account additional limits on the abundance of elemental O in other O-bearing solids, we conclude that any missing reservoir of elemental O must reside on large grains that are nearly opaque to infrared radiation.

  3. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  4. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  5. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  6. PROPERTIES OF DUST GRAINS PROBED WITH EXTINCTION CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Fukugita, Masataka [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    Modern data of the extinction curve from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared are revisited to study properties of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirm that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be q = 3.5 {+-} 0.2 for the size distribution a {sup -q} and the maximum radius a{sub max} = 0.24 {+-} 0.05 {mu}m, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B - V)/N{sub H}. If we take the solar elemental abundance as the standard for the MW, >56% of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is <40% in the SMC using its available abundance estimate. This disparity and the relative abundance of C to Si explain the difference of the two curves. We find that 50%-60% of carbon may not necessarily be in graphite but in the amorphous or glassy phase. Iron may also be in the metallic phase or up to {approx}80% in magnetite rather than in silicates, so that the Mg/Fe ratio in astronomical olivine is arbitrary. With these substitutions, the parameters of the grain size remain unchanged. The mass density of dust grains relative to hydrogen is {rho}{sub dust}/{rho}{sub H}= 1 / (120{sup +10}{sub -16}) for the MW and 1 / (760{sup +70}{sub -90}) for the SMC under the elemental abundance constraints. We underline the importance of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve in the near-infrared in constructing the dust model: if A{sub {lambda}}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup -{gamma}} with {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.6, the power-law grain-size model fails, whereas it works if {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.8-2.0.

  7. The application of silicon and silicates in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, A-K; Geurtsen, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Silicates and silicate-based compounds are frequently used materials in dentistry. One of their major applications is their use as fillers in different dental filling materials such as glass-ionomer cements, compomers, composites, and adhesive systems. In these materials, the fillers react with acids during the setting process or they improve the mechanical properties by increasing physical resistance, thermal expansion coefficient and radiopacity in acrylic filling materials. They also reduce polymerization shrinkage, and increase esthetics as well as handling properties. Furthermore, silicates are used for the tribochemical silication of different surfaces such as ceramics or alloys. The silicate layer formed in this process is the chemical basis for silanes that form a bond between this layer and the organic composite matrix. It also provides a micromechanical bond between the surface of the material and the composite matrix. Silicates are also a component of dental ceramics, which are frequently used in dentistry, for instance for veneers, inlays, and onlays, for denture teeth, and for full-ceramic crowns or as crown veneering materials.

  8. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  9. DUST PROPERTIES AND DISK STRUCTURE OF EVOLVED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN Cep OB2: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, GAS AND DUST MASS, AND INSIDE-OUT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 31 T Tauri stars (TTS) and IRAM/1.3 mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (∼4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (∼12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features nevertheless require the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distributions, and/or optically thin dust populations within disk gaps. M-type stars tend to have weaker silicate emission and steeper spectral energy distributions than K-type objects. The inferred low dust masses are in a strong contrast with the relatively high gas accretion rates, suggesting global grain growth and/or an anomalous gas-to-dust ratio. Transition disks in the Cep OB2 region display strongly processed grains, suggesting that they are dominated by dust evolution and settling. Finally, the presence of rare but remarkable disks with strong accretion at old ages reveals that some very massive disks may still survive to grain growth, gravitational instabilities, and planet formation.

  10. Effect of moisture and chitosan layered silicate on morphology and properties of chitosan/layered silicates films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.M.B. da; Santos, B.F.F. dos; Leite, I.F.

    2014-01-01

    Thin chitosan films have been for some time an object of practical assessments. However, to obtain biopolymers capable of competing with common polymers a significant improvement in their properties is required. Currently, the technology of obtaining polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites has proven to be a good alternative. This work aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan content (CS) and layered silicates (AN) on the morphology and properties of chitosan/ layered silicate films. CS/AN bionanocomposites were prepared by the intercalation by solution in the proportion 1:1 and 5:1. Then were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffraction (XRD) and X-ray thermogravimetry (TG). It is expected from the acquisition of films, based on different levels of chitosan and layered silicates, choose the best composition to serve as a matrix for packaging drugs and thus be used for future research. (author)

  11. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  12. TEMPERATURE SPECTRA OF INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAINS HEATED BY COSMIC RAYS. I. TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvāns, Juris, E-mail: juris.kalvans@venta.lv [Engineering Research Institute “Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center” of Ventspils University College, Inzenieru 101, Ventspils, LV-3601 (Latvia)

    2016-06-01

    Heating of whole interstellar dust grains by cosmic-ray (CR) particles affects the gas–grain chemistry in molecular clouds by promoting molecule desorption, diffusion, and chemical reactions on grain surfaces. The frequency of such heating, f{sub T}, s{sup −1}, determines how often a certain temperature T{sub CR}, K, is reached for grains hit by CR particles. This study aims to provide astrochemists with a comprehensive and updated data set on CR-induced whole-grain heating. We present calculations of f{sub T} and T{sub CR} spectra for bare olivine grains with radius a of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μ m and such grains covered with ice mantles of thickness 0.1 a and 0.3 a . Grain shape and structure effects are considered, as well as 30 CR elemental constituents with an updated energy spectrum corresponding to a translucent cloud with A{sub V} = 2 mag. Energy deposition by CRs in grain material was calculated with the srim program. We report full T{sub CR} spectra for all nine grain types and consider initial grain temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. We also provide frequencies for a range of minimum T{sub CR} values. The calculated data set can be simply and flexibly implemented in astrochemical models. The results show that, in the case of translucent clouds, the currently adopted rate for heating of whole grains to temperatures in excess of 70 K is underestimated by approximately two orders of magnitude in astrochemical numerical simulations. Additionally, grains are heated by CRs to modest temperatures (20–30 K) with intervals of a few years, which reduces the possibility of ice chemical explosions.

  13. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  14. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on bare and coated ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, S.; Hussain, A.M.P.; Ahmed, G.A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Choudhury, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares structural and optical modifications of bare and silica (SiO 2 ) coated ZnS quantum dots under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Bare and silica coated ZnS quantum dots were prepared following an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the samples show the formation of almost spherical ZnS quantum dots. The UV-Vis absorption spectra reveal blue shift relative to bulk material in absorption energy while photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that surface state and near band edge emissions are dominating in case of bare and coated samples, respectively. Swift heavy ion irradiation of the samples was carried out with 160 MeV Ni 12+ ion beam with fluences 10 12 to 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Size enhancement of bare quantum dots after irradiation has been indicated in XRD and TEM analysis of the samples which has also been supported by optical absorption spectra. However similar investigations on irradiated coated quantum dots revealed little change in quantum dot size and emission. The present study thus shows that the coated ZnS quantum dots are stable upon SHI irradiation compared to the bare one

  15. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  16. Titanite chronology, thermometry, and speedometry of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) calc-silicates from south Madagascar: U-Pb dates, Zr temperatures, and lengthscales of trace-element diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, R. M.; Hacker, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Calc-silicate rocks are often overlooked as sources of pressure-temperature-time data in granulite-UHT metamorphic terranes due to the strong dependence of calc-silicate mineral assemblages on complex fluid compositions and a lack of thermodynamic data on common high-temperature calc-silicate minerals such as scapolite. In the Ediacaran-Cambrian UHT rocks of southern Madagascar, clinopyroxene-scapolite-feldspar-quartz-zircon-titanite calc-silicate rocks are wide-spread. U-Pb dates of 540-520 Ma from unaltered portions of titanite correspond to cooling of the rocks through upper-amphibolite facies and indicate UHT metamorphism occurred before 540 Ma. Zr concentrations in these domains preserve growth temperatures of 900-950 °C, consistent with peak temperatures calculated by pseudosection modeling of nearby osumilite-bearing gneisses. Younger U-Pb dates (510-490 Ma) correspond to fluid-mediated Pb loss from titanite grains, which occurred below their diffusive Pb-closure temperature, along fractures. The extent of fluid alteration is seen clearly in back-scattered electron images and Zr-, Al-, Fe-, Ce-, and Nb-concentration maps. Laser-ablation depth profiling of idioblastic titanite grains shows preserved Pb diffusion profiles at grain rims, but there is no evidence for Zr diffusion, indicating that it was effectively immobile even at UHT.

  17. Production of Organic Grain Coatings by Surface-Mediated Reactions and the Consequences of This Process for Meteoritic Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2011-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO are exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these reactions. The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic material. Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  18. Aluminosilicate Dissolution and Silicate Carbonation during Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia

    silicates dissolution to the high salinity conditions in subsurface environments. In addition to cations, the role of anions in geochemical reactions in subsurfaces are important. This study investigated the anion effects by studying sulfate and oxalate. Sulfate formed monodentate surface complexes with the Al sites on plagioclase surface and enhanced the dissolution. Oxalate was also found to enhance the plagioclase dissolution. Co-existing oxalate and sulfate suppressed the effects of sulfate on plagioclase dissolution. This information provides useful insights for understanding the roles of sulfate and organic compounds on the CO2 water-mineral interactions during scCO2 enhanced oil recovery. The results also aid in formulating a scientific guideline of the proper amount of SO2 co-injection with CO2. Water in GCS sites can exist in water-bearing scCO2 in addition to the aqueous phase in brine. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of water-bearing scCO2 on the carbonation of silicates. To address the gap between the nano- and micro-sized particles used in the laboratory to the large grains in field sites, we utilized wollastonite and investigated the effects of particle sizes on the wollastonite carbonation in water-bearing scCO2. The thickness of the reacted layer on the particle surfaces was found to be constant for different sized particles. The amorphous silica layer formed act as a diffusion barrier for water-bearing scCO2. In addition, the reaction extent was higher with more water, lower temperature, and higher pressure. Further, higher water saturation percentage and lower temperature can lead to the formation of more permeable amorphous silica layers. This thesis included the investigations of both liquid phase and vapor phase water that contacted with scCO2, and the effects of cations and anions on both formation and caprock minerals. The findings from this work improve our knowledge of the geochemical reactions at CO2-water-mineral interfaces, which

  19. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  20. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  1. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  2. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA HORKAVCOVÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  3. A possible step to surfaces at vanishing bare coupling in quantumchromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlereth, H.

    1983-05-01

    Starting from a kind of half-dualized nonabelian action it is shown that for gsub(bare) → 0 it reduces to QCD. Integrating out the variables in the reversed order leads to a dual form of QCD. This form contains a constraint which can be solved in terms of surfaces with quark boundaries. Due to the nonabelian structure these surfaces cannot be moved in space-time by singular gauge transformations as the Dirac surface. It is conjectured that they become fully dynamical by quantum effects. The nontrivial structure of the dual theory at gsub(bare) → 0 is entirely due to it being nonabelian. The presence of the surfaces breaks self-duality at gsub(bare) → 0. A lattice version of the half-dualized action is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  4. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1-University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001 (United States); Nuth, Joseph A., E-mail: fransjmr@unm.edu [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Solar System Exploration Division, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  5. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  6. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  7. Bare Fiber Bragg Gratings embedded into concrete buffer Supercontainer concept for nuclear waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinet, Damien; Chah, Karima; Megret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe [Electromagnetism and Telecommunications Department of the University of Mons, 31 Boulevard Dolez, 7000 Mons, (Belgium); Gusarov, Andrei [Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, (Belgium); Faustov, Alexey [Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, (Belgium); Electromagnetisme and Telecommunication Department of the University of Mons, 31 Boulevard Dolez, 7000 Mons, (Belgium); Areias, Lou [Mechanics of Materials and Constructions Department of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, (Belgium); European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of nuclear waste In Clay Environment, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    We present the preliminary results obtained with bare fiber Bragg grating-based sensors embedded into half-scale Belgian Supercontainer concept. Being temperature and strain sensitive, some sensors were placed into aluminum tubes to monitor only temperature and results were compared with thermocouples data. The utility of using bare fiber Bragg gratings, knowing that these ones are very fragile, is to have a direct contact between the high alkaline environment of the concrete and silica fibers and to determine its impact over a very long time. (authors)

  8. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  9. Low-temperature MIR to submillimeter mass absorption coefficient of interstellar dust analogues. II. Mg and Fe-rich amorphous silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of

  10. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  11. Comparison of the Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2 Coma Grains to Other Astromaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Zolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose that Kuiper Belt samples (in this case comet coma grains from the Jupiter family comet Wild 2) are recognizably different from the bulk of materials in outer belt asteroids, because of their different formation positions and times in the early solar system. We believe this despite similarities found between some Wild 2 grains and components of carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. some CAI and chondrules). Kuiper Belt samples must preserve measurable mineralogical and compositional evidence of formation at unique positions and times in the early solar nebula, and these formational differences must have imparted recognizable special characteristics. We hypothesize that these characteristics include: (1) Unique major element compositional ranges of common astromaterial minerals, especially olivine and pyroxene; (2) Unique minor element compositions of major silicate phases, especially olivine and low-Ca pyroxene; (3) Degree and effects of radiation processing -- including amorphous rims, metal coatings, and Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides (GEMS); (4) Presence of abundant presolar silicate grains as recognized by anomalous oxygen in silicates; (5) Oxidation state of the mineral assemblage. We are working our way through all available Wild 2 samples, selecting 1-2 non-consecutive viable TEM grids from each possible extracted Wild 2 grain. We especially prefer TEM grids from grains for which complete mineralogical details have not been published (which is to say the majority of the extracted grains). We are performing a basic mineralogic survey by E-beam techniques, to establish the essential features of the extracted Wild 2 grains. We are making a particular effort to carefully and accurately measure minor elements of olivine and pyroxene, as these minerals are widespread in astromaterials, and comparisons of their compositions will serve to place the Wild 2 silicates in contact with asteroids, meteorites and chondritic interplanetary dust particles

  12. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  13. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  14. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  16. Relationships between mineralization and silicic volcanism in the central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Halls, C.; Baker, M.C.W.

    1983-10-01

    Studies of late Tertiary silicic volcanic centers in the Western and Eastern Cordilleras of the Central Andes show that three volcanic environments are appropriate sites for mineralization: (1) ring-fracture extrusions post-dating large calderas; (2) similar extrusions within ignimbrite shields; and (3) isolated, small silicic volcanoes. Subvolcanic tin mineralization in the Eastern Cordillera is located in silicic stocks and associated breccias of Miocene age. The Cerro Rico stock, Potosi, Bolivia, contains tin and silver mineralization and has an intrusion age apparently millions of years younger than that of the associated Kari Kari caldera. Similar age relationships between mineralization and caldera formation have been described from the San Juan province, Colorado. The vein deposits of Chocaya, southern Bolivia, were emplaced in the lower part of an ignimbrite shield, a type of volcanic edifice as yet unrecognized in comparable areas of silicic volcanism. The El Salvador porphyry copper deposit, Chile, is related to silicic stocks which may have been intruded along a caldera ring fracture. Existing models for the genesis of porphyry copper deposits suggest that they formed in granodioritic stocks located in the infrastructure of andesitic stratovolcanoes. The dome of La Soufriere, Guadeloupe is proposed as a modern analog for the surface expression of subvolcanic mineralization processes, the phreatic eruptions there suggesting the formation of hydrothermal breccia bodies in depth.

  17. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  18. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  19. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  20. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  1. Formation of radiation-induced defects and their influence on tritium extraction from lithium silicates in out-of-pile experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.A.; Tiliks, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Formation and properties of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products in lithium silicates irradiated in nuclear reactor till absorbed doses 1000 MGy were studied. Radiation-induced defects (RD) and radiolysis products (RP) were qualitatively and quantitatively determinated by methods of chemical scavengers (MHS), electron-spin resonance (ESR) and optical spectroscopy. Colloidal silicon and lithium, lithium and silicon oxides, oxygen, silicon and lithium peroxides are the final products of the lithium silicates radiolysis at absorbed energy doses D abs = 1000 MGy. The concentration of radiation defects and products of radiolysis strongly depend on the temperature of irradiation, humidity, granural size. The thermostimulated extraction of tritiated water (95-98% of the released tritium is in chemical form of water) from lithium silicates ceramics proceeds according to two independent mechanisms: a) chemidesorption of surface localized tritiated water (the first order chemical reaction); b) formation of the tritium water molecules limited by triton diffusion to the near-surface layer of grains. It has been found that the concentration of radiation-induced defects considerably affects the tritium localization and releasing processes from lithium silicates. (orig.)

  2. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  3. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  4. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  5. Crystallochemical characteristics of alkali calcium silicates from charoitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhdestvenskaya, I.V.; Nikishova, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristic features of the crystal structures of alkali calcium silicates from various deposits are considered. The structures of these minerals, which were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, are described as the combinations of large construction modules, including the alternating layers of alkali cations and tubular silicate radicals (in canasite, frankamenite, miserite, and agrellite) and bent ribbons linked through hydrogen bonds in the layers (in tinaksite and tokkoite). The incorporation of impurities and the different ways of ordering them have different effects on the structures of these minerals and give rise to the formation of superstructures accompanied by a change of the space group (frankamenite-canasite), leading, in turn, to different mutual arrangements of the layers of silicate tubes and the formation of pseudopolytypes (agrellites), structure deformation, and changes in the unit-cell parameters (tinaksite-tokkoite)

  6. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , but apparent porosity indications in any other lithology, such as siliceous ooze, are wrong and they should be corrected. The apparent bulk density log should be influenced by the hydrogen in opal as also the neutron porosity tools because they are sensitive to the amount of hydrogen in a formation...... present in the solid. Some minerals of siliceous ooze, such as opal, have hydrogen in their structures which influences the measured hydrogen index (HI). The neutron tool obtains the combined signal of the HI of the solid phase and of the water that occupies the true porosity. The HI is equal to true...... to interpret lithology and the unusual physical properties of the studied intervals. The integration of all these data revealed that the studied siliceous ooze is a mixture of opal and non-opal (shale). Our results proved to be reasonably consistent. The studied intervals apparently do not contain hydrocarbons....

  7. Synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium silicate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miritello, Maria; Lo Savio, Roberto; Iacona, Fabio; Franzo, Giorgia; Bongiorno, Corrado; Priolo, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the structure and the room temperature luminescence of erbium silicate thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. Films deposited on silicon oxide layers are characterized by good structural properties and excellent stability. The optical properties of these films are strongly improved by rapid thermal annealing processes performed in the range of temperature 800-1250 deg. C. In fact through the reduction of the defect density of the material, a very efficient room temperature photoluminescence at 1535 nm is obtained. We have also investigated the influence of the annealing ambient, by finding that treatments in O 2 atmosphere are significantly more efficient in improving the optical properties of the material with respect to processes in N 2 . Upconversion effects become effective only when erbium silicate is excited with high pump powers. The evidence that all Er atoms (about 10 22 cm -3 ) in erbium silicate films are optically active suggests interesting perspectives for optoelectronic applications of this material

  8. Change detection of bare areas in the Xolobeni region, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rebekah

    Kemp (2010), the application of remote sensing in erosion research within South Africa has focussed on mapping bare soil and characterisation of vegetation as precursors of erosion potential. This study has used remote sensing as a tool to map the broad vegetation structure categories of the predominant land cover types ...

  9. Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Christoph; Galatius, Soeren; Erne, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that patients with coronary disease in large arteries are at increased risk for late cardiac events after percutaneous intervention with first-generation drug-eluting stents, as compared with bare-metal stents. We sought to confirm this observation and to assess whether...

  10. Introducing the Notion of Bare and Effective Mass via Newton's Second Law of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcus Benghi

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The…

  11. Comparative measurements with seven rainfall simulators on uniform bare fallow land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J.B.; Cerda, A.; Echeverria, M.T.; Fister, W.; Geissler, C.; Kuhn, N.J.; Leon, F.J.; Peters, P.; Schindewolf, M.; Schmidt, J.; Scholten, T.; Seeger, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, seven small portable rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tubingen, Trier (all Germany), Valencia, Zaragoza (both Spain), Basel (Switzerland) and Wageningen (the Netherlands) were compared on a prepared bare

  12. Change detection of bare areas in the Xolobeni region, South Africa using Landsat NDVI

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, RG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available to provide some information on the inter-relationship between vegetated classes and bare areas. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from multi-temporal Landsat 5 imagery has formed the baseline information for this study. A density...

  13. TARGET EXCITATION IN BARE ION XE/AR COLLISIONS STUDIED BY ELECTRON TARGET ION COINCIDENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIJS, G; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We present electron spectra resulting from collisions of bare ions N-15(7+) and C-13(6+) on Ar and the charge state distribution of target ions resulting from C-13(6+)-Xe collisions. From both type of experiments we find evidence that electron capture accompanied by target excitation is an important

  14. 3D laser measurements of bare and shod feet during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Boštjan; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new system for 3D foot-shape measurements during walking. It is based on the laser-triangulation, multiple-line-illumination and color-modulation techniques. It consists of a walking stage and four measuring modules that simultaneously acquire the foot shape from the top, bottom and side views. The measuring speed is 30 fps. Custom-developed software makes it possible to analyze the foot's dimensions at an arbitrary cross-section by means of the width, height, girth and section orientation. Six subjects were measured during bare and shod walking, and the bare foot and the outside dimensions of the footwear during the entire stance phase are presented. The relative measurement repeatability of a single subject is 0.5% for bare foot and 1% for shod foot. This means that it is possible to study the differences between various influences on the foot-shape dynamics, such as a bare/shod foot, different loading conditions and the shoe's stiffness condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bare spot of the glenoid fossa in children: incidence and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Salisbury, Shelia R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Centers for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The bare spot of the glenoid fossa is a normal cartilage defect seen frequently in adults. It has been used on arthroscopy as a landmark for the center of the glenoid fossa. There are no reports of this variant in children, but we have noted it on some pediatric clinical shoulder MRI studies. Our main purpose is to evaluate the incidence of the bare spot in children and define location and MRI features. Shoulder MRI studies (total 570) from 2004 to 2008 were reviewed. Children were divided into two age groups: group 1, 0-10 years (n=200), group 2, 11-20 years (n=370). A total of 12 bare spots (2.1%) were identified; all were seen in group 2. Eight (67%) were central and four were eccentric in the glenoid fossa. All showed a well-marginated focal cartilage defect containing hyperintense joint fluid or contrast agent. Three also had air. The bare spot is seen in children. The absence in children younger than 10 years and the low incidence in the second decade support the proposed acquired nature. Familiarity with this finding is important so as not to misinterpret it as a pathologic condition. (orig.)

  16. Half metallicity in bare BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons with zigzag edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong, E-mail: lihong@ncut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144 (China); Xiao, Xiang; Tie, Jun [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144 (China); Lu, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-06-09

    We study the electronic and magnetic properties of bare zigzag BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons (ZBC{sub 2}NNRs) by using first principles calculations. The ZBC{sub 2}NNRs which we studied are assigned to four edge types, and we carefully examine the size effect and edge magnetic coupling orders. We find that the N edge and the C edge adjacent to N atoms have a ferromagnetic coupling, while the B edge and the C edge adjacent to B atoms have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling. These novel properties arise from the unsaturated edge with specific edge determined magnetic moment distribution. All the investigated ribbons exhibit magnetic ground states with room-temperature accessible half-metallic character, irrespective of the ribbon width. Our results suggest that ZBC{sub 2}NNRs can have potential applications in spintronics. - Highlights: • DFT study on bare zigzag BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons (ZBC{sub 2}NNRs). • All the studied bare ZBC{sub 2}NNRs are half-metals at room temperature. • The half-metal characters come from specific spin couplings on the edge atoms. • We predict bare ZBC{sub 2}NNRs as practical candidate for spintronics.

  17. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  18. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  19. Obtainment and characterization of pure and doped gadolinium oxy ortho silicates with terbium III, precursor of luminescent silicates with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneti, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Silicate and sulfide lattices are uniquely efficient luminescent materials to excitation by cathodic rays and furthermore the cathodoluminescence study of these compounds have been few investigated. In this work it has been prepared, characterized and investigated some spectroscopic properties of pure and Tb a+ - activated Gd 2 Si O 3 system and it has been tried to substitute oxygen by sulphur in order to obtain this or sulfide-silicate lattices. Products were characterized by vibrational infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electronic emission in UV-VIS region. (author)

  20. Non-conservative controls on distribution of dissolved silicate in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.

    Cochin backwater system was studied with regard to dissolved silicate (DSi) to understand its seasonal distribution and behaviour during estuarine mixing. Silicate had a linear relationship with salinity during the high river discharge period...

  1. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  2. E-Beam-Cured Layered-Silicate and Spherical Silica Epoxy Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang; Anderson, David P

    2007-01-01

    .... The nanofillers can be two dimensional (layered-silicate) and zero dimensional (spherical silica). Both the spherical silica epoxy nanocomposite and the layered-silicate epoxy nanocomposite can be cured to a high degree of curing...

  3. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films http://pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/1/18/990/

  4. Vesuvianite–wollastonite–grossular-bearing calc-silicate rock near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Felsic layers are white in colour, whereas mafic layers range from green, brown to grey colour depending on the modal abundance of different mafic minerals. Layers rich in diopside are green coloured and those rich in garnet are brown. Keywords. Vesuvianite; wollastonite; grossular; diopside; calc-silicate rock. J. Earth ...

  5. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  6. Preparation of β-belite using liquid alkali silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutník, P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is the preparation of β-belite by a solid-state reaction using powdered limestone, amorphous silica and liquid alkali silicates. The raw materials were blended, the mixtures were agglomerated and then burnt. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Free lime content in the β-belite samples was also determined. The effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (1.6–2.1), burning temperature (800–1400 °C), utilization of different raw materials (silica fume, synthetic silica, potassium silicate, sodium silicate, potassium hydroxide) and burning time (0.5–16 h) on free lime content and mineralogical composition were investigated. The purest ?-belite samples were prepared from a mixture of powdered limestone, silica fume and liquid potassium silicate with a ratio CaO/SiO2 = 2 by burning at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 °C for more than 2 h. Decreasing of the CaO/SiO2 ratio led to rankinite formation and lower a burning temperature led to the formation of wollastonite. [es

  7. Silicon K-edge XANES spectra of silicate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Bancroft, G. M.; Fleet, M. E.; Feng, X. H.

    1995-03-01

    Silicon K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a selection of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals have been measured using synchrotron radiation (SR). The spectra are qualitatively interpreted based on MO calculation of the tetrahedral SiO{4/4-}cluster. The Si K-edge generally shifts to higher energy with increased polymerization of silicates by about 1.3 eV, but with considerable overlap for silicates of different polymerization types. The substitution of Al for Si shifts the Si K-edge to lower energy. The chemical shift of Si K-edge is also sensitive to cations in more distant atom shells; for example, the Si K-edge shifts to lower energy with the substitution of Al for Mg in octahedral sites. The shifts of the Si K-edge show weak correlation with average Si-O bond distance (dSi-O), Si-O bond valence (sSi-O) and distortion of SiO4 tetrahedra, due to the crystal structure complexity of silicate minerals and multiple factors effecting the x-ray absorption processes.

  8. Preparation and characterization of magnesium–aluminium–silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A three-stage heating schedule involving calcination, nucleation and crystallization, has been evolved for the preparation of magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) glass ceramic with MgF2 as a nucleating agent. The effect of sintering temperature on the density of compacted material was studied. Microstructure and ...

  9. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S

    2012-01-01

    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka. Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  11. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  12. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tricalcium silicate powder showed that it could induce bone- like apatite formation after ... ated by soaking them in SBF, cell adhesion and MTT assay, respectively. 2. .... tibility, which might be used as one of the bioactive coating materials and ...

  13. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  14. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR and neutralization power (NP, indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC. Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicate particle-size fractions. Six correction sources were evaluated: three slags from distinct origins, dolomitic and calcitic lime separated into four particle-size fractions (2, 0.84, 0.30 and <0.30-mm sieves, and wollastonite, as an additional treatment. The treatments were applied to three soils with different texture classes. The dose of neutralizing material (calcium and magnesium oxides was applied at equal quantities, and the only variation was the particle-size material. After a 90-day incubation period, the RER was calculated for each particle-size fraction, as well as the RR and ECC of each source. The neutralization of soil acidity of the same particle-size fraction for different sources showed distinct solubility and a distinct reaction between silicates and lime. The RER for slag were higher than the limits established by Brazilian legislation, indicating that the method used for limes should not be used for the slags studied here.

  15. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  16. Phase-dependent space weathering effects and spectroscopic identification of retained helium in a lunar soil grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K. D.; Stroud, R. M.

    2018-03-01

    The solar wind is an important driver of space weathering on airless bodies. Over time, solar wind exposure alters the physical, chemical, and optical properties of exposed materials and can also impart a significant amount of helium into the surfaces of these bodies. However, common materials on the surface of the Moon, such as glass, crystalline silicates, and oxides, have highly variable responses to solar wind irradiation. We used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to examine the morphology and chemistry of a single grain of lunar soil that includes silicate glass, chromite and ilmenite, all present and exposed along the same surface. The exposure of the silicate glass and oxides to the same space weathering conditions allows for direct comparisons of the responses of natural materials to the complex lunar surface environment. The silicate glass shows minimal effects of solar wind irradiation, whereas both the chromite and ilmenite exhibit defect-rich rims that currently contain trapped helium. Only the weathered rim in ilmenite is rich in nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) and larger vesicles that retain helium at a range of internal pressures. The multiple exposed surfaces of the single grain of ilmenite demonstrate strong crystallographic controls of planar defects and non-spherical npFe0. The direct spectroscopic identification of helium in the vesicles and planar defects in the oxides provides additional evidence of the central role of solar wind irradiation in the formation of some common space weathering features.

  17. Decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomidi, A.K.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid. The physicochemical properties of initial aluminium silicate ores were studied by means of X-ray phase, differential thermal and silicate analysis. The chemical composition of aluminium containing ores was determined. The optimal conditions of interaction of initial and pre calcined siallites with hydrochloric acid were defined. The kinetics of acid decomposition of aluminium silicate ores was studied as well.

  18. Silicate Dispersion and Mechanical Reinforcement in Polysiloxane/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Daniel F.

    2010-01-12

    We report the first in-depth comparison of the mechanical properties and equilibrium solvent uptake of a range of polysiloxane nanocomposites based on treated and untreated montmorillonite and fumed silica nanofillers. We demonstrate the ability of equilibrium solvent uptake data (and, thus, overall physical and chemical cross-link density) to serve as a proxy for modulus (combining rubber elasticity and Flory-Rehner theory), hardness (via the theory of Boussinesq), and elongation at break, despite the nonideal nature of these networks. In contrast, we find that tensile and tear strength are not well-correlated with solvent uptake. Interfacial strength seems to dominate equilibrium solvent uptake and the mechanical properties it predicts. In the montmorillonite systems in particular, this results in the surprising consequence that equilibrium solvent uptake and mechanical properties are independent of dispersion state. We conclude that edge interactions play a more significant role than degree of exfoliation, a result unique in the field of polymer nanocomposites. This demonstrates that even a combination of polymer/nanofiller compatibility and thermodynamically stable nanofiller dispersion levels may not give rise to reinforcement. These findings provide an important caveat when attempting to connect structure and properties in polymer nanocomposites, and useful guidance in the design of optimized polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites in particular. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Transition metal ions in silicate melts. I. Manganese in sodium silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C; White, W B

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra obtained on glasses quenched from sodium silicate melts show Mn/sup 3 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated in air and Mn/sup 2 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated at P/sub O/sub 2// = 10/sup -17/ bar. The absorption spectrum of Mn/sup 3 +/ consists of an intense band at 20,000 cm/sup -1/ with a 15,000 cm/sup -1/ satellite possibly arising from the Jahn-Teller effect. The independence of the spectrum from melt composition and the high band intensity is offered as evidence for a distinct Mn/sup 3 +/ complex in the melt. The spectrum of Mn/sup 2 +/ is weak and many expected bands are not observed. A two-band luminescence spectrum from Mn/sup 2 +/ has been tentatively interpreted as due to Mn/sup 2 +/ in interstitial sites in the network and Mn/sup 2 +/ coordiated by non-bridging oxygens.

  20. Investigation of carbonates in the Sutter's Mill meteorite grains with hyperspectral infrared imaging micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    Synchrotron-based high spatial resolution hyperspectral infrared imaging technique provides thousands of infrared spectra with high resolution, thus allowing us to acquire detailed spatial maps of chemical molecular structures for many grains in short times. Utilizing this technique, thousands of infrared spectra were analyzed at once instead of inspecting each spectrum separately. Sutter's Mill meteorite is a unique carbonaceous type meteorite with highly heterogeneous chemical composition. Multiple grains from the Sutter's Mill meteorite have been studied using this technique and the presence of both hydrous and anhydrous silicate minerals have been observed. It is observed that the carbonate mineralogy varies from simple to more complex carbonates even within a few microns in the meteorite grains. These variations, the type and distribution of calcite-like vs. dolomite-like carbonates are presented by means of hyperspectral FTIR imaging spectroscopy with high resolution. Various scenarios for the formation of different carbonate compositions in the Sutter's Mill parent body are discussed.

  1. Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Initially this project was directed towards exploiting Soret diffusion of silicate liquids to learn about the internal energetics of the constituents of the liquids. During the course of this project this goal was realized at the same time a series of intellectual and technical developments expanded the scope of the undertaking. Briefly recapping some of the highlights, the project was initiated after the discovery that silicate liquids were strongly Soret-active. It was possible to observe the development of strong diffusive gradients in silicate liquid composition in response to laboratory-imposed thermal gradients. The character of the chemical separations was a direct window into the internal speciation of the liquids; the rise time of the separation was a useful entree to quantitatively measuring chemical diffusivity; and the steady state magnitude of the separation proved to be an excellent determinant of the constituents' mixing energies. A comprehensive program was initiated to measure the separations, rise times, and mixing energies of a range of geologically and technically interesting silicate liquids. An additional track of activities in the DOE project has run in parallel to the Soret investigation of single-phase liquids in a thermal gradient. This additional track is the study of liquid-plus-crystal systems in a thermal gradient. In these studies solubility-driven diffusion introduced many useful effects, some quite surprising. In partially molten silicate liquids the authors applied their experiments to understanding magmatic cumulate rocks. They have also applied their understanding of these systems to aspects of evaporite deposits in the geological record. They also undertook studies of this sort in systems with retrograde solubility in order to form the basis for understanding remediation for brine migration problems in evaporite-hosted nuclear waste repositories such as the WIPP

  2. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  3. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  4. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.

    2017-01-01

    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  5. Suspension hydration of tricalcium silicate at constant pH. I. Variation of particle size and tricalcium silicate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCurdy, K.G.; Stein, H.N.

    1973-01-01

    Calcium and silicate ion concentrations during suspension hydration of C3S indicate that at pH 11.5 an equilibrium is established between one of the hydrates and the solution during about 80 minutes. The concentrations found in this period are indipendent of the particle size of the C3S and (within

  6. Sub-pixel estimation of tree cover and bare surface densities using regression tree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Zangrando Toneli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sub-pixel analysis is capable of generating continuous fields, which represent the spatial variability of certain thematic classes. The aim of this work was to develop numerical models to represent the variability of tree cover and bare surfaces within the study area. This research was conducted in the riparian buffer within a watershed of the São Francisco River in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. IKONOS and Landsat TM imagery were used with the GUIDE algorithm to construct the models. The results were two index images derived with regression trees for the entire study area, one representing tree cover and the other representing bare surface. The use of non-parametric and non-linear regression tree models presented satisfactory results to characterize wetland, deciduous and savanna patterns of forest formation.

  7. Non probabilistic solution of uncertain neutron diffusion equation for imprecisely defined homogeneous bare reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraverty, S.; Nayak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertain neutron diffusion equation of bare square homogeneous reactor is studied. • Proposed interval arithmetic is extended for fuzzy numbers. • The developed fuzzy arithmetic is used to handle uncertain parameters. • Governing differential equation is modelled by modified fuzzy finite element method. • Fuzzy critical eigenvalues and effective multiplication factors are investigated. - Abstract: The scattering of neutron collision inside a reactor depends upon geometry of the reactor, diffusion coefficient and absorption coefficient etc. In general these parameters are not crisp and hence we get uncertain neutron diffusion equation. In this paper we have investigated the above equation for a bare square homogeneous reactor. Here the uncertain governing differential equation is modelled by a modified fuzzy finite element method. Using modified fuzzy finite element method, obtained eigenvalues and effective multiplication factors are studied. Corresponding results are compared with the classical finite element method in special cases and various uncertain results have been discussed

  8. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, P; Eglin, T; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    . We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs), covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark), Grignon and Versailles (France), Kursk (Russia), Rothamsted (UK), and Ultuna (Sweden). A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C...... into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years), an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades) and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more) fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg−1...... at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg−1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool...

  9. Algae Drive Enhanced Darkening of Bare Ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Box, Jason E.; Cameron, Karen A.; Langen, Peter L.; Yallop, Marian L.; Mottram, Ruth H.; Khan, Alia L.; Molotch, Noah P.; Chrismas, Nathan A. M.; Calı Quaglia, Filippo; Remias, Daniel; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Hubbard, Alun; Tranter, Martyn; van As, Dirk; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.

    2017-11-01

    Surface ablation of the Greenland ice sheet is amplified by surface darkening caused by light-absorbing impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon, and pigmented microbial cells. We present the first quantitative assessment of the microbial contribution to the ice sheet surface darkening, based on field measurements of surface reflectance and concentrations of light-absorbing impurities, including pigmented algae, during the 2014 melt season in the southwestern part of the ice sheet. The impact of algae on bare ice darkening in the study area was greater than that of nonalgal impurities and yielded a net albedo reduction of 0.038 ± 0.0035 for each algal population doubling. We argue that algal growth is a crucial control of bare ice darkening, and incorporating the algal darkening effect will improve mass balance and sea level projections of the Greenland ice sheet and ice masses elsewhere.

  10. Determination of bare soil and its seasonal variation using image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Fernandez, M.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bare soil is of outstanding interest as an indicator of land degradation because it is strongly related with water erosion, particularly in low-vegetated areas as those typical of the Mediterranean rangelands. In areas with high livestock densities, erosion can ultimately get to a partial or total soil loss, particularly at the beginning of the rainy season, when the surface cover is reduce after the dry summer period. Therefore, it is necessary to develop accurate methods allowing the quantification of soil exposed areas and their temporal dynamics. The main goal of this work is the determination of bare soil surface using aerial orthophotomaps and the analysis of the changes resulting from the analysis and classification of images corresponding to two contrasting seasons (summer and spring). (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  12. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  13. The experimental determination of the buckling in the bare heavy water natural uranium critical assembly 'RB'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N M; Popovic, D D; Takac, S M; Djordjevic, M M [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1960-03-15

    The buckling in the bare heavy water natural uranium critical assembly was determined by measuring the thermal neutron flux distribution. The obtained value for the critical buckling at the temperature of 20 deg C is: B{sup 2} = (8.516 {+-} 0.02) m{sup -2}. The above error is a statistical one, obtained from several series of measurements. The possible systematic error was estimated as 0.1 m{sup -2}. (author)

  14. Characterization of diamond film and bare metal photocathodes as a function of temperature and surface preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurter, R P; Moir, D C; Devlin, D J [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current photocathodes using bare metal and polycrystalline diamond films illuminated by ultraviolet lasers are being developed at Los Alamos for use in a new generation of linear induction accelerators. These photocathodes must be able to produce multiple 60 ns pulses separated by several to tens of nanoseconds. The vacuum environment in which the photocathodes must operate is {sup 1}0-5 torr. (author). 9 figs., 10 refs.

  15. Multiplication factor evaluation of bare and reflected small fast assemblies using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, S.R.; Jain, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multigroup collision probability equations were solved by the variational method to derive a simple relation between the multiplication factor and the size of a small spherical bare or reflected fast reactor. This relation was verified by a number of 26-group, S 4 , transport theory calculations in one-dimensional spherical geometry for enriched uranium and plutonium systems. It has been shown that further approximations to the above relation lead to the universal empirical relation obtained by Anil Kumar. (orig.) [de

  16. The experimental determination of the buckling in the bare heavy water natural uranium critical assembly 'RB'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.M.; Popovic, D.D.; Takac, S.M.; Djordjevic, M.M.

    1960-01-01

    The buckling in the bare heavy water natural uranium critical assembly was determined by measuring the thermal neutron flux distribution. The obtained value for the critical buckling at the temperature of 20 deg C is: B 2 = (8.516 ± 0.02) m -2 . The above error is a statistical one, obtained from several series of measurements. The possible systematic error was estimated as 0.1 m -2 . (author)

  17. Coral larvae change their settlement preference for crustose coralline algae dependent on availability of bare space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Franziska; Bell, James J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2018-06-01

    Competition for space is a major factor affecting coral survival. Since adult coral colonies are sessile, the settlement preferences of larvae have a strong impact on the competition for space that corals will face post-metamorphosis and will therefore influence long-term survival. Laboratory-based studies show that in simplified systems coral larvae use cues to guide them to suitable settlement locations, an adaptation that enhances post-settlement survival. Settlement preferences have also been reported from the field, where coral larvae encounter a wide variety of different potential settlement surfaces as the availability of free substratum (bare space) changes over time. In this field-based study, the abundance of different encrusting organisms and bare space present on settlement tiles was compared to their abundance under newly settled pocilloporid and poritid recruits, to determine if recruits choose their settlement substratum randomly. Tiles deployed for 3, 9, 12 and 15 months were used to determine if settlement choice varied as a function of benthic community successional stage. We found that pocilloporid and poritid larvae changed their settlement preference depending on the age of the benthic community they encountered. They reacted neutrally to crustose coralline algae (CCA) on tiles deployed for 3 months when bare space was abundant, but showed a clear preference for settlement on CCA on tiles deployed for 9-15 months once bare space was limited. Simultaneously, poritid recruits showed a decreasing preference over time to settle on biofilm. This change in preference is not linked to the availability of CCA because its abundance did not change significantly between tiles deployed for 3 versus 9-15 months. These results indicate that coral recruits react to several settlement cues simultaneously, guiding them to different settlement locations as the benthos changes over time. Furthermore, recruits from both families reacted similarly, suggesting that

  18. HydroCoil as an adjuvant to bare platinum coil treatment of 100 cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, Noel F.; Berentei, Zsolt; Brennan, Paul R.; Thornton, John

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The overall safety of the HydroCoil, an expansile hybrid hydrogel-platinum coil, is unknown. We report a prospective observational study of our first 100 cerebral aneurysms treated with HydroCoils, focusing on safety and initial efficacy.Methods Indications, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic outcomes were recorded. Packing density, number of coils deployed and angiographic results were compared with those in a matched control group of 100 aneurysms treated solely with bare platinum coils. HydroCoil complication rates were compared to bare platinum coil rates at our institution and in published series. Results Adjuvant HydroCoil treatment led to increased mean percentage aneurysm filling compared to controls (50 ± 21% versus 27 ± 13%, P < 0.001). Immediate posttreatment angiographic results showed significantly (P < 0.001) more complete occlusions and fewer incomplete (<95%) occlusions compared to controls. Intermediate follow-up angiograms (median 7.5 months) in 63 aneurysms showed a trend towards fewer incomplete occlusions with HydroCoil treatment. There were significantly fewer major recurrences with HydroCoil treatment compared to the control treatment (9.5% versus 22.6%, P 0.046). In the adjuvant HydroCoil group, major recurrent aneurysms had significantly less percentage volume packing with HydroCoils than non-recurrent aneurysms (50.3 ± 5.0% versus 65.3 ± 18.0%, P = 0.04). There was a 12% procedural complication rate, 6% procedural morbidity and 1% mortality rate, similar to institutional and reported bare platinum coil complication rates.Conclusion HydroCoils can be safely deployed with a similar complication rate to bare platinum coils. They result in improved aneurysm filling. Intermediate follow-up angiography showed significantly fewer major recurrences. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm initial improved stability. (orig.)

  19. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkić Lela Munjas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon (Si is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4, as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K, the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel, silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide, and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4 in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  20. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  1. Percutaneous Creation of Bare Intervascular Tunnels for Salvage of Thrombosed Hemodialysis Fistulas Without Recanalizable Outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Wang, Yen-Chi; Weng, Mei-Jui

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy of a bare intervascular tunnel for salvage of a thrombosed hemodialysis fistula. We examined the clinical outcomes and provided follow-up images of the bare intervascular tunnel.Materials and MethodsEight thrombosed fistulas lacked available recanalizable outflow veins were included in this study. These fistulas were salvaged by re-directing access site flow to a new outflow vein through a percutaneously created intervascular tunnel without stent graft placement. The post-intervention primary and secondary access patency rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.ResultsThe procedural and clinical success rates were 100 %. Post-intervention primary and secondary access patency at 300 days were 18.7 ± 15.8 and 87.5 ± 11.7 %, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 218.7 days (range 10–368 days). One patient died of acute myocardial infarction 10 days after the procedure. No other major complications were observed. Minor complications, such as swelling, ecchymosis, and pain around the tunnel, occurred in all of the patients.ConclusionsPercutaneous creation of a bare intervascular tunnel is a treatment option for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas without recanalizable outflow in selected patients

  2. Oceanic corrosion test of bare and zinc-protected aluminum alloys for seawater heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasscer, D. S.; Morgan, T. O.; Rivera, C.; Ernst, R.; Scott, A. C.; Summerson, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Bare 3004 tubes, 7072 Alclad 3004 tubes, and bare and zinc diffusion treated 3003 extrusions from a brazed aluminum, plate-fin heat exchanger were exposed to 1.8 m/sec flowing seawater aboard an open ocean test facility moored 3.4 km off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. After six months exposure, the average corrosion rates for most varieties of aluminum materials converged to a low value of 0.015 mm/yr (0.6 mils/yr). Pitting did not occur in bare 3003 and 3004 samples during the six month test. Pitting did occur to varying degrees in the Alclad and zinc diffusion treated material, but did not penetrate to the base metal. Biofouling countermeasures (intermittent chlorination and brushing) did not affect the corrosion rates to any significant extent. Intermittent chlorination at a level of 0.5 ppm for 28 minutes daily controlled microbiofouling of the samples but did not prevent the development of a macrobiofouling community in areas of the plumbing with low flow.

  3. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  4. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  5. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  6. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  7. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Watson, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusive fractionation of isotopes has been documented in silicate melts, aqueous fluids, and single crystals. In polycrystalline rocks, the meeting place of two grains, or grain boundaries, may also be a site of diffusive fractionation of isotopes. We have undertaken an experimental and modeling approach to investigate diffusive fractionation of lithium (Li) isotopes by grain boundary diffusion. The experimental procedure consists of packing a Ni metal capsule with predominantly ground San Carlos olivine and subjecting the capsule to 1100C and 1GPa for two days in a piston cylinder apparatus to create a nominally dry, 'dunite rock'. After this synthesis step, the capsule is sectioned and polished. One of the polished faces of the 'dunite rock' is then juxtaposed to a source material of spodumene and this diffusion couple is subject to the same experimental conditions as the synthesis step. Li abundances and isotopic profiles (ratios of count rates) were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Li concentrations linearly decrease away from the source from 550ppm to the average concentration of the starting olivine (2.5ppm). As a function of distance from the source, the 7Li/6Li ratio decreases to a minimum before increasing to the background ratio of the 'dunite rock'. The 7Li/6Li ratio minimum coincides with the lowest Li concentrations above average 'dunite rock' abundances. The initial decrease in the 7Li/6Li ratio is similar to that seen in other studies of diffusive fractionation of isotopes and is thought to be caused by the higher diffusivity (D) of the lighter isotope relative to the heavier isotope. The relationship between D and mass (m) is given by (D1/D2) =(m2/m1)^β, where β is an empirical fractionation factor; 1 and 2 denote the lighter and heavier isotope, respectively. A fit to the Li isotopic data reveals an effective DLi of ~1.2x10^-12 m/s^2 and a β of 0.1. Numerical modelling was utilized to elucidate the relationship between diffusive fractionation

  8. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  9. Preparation, analysis, and release of simulated interplanetary grains into low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.; Strong, I.B.; Kunkle, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical observations which reflect the optical and dynamical properties of interstellar and interplanetary grains are the primary means of identifying the shape, size, and the chemistry of extraterrestrial grain materials and is a major subject of this workshop. Except for recent samplings of extraterrestrial particles in near-Earth orbit and in the stratosphere, observations have been the only method of deducing the properties of extraterrestrial particles. Terrestrial laboratory experiments typically seek not to reproduce astrophysical conditions but to illuminate fundamental dust processes and properties which must be extrapolated to interesting astrophysical conditions. In this report, we discuss the formation and optical characterization of simulated interstellar and interplanetary dust with particular emphasis on studying the properties on irregularly shaped particles. We also discuss efforts to develop the techniques to allow dust experiments to be carried out in low-Earth orbit, thus extending the conditions under which dust experiments may be performed. The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Elucidate the optical properties, including scattering and absorption, of simulated interstellar grains including SiC, silicates, and carbon grains produced in the laboratory. (2) Develop the capabilities to release grains and volatile materials into the near-Earth environment and study their dynamics and optical properties. (3) Study the interaction of released materials with the near-Earth environment to elucidate grain behavior in astrophysical environments. Interaction of grains with their environment may, for example, lead to grain alignment or coagulation, which results in observable phenomena such as polarization of lighter or a change of the scattering properties of the grains

  10. Detection of organic matter in interstellar grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y J

    1997-06-01

    Star formation and the subsequent evolution of planetary systems occurs in dense molecular clouds, which are comprised, in part, of interstellar dust grains gathered from the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). Radio observations of the interstellar medium reveal the presence of organic molecules in the gas phase and infrared observational studies provide details concerning the solid-state features in dust grains. In particular, a series of absorption bands have been observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1) towards bright infrared objects which are seen through large column densities of interstellar dust. Comparisons of organic residues, produced under a variety of laboratory conditions, to the diffuse interstellar medium observations have shown that aliphatic hydrocarbon grains are responsible for the spectral absorption features observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1). These hydrocarbons appear to carry the -CH2- and -CH3 functional groups in the abundance ratio CH2/CH3 approximately 2.5, and the amount of carbon tied up in this component is greater than 4% of the cosmic carbon available. On a galactic scale, the strength of the 3.4 microns band does not scale linearly with visual extinction, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the Galactic Center. A similar trend is noted in the strength of the Si-O absorption band near 9.7 microns. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of grains with silicate cores and refractory organic mantles. The ubiquity of the hydrocarbon features seen in the near infrared near 3.4 microns throughout out Galaxy and in other galaxies demonstrates the widespread availability of such material for incorporation into the many newly forming planetary systems. The similarity of the 3.4 microns features in any organic material with aliphatic hydrocarbons underscores the need for complete astronomical observational

  11. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  12. Charge trapping and dielectric breakdown in lead silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.A.; Kinser, D.L.; Lee, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    When irradiated with beams of energetic electrons or gamma rays, many insulating glasses and plastics exhibit a spontaneous electrical discharge producing permanent patterns in the materials (Lichtenberg figures). In the case of inorganic glasses, this effect is not observed in pure silicate, germanate, or phosphate glasses nor in their crystalline forms and has only been reported in mixed-oxide glasses with low alkali content. In a series of lead silicate glasses of composition [PbO]/sub (x)/[SiO 2 ]/sub [1-(x)]/, the effect is observed only for 0 less than x less than or equal to 0.40. Changes in electrical properties are related to structural changes in these glasses. Electron microscopy of these glasses confirms the existence of microphase separation in the range 0.2 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.5

  13. Chemical bonding and structural ordering of cations in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calas, G.; Cormier, L.; Galoisy, L.; Ramos, A.; Rossano, St.

    1997-01-01

    The specific surrounding of cations in multicomponent silicate glasses is briefly presented. Information about interatomic distances and site geometry may be gained by using spectroscopic methods among which x-ray absorption spectroscopy may be used for the largest number of glass components. Scattering of x-rays and neutrons may also be used to determine the importance of medium range order around specific cations. All the existing data show that cations occur in sites with a well-defined geometry, which are in most cases connected to the silicate polymeric network. Medium range order has been detected around cations such as Ti, Ca and Ni, indicating that these elements have an heterogeneous distribution within the glassy matrix. (authors)

  14. Silica from triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, L.C.; Ionashiro, M.; Davolos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Silica can be obtained from differents precursors by differents methods. In this paper it has been investigated the thermal decomposition of triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) to render silica. Among the trisoxalato-complexes of silicon preparation methods reviewed it has been used the Bessler's one with the reflux adaptaded in microwave oven. Thermal decomposition analysis of the compound has been made by TG-DTG and DTA curves. Silica powders obtained and heated between 300 to 900 0 C in a oven were characterized by infrared vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder difraction and nitrogen adsorption isotherm (BET). The triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) thermal decomposition takes place at 300 0 C and the silica powder obtained is non cristalline with impurities that are eliminated with heating at 400 0 C. (author) [pt

  15. The effect of different P fertilizer application (chemical, biologic and integrated on forage quality of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhia Zandiyeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the effect of different sources of P fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barely varieties, this experiment was conducted in Research Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran in 2010. The experimental treatments were arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh and 7 levels of P fertilizer viz: 1. Control (no fertilizer application, 2. Chemical P fertilizer (based on the soil test, 3. Biological P fertilizer (P solubilizing bacteria, 4. Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer, 5. Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, 6. Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer, 7. Biological P fertilizer + 25% chemical P fertilizer. The results indicated that the ash percentage in Fasieh was significantly higher than Bahman at Chemical P fertilizer, integrated and Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer. Except for Biological P fertilizer, DMD percentage was significantly higher in Fasieh compared to Bahman. The highest crude protein percentage was obtained for Fasieh in Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer for Bahman in Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, respectively. The water soluble carbohydrate content was significantly higher in Fasieh at Chemical P fertilizer and integrated fertilizer treatments compared to Bahman variety. The highest NDF in Bahman was observed when received Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer treatment, while the same results was obtained for Fasieh when received Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer and Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer.

  16. An optical fibre-type silicate glass thermoluminescent detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zheng; Dai Honggui; Hu Shangze; Liu Jian; Fang Jie

    1991-01-01

    A description of dosimetric properties and the preparation method of an optical fibre-type silicate glass thermoluminescent detector (TLD) is presented. Results showed that this new phosphor is a good one which could be used as a routine dosimeter in the range 10 -1 -10 3 Gy. The preparation method is a new one which differs greatly from all previous ones. Furthermore this kind of detector is small and of low weight. (orig.)

  17. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a. Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through. 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack.

  18. Strength and impermeability recovery of siliceous mudstone from complete failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Sanada, Masanori; Fujita, Tomoo; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Fukui, Katsunori; Okubo, Seisuke

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide migration can be undesirably increased by weakening the mechanical properties of a rock mass in the excavated disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnels of a geological disposal facility for high level radioactive waste. Laboratory testing of loading stress and loading time on failed siliceous mudstone specimens has identified the potential for the long-term recovery of the strength and impermeability of the rock mass in the EDZ. (author)

  19. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  20. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  1. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  2. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-01-01

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  3. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (Pglass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (Pglass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The thermodynamic activity of ZnO in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R. A.; Gaskell, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    The activity of ZnO in ZnO-SiO2 and CaO-ZnO-SiO2 melts has been measured at 1560 °C using a transpiration technique with CO-CO2 mixtures as the carrier gas. The activities of ZnO in dilute solution in 42 wt pct SiO2-38 wt pct CaO-20 wt pct A12O3 in the range 1400° to 1550 °C and in 62 wt pct SiO2-23.3 wt pct CaO-14.7 wt pct A12O3 at 1550 °C have also been measured. The measured free energies of formation of ZnO-SiO2 melts are significantly more negative than published estimated values and this, together with the behavior observed in the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, indicate that ZnO is a relatively basic oxide. The results are discussed in terms of the polymerization model of binary silicate melts and ideal silicate mixing in ternary silicate melts. The behavior of ZnO in dilute solution in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts is discussed in terms of the possibility of the fluxing of ZnO by iron blast furnace slags.

  5. Proton tunneling in low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Kei; Mochizuki, Dai; Osada, Shimon; Asakura, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2015-07-01

    In low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1 (monoclinic phase of CsHSi2O5), anomalous infrared absorption bands observed at 93, 155, 1210, and 1220 cm-1 are assigned to the vibrational mode of protons, which contribute to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal oxygen atoms of silicate chain (O-O distance = 2.45 Å). The integrated absorbance (oscillator strength) for those modes is drastically enhanced at low temperatures. The analysis of integrated absorbance employing two different anharmonic double-minimum potentials makes clear that proton tunneling through the potential barrier yields an energy splitting of the ground state. The absorption bands at 93 and 155 cm-1, which correspond to the different vibrational modes of protons, are attributed to the optical transition between the splitting levels (excitation from the ground state (n = 0) to the first excited state (n = 1)). Moreover, the absorption bands at 1210 and 1220 cm-1 are identified as the optical transition from the ground state (n = 0) to the third excited state (n = 3). Weak Coulomb interactions in between the adjacent protons generate two types of vibrational modes: symmetric mode (93 and 1210 cm-1) and asymmetric mode (155 and 1220 cm-1). The broad absorption at 100-600 cm-1 reveals an emergence of collective mode due to the vibration of silicate chain coupled not only with the local oscillation of Cs+ but also with the proton oscillation relevant to the second excited state (n = 2).

  6. Silicate bonding properties: Investigation through thermal conductivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, M; Cesarini, E; Cagnoli, G; Campagna, E; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Piergiovanni, F; Vetrano, F [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Haughian, K; Hough, J; Martin, I; Reid, S; Rowan, S; Veggel, A A van, E-mail: lorenzini@fi.infn.i [SUPA, University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building G12 8QQ Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    A direct approach to reduce the thermal noise contribution to the sensitivity limit of a GW interferometric detector is the cryogenic cooling of the mirrors and mirrors suspensions. Future generations of detectors are foreseen to implement this solution. Silicon has been proposed as a candidate material, thanks to its very low intrinsic loss angle at low temperatures and due to its very high thermal conductivity, allowing the heat deposited in the mirrors by high power lasers to be efficiently extracted. To accomplish such a scheme, both mirror masses and suspension elements must be made of silicon, then bonded together forming a quasi-monolithic stage. Elements can be assembled using hydroxide-catalysis silicate bonding, as for silica monolithic joints. The effect of Si to Si bonding on suspension thermal conductance has therefore to be experimentally studied. A measurement of the effect of silicate bonding on thermal conductance carried out on 1 inch thick silicon bonded samples, from room temperature down to 77 K, is reported. In the explored temperature range, the silicate bonding does not seem to affect in a relevant way the sample conductance.

  7. Lithium concentration dependence of implanted helium retention in lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szocs, D.E., E-mail: szocsd@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szilagyi, E.; Bogdan, Cs.; Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Helium ions of 500 keV were implanted with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} into various lithium silicates to investigate whether a threshold level of helium retention exists in Li-containing silicate ceramics similar to that found in SiO{sub x} in previous work. The composition and phases of the as prepared lithium silicates were determined by proton backscattering spectrometry (p-BS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods with an average error of {+-}10%. Electrostatic charging of the samples was successfully eliminated by wrapping the samples in Al foil. The amounts of the retained helium within the samples were determined by subtracting the non-implanted spectra from the implanted ones. The experimental results show a threshold in helium retention depending on the Li concentration. Under 20 at.% all He is able to escape from the material; at around 30 at.% nearly half of the He, while over 65 at.% all implanted He is retained. With compositions expressed in SiO{sub 2} volume percentages, a trend similar to those reported of SiO{sub x} previously is found.

  8. Silicate formation at the interface of Pr-oxide as a high-K dielectric and Si(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeisser, D.; Zheng, F.; Perez-Dieste, V.; Himpsel, F.J.; LoNigro, R.; Toro, R.G.; Malandrino, G.; Fragala, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    The composition and chemical bonding of the first atoms across the interface between Si(001) and the dielectric determine the quality of dielectric gate stacks. An analysis of that hidden interface is a challenge as it requires both, high sensitivity and elemental and chemical state information. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy in total electron yield and total fluorescence yield at the Si2p and the O1s edges to address that issue. We report on results of Pr 2 O 3 /Si(001) as prepared by both, epitaxial growth and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and compare to the SiO 2 /Si(001) system as a reference. We find evidence for the silicate formation at the interface as derived from the characteristic features at the Si2p and the O1s edges. The results are in line with model experiments in which films of increasing film thickness are deposited in situ on bare Si(001) surfaces

  9. Basic study of influence of radiation defects on tritium release processes from lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Tiliks, J.; Kizane, G.; Supe, A. [Latvia Univ., Riga (Latvia). Dept. of Chem.; Grishmanovs, V. [Department of Quantum Engineering and System Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The radiolysis of Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} was studied using the chemical scavengers method (CSM), thermoluminescence, lyoluminescence, electron spin resonance and spectrometric methods. The influence of the absorbed dose and many another parameters such as: irradiation conditions, sample preparation conditions and concentration of impurities on the accumulation rate of each type RD and RP were studied. Several possibilities for reducing the radiolysis of silicates were discussed. It has been found that tritium localization on the surface and in grains proceed by two different mechanisms. Tritium thermoextraction from the surface proceeds as chemidesorption of tritiated water, but from the bulk as diffusion. The tritium retention processes were studied. It has been found that tritium retention depends on irradiation conditions. Tritium retention is due to the formation of chemical bonds Li-T and thermal stable {identical_to}Si-T bonds. The accumulation of colloidal silicon and lithium can increase the tritium retention up to 25-35%. (orig.).

  10. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  11. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  12. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  14. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  15. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Style What Is a Healthy Eating Style? Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  16. EAARL-B coastal topography: Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  17. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  18. SOFIA OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2010jl: ANOTHER NON-DETECTION OF THE 9.7 μm SILICATE DUST FEATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Fox, Ori D.

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 μm of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millenia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 μm feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01–0.05 M ⊙ of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of ∼550–620 K. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-IR observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their IR spectra

  19. SOFIA OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2010jl: ANOTHER NON-DETECTION OF THE 9.7 μm SILICATE DUST FEATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Code 662, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Fox, Ori D., E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 μm of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millenia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 μm feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01–0.05 M{sub ⊙} of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of ∼550–620 K. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-IR observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their IR spectra.

  20. Benthic metabolism and denitrification in a river reach: a comparison between vegetated and bare sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi VIAROLI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at comparing biogeochemical processes in a Vallisneria spiralis meadow and in unvegetated sediments in the upper reach of the Mincio River (Northern Italy. The main hypothesis of this work is that meadows of rooted macrophytes affect benthic metabolism, enhancing capacity to retain nutrients (assimilation and dissipate (denitrification nitrogen loadings. In order to highlight how plants affect benthic processes in the riverbed, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP and inorganic nitrogen fluxes, together with denitrification rates, were measured from February to November 2007 in intact cores collected from stands of V. spiralis and bare sediments. V. spiralis biomass, elemental composition and growth rates were concurrently measured. Macrophyte biomass ranged from 60 to 120 g m-2 (as dry matter; growth rates followed a seasonal pattern from 0.001 in winter up to 0.080 d-1 in summer. On an annual basis, the macrophyte meadow was autotrophic with net O2 production and dissolved inorganic carbon uptake, while the bare sediment was net heterotrophic. The concurrent N assimilation by macrophytes and losses through denitrification led to similar N uptake/dissipation rates, up to 2500 mmol m-2 y-1. Under the very high NO3 - concentrations of the Mincio River, the competition between primary production and denitrification processes was also avoided. A significant ammonium regeneration from sediments to the water column occurred in the V. spiralis meadow, where plant debris and particulate matter accumulated. Here, SRP was also released into the water column, whilst in the bare sediment SRP fluxes were close to zero. Overall, V. spiralis affected the benthic metabolism enhancing the ecosystem capacity to control nitrogen contamination. However, the actual N removal rates were not sufficient to mitigate the pollution discharge.

  1. [Amelioration of secondary bare alkali-saline patches in Songnen Plain through inserting cornstalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Shicheng; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the field experiment on Songnen grassland, a new method was established to ameliorate the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) through inserting cornstalk. The experiment was rested on the assumption that through inserting cornstalk in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) to retain seeds moving over its surface, the necessary seed source could be gained; and these seeds should be able to germinate and survive successfully on the cornstalk itself or in its neighborhood, where should be more fit to grow than other sites in SAP, due to the decomposition of cornstalk and its special role, so that, the aim to restore vegetation of SAP could be achieved at a pretty low cost and rapid speed. The results showed that the seed bank in soil was increased significantly, owing to the inserted cornstalk and its operating processes. The seed number in ameliorated soil was 4020.0 +/- 1773.6 seeds x m(-2), while that in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) was only 10.0 +/- 31.6 seeds x m(-2). Although the soil chemical and physical characters in ameliorated zone were improved to some extent, the overall situation of soil was still bad for plant growth, as the pH, soluble saline ion and organic matter were concerned. Most of Chloris virgata grew around or on the cornstalk, the plants around each cornstalk being 3.9 +/- 2.2, and the total being 48.64 +/- 38.72 g x m(-2). Therefore, this method demanded a few resources, and needed simple technology and low cost, which is potentially deserved to popularize.

  2. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  3. Confined Water in Layered Silicates: The Origin of Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behavior in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Falzone, Gabriel; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Water, under conditions of nanoscale confinement, exhibits anomalous dynamics, and enhanced thermal deformations, which may be further enhanced when such water is in contact with hydrophilic surfaces. Such heightened thermal deformations of water could control the volume stability of hydrated materials containing nanoconfined structural water. Understanding and predicting the thermal deformation coefficient (TDC, often referred to as the CTE, coefficient of thermal expansion), which represents volume changes induced in materials under conditions of changing temperature, is of critical importance for hydrated solids including: hydrogels, biological tissues, and calcium silicate hydrates, as changes in their volume can result in stress development, and cracking. By pioneering atomistic simulations, we examine the physical origin of thermal expansion in calcium-silicate-hydrates (C–S–H), the binding agent in concrete that is formed by the reaction of cement with water. We report that the TDC of C–S–H shows a sudden increase when the CaO/SiO_2 (molar ratio; abbreviated as Ca/Si) exceeds 1.5. This anomalous behavior arises from a notable increase in the confinement of water contained in the C–S–H’s nanostructure. We identify that confinement is dictated by the topology of the C–S–H’s atomic network. Altogether, the results suggest that thermal deformations of hydrated silicates can be altered by inducing compositional changes, which in turn alter the atomic topology and the resultant volume stability of the solids.

  4. Confined Water in Layered Silicates: The Origin of Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behavior in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N M Anoop; Wang, Bu; Falzone, Gabriel; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan; Pilon, Laurent; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-12-28

    Water, under conditions of nanoscale confinement, exhibits anomalous dynamics, and enhanced thermal deformations, which may be further enhanced when such water is in contact with hydrophilic surfaces. Such heightened thermal deformations of water could control the volume stability of hydrated materials containing nanoconfined structural water. Understanding and predicting the thermal deformation coefficient (TDC, often referred to as the CTE, coefficient of thermal expansion), which represents volume changes induced in materials under conditions of changing temperature, is of critical importance for hydrated solids including: hydrogels, biological tissues, and calcium silicate hydrates, as changes in their volume can result in stress development, and cracking. By pioneering atomistic simulations, we examine the physical origin of thermal expansion in calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the binding agent in concrete that is formed by the reaction of cement with water. We report that the TDC of C-S-H shows a sudden increase when the CaO/SiO 2 (molar ratio; abbreviated as Ca/Si) exceeds 1.5. This anomalous behavior arises from a notable increase in the confinement of water contained in the C-S-H's nanostructure. We identify that confinement is dictated by the topology of the C-S-H's atomic network. Taken together, the results suggest that thermal deformations of hydrated silicates can be altered by inducing compositional changes, which in turn alter the atomic topology and the resultant volume stability of the solids.

  5. Outcomes of Prosthetic Hemodialysis Grafts after Deployment of Bare Metal versus Covered Stents at the Venous Anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Charles Y., E-mail: charles.kim@duke.edu; Tandberg, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Michael D.; Miller, Michael J.; Suhocki, Paul V.; Smith, Tony P. [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare postintervention patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents across the venous anastomosis of prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts. Methods: Review of our procedural database over a 6 year period revealed 377 procedures involving stent deployment in an AV access circuit. After applying strict inclusion criteria, our study group consisted of 61 stent deployments in 58 patients (median age 58 years, 25 men, 33 women) across the venous anastomosis of an upper extremity AV graft circuit that had never been previously stented. Both patent and thrombosed AV access circuits were retrospectively analyzed. Within the bare metal stent group, 20 of 32 AV grafts were thrombosed at initial presentation compared to 18 of 29 AV grafts in the covered stent group. Results: Thirty-two bare metal stents and 29 covered stents were deployed across the venous anastomosis. The 3, 6, and 12 months primary access patency rates for bare metal stents were not significantly different than for covered stents: 50, 41, and 22 % compared to 59, 52, and 29 %, respectively (p = 0.21). The secondary patency rates were also not significantly different: 78, 78, and 68 % for bare metal stents compared to 76, 69, and 61 % for covered stents, respectively (p = 0.85). However, covered stents demonstrated a higher primary stent patency rate than bare metal stents: 100, 85, and 70 % compared to 75, 67, and 49 % at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The primary and secondary access patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents at the venous anastomosis were not significantly different. However, bare metal stents developed in-stent stenoses significantly sooner.

  6. Outcomes of Prosthetic Hemodialysis Grafts after Deployment of Bare Metal versus Covered Stents at the Venous Anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Charles Y.; Tandberg, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Michael D.; Miller, Michael J.; Suhocki, Paul V.; Smith, Tony P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare postintervention patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents across the venous anastomosis of prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts. Methods: Review of our procedural database over a 6 year period revealed 377 procedures involving stent deployment in an AV access circuit. After applying strict inclusion criteria, our study group consisted of 61 stent deployments in 58 patients (median age 58 years, 25 men, 33 women) across the venous anastomosis of an upper extremity AV graft circuit that had never been previously stented. Both patent and thrombosed AV access circuits were retrospectively analyzed. Within the bare metal stent group, 20 of 32 AV grafts were thrombosed at initial presentation compared to 18 of 29 AV grafts in the covered stent group. Results: Thirty-two bare metal stents and 29 covered stents were deployed across the venous anastomosis. The 3, 6, and 12 months primary access patency rates for bare metal stents were not significantly different than for covered stents: 50, 41, and 22 % compared to 59, 52, and 29 %, respectively (p = 0.21). The secondary patency rates were also not significantly different: 78, 78, and 68 % for bare metal stents compared to 76, 69, and 61 % for covered stents, respectively (p = 0.85). However, covered stents demonstrated a higher primary stent patency rate than bare metal stents: 100, 85, and 70 % compared to 75, 67, and 49 % at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The primary and secondary access patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents at the venous anastomosis were not significantly different. However, bare metal stents developed in-stent stenoses significantly sooner.

  7. Clinical outcomes with drug-eluting and bare-metal stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Della Riva, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative safety and efficacy of different drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using a network meta-analysis.......The authors investigated the relative safety and efficacy of different drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using a network meta-analysis....

  8. Spin symmetry in the Dirac sea derived from the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihang; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2018-06-01

    The spin symmetry in the Dirac sea has been investigated with relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. Taking the nucleus 16O as an example and comparing the theoretical results with the data, the definition of the single-particle potential in the Dirac sea is studied in detail. It is found that if the single-particle states in the Dirac sea are treated as occupied states, the ground state properties are in better agreement with experimental data. Moreover, in this case, the spin symmetry in the Dirac sea is better conserved and it is more consistent with the findings using phenomenological relativistic density functionals.

  9. Introducing the notion of bare and effective mass via Newton's second law of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Marcus Benghi

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The setting up of simple equations for the effective mass will allow instructors to discuss how external parameters, such as the temperature, influence this quantity. By expressing this type of equation as a power series one may also discuss perturbation theory and introduce Feynman diagrams

  10. Superficial soil erosion assessment in agricultural land and bare land using 7Be fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marestoni, Luiz Diego

    2007-02-01

    Geologic and hydrologic phenomenon monitoring presents great environmental and financial interest and several radioisotopes, natural and artificial, have been used for this purpose. The more used are 137 Cs, 210 Pb not supported and 7 Be. In the present work, 7 Be was used to determine the soil erosion in three areas: one with soy ploughed at the direction of the slope, one with it perpendicular to the slope and one in an area with bare soil. 7 Be is a cosmogenic radionuclide, with half-life of 53.3 days, produced by spallation of oxygen and nitrogen by cosmic rays in the troposphere and stratosphere. 7 Be deposition occurs by dry and wet deposition, although wet deposition contributed by 95%. This can be verified through the measures of the 7 Be inventory correlated with the precipitation, which resulted in a good linear adjustment. The experimental set up consisted of two HPGe detectors: one with 66% of relative efficiency and one with 10% of relative efficiency, both detectors coupled to standard gamma ray spectrometry nuclear electronic chain. Soil samples were packed in 1 liter Marinelli beckers. Sampling was accomplished until the depth where 7 Be was present and it was possible to verify that its penetration in the soils could be very well adjusted by an exponential type function. The maximum beryllium-7 penetration in the bare soil without sign of soil erosion was 3 cm, that is, beryllium-7 is a useful tool as tracer for superficial soil erosion determination. The constant of mass relaxation h 0 was determined as 4.71 ± 0.36, result that is in agreement with other works in the international literature. It was verified that when the soy is ploughed perpendicular to the slope, the soil redistribution rate is smaller, resulting in economic advantage. The bare soil is very exposed to the erosion, because does not exist any barrier to contain the soil that flows at the direction of the slope, such fact was verified in this work, where it was determined that the

  11. Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Greenhalgh, Janette

    2017-01-01

    -EXPANDED, and BIOSIS from their inception to January 2017. We also searched two clinical trials registers, the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration databases, and pharmaceutical company websites. In addition, we searched the reference lists of review articles and relevant trials. SELECTION...... CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for acute coronary syndrome. We included trials irrespective of publication type, status, date, or language. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed our published protocol and the methodological...

  12. Muon transfer rates in collisions of hydrogen isotope mesic atoms on 'bare' nuclei. Multichannel adiabatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobov, V.I.; Melezhik, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical scheme for solving the problem of slow collisions in the three-body adiabatic approach is applied for calculation of muon transfer rates in collisions of hydrogen isotope atoms on bare nuclei. It is demonstrated that the multichannel adiabatic approach allows one to reach high accuracy results (∼3%) estimating the cross sections of charge transfer processes which are the best ones up to date. The method is appliable in a wide range of energies (0.001-50 eV) which is of interest for analysis of muon catalysed fusion experiments. 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Low-energy rate enhancement in recombination processes of electrons into bare uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yong; Zeng Siliang; Duan Bin; Yan Jun; Wang Jianguo; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou; Dong Chenzhong; Ma Xinwen

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Dirac-Fork-Slater method combined with the multichannel quantum defect theory, the recombination processes of electrons into bare uranium ions (U 92+ ) are investigated in the relative energy range close to zero, and the x-ray spectrum emitted in the direct radiative recombination and cascades processes are simulated. Compared with the recent measurement, it is found that the rate enhancement comes from the additional populations on high Rydberg states. These additional populations may be produced by other recombination mechanisms, such as the external electric-magnetic effects and the many-body correlation effects, which still remains an open problem. (authors)

  14. Drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents in patients with NSTE-ACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Haahr; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    the randomised BASKET-PROVE trial (sirolimus-eluting stent vs. everolimus-eluting stent vs. bare metal stent in large-vessel stenting). The primary endpoint was the combined two-year rate of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Secondary endpoints were each component of the primary...... implantation in large vessels was associated with a reduction in both TVR and the combined endpoint consisting of cardiovascular death/MI. Thus, DES use improves both efficacy and safety. These findings support the use of DES in NSTE-ACS patients....

  15. Extraction of the bare form factors for the semi-leptonic Bs decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, F.; Banerjee, D.; Koren, M.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R.

    2017-01-01

    The computation of the form factors for the B s →lν decay is presented. The b quark is treated by means of Heavy Quark Effective Theory, currently in the static approximation. In these proceedings we discuss the extraction of the bare matrix elements from lattice data through a combined fit to two- and three-point correlation functions, as well as by considering suitable ratios. The different methods agree concerning the extracted form factors and approximately 2% accuracy is reached. The non-perturbative renormalization and matching to QCD is described in accompanying proceedings.

  16. Reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by evanescent laser waves. Bare-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiaoping; Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, C.L.; Opat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two methods are presented for the investigation of the reflection and diffraction of atoms by gratings formed either by standing or travelling evanescent laser waves. Both methods use the bare-state rather than dressed-state picture. One method is based on the Born series, whereas the other is based on the Laplace transformation of the coupled differential equations. The two methods yield the same theoretical expressions for the reflected and diffracted atomic waves in the whole space including the interaction and the asymptotic regions. 1 ref., 1 fig

  17. A rare-earth-magnet ion trap for confining low-Z, bare nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Samuel M.; Tan, Joseph N.

    2009-05-01

    Simplifications in the theory for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions allow a substantial improvement in the accuracy of predicted levels, which can yield information on the values of fundamental constants and test theory if they can be compared with precision frequency measurements.[1] We consider the trapping of bare nuclei (fully-stripped) to be used in making Rydberg states of one-electron ions with atomic number 1Wundt, ``Fundamental constants and tests of theory in Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 160404 (2008).

  18. Measurement of critical mass for an assembly of bare uranium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.L.; Goulding, C.A.; Hollas, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the research into nuclear measurement techniques, a series of measurements was performed that have applications to criticality safety and nuclear material handling. The critical mass of a set of bare, enriched-uranium metal hemispherical shells, known as the Rocky Flats shells, was measured for an assembly having an inside radius of 2.347 cm. The critical mass value was extrapolated from a series of subcritical measurements using three different kinds of sources (AmBe, AmF, and 252 Cf) placed at the center of the shells. Two kinds of neutron detection configurations (a 1% efficiency and a 25% efficiency configuration) were used to make the measurements

  19. Surface-dependent chemical equilibrium constants and capacitances for bare and 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane coated silica nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, Jared; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    , and pK+ are constant and independent of surface composition. Our theoretical model consists of three parts: (i) a chemical equilibrium model of the bare or coated wall, (ii) a chemical equilibrium model of the buffered bulk electrolyte, and (iii) a self-consistent Gouy–Chapman–Stern triple-layer model...... of the electrochemical double layer coupling these two equilibrium models. To validate our model, we used both pH-sensitive dye-based capillary filling experiments as well as electro-osmotic current-monitoring measurements. Using our model we predict the dependence of ζ potential, surface charge density, and capillary...

  20. Safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents for bare-metal in-stent restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Hideaki [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Mahmoudi, Michael [University of Surrey, Guildford Road, Surrey, GU2-7XH (United Kingdom); Torguson, Rebecca; Satler, Lowell F.; Suddath, William O.; Pichard, Augusto D. [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Waksman, Ron, E-mail: ron.waksman@medstar.net [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting stents (EES) with the paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) and sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) for the treatment of bare-metal in-stent restenosis. Background: The optimal treatment for bare-metal in-stent restenosis remains controversial. Methods: The study cohort comprised 322 consecutive patients (543 lesions) who presented with bare-metal in-stent restenosis to our institution and underwent coronary artery stent implantation with EES (114 patients; 181 lesions), PES (65 patients; 116 lesions) and SES (143 patients; 246 lesions). The analyzed clinical parameters were the 1-year rates of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), definite stent thrombosis (ST) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as the composite of death, MI, or TLR at 1-year. Results: The three groups were well matched for the conventional risk factors except for age and chronic kidney disease. The 1-year analyzed clinical parameters were similar in the three groups: death (EES = 3.5%, PES = 4.6%, SES = 4.2%; p = 0.94), MI (EES = 3.5%, PES = 6.3%, SES = 2.1%; p = 0.31), TLR (EES = 9.8%, PES = 9.5%, SES = 5.7%; p = 0.42), TVR (EES = 14.3%, PES = 11.1%, SES = 11.3%; p = 0.74), definite ST (EES = 0.9%, PES = 3.1%, SES = 3.5%; p = 0.38) and MACE (EES = 14.0%, PES = 15.4%, SES = 10.5%; p = 0.54). Male gender (hazard ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval = 0.25–0.88) and number of treated lesions (hazard ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.06–2.05) were found to be independent predictors of MACE. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that EES may provide similar safety and efficacy as first generation DES for the treatment of patients presenting with bare-metal in-stent restenosis.

  1. Extraction of the bare form factors for the semi-leptonic B{sub s} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, F.; Banerjee, D.; Koren, M.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-12

    The computation of the form factors for the B{sub s}→lν decay is presented. The b quark is treated by means of Heavy Quark Effective Theory, currently in the static approximation. In these proceedings we discuss the extraction of the bare matrix elements from lattice data through a combined fit to two- and three-point correlation functions, as well as by considering suitable ratios. The different methods agree concerning the extracted form factors and approximately 2% accuracy is reached. The non-perturbative renormalization and matching to QCD is described in accompanying proceedings.

  2. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  3. Planetesimal core formation with partial silicate melting using in-situ high P, high T, deformation x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Differentiation is a defining moment in formation of terrestrial planets and asteroids. Smaller planetesimals likely didn't reach high enough temperatures for widescale melting. However, we infer that core formation must have occurred within a few million years from Hf-W dating. In lieu of a global magma ocean, planetesimals likely formed through inefficient percolation. Here, we used in-situ high temperature, high pressure, x-ray microtomography to track the 3-D evolution of the sample at mantle conditions as it underwent shear deformation. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations for permeability were used to characterize the efficiency of melt percolation. Mixtures of KLB1 peridotite plus 6.0 to 12.0 vol% FeS were pre-sintered to achieve an initial equilibrium microstructure, and then imaged through several consecutive cycles of heating and deformation. The maximum calculated melt segregation velocity was found to be 0.37 cm/yr for 6 vol.% FeS and 0.61 cm/year for 12 vol.% FeS, both below the minimum velocity of 3.3 cm/year required for a 100km planetesimal to fully differentiate within 3 million years. However, permeability is also a function of grain size and thus the samples having smaller grains than predicted for small planetesimals could have contributed to low permeability and also low migration velocity. The two-phase (sulfide melt and silicate melt) flow at higher melt fractions (6 vol.% and 12 vol.% FeS) was an extension of a similar study1 containing only sulfide melt at lower melt fraction (4.5 vol.% FeS). Contrary to the previous study, deformation did result in increased permeability until the sample was sheared by twisting the opposing Drickamer anvils by 360 degrees. Also, the presence of silicate melt caused the FeS melt to coalesce into less connected pathways as the experiment with 6 vol.% FeS was found to be less permeable than the one with 4.5 vol.% FeS but without any partial melt. The preliminary data from this study suggests that impacts as well as

  4. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  5. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  6. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, F.; Chang, S.; Dickinson, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules

  7. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumin, Md Abdul, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Akhter, Kazi Farida, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Charpentier, Paul A., E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC)

  8. A simple model for retrieving bare soil moisture from radar-scattering coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.S.; Yen, S.K.; Huang, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple algorithm based on a rough surface scattering model was developed to invert the bare soil moisture content from active microwave remote sensing data. In the algorithm development, a frequency mixing model was used to relate soil moisture to the dielectric constant. In particular, the Integral Equation Model (IEM) was used over a wide range of surface roughness and radar frequencies. To derive the algorithm, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation to study the effects of surface parameters, including height variance, correlation length, and dielectric constant. Because radar return is inherently dependent on both moisture content and surface roughness, the purpose of the sensitivity testing was to select the proper radar parameters so as to optimally decouple these two factors, in an attempt to minimize the effects of one while the other was observed. As a result, the optimal radar parameter ranges can be chosen for the purpose of soil moisture content inversion. One thousand samples were then generated with the IEM model followed by multivariate linear regression analysis to obtain an empirical soil moisture model. Numerical comparisons were made to illustrate the inversion performance using experimental measurements. Results indicate that the present algorithm is simple and accurate, and can be a useful tool for the remote sensing of bare soil surfaces. (author)

  9. Exciton emission from bare and hybrid plasmonic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kunert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Ge, Jingxuan; Duscher, Gerd; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans Peter

    We study the exciton emission of hybrid gold nanoparticle/Alq3 (aluminiumquinoline)/wurtzite GaN nanorods. GaN nanorods of 1.5 μm length and 250 nm diameter were grown by plasma assisted MBE. Hybrid GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. Temperature and power dependent time integrated (TI) and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on bare and hybrid structures. Bare nanorods show donor (D0,X) and acceptor bound (A0,X) exciton emission at 3.473 eV and at 3.463 eV, respectively. TR-PL trace modeling reveal lifetimes of 240 ps and 1.4 ns for the (D0,X) and (A0,X) transition. 10 nm gold coated GaN nanorods show a significant PL quenching and (D0,X) lifetime shortening which is tentatively attributed to impact ionization of (D0,X) due to hot electron injection from the gold nanoparticles. This is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy that shows a redshift of a midgap state transition indicating a reduction of a preexisting band-bending at the nanorod surface due to positive charging of the gold nanoparticles. Inserting a nominally 5 nm thick Alq3 spacer between the nanorod and the gold reduces the PL quenching and lifetime shortening. Plasmonic nanorods with a 30 nm thick Alq3 spacer reveal lifetimes which are nearly identical to uncoated GaN nanorods.

  10. Exciton Emission from Bare and Alq3/Gold Coated GaN Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kuhnert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    We study the excitonic and impurity related emission in bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature-dependent time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Alq3 as well as Alq3/gold covered nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. In the near-band edge region a donor-bound-exciton (D0X) emission is observed at 3.473 eV. Another emission band at 3.275 eV reveals LO-phonon replica and is attributed to a donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) luminescence. TR PL traces at 20 K show a nearly biexponential decay for the D0X with lifetimes of approximately 180 and 800 ps for both bare and Alq3 coated nanorods. In GaN nanorods which were coated with an Alq3 film and subsequently with a 10 nm thick gold layer we observe a PL quenching of D0X and DAP band and the lifetimes of the D0X transition shorten. The quenching behaviour is partially attributed to the energy-transfer from free excitons and donor-bound-excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold layer.

  11. Soil microbial respiration beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Novosádová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa. Ecosystem functioning of these steppes is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. grass show different fertility and different microclimatic conditions than in surrounding bare soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima L. on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration. Basal and potential microbial respirations in the soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. were, in general, not significantly different from the bare soils. The differences were less than 10%. Significantly less ethylene produced by microbial activity in soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. after the addition of glucose could indicate the dependence of rhizospheric microbial communities on available carbon compounds. It can be concluded, that the soil respiration in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems is not necessarily associated with the patchy plant distribution and that some microbial activities characteristics can be unexpectedly homogenous.

  12. BARES E RESTAURANTES: UMA ANÁLISE SOB A ÓTICA DO MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ariel de Oliveira Tibola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Os investimentos no Setor de Bares e Restaurantes têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos devido à alta procura por locais que proporcionem um diferencial competitivo e principalmente que ofereçam produtos de qualidade e a satisfação na prestação de serviços ao cliente. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar o perfil dos empreendedores no Setor de Bares e Restaurantes do município de Santa Rosa/RS, buscando verificar as principais características dos empreendedores, a viabilidade do negócio no momento da abertura e as principais particularidades do setor. Visando dar profundidade à pesquisa foram aplicados questionários semiestruturado a quatorze empreendedores do ramo durante o mês de maio de 2016. Como resultados foram observados que a predominância para o empreendedorismo nesses tipos de estabelecimentos é do gênero masculino. A maior parte dos empresários investiram valor aproximadado entre R$ 20.001,00 a R$ 50.000,00 para a abertura do negócio. Observou-se que os empreendedores pesquisados apresentavam desejo de ter o próprio empreendimento. Os clientes estão buscando cada vez mais locais que propiciem uma mescla de um local aprazivel que sirva alimentação e bebidas, aliando a descontração e lazer com qualidade de produtos e serviços.

  13. Oralloy (93.2 235U) Bare Metal Annuli And Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, Andrew John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A multitude of critical experiments with highly enriched uranium metal were conducted in the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. These experiments served to evaluate the storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant while also providing data for verification of different calculation methods and associated cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included both solid cylinders and annuli of various diameters, interacting cylinders of various diameters, parallelepipeds, and reflected cylinders and annuli. The experiments described here involve a series of delayed critical stacks of bare oralloy HEU annuli and disks. Three of these experiments consist of stacking bare HEU annuli of varying diameters to obtain critical configurations. These annuli have nominal inner and outer diameters (ID/OD) including: 7 inches (") ID – 9" OD, 9" ID – 11" OD, 11" ID – 13" OD, and 13? ID – 15" OD. The nominal heights range from 0.125" to 1.5". The three experiments themselves range from 7" – 13", 7" – 15", and 9" – 15" in diameter, respectively. The fourth experiment ranges from 7" – 11", and along with different annuli, it also includes an 11" disk and several 7" diameter disks. All four delayed critical experiments were configured and evaluated by J. T. Mihalczo, J. J. Lynn, and D. E. McCarty from December of 1962 to February 1963 with additional information in their corresponding logbook.

  14. Different toxicity mechanisms between bare and polymer-coated copper oxide nanoparticles in Lemna gibba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreault, François; Popovic, Radovan; Dewez, David

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we investigated how the presence of a polymer shell (poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) alters the toxicity of CuO NPs in Lemna gibba. Based on total Cu concentration, core–shell CuO NPs were 10 times more toxic than CuO NPs, inducing a 50% decrease of growth rate at 0.4 g l −1 after 48-h of exposure while a concentration of 4.5 g l −1 was required for CuO NPs for a similar effect. Toxicity of CuO NPs was mainly due to NPs solubilization in the media. Based on the accumulated copper content in the plants, core–shell CuO NPs induced 4 times more reactive oxygen species compared to CuO NPs and copper sulfate, indicating that the presence of the polymer shell changed the toxic effect induced in L. gibba. This effect could not be attributed to the polymer alone and reveals that surface modification may change the nature of NPs toxicity. -- Highlights: • Bare and polymer-coated CuO nanoparticles were toxic to Lemna gibba. • Toxicity of bare CuO was mainly due to solubilized soluble copper. • Coated CuO accumulated inside the plants four times more. • Formation of reactive oxygen species was increased by polymer coating. • Coating of nanomaterials modifies mechanisms of action at cellular level. -- Polymer coating increases oxidative stress effect by core–shell CuO nanoparticles

  15. Chernozem aggregate waterstability loss investigation in a long-term bare fallow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, N. A.; Milanovskiy, E. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The research is focused on mechanisms of aggregate waterstability controlled by soil organic matter (SOM). The objects of the research are two contrast variants of typical chernozem - under native grassland and under a 60-year bare fallow experimental plot (100 m2) on the territory of Central Chernozem Biosphere Reserve, Russia. Seasonal plowing and deficiency of fresh plant residues (due to weeding out) resulted in a rapid mineralization of SOM. The Corg content in the 0-20 cm topsoil under native grassland is 6-4.5 %. For the last two decades Corg content under bare fallow has stabilized on the 2.6% level and is therefore assumed to represent stable SOM pool. However excellent aggregate waterstability of chernozem is completely lost under bare fallow. Therefore the aim of our study is to reveal the role of different SOM pools spatial and functional organization in aggregate waterstability formation. Bulk soil samples were collected from 2 m grassland profile and 1.5 m bare fallow profile with 10 cm interval and simultaneous measurements of soil field density and moisture. Following samples were analysed: bulk samples, dry and wet-sieving aggregates, undisturbed and pulverized aggregates, granule-densimetric fractions obtained by sedimentation of bulk samples (clay 5 mkm) with following densimetric fractionation in bromoform (light ? 2.4 g/cm3), and above mentioned samples after removal of SOM by hydrogen peroxide. Isolation of aggregates and granule-densimetric fractionation were carried out for bulk soils at 0-20, 40-50 and 80-90 cm depth. We use elemental analysis (C, H, N), size exclusion and hydrophobic interaction chromatography of humic substances (HS), laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area (SSA) measurements by nitrogen adsorption and micromorphological examination of thin sections. Detailed characteristics obtained for aggregates and granule-densimetric fractions from a typical chernozem soil under native grassland and under 60

  16. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja

    2017-01-01

    . Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further......Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively......, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance....

  17. Microstructure characterization of porous microalloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaolinite and bentonite clay powders mixed with active additives, based on Mg(NO32 and Al(NO32, sintered at high temperatures produce very porous ceramics with microcrystalline and amorphous regions and highly developed metalized surfaces (mainly with magnesium surplus. Microstructure investigations have revealed non-uniform and highly porous structure with broad distribution of grain size, specifically shaped grains and high degree of agglomeration. The ceramics samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and IR spectroscopy analysis, prior and after treatment in “synthetic water”, i.e. in aqueous solution of arsenic-salt. Grain size distribution for untreated and treated samples was done with software SemAfore 4. It has shown great variety in size distribution of grains from clay powders to sintered samples.

  18. Structure and properties of polymer-silicate nanocomposites based on polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleptsova, Sardana A.; Okhlopkova, Aitalina A. [North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The results of physicomechanical, tribological , and structural investigation of polytetrafluoroethylene based polymers and natural layered silicates are reported. It is shown that the tribological behaviour of the composites can be significantly improved by introducing a small amount of activated silicates. The results of structural examination of the composite friction surfaces by scanning-probe microscopy and IR spectroscopy are discussed. Key words: polytetrafluoroethylene, layered silicates, wear resistance, friction coefficient, structure, IR-spectrum.

  19. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R.S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-01-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO 2 –(60−x)Bi 2 O 3 –40SiO 2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10 −1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623–703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σ dc ), so called crossover frequency (ω H ), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (H f ) and enthalpy of migration (H m ) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses

  20. New candidates for carbon stars with silicate features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. J.; Kwok, Sun

    1991-01-01

    All stars in the General Catalog of Cool Galactic Carbon Stars with IRAS 12-micron fluxes greater than 10 Jy were searched for Low-Resolution-Spectrometer (LRS) spectra in the IRAS LRS data base. Out of the 532 spectra examined, 11 were found to show the 9.7-micron silicate emission feature. Four of these are identified for the first time. This group of carbon stars may represent transition objects between oxygen-rich and carbon-rich stars on the asymptotic giant branch.

  1. VISION: a Versatile and Innovative SIlicOn tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietti, Daniela; Vallazza, Erik

    This thesis work focuses on the study of the performance of different tracking and profilometry systems (the so-called INSULAB, INSUbria LABoratory, and VISION, Versatile and Innovative SIlicON, Telescopes) used in the last years by the NTA-HCCC, the COHERENT (COHERENT effects in crystals for the physics of accelerators), ICE-RAD (Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation) and CHANEL (CHAnneling of NEgative Leptons) experiments, four collaborations of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) dedicated to the research in the crystals physics field.

  2. High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.R.; Schubert, G.; Matson, D.L.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Head, J.W.; Geissler, P.; Fagents, S.; Davies, A.G.; Carr, M.H.; Breneman, H.H.; Belton, M.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at last 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on Earth today. In at least one case, the eruption near Pillan Patea, two independent instruments on Galileo show that the lava temperature must have exceeded 1700 kelvin and may have reached 2000 kelvin. The most likely explanation is that these lavas are ultramafic (magnesium-rich) silicates, and this idea is supported by the tentative identification of magnesium-rich orthopyroxene in lava flows associated with thse high-temperature hot spots.

  3. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  4. The Evolution of Land Plants and the Silicate Weathering Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Bachan, A.; Baresch, A.; Lau, K. V.; Thomas, D.; Lee, J. E.; Boyce, C. K.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been recognized that the advent of vascular plants in the Paleozoic must have changed silicate weathering and fundamentally altered the long-term carbon cycle. Efforts to quantify these effects have been formulated in carbon cycle models that are, in part, calibrated by weathering studies of modern plant communities. In models of the long-term carbon cycle, plants play a key role in controlling atmospheric CO2, particularly in the late Paleozoic. We test the impact of some established and recent theories regarding plant-enhanced weathering by coupling a one-dimensional vapor transport model to a reactive transport model of silicate weathering. In this coupled model, we evaluate consequences of plant evolutionary innovation that have not been mechanistically incorporated into most existing models: 1) the role of evolutionary shifts in plant transpiration in enhancing silicate weathering by increasing downwind transport and recycling of water vapor to continental interiors; 2) the importance of deeply-rooted plants and their associated microbial communities in increasing soil CO2 and weathering zone length scales; and, 3) the cumulative effect of these processes. Our modeling approach is framed by energy/supply constraints calibrated for minimally vegetated-, vascular plant forested-, and angiosperm-worlds. We find that the emergence of widespread transpiration and associated inland vapor recycling approximately doubles weathering solute concentrations when deep-rooted vascular plants (Devonian-Carboniferous) fully replace a minimally vegetated (pre-Devonian) world. The later evolution of angiosperms (Cretaceous and Cenozoic) and subsequent increase in transpiration fluxes increase weathering solute concentrations by approximately an additional 20%. Our estimates of the changes in weatherability caused by land plant evolution are of a similar magnitude, but explained with new process-based mechanisms, than those used in existing carbon cycle models. We

  5. Theoretical and practical aspects of aqueous solution sodium silicate modifying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuryaev Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the use of liquid glass in industry particularly for porous filler production. The aim of this paper is to show the necessity liquid glass modification for the purpose of its rheological characteristics change for raw granules formation and providing given structure after porization. Data on chemical liquid glass modification are provided by adding sodium chloride. Moreover, inert mineral additives influence on porous filler properties are shown in this paper. The basic principles of light concrete composition selection are specified. Test results of light concrete on the developed porous sodium silicate filler are given.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward

    2007-03-05

    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  7. Surface charges and Np(V) sorption on amorphous Al- and Fe- silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nero, M.; Assada, A.; Barillon, R.; Duplatre, G.; Made, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Sorption onto Si-rich alteration layers of crystalline minerals and nuclear glasses, and onto amorphous secondary silicates of rocks and soils, are expected to retard the migration of actinides in the near- and far-field of HLW repositories. We present experimental and modeling studies on the effects of silicate structure and bulk chemistry, and of solution chemistry, on charges and adsorption of neptunyl ions at surfaces of synthetic, amorphous or poorly ordered silica, Al-silicates and Fe-silicates. The Al-silicates display similar pH-dependent surface charges characterized by predominant Si-O - Si sites, and similar surface affinities for neptunyl ions, irrespective to their Si/Al molar ratio (varying from 10 to 4.3). Such experimental features are explained by incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position in the silicate lattice, leading to only trace amounts of high-affinity Al-OH surface groups due to octahedral Al. By contrast, the structure of the Fe-silicates ensures the occurrence of high-affinity Fe-OH surface groups, whose concentration is shown by proton adsorption measurements to increase with decreasing of the silicate Si/Fe molar ratio (from 10 to 2.3). Nevertheless, experimental data of the adsorption of neptunyl and electrolyte ions show unexpectedly weak effect of the Si/Fe ratio, and suggest predominant Si-OH surface groups. A possible explanation is that aqueous silicate anions, released by dissolution, adsorb at OH Fe - surface groups and / or precipitate as silica gel coatings, because experimental solutions were found at near-equilibrium with respect to amorphous silica. Therefore, the environmental sorption of Np(V) onto Si-rich, amorphous or poorly ordered Al-silicates may primarily depend on pH and silicate specific surface areas, given the low overall chemical affinity of such phases for dissolved metals. By contrast, the sorption of Np(V) on natural, amorphous or poorly ordered Fe-silicates may be a

  8. Grain boundary corrosion and alteration phase formation during the oxidative dissolution of UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Alteration behavior of UO 2 pellets following reaction under unsaturated drip-test conditions at 90 C for up to 10 years was examined by solid phase and leachate analyses. Sample reactions were characterized by preferential dissolution of grain boundaries between the original press-sintered UO 2 granules comprising the samples, development of a polygonal network of open channels along the intergrain boundaries, and spallation of surface granules that had undergone severe grain boundary corrosion. The development of a dense mat of alteration phases after 2 years of reaction trapped loose granules, resulting in reduced rates of particulate U release. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases that formed on the present samples was similar to that observed in surficial weathering zones of natural uraninite (UO 2 ) deposits, with alkali and alkaline earth uranyl silicates representing the long-term solubility-limiting phases for U in both systems

  9. Soft landing of bare PtRu nanoparticles for electrochemical reduction of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Colby, Robert; Engelhard, Mark; Moon, Daewon; Laskin, Julia

    2015-08-07

    Magnetron sputtering of two independent Pt and Ru targets coupled with inert gas aggregation in a modified commercial source has been combined with soft landing of mass-selected ions to prepare bare 4.5 nm diameter PtRu nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes with controlled size and morphology for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in solution. Employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is shown that the nanoparticles bind randomly to the glassy carbon electrode at a relatively low coverage of 7 × 10(4) ions μm(-2) and that their average height is centered at 4.5 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images obtained in the high-angle annular dark field mode (HAADF-STEM) further confirm that the soft-landed PtRu nanoparticles are uniform in size. Wide-area scans of the electrodes using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal the presence of both Pt and Ru in atomic concentrations of ∼9% and ∼33%, respectively. Deconvolution of the high energy resolution XPS spectra in the Pt 4f and Ru 3d regions indicates the presence of both oxidized Pt and Ru. The substantially higher loading of Ru compared to Pt and enrichment of Pt at the surface of the nanoparticles is confirmed by wide-area analysis of the electrodes using time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (TOF-MEIS) employing both 80 keV He(+) and O(+) ions. The activity of electrodes containing 7 × 10(4) ions μm(-2) of bare 4.5 nm PtRu nanoparticles toward the electrochemical reduction of oxygen was evaluated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. In both electrolytes a pronounced reduction peak was observed during O2 purging of the solution that was not evident during purging with Ar. Repeated electrochemical cycling of the electrodes revealed little evolution in the shape or position of the voltammograms indicating high stability of the nanoparticles supported on glassy carbon. The reproducibility of the nanoparticle synthesis and deposition was

  10. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  11. Coarse-grained forms for equations describing the microscopic motion of particles in a fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shankar P; Yoshimori, Akira

    2013-10-01

    Exact equations of motion for the microscopically defined collective density ρ(x,t) and the momentum density ĝ(x,t) of a fluid have been obtained in the past starting from the corresponding Langevin equations representing the dynamics of the fluid particles. In the present work we average these exact equations of microscopic dynamics over the local equilibrium distribution to obtain stochastic partial differential equations for the coarse-grained densities with smooth spatial and temporal dependence. In particular, we consider Dean's exact balance equation for the microscopic density of a system of interacting Brownian particles to obtain the basic equation of the dynamic density functional theory with noise. Our analysis demonstrates that on thermal averaging the dependence of the exact equations on the bare interaction potential is converted to dependence on the corresponding thermodynamic direct correlation functions in the coarse-grained equations.

  12. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  13. EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  14. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  15. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  16. Grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  17. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  18. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates; Etude par RMN de la structure des silicates de calcium hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klur, I

    1996-02-26

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.) 101 refs.

  19. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J; Fischer, F D

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  20. Polymer-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Cryotank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Meador, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous composite cryotank designs have relied on the use of conventional composite materials to reduce microcracking and permeability. However, revolutionary advances in nanotechnology derived materials may enable the production of ultra-lightweight cryotanks with significantly enhanced durability and damage tolerance, as well as reduced propellant permeability. Layered silicate nanocomposites are especially attractive in cryogenic storage tanks based on results that have been reported for epoxy nanocomposite systems. These materials often exhibit an order of magnitude reduction in gas permeability when compared to the base resin. In addition, polymer-silicate nanocomposites have been shown to yield improved dimensional stability, strength, and toughness. The enhancement in material performance of these systems occurs without property trade-offs which are often observed in conventionally filled polymer composites. Research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center have led to the development of epoxy-clay nanocomposites with 70% lower hydrogen permeability than the base epoxy resin. Filament wound carbon fiber reinforced tanks made with this nanocomposite had a five-fold lower helium leak rate than the corresponding tanks made without clay. The pronounced reduction observed with the tank may be due to flow induced alignment of the clay layers during processing. Additionally, the nanocomposites showed CTE reductions of up to 30%, as well as a 100% increase in toughness.

  1. Diblock Copolymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limary, Ratchana; Green, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The stability of thin film symmetric diblock copolymers blended with layered silicate nanocomposites were examined using a combination of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two cases were examined PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-b-polymethylacrylate) blended with montmorillonite stoichiometrically loaded with alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(S), and PS-b-PMMA blended with montmorillonite loaded with excess alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(E). XRD spectra show an increase in the gallery spacing of the OLSs, indicating that the copolymer chains have intercalated the layered silicates. AFM images reveal a distinct difference between the two nanocomposite thin films: regions in the vicinity of OLS(S) aggregates were depleted of material, while in the vicinity of OLS(E) aggregates, dewetting of the substrate occurred. We show that the stability of the copolymer/OLS nanocomposite films is determined by the enthalpic driving force associated with intercalation of the copolymer chains into the galleries of the modified OLS layers and by the substrate/organic modifier interactions.

  2. Ultrafast Carbon Dioxide Sorption Kinetics Using Lithium Silicate Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambo, Apolo; He, Juan; Nguyen, Tu Quang; Atla, Veerendra; Druffel, Thad; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2017-06-14

    In this paper, the Li 4 SiO 4 nanowires (NWs) were shown to be promising for CO 2 capture with ultrafast kinetics. Specifically, the nanowire powders exhibited an uptake of 0.35 g g -1 of CO 2 at an ultrafast adsorption rate of 0.22 g g -1 min -1 at 650-700 °C. Lithium silicate (Li 4 SiO 4 ) nanowires and nanopowders were synthesized using a "solvo-plasma" technique involving plasma oxidation of silicon precursors mixed with lithium hydroxide. The kinetic parameter values (k) extracted from sorption kinetics obtained using NW powders are 1 order of magnitude higher than those previously reported for the Li 4 SiO 4 -CO 2 reaction system. The time scales for CO 2 sorption using nanowires are approximately 3 min and two orders magnitude faster compared to those obtained using lithium silicate powders with spherical morphologies and aggregates. Furthermore, Li 4 SiO 4 nanowire powders showed reversibility through sorption-desorption cycles indicating their suitability for CO 2 capture applications. All of the morphologies of Li 4 SiO 4 powders exhibited a double exponential behavior in the adsorption kinetics indicating two distinct time constants for kinetic and the mass transfer limited regimes.

  3. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, L.; Bareiro, O.; Santos, L.A. dos, E-mail: loreley.morejon@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRG), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dep. de Materiais; Carrodeguas R, Garcia [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio. Dept. de Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  4. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  5. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnien, V.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  6. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  7. Formation mechanisms of colloidal silica via sodium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.-S.; Huang, P.Y.; Yang, C.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal silica is formed by titrating active silicic acid into a heated KOH with seed solution. The colloidal silica formation mechanisms are investigated by sampling the heated solution during titration. In the initial stage, the added seeds were dissolved. This might due to the dilution of seed concentration, the addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the heating at 100 deg. C. Homogenous nucleation and surface growth occur simultaneously in the second stage of colloidal silica formation. Homogenous nucleation is more important when the seed concentration is relatively low. On the other hand, surface growth plays an important role when the seed concentration is increased. In the middle seed concentration, the seed particles grow up and some new small particles are born by the homogenous nucleation process to form a bimodal size distribution product. As the titrating volume of active silicic acid exceeds a specific value in the last stage the particle size increases rapidly and the particle number decreases, which may be caused by the aggregation of particles. The intervals between each stage were varied with the seed concentration. Increasing the seed concentration led to the formation of uniform particle size colloidal silica

  8. Anionic silicate organic frameworks constructed from hexacoordinate silicon centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Jérôme; Prill, Dragica; Bojdys, Michael J.; Fayon, Pierre; Trewin, Abbie; Fitch, Andrew N.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Thomas, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Crystalline frameworks composed of hexacoordinate silicon species have thus far only been observed in a few high pressure silicate phases. By implementing reversible Si-O chemistry for the crystallization of covalent organic frameworks, we demonstrate the simple one-pot synthesis of silicate organic frameworks based on octahedral dianionic SiO6 building units. Clear evidence of the hexacoordinate environment around the silicon atoms is given by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Characterization by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculation and analysis of the pair-distribution function showed that those anionic frameworks—M2[Si(C16H10O4)1.5], where M = Li, Na, K and C16H10O4 is 9,10-dimethylanthracene-2,3,6,7-tetraolate—crystallize as two-dimensional hexagonal layers stabilized in a fully eclipsed stacking arrangement with pronounced disorder in the stacking direction. Permanent microporosity with high surface area (up to 1,276 m2 g-1) was evidenced by gas-sorption measurements. The negatively charged backbone balanced with extra-framework cations and the permanent microporosity are characteristics that are shared with zeolites.

  9. Laser ablation of silicate glasses doped with transuranic actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Direct sampling laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry (DS-LAMS) was applied to silica glasses doped with 237 Np, 242 Pu or 241 Am using a unique instrument recently installed into a transuranic glovebox. The primary goal was to assess the utility of mass spectrometry of directly ablated ions for facile evaluation of actinide (An) constituents of silicate glass immobilization matrices used for encapsulation of radionuclides. The instrument and general procedures have been described elsewhere. Three high-purity silicate glasses prepared by a sol-gel process (SG) and one conventional high-temperature (HT; melting point ∼ 1,450 C) borosilicate glass were studied. These glasses comprised the following constituents, with compositions expressed in mass percentages: Np-HT ∼ 30% SiO 2 + 6% B 2 O 3 + 3% BaO + 13% Al 2 O 3 + 10% PbO + 30% La 2 O 3 + 8% 237 NpO 2 ; Np-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 237 NpO 2 ; Pu-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 242 PuO 2 ; Am-SG ∼ 85% SiO 2 + 15% 241 AmO 2

  10. Development of alumino-silicate refractories in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiedu, A. K.; Tetteh, D.M.B.; Obiri, H. A.; Brenya, E. F.; Ayensu, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alumino-silicate (bauxite), andalusite, kaolin and clay were investigated for suitability in production of alumina, mullite and fireclay brick refractories. The raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and silicate analyses. The x-ray diffraction analysis of alumina and mullite refractories fired at 1450 0 C, and fireclay bricks fired at 1350 0 C, indicated presence of corundum and alpha-alumina crystals. The values of thermal (fired) shrinkage, crushing, strength, porosity, water absorption and bulk density determined were 31.1%, 2.3 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 4.86 x 10 6 N/m 2 and 13.2 % for mullite; 30.2%, 2.4 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 3.20 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 12.8 % for alumina; and 25.2 %, 2.1 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 2.61 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 11.8% for fireclay, respectively. Bauxite, andalusite and special kaolin were identified as potential raw materials for developing alumina and mullite refractories for construction of high temperature kilns and furnaces operating at 1350 0 C. The clay and kaolin minerals could be used to produce fireclay refractories for construction of incinerators operating at maximum temperatures of about 1000 0 C. The performance of the refractories was demonstrated by producing bricks to construct kilns and incinerators for the ceramic industry and hospitals. (au)

  11. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  12. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina

    2017-05-13

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  13. 6Li-doped silicate glass for thermal neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.; Blackburn, D.H.; Kauffman, D.A.; Cranmer, D.C.; Olmez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Glass formulations are described that contain high concentrations of 6 Li and are suitable for use as thermal neutron shielding. One formulation contained 31 mol% of 6 Li 2 O and 69 mol% of SiO 2 . Studies were performed on a second formulation that contained as much as 37 mol% of 6 Li 2 O and 59 mol% of SiO 2 , with 4 mol% Al 2 O 3 added to prevent crystallization at such high 6 Li 2 O concentrations. These lithium silicate glasses can be formed into a variety of shapes using conventional glass fabrication techniques. Examples include flat plates, disks, hollow cylinders, and other more complex geometries. Both in-beam and in-core experiments have been performed to study the use and durability of Li silicate glasses. In-core experiments show the glass can withstand the intense radiation fields near the core of a reactor. The neutron attenuation of the glasses used in these studies was 90%/mm. In-beam studies show that the glass is effective for reducing the gamma-ray and neutron fields near experiments. ((orig.))

  14. Size-controllable synthesis of bare gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser fragmentation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximova, Ksenia; Aristov, Andrei; Sentis, Marc; Kabashin, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    We report a size-controllable synthesis of stable aqueous solutions of ultrapure low-size-dispersed Au nanoparticles by methods of femtosecond laser fragmentation from preliminary formed colloids. Such approach makes possible the tuning of mean nanoparticle size between a few nm and several tens of nm under the size dispersion lower than 70% by varying the fluence of pumping radiation during the fragmentation procedure. The efficient size control is explained by 3D geometry of laser fragmentation by femtosecond laser-induced white light super-continuum and plasma-related phenomena. Despite the absence of any protective ligands, the nanoparticle solutions demonstrate exceptional stability due to electric repulsion effect associated with strong negative charging of formed nanoparticles. Stable aqueous solutions of bare gold nanoparticles present a unique object with a variety of potential applications in catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photovoltaics, biosensing and biomedicine. (paper)

  15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ESTIMATING SOIL MOISTURE OVER BARE SOIL USING FULL-POLARIMETRIC ALOS-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekertekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE.

  16. Soil microbial activities beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadová, I.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Záhora, J.; Fišerová, H.

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). These steppes show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure. Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). On the other hand in "resource islands" and in surrounding bare soil exists the belowground zone of influence. The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). Secondary compounds and allelopathy restrict other species growth and contribute to patchy plant distribution. Active root segregation affects not only neighbourś growth but also soil microbial activities. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration; net nitrogen mineralization). The experimental plots were located in the province Almería in Sierra de los Filabres Mountains near the village Gérgal (southeast Spain) in the small catchment which is situated between 1090 - 1165 m a.s.l. The area with extent of 82 000 m2 is affected by soil degradation. The climate is semiarid Mediterranean. The mean annual rainfall is of about 240 mm mostly concentrated in autumn and spring. The mean annual temperature is 13.9° C. The studied soil has a loam to sandy clay texture and is classified as Lithosol (FAO-ISRIC and ISSS, 1998). The vegetation of these areas is an

  17. Differences between tethered polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed onto bare mica and hydrophobically modified mica, comparison with theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balastre, Marc; Tamashiro, Mario N.; Hernandez, Ernesto; Pincus, Philip; Tirrell, Matthew

    2001-03-01

    End-grafted polymers generated from the adsorption of asymmetric diblock copolymers on solid surface play an important role in many areas of science and technology. While the small insoluble block acts as an anchor, the charged soluble block confers useful properties to the surface. This study looks at tethered layers of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(t-butyl styrene) (PtBS-PSS) adsorbed on both mica (hydrophilic) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTE) modified mica (hydrophobic). Normal compressing forces at two different constant grafting densities (bare and modified mica) were measured with the surface force apparatus and compared with theoretical prediction. The effect of salt concentration (Cs) upon the thickness of the self-assembled layers (Lo) was measured in each case. For adsorption of diblock copolymers onto OTE the resulting scaling relationship is much closer to the brush theory, Lo Cs-1/3. This result suggests that the adsorbed amount on mica is not high enough to form a brush.

  18. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation preceded by routine prestenting with a bare metal stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demkow, Marcin; Biernacka, Elzbieta Katarzyna; Spiewak, Mateusz

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) with routine prestenting with a bare metal stent (BMS). Background: PPVI is a relatively new method of treating patients with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD). Results of PPVI performed.......6 ± 22.7 to 38.8 ± 10.4 mm Hg on the day following implantation (P = 0.001). At 1-month and 6-month follow-ups, mean RVOT gradient was 34.0 ± 9.8 and 32.0 ± 12.2 mm Hg, respectively. In patients with significant pulmonary regurgitation, mean pulmonary regurgitation fraction decreased from 19% ± 6% to 2...

  19. Dynamics of solid inner-shell electrons in collisions with bare and dressed swift ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, C.C.; Miraglia, J. E.; Arista, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical interactions of swift heavy projectiles and solid inner-shell electrons. The dielectric formalism employed to deal with the free-electron gas is extended to account for the core electrons, by using the local plasma approximation. Results for stopping power, energy straggling, and inner-shell ionization in collisions of bare ions with metals are displayed, showing very good accord with the experimental data. Simultaneous excitations of projectile and target electrons are also analyzed. In the high-energy range we find a similar contribution of target core and valence electrons to the probability of projectile-electron loss. The problem of no excitation threshold within the local plasma approximation and the possibility of collective excitations of the shells are discussed

  20. CHARACTERISATION AND CORRELATION OF BIOTICS AND ABIOTICS PARAMETERS IN NAHR EL BARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slim, K.; Khalaf, G.; Abi Ghanem, C.; Nakhle, K.; Fakhri, M

    2009-01-01

    Nahr el Bared is one of the main Lebanese coastal rivers. It crosses down a rather deep valley and passes by several urban agglomerations and industrial zones, which use its water as a discharge system of their waste. This study shows the impact of the anthropic activities on the water quality of this river. The application of the diversity and the similarity index, and the biological normalized index IBGN, as well as the statistical analyses of correlation permit to characterize a sector close to the source free of pollution whereas most of the course downstream is subjected to strong anthropic disturbances which degrade the quality of water to more or less high intensities according to the inputs and the selfpurification. A positive correlation of the chemical, biological and bacteriological pollution indicators is highlighted. (author)

  1. Experiments with highly charged ions up to bare U92+ on the electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-07-01

    An overview is given of the current experimental effort to investigate the level structure of highly charged ions with the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. The facility allows the production and study of virtually any ionization state of any element up to bare U 92+ . Precision spectroscopic measurements have been performed for a range of Δn = 0 and Δn = 1 transitions. Examples involving 3-4 and 2-3 as well as 3-3 and 2-2 transitions in uranium ions are discussed that illustrated some of the measurement and analysis techniques employed. The measurements have allowed tests of calculations of the the quantum electrodynamical contributions to the transitions energies at the 0.4% level in a regime where (Zα) ∼ 1

  2. Calculation and analysis for a series of enriched uranium bare sphere critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunhai

    1994-12-01

    The imported reactor fuel assembly MARIA program system is adapted to CYBER 825 computer in China Institute of Atomic Energy, and extensively used for a series of enriched uranium bare sphere critical assemblies. The MARIA auxiliary program of resonance modification MA is designed for taking account of the effects of resonance fission and absorption on calculated results. By which, the multigroup constants in the library attached to MARIA program are revised based on the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-IV, the related nuclear data files are replaced. And then, the reactor geometry buckling and multiplication factor are given in output tapes. The accuracy of calculated results is comparable with those of Monte Carlo and Sn method, and the agreement with experiment result is in 1%. (5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  3. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates......Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...

  4. Critical masses of bare homogeneous spherical UO2-water mixtures at intermediate enrichments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon, G.L.; Stratton, W.

    1999-01-01

    Critical masses of bare homogeneous spherical UO 2 -water mixtures at various intermediate fissile enrichments determined by multigroup, transport theory is presented. This work was performed to provide support for particular issues encountered by the nuclear industry when operating in the intermediate enrichment regime, namely, the validation of codes used to set criticality safety limits. Validation is normally performed with a comparison of computational results and applicable experiments. However, this may be difficult in some cases because of the lack of sufficient applicable experiments in the intermediate enrichment range. If a large extension of the area of applicability from an experiment to the desired application exists, then an alternative means for validation must be employed. Ideal interpretations of standard ANSI/ANS 8.1 Section 4.3 (1983) implies that perhaps an independent code and data system may be employed for validation purposes

  5. Confined detection volume of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy by bare fiber probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Lei, Franck H; Angiboust, Jean-François; Manfait, Michel

    2010-04-01

    A fiber-tip-based near-field fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been developed for confining the detection volume to sub-diffraction-limited dimensions. This near-field FCS is based on near-field illumination by coupling a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) to a conventional confocal FCS. Single-molecule FCS analysis at 100 nM Rhodamine 6G has been achieved by using bare chemically etched, tapered fiber tips. The detection volume under control of the SNOM system has been reduced over one order of magnitude compared to that of the conventional confocal FCS. Related factors influencing the near-field FCS performance are investigated and discussed in detail. In this proof-of-principle study, the preliminary experimental results suggest that the fiber-tip-based near-field FCS might be a good alternative to realize localized analysis at the single-molecule level.

  6. Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, C.D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

  7. Effective charge versus bare charge: an analytical estimate for colloids in the infinite dilution limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouy, Miguel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2003-01-01

    We propose an analytical approximation for the dependence of the effective charge on the bare charge for spherical and cylindrical macro-ions as a function of the size of the colloid and salt content, for the situation of a unique colloid immersed in a sea of electrolyte (where the definition of an effective charge is non-ambiguous). Our approach is based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) mean-field theory. Mathematically speaking, our estimate is asymptotically exact in the limit κa >> 1, where a is the radius of the colloid and κ is the inverse screening length. In practice, a careful comparison with effective charge parameters, obtained by numerically solving the full nonlinear PB theory, proves that our estimate is good down to κa ∼ 1. This is precisely the limit appropriate to treat colloidal suspensions. A particular emphasis is put on the range of parameters suitable to describe both single and double strand DNA molecules under physiological conditions

  8. Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Benedetto, Umberto; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety....... RESULTS: Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial...... infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target...

  9. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  10. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  11. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  12. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  13. Interaction of dispersed polyvynil acetate with silicate in finishing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runova, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the processes of interaction between calcium silicate hydrates and dispersed polyvinyl acetate in tight films with the aim of developing compounds meant for restoration and finishing works. The basis of this development relies on the concept concerning the determining role of the crystal-chemical factor of the silicate phase in the formation of organic-mineral compounds of increased durability. The characteristics of dispersed calcium silicate hydrates are portrayed. The preparation conditions, accounting for the synthesis of the product of submicrocrystalline structure, conforming with the stoichiometry CaO∙SiO2 =0.8-2.0 have been determined. The interaction has been studied for compounds achieved by mixing ingredients in a rapid whirling mixer, and subjected to hardening at T=20+2 T. With the aid of XRD, DTA and Infra-Red Spectrometry methods the formation process of the sophisticated polymer silicate phase in the material was observed for a period of 90 days. The properties of the film were investigated and its high resistance against the influence of external factors was established. On this basis a conclusion concerning the quite high effectiveness of substituting portland cement with dispersed calcium silicate hydrate in polymer cement compounds has been made. White colour and other various special properties determine the suitability for repair and finishing works on facades of buildings.

    Este artículo está orientado a estudiar los procesos de interacción entre los silicatos cálcicos hidratados y el acetato de polivinilo disperso en capas impermeables, con el objeto de desarrollar compuestos destinados para la restauración. El fundamento de estos estudios es determinar el papel que los factores cristaloquímicos de las fases silicato tienen en la formación de compuestos órganominerales de elevada durabilidad. Se han descrito las características de los silicatos cálcicos hidratados

  14. Size distribution of dust grains: A problem of self-similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, TH.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution functions describing the results of natural processes frequently show the shape of power laws. It is an open question whether this behavior is a result simply coming about by the chosen mathematical representation of the observational data or reflects a deep-seated principle of nature. The authors suppose the latter being the case. Using a dust model consisting of silicate and graphite grains Mathis et al. (1977) showed that the interstellar extinction curve can be represented by taking a grain radii distribution of power law type n(a) varies as a(exp -p) with 3.3 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 3.6 (example 1) as a basis. A different approach to understanding power laws like that in example 1 becomes possible by the theory of self-similar processes (scale invariance). The beta model of turbulence (Frisch et al., 1978) leads in an elementary way to the concept of the self-similarity dimension D, a special case of Mandelbrot's (1977) fractal dimension. In the frame of this beta model, it is supposed that on each stage of a cascade the system decays to N clumps and that only the portion beta N remains active further on. An important feature of this model is that the active eddies become less and less space-filling. In the following, the authors assume that grain-grain collisions are such a scale-invarient process and that the remaining grains are the inactive (frozen) clumps of the cascade. In this way, a size distribution n(a) da varies as a(exp -(D+1))da (example 2) results. It seems to be highly probable that the power law character of the size distribution of interstellar dust grains is the result of a self-similarity process. We can, however, not exclude that the process leading to the interstellar grain size distribution is not fragmentation at all

  15. Modelling bare fallow SOM dynamics on a Chernozem soil in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Merbach, Ines

    2017-04-01

    The level of our process understanding about carbon and nitrogen fluxes in soils becomes visible at extreme situations like bare fallow soils. The observed dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the top soil on a 28 years old fallow experiment on Haplic Chernozem in Bad Lauchstädt (Germany) was modelled using the Candy Carbon Balance (CCB) model that in its standard version was previously validated with LTFE data from Central Europe and a tillage experiment in Austria. For this study we selected two treatments of the fallow experiment in Bad Lauchstädt where the soil was kept bare with mechanical or chemical treatments. For this extreme land use (no input of fresh organic matter) the CCB model was improved to include the SOC related change of soil physical parameters and a dynamic handling of the physically stabilized soil organic matter (SOM) pool. The results from observation and modelling reflected the increased SOM turnover due to soil tillage for carbon as well as nitrogen and thus confirmed the modelling approach for non-tillage in CCB. The added sub model for the dynamics of physically stabilized SOM was also verified. The long term stabilized SOM is very important on this site. The modelled size of the physically stabilized SOC pool was about 55% of total SOC and reduced only slowly during the nearly three decades but the implementation of this effect resulted in improved simulation results. Thus we conclude that scenarios that lead to bigger changes of SOM stocks require a modelling approach that acknowledges the interaction between SOM and soil physical properties.

  16. Spectral Analysis Related to Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da, E-mail: roselisboa@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Silva, Carlos Augusto Bueno [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Greco, Otaviano José [Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in cardiovascular regulation; sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia. To assess the spectral analysis of heart rate variability during stent implantation, comparing the types of stent. This study assessed 61 patients (mean age, 64.0 years; 35 men) with ischemic heart disease and indication for stenting. Stent implantation was performed under Holter monitoring to record the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (Fourier transform), measuring the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components, and the LF/HF ratio before and during the procedure. Bare-metal stent was implanted in 34 patients, while the others received drug-eluting stents. The right coronary artery was approached in 21 patients, the left anterior descending, in 28, and the circumflex, in 9. As compared with the pre-stenting period, all patients showed an increase in LF and HF during stent implantation (658 versus 185 ms2, p = 0.00; 322 versus 121, p = 0.00, respectively), with no change in LF/HF. During stent implantation, LF was 864 ms2 in patients with bare-metal stents, and 398 ms2 in those with drug-eluting stents (p = 0.00). The spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed no association with diabetes mellitus, family history, clinical presentation, beta-blockers, age, and vessel or its segment. Stent implantation resulted in concomitant sympathetic and vagal activations. Diabetes mellitus, use of beta-blockers, and the vessel approached showed no influence on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Sympathetic activation was lower during the implantation of drug-eluting stents.

  17. The Study of Phenological and Morphophysiological Traits of New and Old Barely Shoot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moshfeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare morphophysiological traits between new and old cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. a greenhouse experiment was conducted in greenhouse condition in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in spring and summer 2011.The type of experiment was a completely randomized design with eight treatments (Nosrat , Youssof , Fagr30 , Nick and four old cultivars include (Reihan, Kavir, Zarjo , Valfajr and three replications. All seeds were grown in PVC tubes contained washed sands and disruptive sampling was occurred with destroying plastic bags in the end of the four stages uncluding 6th leaf stage, jointing, heading and ripening. Results indicated that new cultivars showed better performances in all shoot growth parameters than the old cultivars. Modern cultivars for most traits, particularly traits that were positively correlated with yield and its components proved more successful than the old cultivars. They had longer reproductive periods and grain filling duration but their vegetative period were shorter than old cultivars. Among shoots characteristics, new cultivars had higher leaf area, stem dry weight and stem length than old cultivars. Result of this study showed that, among all the characteristics of grain yield and yield components, such as grain weight ,spike length, spike per plant, grain per spike and number tiller , new figures were better than old figures. In general, new cultivar Nick was introduced as the best cultivar and Zarjo was introduced as the weakest cultivar.

  18. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  19. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  20. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Tracer concentration contours in grain lattice and grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Olander, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays a significant role in fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated during nuclear fission have to diffuse in the grain lattice and the boundary inside fuel pellets before they reach the open spaces in a fuel rod. These processes can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' techniques, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and directly used for low burn-up fission gas release analysis. However, only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically due to mathematical complexity. Also the numerical solution has limitations in a practical use. In this paper, an approximate analytical solution in case of stationary grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This closed-form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and it turns out that it makes computation not only greatly easier but also more accurate than previous models. It can be applied to theoretical modelings for low burn-up fission gas release phenomena and experimental analyses as well, especially for PIE (post irradiation examination). (author)

  2. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  3. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  4. Hybridization of tensor-optimized and high-momentum antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for light nuclei with bare interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengjiao; Isaka, Masahiro; Myo, Takayuki; Toki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Suhara, Tadahiro; Yamada, Taiichi

    2018-01-01

    Many-body correlations play an essential role in the ab initio description of nuclei with nuclear bare interactions. We propose a new framework to describe light nuclei by the hybridization of the tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (TOAMD) and the high-momentum AMD (HM-AMD), which we call "HM-TOAMD." In this framework, we describe the many-body correlations in terms of not only the correlation functions in TOAMD, but also the high-momentum pairs in the AMD wave function. With the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction AV8^', we sufficiently reproduce the energy and radius of the {^3}H nucleus in HM-TOAMD. The effects of tensor force and short-range repulsion in the bare interaction are nicely described in this new framework. We also discuss the convergence in calculation and flexibility of the model space for this new method.

  5. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  6. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  7. [Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of sections entitled resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os, Mg self-diffusion in spinel and silicate melts, neotectonics: U-Th ages of solitary corals from the California coast, uranium-series evidence on diagenesis and hydrology of carbonates of Barbados, diffusion of H 2 O molecules in silicate glasses, and development of an extremely high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

  8. FT-IR and 29 Si-NMR for evaluating aluminium silicate precursors for geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Fischer, H.R.; Verkuijlen, M.H.W.; Eck, E.R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Geopolymers are systems of inorganic binders that can be used for sustainable, cementless concrete and are formed by alkali activation of an aluminium–silicate precursor (often secondary resources like fly ash or slag). The type of aluminium– silicate precursor and its potential variations within

  9. EFFECT OF SILICATE ON GRAM STAINING AND VIABILITY OF PNEUMOCOCCI AND OTHER BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M.; Roe, Amy S.

    1956-01-01

    Application of silicate solutions to living or heat-killed pneumococci and to certain "viridans" streptococci causes their conversion from a Gram-positive to a Gram-negative state. The original staining properties can be restored by suspending the silicate-treated bacteria in alkaline solutions of various salts but not by simple washing in water. Living pneumococci and the strains of streptococci whose staining properties are similarly affected are killed when suspended in silicate solutions. In other Gram-positive species silicate causes conversion to Gram negativity but restoration to positivity occurs upon washing in water. In a third group of Gram-positive organisms silicate has no effect on the Gram reaction. The viability of organisms in these two groups is unaffected by silicate under the conditions employed. No effect on staining or viability of Gram-negative bacteria has been observed. The effects of silicate on staining and viability are inhibited by nutrient broth or whole serum but not by purified serum albumin. Lecithin, choline, and other substituted ammonium compounds also inhibit the effects of silicate on pneumococci. PMID:13306854

  10. KINETICS OF A SILICATE COMPOSITION GELATION IN PRESENCE OF REACTION RATE REGULATING COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Titova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic and inorganic additions on the formation rate of the silicate gels standard systems – sodium silicate solution in model fresh water was studied. As a result of the experiments were selected optimum concentrations of additives - gelation time regulators

  11. Impact of Micro Silica Surface Hydroxyl Groups on the Properties of Calcium Silicate Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Jørgensen, Bianca; Yu, Donghong

    2017-01-01

    Porous calcium silicates are widely used in insulating systems for high temperature applications. In the production of porous calcium silicates, quicklime and micro silica have been utilized as key raw materials. In the reaction between SiO2 and CaO, the dissolution of SiO2 has been proven...

  12. Controlled structure and properties of silicate nanoparticle networks for incorporation of biosystem components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Kawanishi, Toru; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Takaoka, Akio; Kato, Masaru; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are of technological interest in many fields. We created silicate nanoparticle hydrogels that effectively incorporated biomolecules that are unstable and involved in complicated reactions. The size of the silicate nanoparticles strongly affected both the physical characteristics of the resulting hydrogel and the activity of biomolecules incorporated within the hydrogel. We used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze in detail the hydrogel network patterns formed by the silicate nanoparticles. We obtained clear nanostructured images of biomolecule-nanoparticle composite hydrogels. The TEM images also showed that larger silicate nanoparticles (22 nm) formed more loosely associated silicate networks than did smaller silicate nanoparticles (7 nm). The loosely associated networks formed from larger silicate nanoparticles might facilitate substrate diffusion through the network, thus promoting the observed increased activity of the entrapped biomolecules. This doubled the activity of the incorporated biosystems compared with that of biosystems prepared by our own previously reported method. We propose a reaction scheme to explain the formation of the silicate nanoparticle networks. The successful incorporation of biomolecules into the nanoparticle hydrogels, along with the high level of activity exhibited by the biomolecules required for complicated reaction within the gels, demonstrates the nanocomposites' potential for use in medical applications.

  13. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein A. Akhlaghi Amiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content, which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.

  14. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  15. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  16. The mitochondrial activation of silicate and its role in silicosis, black lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, H I; Cook, G L

    1979-01-01

    Silicate substitutes for phosphate in the transitory uncoupling of rat liver mitochondria induced by hydrazine when beta-hydroxy-butyrate is the substrate. Uncoupling is blocked by rutamycin. Just as in the case when phosphate is combined with hydrazine, ATP, ADP, PPi, and Mg++ protect against hydrazine when silicate is combined with hydrazine. A high level of ADP in the absence of added phosphate, but in the presence of silicate, induces a pseudo state three of the mitochondria. Silicate, like sulfate and arsenate which have been reported previously, is activated by the enzymes which mediate oxidative phosphorylation. These results serve to explain a role for silicate in silicosis, black lung disease, and cancer. In addition, since there is suggestive evidence in the literature that lung tissue solubilizes asbestos fibers, these results not only expand the confluence between oxidative phosphorylation and chemical carcinogenesis but are correlated with the synergistic carcinogenicity of asbestos and smoking observed by epidemiologists.

  17. Alignment of dust grains in ionized regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nels; Watson, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which charged dust grains in a plasma are torqued by passing ions and electrons is calculated. When photo-emission of electrons is not important, attraction of ions by the grain monopole potential increases the rate at which the grains' spins are dealigned by nearly an order of magnitude. Consequently, the energy density of the magnetic field required to align grains in an H II region may be increased by about an order of magnitude. In contrast, electric dipole and quadrupole moments are unlikely to produce large dealignment rates for grains of modest length-to-width ratio. Nonetheless, for positively charged grains these higher-order moments likely prevent monopole repulsion of ions from reducing the dealignment rate far below that for neutral grains. The presence of positive grain charge therefore does not greatly facilitate grain alignment in an H II region.

  18. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  19. Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and polymerization of tricalcium silicate in stirred suspensions of CaO-saturated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.; Korhonen, Charles J.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate was hydrated at 274, 278, 283, 298, and 313 K in stirred suspensions of saturated CaO solutions under a nitrogen-gas atmosphere until the end of deceleratory period. The suspension conductivities and energy flows were measured continuously. The individual reaction rates for tricalcium silicate dissolution, calcium silicate hydrate precipitation, and calcium hydroxide precipitation were calculated from these measurements. The results suggest that the proportion of tricalcium silicate dissolved was determined by the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution and the time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation. The time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation was more sensitive to changes in temperature than was the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution, so that the proportion of tricalcium silicate hydration dissolved by the deceleratory period increased with decreasing temperature. The average chain length of the calcium silicate hydrate ascertained by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased with increasing temperature

  20. Role of organically modified layered silicate both as an active interfacial modifier and nanofiller for immiscible polymer blends.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ray, SS

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ) revealed efficient mixing of the polymers in the presence of organically modified layered silicate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations showed that silicate layers were either intercalated or exfoliated...