WorldWideScience

Sample records for barcelona city spain

  1. Pakistanis in Spain: a study based on the community living in the city of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Solé Aubia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of Spain becoming a country of immigration is the greater protagonism that some countries have acquired which had not traditionally been a major source of migration movements towards Spain. Such is the case of Pakistan, whose nationals living in Spain have considerably increased in recent years, mainly in the area of Barcelona. This study seeks to undertake a research line in order to get to know more deeply the reality of this community.

  2. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  3. Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain) during 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Jéssica; Peña, Juan Carlos; Miró, Josep Ramon; Aran, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events (HWE) can cause an abrupt increase in mortality. A HWE was defined as a 7-day sequence following a key-day labelled by the 95th percentile of Barcelona daily mortality (see Peña et al., 2015). The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis (MVA) integrating different atmospheric levels (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa) was undertaken. The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The Max Planck Institute Earth system model was used to study two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) during the 21st century. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation (Q-Q). The MVA applied to the observed period (1990-2015) distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods. These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period (1961-2005) after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period (1990-2005) is twice more than during the cold period (1976-1989) due to an intensification of the warm masses. In the RCP 4.5 scenario (2006-2100 period) a positive and significant trend is shown in synoptic patterns which provoke HWE in Barcelona, especially during August; in the RCP 8.5 scenario there is no significant trend, but the intensification of the warm masses is higher.

  4. A mortality study of the last outbreak of yellow fever in Barcelona City (Spain in 1870 Estudio de la mortalidad del último brote de fiebre amarilla en la ciudad de Barcelona (España en 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Canela Soler

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last outbreak of yellow fever in the city of Barcelona, Spain, was caused by a ship arriving from Cuba. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemic of 1870 by using the available mortality data. Methods: The information on 1,235 deaths identified in the parochial registries was analyzed, using statistical and epidemiological procedures for epidemic outbreaks. Results: Mortality due to yellow fever was 549.7 per 100,000 inhabitants. The temporal distribution of the deaths showed two peaks at the end of September and October with the last fatalities occurring in December 1870. The distribution of the fatalities in the city's neighborhoods was unequal. In La Barceloneta, in particular, more fatalities were found in the streets adjacent to the port than in the most remote streets (r=0.83; pObjetivo: El último brote de fiebre amarilla en la ciudad de Barcelona, España, se originó a partir de un barco que venía de Cuba. El objetivo de este estudio es describir y analizar esa epidemia ocurrida en 1870, utilizando los datos disponibles de mortalidad. Métodos: La información de las 1235 defunciones identificadas en los registros parroquiales se ha analizado utilizando los procedimientos estadísticos y epidemiológicos para brotes epidémicos. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad por fiebre amarilla fue de 549.7 por 100,000 habitantes. La distribución temporal de las muertes tenía dos modas en el final de septiembre y octubre, y los últimos muertos ocurrieron en diciembre de 1870. La distribución de las defunciones según los barrios de la ciudad fue desigual. En La Barceloneta, en particular, hubo mas muertos en las calles adyacentes al puerto que en las más lejanas (r=0,83; p<0,0001. Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra una distribución bimodal de la mortalidad por fiebre amarilla durante el brote, con un impacto alto en hombres adultos, y en el barrio de La Barceloneta.

  5. [Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; García-Altés, Anna; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Pérez, Katherine; Kunst, Anton E; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona from 1983 to 2004. We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004), with the basic health area (BHA) as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR) for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  7. Academic cheating and gender differences in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cladellas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the issue of academic cheating, describe its causes, and examine the obstacles this behaviour creates for learning. The research was carried out with 306 students from Barcelona (Spain which were administered both with a psycho educational interview and a questionnaire. Results are similar to those from other countries and show that more than half of the students are in the habit of frequently cheating, and that boys cheat significantly more often than girls. To finish, the text suggests teaching strategies to control academic cheating in educational institutions, such as: Being aware of the problem and taking the decision to tackle it, including ethics tuition in the curricular content, teaching summarising and rephrasing techniques, frequently revising students’ writings, and last but not least, being very strict with deadlines and not accepting unwarranted excuses repeatedly made by students for not observing them.

  8. Occurrence of 95 pharmaceuticals and transformation products in urban groundwaters underlying the metropolis of Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Serna, Rebeca; Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents the occurrence of 72 pharmaceuticals and 23 transformation products (TPs) in groundwaters (GWs) underlying the city of Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-one samples were collected under different districts, and at different depths. Aquifers with different geologic features and source of recharge were included, i.e., natural bank filtration, infiltration from wastewater and water supply pipes, rainfall recharge, etc. Antibiotics were the most frequently found compounds detected at levels reaching 1000 ng L −1 . Natural bank filtration from the river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), turned out being the most influencing source of contamination, thus GW showed high range of compounds and concentrations as high as or even higher than in the river itself. In general, TPs were found at lower concentrations than the corresponding parent compounds, with some exceptions, such as 4OH propranolol and enalaprilat. -- Highlights: ► Comprehensive study of 95 pharmaceuticals in Barcelona's groundwater. ► Concentration levels found were higher than expected for groundwater. ► Transformation products significantly contributed to the overall levels. -- Ninety-five pharmaceuticals and transformation products are monitored in the groundwater from Barcelona metropolitan area

  9. The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, Bart; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Ballester, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We have quantified these effects for the four main cities in Catalonia, Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Girona). We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period 1983 to 2006. These exposure-response (ER) functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years 2025 and 2050. Predicted daily mean temperatures were based on the A1B greenhouse gas emission, "business-as-usual" scenario simulations derived from the ENSEMBLES project. Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities. For these four cities, the age-specific piecewise linear model predicts 520 (95%CI 340, 720) additional annual deaths attributable to the change in temperature in 2025 relative to the average from the baseline period of 1960-1990. For 2050, the estimate increases to 1,610 deaths per year during the warm season. For Catalonia as a whole, the point estimates for those two years are 720 and 2,330 deaths per year, respectively, or about 2 and 3% of the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

  10. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-11-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  11. [Infobarris: an interactive tool to monitor and disseminate information on health and its determinants in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llimona, Pere; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Novoa, Ana M; Espelt, Albert; García de Olalla, Patricia; Borrell, Carme

    In order to know about the health of the population, it is necessary to perform a systematic and continuous analysis of their health status and social and economic health determinants. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of the Infobarris tool, which allows to visualize a wide battery of indicators and social determinants of health by neighbourhoods in the city of Barcelona (Spain). For the development of the Infobarris tool, we used an agile methodology that allows the development of a project in iterative and incremental stages, which are the following: selection of indicators, design of the prototype, development of the tool, data loading, and tool review and improvements. Infobarris displays 64 indicators of health and its determinants through graphics, maps and tables, in a friendly, interactive and attractive way, which facilitates health surveillance in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  13. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  14. Concentrations and determinants of NO{sub 2} in homes of Ashford, UK and Barcelona and Menorca, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algar, O.G.; Puig, C.; Vall, O. [Hospital del Mar, Pediatrics, and Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Pichini, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Drug Research and Control Dept., Rome (Italy); Basagana, X. [Institut Municipal Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Torrent, M. [INSALUD, Area de Salud de Menorca, Menorca Island (Spain); Harris, J.; Cullinan, P. [Imperial College, Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Med., London (United Kingdom); Sunyer, J. [Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-08-01

    The study examined indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) concentrations in Ashford, Kent (UK), Menorca Island and Barcelona city (Spain) and the contribution of their most important indoor determinants (e.g. gas combustion appliances and cigarette smoking). The homes examined (n = 1421) were those from infants recruited for the Asthma Multicentre Infants Cohort Study, which aimed to assess, using a standard protocol, the effects of pre- and post-natal environmental exposures in the inception of atopy and asthma. Indoor NO{sub 2} was measured using passive filter badges placed on a living room wall of the hoes for between 7 and 15 days. Homes in the three centers had significantly diffent concentrations of indoor NO{sub 2}, with those in Barcelona showing the highest levels (median NO{sub 2} levels: 5.79, 6.06 and 23.87 p.p.b. in Ashford, Menorca and Barcelona, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that the principal indoor determinants of NO{sub 2} concentrations in the three cohorts were the heating/cooking fuel used in the house (gas fire increased average NO{sub 2} concentrations by 1.27-fold and gas cooker by 2.13 times), parental cigarette smoking and season of measurement. Those variable significantly related to indoor NO{sub 2} concentration in Ashford, Barcelona and Menorca, respectively. In all the cohorts combined, 52% of the variation could be explained in this way. Although outdoor NO{sub 2} was not measured concurrently, its additional contribution was estimated. In conclusion, despite differences in indoore NO{sub 2} mean concentrations probably reflecting different outdoor NO{sub 2} level, home factors affecting indoor NO{sub 2} values and their specific contributions were constant across the their cohorts. (au)

  15. Antonio de Capmany and the city of Barcelona: the value of experience in the path of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon GRAU I FERNÁNDEZ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In his time, Antonio de Capmany (1742-1813 was the most prominent intellectual in the service of the interests of Barcelona, in a willingness to articulate the energy of that city with the efforts of enlightened despotism to relaunch Spain as a continental and colonial power. Extensive knowledge and assimilation of European culture of the Enlightenment allowed him to associate the historical experience of the Catalan capital with modern values. It was not a simple varnish, since the defense of Barcelona as the focus of progress was constructed from documented empirical data and sensory impressions, according to the principles preached by the great British philosophers against speculative rationalism and its incessant occurrences.

  16. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of hot nights on mortality in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royé, D.

    2017-12-01

    Heat-related effects on mortality have been widely analyzed using maximum and minimum temperatures as exposure variables. Nevertheless, the main focus is usually on the former with the minimum temperature being limited in use as far as human health effects are concerned. Therefore, new thermal indices were used in this research to describe the duration of night hours with air temperatures higher than the 95% percentile of the minimum temperature (hot night hours) and intensity as the summation of these air temperatures in degrees (hot night degrees). An exposure-response relationship between mortality due to natural, respiratory, and cardiovascular causes and summer night temperatures was assessed using data from the Barcelona region between 2003 and 2013. The non-linear relationship between the exposure and response variables was modeled using a distributed lag non-linear model. The estimated associations for both exposure variables and mortality shows a relationship with high and medium values that persist significantly up to a lag of 1-2 days. In mortality due to natural causes, an increase of 1.1% per 10% (CI95% 0.6-1.5) for hot night hours and 5.8% per each 10° (CI95% 3.5-8.2%) for hot night degrees is observed. The effects of hot night hours reach their maximum with 100% and lead to an increase by 9.2% (CI95% 5.3-13.1%). The hourly description of night heat effects reduced to a single indicator in duration and intensity is a new approach and shows a different perspective and significant heat-related effects on human health.

  18. Evolución de la mortalidad infantil en la ciudad de Barcelona (1983-1998 Trends in infant mortality in Barcelona [Spain], 1983-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Albacar

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las tendencias de la mortalidad infantil, teniendo en cuenta sus componentes y las principales causas de defunción entre los años 1983 y 1998 en la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Se han calculado las tasas globales y por sexos de la mortalidad infantil, posneonatal, neonatal, neonatal tardía y neonatal precoz de los residentes de la ciudad de Barcelona entre los años 1983 y 1998, con los datos procedentes de los registros de mortalidad y natalidad. Los datos se han agrupado en períodos de 4 años y se han ajustado los modelos de regresión de Poisson con la finalidad de calcular los riesgos relativos de mortalidad que comparen estos períodos. También se ha calculado la variación porcentual entre las tasas de los períodos definidos. Resultados: En total, durante estos 16 años hubo 1.564 muertes. De éstas, 896 corresponden a niños (57,3% y las 668 restantes a niñas (42,7%. Las tasas de mortalidad infantil oscilan entre 10,5 por 1.000 nacidos vivos en el año 1986 y 3,4 10 años después, en el año 1996. Entre los años 1983 y 1988 se observa un estancamiento de la mortalidad infantil, y a partir del año 1989 se nota una disminución en las tasas de mortalidad infantil. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal, y sobre todo la neonatal precoz, experimentan un descenso más pronunciado que la mortalidad posneonatal. Las causas de defunción más frecuentes son las debidas a defectos congénitos (47,4% seguidas por las causas perinatales (32,1%. Conclusiones: Tras analizar la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil y haber observado la de años anteriores, se concluye que las tasas de mortalidad infantil han disminuido durante el período estudiado, aunque no con la misma intensidad que en décadas anteriores.Objective: To analyze trends in infant mortality, taking into account its main components and the principal causes of death between 1983 and 1998 in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We calculated overall mortality rates

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain) [Veintidós años de evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad en la ciudad de Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dalmau-Bueno (Albert); A. García-Altés (Anna); M. Mardí-Dell'Olmo; K. Pérez (Katherine); A.E. Kunst (Anton); C. Borrell (Carme)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona from 1983 to 2004. Methods: We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004), with the basic health area (BHA) as the unit of

  20. Ciudadanos del este de Europa consumidores de drogas en Barcelona Injecting drug users from Eastern Europe in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde mayo de 1999 hasta mayo de 2001, hemos contactado en el SAPS (Servicio de Atención Social y Sanitaria de Barcelona con usuarios de drogas de países del este de Europa. Acuden a centros terapéuticos gratuitos, aunque pagan por la organización del viaje unos 500 euros. Son jóvenes entre 18 y 30 años y mantienen el contacto con sus familiares. Conocen los riesgos de transmisión de enfermedades, pero suelen reutilizar las jeringas. Es alta la prevalencia de hepatitis C (92% y B (62% y menor la de infección por el VIH (19%. Si no abandonan las drogas, el retorno es un fracaso y tienen dificultades para proseguir los tratamientos con metadona o antirretrovirales. La respuesta asistencial ha de adecuarse a sus necesidades. Se debe procurar la mediación cultural y la información en los lugares de origen, supervisar los centros terapéuticos y diseñar alternativas a los abandonos. Hay que desarrollar la colaboración internacional, estimular programas de disminución de riesgos derivados del consumo y evitar que del tratamiento se haga un comercio.From May 1999 to May 2001, we made contact with injecting drug users from Eastern Europe in the healthcare and prevention service of the Red Cross (servicio de atención y prevención sociosanitaria [SAPS] in Barcelona (Spain. The users attended free therapeutic centers, but paid approximately 500 € for the trip. The users were aged between 18 and 30 years old and maintained family contact. The knew the risk of disease transmission, but often exchanged needles. The prevalence of hepatitis C (92% and B (62% was high but less than that of HIV (19%. If they did not stop taking drugs their return would be a failure and they would have difficulties in following methadone and antiretroviral treatments in their countries of origin. The healthcare provided in these centers should respond to user' needs: cultural mediation should be sought, as well as information from users' countries of origin

  1. Activity size distributions for long-lived radon decay products in aerosols collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Valles, I.; Vargas, A.; Gonzalez-Perosanz, M.; Ortega, X.

    2009-01-01

    The activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of long-lived radon decay product ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) in aerosols collected in the Barcelona area (Northeast Spain) during the period from April 2006 to February 2008 are presented. The 210 Po mean AMAD was 420 nm, while the 210 Pb mean AMAD was 500 nm. The temporal evolution of 210 Pb and 210 Po AMADs shows maxima in autumn and winter and minima in spring and summer. 210 Pb AMAD are being used to estimate the mean-residence time of atmospheric aerosols.

  2. [Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-07-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the Symposium started in NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place at the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 16-20 June 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern Science Museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the Symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, Gravitational Wave Science, and Astronomy, as well as Engineers, attended LISA 7 and produced state-of-the-art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and 8 parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into 7 major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. 138 abstracts for communications were received, of which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the Symposium website: http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was however a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main Conference Room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who had boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas of

  4. Presenting SAPUSS: Solving Aerosol Problem by Using Synergistic Strategies in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB during September–October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations – both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations; and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone

  5. Veintidós años de evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad en la ciudad de Barcelona Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dalmau-Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad por todas las causas en Barcelona durante los años 1983-2004. Métodos: Estudio ecológico de tendencias con 4 cortes transversales (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 y 2000-2004, con el área básica de salud (ABS como unidad de análisis. La población de estudio fueron los varones y mujeres residentes en Barcelona, de 20 o más años de edad. Las fuentes de información fueron el registro de mortalidad, el padrón municipal y el censo de habitantes y viviendas. Como variable dependiente se utilizó la tasa de mortalidad específica (TME por todas las causas. Como variable independiente se calculó un índice compuesto de privación socioeconómica de las ABS; las ABS se agruparon en cuartiles según los valores del índice. Se ajustaron modelos de Poisson para estimar el riesgo relativo (RR de mortalidad por todas las causas en las 4 agrupaciones de ABS, estratificado por grupos de edad y sexo. Resultados: En todos los períodos de estudio se observan desigualdades en la mortalidad según el ABS de residencia, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Las TME de las ABS con mayor privación socioeconómica fueron mayores que las de aquellas con menor privación, y también fueron mayores en los varones que en las mujeres. Asimismo, los grupos de edad más jóvenes presentan mayor RR de mortalidad que los de edad avanzada. No obstante, las desigualdades disminuyeron tanto en términos absolutos como en términos relativos a partir del segundo período de estudio, especialmente en los varones. Conclusiones: Este estudio ha demostrado que, a pesar de haber desigualdades en mortalidad en las ABS de Barcelona, éstas han disminuido a lo largo de 2 décadas. Las políticas públicas deberían tener en cuenta esta información en el abordaje de las desigualdades entre ABS.Objective: To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona

  6. Epidemiological characteristics and predictors of late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain during the period 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guelar Ana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain during the period 2001-09. Methods Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Results Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3% had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6% of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001 but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9. Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p Conclusion Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care.

  7. Has the economic crisis widened the intraurban socioeconomic inequalities in mortality? The case of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, Laia; Saez, Marc; Lopez-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, some of which focuses on intraurban inequalities. However, all the studies assume that the spatial variation of inequalities is stable over the time. We challenge this assumption and propose two hypotheses: (i) have spatial variations in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality at an intraurban level changed over time? and (ii) as a result of the economic crisis, has the gap between such disparities widened? In this paper, our objective is to assess the effect of the economic recession on the spatio-temporal variation of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We used a spatio-temporal ecological design to analyse mortality inequalities at small area level in Barcelona. Mortality data and socioeconomic indicators correspond to the years 2005 and 2008-2011. We specified spatio-temporal ecological mixed regressions for both men and women using two indicators, neighbourhood and year. We allowed the coefficients of the socioeconomic variables to differ according to the levels and explicitly took into account spatio-temporal adjustment. For men and women both absolute and, above all, relative risks for mortality have increased since 2009. In relative terms, this means that the risk of dying has increased much more in the most economically deprived neighbourhoods than in the more affluent ones. Although the geographical pattern in relative risks for mortality in neighbourhoods in Barcelona remained very stable between 2005 and 2011, socioeconomic inequalities in mortality at an intraurban level have surged since 2009. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  9. [Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain), 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Baranda, Lucía; López, M José; Nebot, Manel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops...) ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises) usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. European Society of Cardiology Congress 2017 (August 26-30, 2017 - Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klischies, S

    2017-12-01

    The annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is the largest medical congress in Europe for this area of research and took place this year in Barcelona, Spain. The ESC Congress 2017 gathered more than 30,000 registered participants from over 140 countries together to share their knowledge in all cardiovascular fields, from basic science to management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The congress comprised 5 days of science and education with over 11,000 abstracts submitted, 500 expert sessions and over 200 exhibiting companies, making it the prime meeting platform for the profession. This year's ESC Congress Spotlight was "40 years of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)." PCI is a nonsurgical procedure used to treat narrowing of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

  11. Where Sustainable School Meets the ‘Tthird Teacher’: Primary School Case Study From Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brkovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Participatory evaluation of aspiring sustainable schools and their pedagogical potential has recently come into focus. A few authors have made a significant start in examining schools as both environmentally and socially sustainable environments, which might simultaneously represent the ‘third teacher’. However, discussion around this idea is new in Spain. This paper describes a participatory post-occupancy study conducted with teachers and pupils in Fort Pienc School, Barcelona, Spain. Findings reveal the pedagogical potential of the school’s spaces and fabric, characterised as ‘sustainable’, and highlight the aspects that the research participants feel are performing and underperforming. The paper concludes that if we want sustainable schools to be a strategy for renovating the educational process and for leading us towards a better tomorrow globally and locally,  new models for exploring the pedagogical potential of sustainable schools should be developed and the efforts of all relevant parties synchronised; from architects to governments, from pupils to teachers.

  12. Use of electronic cigarettes in public and private settings in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Bunch, Kailey; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of e-cigarette users who use them in selected indoor public and workplaces, and private venues in Barcelona (Spain) in 2015. This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of e-cigarette users (≥ 18 years) from Barcelona (n = 600). We calculated the proportion of e-cigarette users who used the device in public and private settings (in the last 30 days). We fit multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of e-cigarette use by socio-demographic factors, dual use and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The highest proportion of e-cigarette users who used them in public places was found at restaurants or bars (69.4%) and nightclubs or pubs (55.4%). Also being current conventional tobacco smokers (dual users) was significantly associated with lower use of e-cigarettes in workplaces (OR = 0.61, 95%CI:0.41-0.91), restaurants (OR = 0.66, 95%CI:0.45-0.97) and nightclubs (OR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.37-0.86). Moreover, being a nicotine-containing e-cigarette user was associated with higher odds of using the device in workplaces (OR = 2.01, 95%CI:1.34-3.01), and lower odds of using it in nightclubs (OR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.39-0.82). 96.8% of the included e-cigarette users declared to use the device at home. Being a current tobacco smoker was associated with increased odds of using e-cigarettes at home (OR = 3.17, 95%CI:1.22-8.22). E-cigarette use in private settings and in public settings where their use is not regulated by law is high. Therefore, the public health administration in Spain should consider expanding the prohibition of e-cigarette use to indoor public places and should take into account the possibility of exposure to aerosol from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanes, F; Culla, A; Navarro-Gonzalez, M; Navarro-Lopez, M; Sacanella, E; Torres, B; Lopez-Soto, A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in a cohort of healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area in Barcelona (Spain) for native benchmarks and compare them with those published in other geographical areas. We prospectively evaluated a series of 200 healthy elderly in the community with preserved functional capacity and absence of cognitive impairment. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment and determined anthropometric data, muscle mass (MM) and the muscle mass index (MMI). Assessment of muscle mass was performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The cut-off point for defining sarcopenia MMI was established as less than 2 SD of the mean of a reference group comprising 220 healthy volunteers (20-42 years) in the same area. Results were compared with studies undertaken in the USA, France and Taiwan. The cut-off points obtained were 8.31 Kg/m(2) for men and 6.68 Kg/m2 for women, being similar to those observed in France and Taiwan but different from the USA. The prevalence of sarcopenia observed was 33% for elderly women and 10% for males. On comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia in the four populations, we observed some differences, particularly in males. We have defined reference values for sarcopenia, determined by BIA, in our setting. We also observed a remarkable prevalence of sarcopenia in the healthy elderly community, especially in females, showing some differences from those in other geographical regions.

  14. PECUNIA EX MACHINA: PAKISTANI ENTREPRENEURS IN THE CITY OF BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Valenzuela García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pakistani migratory project is profoundly driven by economic objectives that are clearly apparent in their hard-working attitudes, their typically modest expenditure and consumption, the high rate of ethnic entrepreneurship and their remarkable commercial success. Nevertheless, the manifest economic inclination of the group involves a high social cost. This article analyses the economic and socio-cultural key issues that underlie the economic behavior of Pakistanis, as well as the social cost of the migratory enterprise. Furthermore, the paper describes the socio-cultural traits of the Pakistani community and, through a description of Pakistani settlement, it focuses on other important processes that concern the configuration of the city, such as gentrification, centrifugation and reproduction.

  15. Weathering patinas on the medieval (S. XIV) stained glass windows of the Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Gimeno, Domingo; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose Luis; Ruggieri, Flavia; Pugès, Montserrat

    2009-06-01

    The first step in the restoration of a medieval stained glass window is the evaluation of its degree of degradation. This implies the study of the chemical composition of the stained glass as well as the new mineral phases developed on its surface (patinas). Patinas are clearly related to glass composition, time, environmental conditions, microenvironments developed in local zones, bioactivity, physical and chemical factors, etc. This study was carried out on patinas developed in selected Na-rich stained glass of the Santa Maria de Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain). The location of this monument in the city (about 5 km from the shoreline and close to the Collserola hill flank) helped to determine the environmental conditions in which patinas developed. The aim of our study was to characterize the patinas formed on the surface of the selected glass of this monastery in order to understand the role of the chemical composition of the original glass (Na-rich) as well as the environmental conditions in which they developed. Powdered samples of two different color-type patinas (ochre-orange and brownish) were collected in the external and internal parts of the stained glass windows of the Prebystery and Chapter House of the Pedralbes Monastery by using a precision (odontological) drill. These patinas were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analyses evidenced the presence of sulfates (gypsum and thenardite), calcite, Ca-oxalates (whewellite and weddellite), and quartz forming part of the patinas. Although these mineral phases can be found in both color-type patinas, whewellite and thenardite are more common in the ochre-orange patinas. The results obtained were validated by the FTIR measurements. It has been observed, when thenardite is present, that gypsum occurs as traces. Thenardite is in most of the cases associated with whewellite and mainly occurs in the internal parts of the glass. In

  16. [Management of the risks associated with allergens in school canteens in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballé-Gavaldà, Laura; García-Cid, Ester; Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Balfagón-Marzal, Pere; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2014-01-01

    To determine demand for special meals and their types for students with food allergies or intolerances (FAI) in school canteens in Barcelona (Spain) during the 2011-12 school year, and to ascertain the degree of implementation of self-assessment plans and preventive measures for the management of allergens, and the relationships between the application of such measures and other variables. A descriptive study was performed of a representative sample of schools (n=129). The dependent variables collected data on the schools and students, the level of demand for special meals, and the implementation of preventive measures. Independent variables consisted of canteen management, the number of users, and whether self-assessment plans were implemented. For those schools that prepared meals (n=92), an index was calculated from the questions on preventive measures. Student t-tests were used to compare the means of the indices with stratification by the independent variables. A total of 89% of schools served special meals for students with FAI (1,507 special meals per day, 5% of all meals) and 65% had no allergen control plan. The mean of the indices was 11.6 out of 17. Externally managed canteens, with more users and with self-assessment plans, implemented more preventive measures for allergen management (p<0.05). A high proportion of schools report carrying out preventive measures in the process of preparing and serving special meals. Those with self-assessment plans have better preventive practices. To manage this food-related risk, food hygiene inspection services should promote the implementation of allergen control plans in school canteens. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population. Methods Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death, medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC and those from low-income countries (ILIC and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect. Results With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults. Conclusion Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry

  18. XXIX International Meeting on Fundamental Physics, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 5-9 February, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.; Dobado, A.

    2001-01-01

    The XXIX International Winter Meeting on Fundamental Physics took place in Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, from 5 to 9 February, 2001. The meeting was organized by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) in collaboration with CIEMAT. It was supported by the Programa Nacional de Fisica de Altas Energias, by UCM and CIEMAT. As in previous editions, it brought together researchers working in experimental and theoretical Particle and Astroparticle Physics. More than seventy physicists from several countries participated in the Meeting. General talks, most recent results and time for physics discussions were considered in the program. In parallel to the development of the Meeting several other events took place. These events included a meeting to study the future of the Spanish Program of Advanced Studies in Theoretical High Energy Physics, an informal meeting to study the future for detection of high energy neutrino beams with underground detectors in the Canary Islands and another one concerning the PDGE /Proyecto Data Grid Espana). In addition we had the last day a special seminar in the honour of the 60th anniversary of Professor Yndurain. Francisco J. Yndurain played a leading role in the development of High Energy Physics in Spain and all over he was one of the founders of the International Meeting on Fundamental Physics in 1973 (in those days called International Winter Meeting on Fundamental Physics). The efficient assistance of M. Fatas in the organization of the conference is warmly appreciated. We thank R. Pascual for helping us to find the excellent hotel Calipolis where the meeting took place. We are deeply indebted to M. J. Josa and to the HEGRA people form the UCM for their valuable technical assistance along the entire process of preparing the Meeting. We also thank J. C. Gonzalez and M. Lopez for their effort in the preparation of these proceedings and finally to p. Seoane for the design of the poster, advertisements and the logo of the Meeting. Finally

  19. Cerdà and Barcelona: The need for a new city and service provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pallares Barbera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Ildefons Cerdà’s 1860 Plan for the Urban Expansion of Barcelona; specifically, how and why it was conceived in a unique way, in which the provision of services to the population was an important part. Cerdà based his expansion proposal on an in depth socio statistical study of old Barcelona’s population conditions. The high mortality rates of the working class population and poor health and education conditions pushed Cerdà to design a new type of urban planning, which he defined as “urbanism”. In his proposal for the new city, he planned the location of services such as marketplaces, schools and hospitals. The first part of this paper introduces the urban and political preconditions of Barcelona and the statistics on which Cerdà based his contribution. The second part uses location theory and a geographic information system (GIS to analyse the pattern of location and the population served by markets and hospitals. In addition, topographic maps from 1926 and 1975 are used to study the development of the expansion up to when it was fully developed. The evolution of the city differed from Cerdà’s proposal, partly due to unexpected increases in population density, the built environment, and higher amounts of building occupation. Nevertheless, Cerdà’s layout of streets and avenues has prevailed.

  20. Barcelona Rocks, a mobile app to learn geology in your city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Cabrera, Lluis; Alias, Gemma; Aulinas, Meritxell; Becerra, Margarita; Casadellà, Jordi; Clotet, Roger; Delclós, Xavier; Fernández-Turiel, José-Luis; Tarragó, Marta; Travé, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Barcelona Rocks is an application for personal mobile devices suitable for secondary and high school students as well as the general public without a solid background in Earth Sciences. The main objective of this app is to teach Geology using as learning resource our city façades and pavements. Additionally, Barcelona Rocks provides a short explanation about the significance of the appearance of the different rock types at the different historical periods of the city. Although it has been designed as a playful learning resource for secondary school students, the level of knowledge also allows bringing some basic concepts and principles of Earth Sciences to the general public, irrespective of age. This app is intended to provide the degree of interactivity and entertainment required by the different individual users and aims to: (i) Explain the techniques and experiments that allow the user to identify the different rocks, as well as their genesis. (ii) Introduce geology to the youngest users in a more attractive and entertaining way, providing also some information regarding the use of the different ornamental rocks during the different historical periods of the city: roman, medieval, etc. (iii) Provide historical and architectural information of the selected buildings in order to improve the city's historical architectural knowledge of the users. (iv) Show the non-expert public the importance of their country's geology. (v) Develop of outreach and dissemination resources taking advantage of the versatile and potent mobile application format using also the content as support material for science courses, seminars, or social learning events. (vi) Encourage new generations of Earth Scientists (vii) Promote science and scientific culture of the society, integrating culture and innovation as essential for the emergence of new scientific and technological vocations, promoting critical thinking, understanding of the scientific method and the social interest in science

  1. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008 Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the symposium started at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place in the city of Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June, 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern science museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, gravitational wave science, and astronomy, as well as engineers, attended LISA #7 and produced state of the art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and eight parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into seven major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave Sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. Abstracts for 138 communications were received, from which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the symposium website:http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was, however, a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main conference room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas

  2. Geochemical signature and phytoremediation of urban soil: a case in Barcelona city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Febrero, Anna; Bort, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The cleanup of contaminated places with heavy metals is necessary, but environmental remediation strategies are often expensive and energy consuming. Thus, it is important to develop low-cost and environmentally friendly strategies. Phytoremediation-based technologies could provide a long-lasting solution. The study area is located in Sants, a neighbourhood in Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain). This place was an industrial area in the last century, which was occupied by a metal smelting industry. Nowadays, the neighbours want to cultivate vegetables in this location, but the history of this area suggests that the soil is polluted by elevated concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this work was to determine heavy metal concentration in: a) soil, to know the degree of the soil pollution; b) roots and leaves of two plant species, Brassica juncea as an accumulator plant and Solanum lycopersicum as a crop plant, to know the capacity of each species to accumulate metals, and c) drainage water, to evaluate the heavy metal mobility. The main pollutants are Cu, Pb and Zn with topsoil total concentrations about 1355, 2230 and 6239 mg•kg-1, respectively. The established background upper limits in this area in mg•kg-1 were: Cu 145, Pb 91 and Zn 326. The same soil elements for available fractions, extracted with DTPA, were slightly elevated (9.6, 5.8 and 6.7 % of total concentration). The environmental pollution implies great extractability, suggesting the plants in these soils have facility with potentially toxic elements absorption. Instead, the concentrations in subsoil are lower than in topsoil. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the plants' leaves are greater in B. juncea 170 ± 52.7, 137 ± 46.3 and 2365 ± 860.4 mg•kg-1, than in S. lycopersicum 102.5 ± 7.1, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 1002 ± 85.2 mg•kg-1 respectively. Furthermore, they are also greater in roots than in leaves. All of them are lower than the threshold to be considered like a hyperaccumulator species

  3. Acidentes de trabalho em Barcelona (Espanha, no período de 1992-1993 Work accidents in Barcelona (Spain, from 1992 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana F. Sampaio

    1998-08-01

    revealed by specific events. Within this context the main objective of this study is to proceed with an in-depth analysis of the labor accidents verified in Barcelona (Spain using for this purpose a descriptive statistics model to test variables such as type of accident, economic sector, economic enterprise and type of labor contract. METHOD: The data source utilized was the notification system for labor accidents with grave consequences such as death of the victim registered in Barcelona during the period 1992-1993. Labor accidents registered for male workers numbered 848. A log-linear model was applied to this data base. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show a positive association between traumatic accidents with the construction, traffic and services sectors. A positive association was also found between traumatic accidents and the size of the company concerved the small ones being the worse type in terms of worker's injuries. Regarding the non-traumatic accidents, the study showed a positive correlation between large-sized enterprizes and type of temporary worker and the civil construction sector as compared to workers with long term work contracts within industry and services. There was some evidence, also, of a positive association between small and medium sized companies and temporary work and the ocurrence of work accidents.

  4. Factores relacionados con el acoso escolar (bullying en los adolescentes de Barcelona Factors related to bullying in adolescents in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Garcia Continente

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La violencia y el acoso escolar constituyen un problema social y de salud que ha generado una gran alarma en los últimos años. En este estudio se describe el acoso escolar y los factores relacionados en estudiantes de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa de 2.727 estudiantes de 66 centros escolares de secundaria de Barcelona. Se definió «acoso escolar» como haber sido objeto de burla, golpeado o marginado cuatro o más veces, o al menos una vez en cada uno de los ítems, en los últimos 12 meses. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística bivariado y multivariado para estudiar la relación entre el acoso y diversos factores, incluyendo variables sociodemográficas, actitudes y comportamientos. Resultados: La prevalencia de acoso escolar fue del 18,2%, 10,9% y 4,3% en chicos, y del 14,4%, 8,5% y 4,5% en chicas de 2º y 4º de educación secundaria obligatoria y 2º de bachillerato o ciclos formativos de grado medio, respectivamente. Los factores que se asociaron con un incremento de la probabilidad de padecer acoso fueron el estado de ánimo negativo y la conducta violenta, mientras que tener mayor edad, el consumo de riesgo de alcohol, el consumo de cannabis e ir a bares y discotecas se asociaron negativamente. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la relevancia del problema del acoso escolar en nuestro medio, y señalan diversos factores asociados, como el estado de ánimo negativo y varios comportamientos de riesgo, que deberían ser analizados con detalle en estudios longitudinales para diseñar e implementar programas preventivos apropiados.Objectives: Violence and bullying in the school setting are a serious social and health problem that have created great alarm in the last few years. We aimed to describe bullying and factors related to this phenomenon in students in the city of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 2,727 students

  5. Toxic assessment of urban atmospheric particle-bound PAHs: Relevance of composition and particle size in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Drooge, Barend L. van; Reche, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryotoxicity and dioxin-like activity levels were tested for particulate air samples from an urban background site in Barcelona (Spain). Samples were collected during 14 months, and maximal values for both biological activities corresponded to samples collected during late autumn months, correlating with elevated PAH levels. Vehicle and combustion emissions appeared as the potentially most toxic sources, whereas total PM mass and mineral content appeared to be poor predictors of the biological activity of the samples. Samples simultaneously collected at different particle size cut-offs (10, 2.5, and 1 μm) did not differ significantly in dioxin-like PAH levels and biological activity, indicating that the sub-micron particle fraction (PM 1 ) concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. Our results support the need for a tighter control on sub-micron particle emissions and show that total PM mass and, particularly, PM 10 , may not fully characterize the toxic potential of air samples. Highlights: • Dioxin-like activity was found in all air particle samples collected in Barcelona. • 50% of the samples showed different levels of fish embryotoxicity. • Toxic effects associated to PAHs and linked to vehicle and combustion emissions. • The toxicity was not correlated to PM mass or mineral content. • The sub-micron particle fraction PM 1 concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. -- In vivo toxic effects associated to sub-micron urban air particles from combustion and vehicle emissions

  6. The collection of type specimens of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viñolas, A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The type collection of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain, has been organised, revised and documented. It contains 430 type specimens belonging to 155 different taxa. Of note are the large number of hypogean species, the species of Cicindelidae from Asenci Codina’s collection, and the species of Harpalinae extracted from Jacques Nègre’s collection. In this paper we provide all the available information related to these type specimens. We therefore provide the following information for each taxon, species or subspecies: the original and current taxonomic status, original citation of type materials, exact transcription of original labels, and preservation condition of specimens. Moreover, the differences between original descriptions and labels are discussed. When a taxonomic change has occurred, the references that examine those changes are included at the end of the taxa description.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and perceptions of breast cancer screening among native and immigrant women in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Puigpinós-Riera, Rosa; Serral, Gemma; Pasarín, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Dolors; Pérez, Glòria; Benet, Josep; Casamitjana, Montserrat; Borrell, Carme

    2012-06-01

    Inequalities between immigrant and native populations in terms of access and use of health services have been described. The objective is to compare knowledge, attitudes, vulnerabilities, benefits and barriers related to breast cancer (BC) and screening mammography among women from different countries resident in Barcelona. A cross-sectional survey carried out in Barcelona in 2009. The study population consisted of female residents in Barcelona between 45 and 69 years of age; participants were Spanish nationals or immigrants from low-income countries. 960 participants were asked 72 questions, mainly with Likert responses. The dependent variables were five quantitative scales: (1) knowledge of BC and early detection, (2) attitude towards health and BC, (3) vulnerability to BC, (4) barriers to mammography, (5) benefits of mammography. The independent variables were country of origin, social class, setting, cohabitation, age, mammography use, length of residence and fluency of the language. Analyses compared scale scores stratified by the independent variables. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to determine the relationship between the scales and the independent variables. We observed inequalities according to country of origin on all scales after adjustment for independent variables. Chinese women presented the greatest differences with respect to native women, followed by Maghrebi and Filipino women. Inequalities exist on the vulnerability and barriers scales according to social class and urban/rural setting, and on the attitude scale according to social class. Country of origin, social class and urban/rural setting are key contributors to inequality in these scales. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Substance use among medical students in Barcelona (Spain). A comparison with previous surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M E; Cami, J

    1986-11-01

    During the academic year 1983-1984, a survey on drug consumption was conducted among medical students in Barcelona. There was a high proportion of smokers in both sexes. Alcohol consumption was four times higher among men than women; high proof beverages were becoming the most common drinks. Coffee was the caffeine drink consumed by almost the whole population studied. Although cannabis derivatives had been tried at least once by almost all the students, regular consumers were almost non-existent. Amphetamine consumption was restricted to examination periods. The use of opiates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and solvents was rare for the sample. Results from this study are compared with those from similar surveys conducted 5 and 10 years ago.

  9. [Tobacco use by adolescents in Barcelona (Spain) and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; García-Continente, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert

    To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Ergonomics and musculoskeletal pain among postgraduate students and faculty members of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Harutunian, Karmen; Gargallo Albiol, Jordi; Barbosa de Figueiredo, Rui Pedro; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intensity and location of musculoskeletal pain suffered by students and professors from different postgraduate programs of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain), to identify the variables related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and signs, and to establish possible preventive measures for such disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was made among students and faculty members from different postgraduate course...

  12. Life cycle assessment of two biowaste management systems for Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueereca, Leonor Patricia; Gasso, Santiago; Baldasano, Jose Maria; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed in this study in order to evaluate the environmental implications of the management of the fermentable fraction of waste in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (BMA), comparing the present management system with the system proposed for the future. The energy and water consumption were quantified, as well as the used area and the emissions to the atmosphere and water. The software TRACI was used in order to assess the potential impact on the categories of acidification, eutrophication, toxicity and harm to the human health (under the criteria of cancer, non-cancer and pollutants), global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, formation of photochemical smog, water use, land use and fossil fuel use. The results show that the management system proposed for the future reduces 7 out of the 12 potential impacts analyzed, due mainly to the change in the technology of landfill (baling-wrapping landfill). However, this system requires of further research to assess the impacts on a long term. The worst option for biowaste management is the traditional landfill, based on the multibarrier concept. The results of this work suggest that the future biowaste management system is better in environmental terms than the present system. (author)

  13. Advances in urea cycle neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International Symposium on urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring the occurrence of emerging contaminants in treated wastewater and groundwater between 2008 and 2010. The Baix Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Y; Candela, L; Ronen, D; Teijon, G

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of 166 emerging compounds and four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Hg and Pb) in treated wastewater and groundwater has been monitored at the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) over a period of 3 years. Selected compounds were pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PCPs), dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and priority substances included in the 2008/105/CE Directive. Analysis was performed in tertiary treated wastewater (TWW), after an additional treatment of ultrafiltration reverse osmosis and UV disinfection, and groundwater from a deep confined aquifer. This aquifer is artificially recharged with TWW through injection wells. After the advanced treatment, 38 pharmaceuticals, 9 PCPs, 9 pesticides and 7 PAHs still showed a frequency of detection higher than 25% in the TWW, although at low concentration levels (ng/l). Not all active compounds found in the TWW were present in groundwater, indicating possible degradation within the aquifer media after the injection. A number of chemicals, mainly 10 pesticides and 10 pharmaceuticals were only present in groundwater samples, confirming a different origin than the injected TWW, probably agricultural activities and/or infiltration of poorly treated wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  16. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  17. [Contraception in the Roma population living in two low-income neighborhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Alba; Nebot, Laia; Estruga, Lluïsa; Perez, Glòria; Diez, Èlia

    2018-02-22

    To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods and health services in the Roma population (Kale/Spanish Gitanos) of two low-income neighbourhoods of Barcelona (2011-2015). Mixed. Community setting. 1) Descriptive cross-sectional study. We interviewed with a questionnaire a sample of residents of childbearing age. We compared the knowledge and use of contraception and services by ethnic self-identification and sex with adjusted logistic regression models to obtain adjusted odds ratio (ORa) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). 2) Qualitative descriptive study with ethnographic method. We interviewed 10 Roma residents and three health professionals to explore aspects of contraception, family and roles. We performed a narrative analysis of discourse from the recorded texts. 834 people participated, with an 11.8% self-identified Roma population. With regard to the non-Roma population, more Roma women used tubal ligation (ORa: 3.0; 95%CI: 1.3-7)] and implant (ORa:4.9; 95%CI: 3.1-72), and had better knowledge of IUD (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1,4-4,1), tubal obstruction (ORa: 3,3; 95%CI: 1,1-9,9) and injectables (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1.3-4.4). Roma men used withdrawal more frequently (ORa: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.3-10), a practice confirmed in the qualitative study. Both communities used emergency contraception and health services. In the Roma population, contraception and reproduction are in the hands of women. As abortion is culturally penalized in the Roma population, women use it, but they face it alone. Gender emerged as a cross-cutting determinant in all issues explored. In the Roma population reproductive control and contraception remain the responsibility of women. Once the family is complete, Roma women use long-term contraception. Both populations use health services. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-07-01

    To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95% 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons.

  19. The Role of Bullfighting and FC Barcelona in the Emancipation of Catalonia from Spain (El papel de la corrida de toros y FC Barcelona en la emancipación de Cataluña de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. TKac

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the role that bullfighting and FC Barcelona have played in the growing independence movement in Catalonia. This article will discuss nations, the importance of bullfighting and soccer to Iberian cultures, Catalan political parties and their role in the nationalist movement, the vote to prohibit bullfighting and FC Barcelona´s increasing political conscious. I conclude that bullfighting and soccer have been used by political parties and those associated with the nationalist movement to foster feelings of difference with Spain. These feelings have been passed from the top down to the Catalan people and risk alienating those who are not in agreement with the nationalist movement.Resumen: Este trabajo examina el papel que la corrida de toros y el equipo de fútbol FC Barcelona han hecho en el movimiento continuo hacia la independencia en Cataluña. Discute el concepto de la nación, la importancia de las corridas y el fútbol en culturas ibéricas, partidos políticos catalanes y su rol en el voto a favor de la prohibición de las corridas en Cataluña y la evolución de la conciencia política cada vez más evidente de FC Barcelona. Concluyo que los partidos políticos y otros asociados con el movimiento hacia la independencia se han aprovechado de las corridas y el fútbol para destacar diferencias culturales con España. Esta actitud de diferencia se ha trasladado de arriba-abajo al pueblo catalán y el movimiento nacionalista corre el riesgo de alienar a los que no comparten sus creencias.

  20. Study of compost maturity produced in the composting plant in Granollers (Barcelona, Spain); Estudio de la madurez del compost producido en la planta de compostaje de Granollers (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez Fontanet, E.; Alba Munoz, G.; Aguilera Riba, F.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2000-07-01

    The following article presents the determination of important parameters, which have been traditionally used in the evaluation of the compost maturity. Compost from a tunnel plant placed in Granollers (Barcelona) has been chosen during the maturation stage. The results showed that self-heating test and organic material content are the most significant maturity indexes, whereas Solvita differed from the rest of analysis. Other important parameters, such as ion exchange capacity, water content, conductivity and pH were also determined. (Author)

  1. Food consumption frequency and excess body weight in adolescents in the context of financial crisis in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechavala, Teresa; Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Bartoll, Xavier; Sànchez-Martínez, Francesca; López, María José

    To describe food consumption frequency in adolescents in the context of the financial crisis in 2012, and to analyse potential fluctuations in excess body weight between 2008 and 2012. A cross-sectional study of eating habits and excess body weight was conducted in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old from public, subsidised and private secondary schools in Barcelona, Spain. The FRESC lifestyle risk factors survey was used, and food frequency consumption, food recommendations and body mass index were analysed according to gender, year of education and socioeconomic status. Girls ate vegetables and fruits more frequently than boys, while the prevalence of junk food consumption was higher in boys. The prevalence of compliance with food recommendations was lower than 50% for all foods, and gender and socioeconomic differences were found for eggs, red meat and soft drinks. Regarding excess body weight, boys had a higher prevalence than girls in the 2 years analysed. Furthermore, a reduction in excess body weight was observed among girls in secondary education in the highest socioeconomic groups (28.7% [95% CI: 24.8-32.6%] in 2008 to 20.5% [95% CI: 17.1-23.8%] in 2012). The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Occupational risk during pregnancy and sick leave in a cohort of workers from Parc de Salut Mar (Barcelona, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rocío; Benavides, Fernando G; Serra, Laura; Serra, Consol

    2018-06-15

    To study the use of the Pregnancy occupational risk benefit (PORB) and non-work related sickness absence (NWSA) in a cohort of pregnant workers of Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain). Retrospective cohort study of 428 pregnant workers between 2010 and 2014, who were followed-up until delivery. Absences from work, both PORB and NWSA were recorded until the beginning of their maternity leave. The sequence analysis identifies four trajectories, which are described according to workers demographic and job characteristics. Of the total cohort, 56 (13.1%) accessed only the PORB, representing 6.126 days of absence; 68 (15.9%) also accessed PORB, with 7.127 days of absence, but had previously accumulated 102 episodes of NWSA with 1.820 days of absence. The majority of pregnant workers in the sample (69.9%) took only one or several episodes of NWSA without using PORB, with 545 episodes and 26,337 days of absence. Most were active during the first quarter and it is from the second quarter that episodes of long-term NWSA appeared. During the last month of pregnancy more than 80% of the workers were absent from work. Pregnant workers remained at work for two thirds of their pregnancy. Absences were mainly due to episodes of NWSA. PORB represented one third of them. As in other similar countries, our results suggest a change in the management of social protection benefits for pregnant workers. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Chagas disease among the Latin American adult population attending in a primary care center in Barcelona, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Roca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease.We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA, a commercial kit (rELISA and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics (oELISA. Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6-4.12%. Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n=127 of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6-23.39%. ALL THE INFECTED PATIENTS WERE IN A CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas.We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi-infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.

  4. Epidemiology of infections by HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea and Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Barcelona City: a population-based incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Pastor, Marc; García de Olalla, Patricia; Barberá, Maria-Jesús; Manzardo, Christian; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Gurguí, Mercè; Humet, Victoria; Vall, Martí; Ribera, Esteban; Villar, Judit; Martín, Gemma; Sambeat, Maria A; Marco, Andres; Vives, Alvaro; Alsina, Mercè; Miró, Josep M; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-10-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city. Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend. HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh. An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.

  5. Composting plant for pruning waste and sewage works sludge in Castelldefels (Barcelona, Spain). Planta de compostaje de restos de poda y lodos de depuradora en Castelldefels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The biological waste water treatment works in Castelldefels (Barcelona, spain) generates 8,000 m''3 of sludge per year. Triturated vegetable remains are added and the mixture left to ferment for 14 days in 8 tunnels measuring 4x4x10 m provided with forced ventilation by 10 ventilators with a capacity for 2,000 m''3/h. Annual production is 8,000 m''3 of compost and 14,000 m''3 of substrates and mould. Fermentation loss is 30%. Process time, including storage, is 100 days.

  6. Determination of the minor disinfection by-products formed in the water plant of Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain); Determinacion de los subproductos de desinfeccion minoritarios formados en la planta de Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancho, B.; Galceran, M.T. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, F. [AGBAR. Societat General d` Aigues de Barcelona, S.A. (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Chlorine is widely used in drinking water disinfection due to be a powerful and not expense disinfection. Although the benefits of disinfection, the formation of stable disinfection by-products of the health concern, is the result of the interaction of aqueous chlorine with natural organic matter presents in water. Disinfection by-products generated in major concentration are trihalomethane and haloacetic acids. Disinfection by-products generated in minor concentration are haloacetonitriles, haloketones,chloral hydrate and chloropicrin and some new groups such as cyanogen halides and trihaloacetaldydes. In this work two analytical methods.: headspace/gas chromatography/electron capture detector and liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography/electron capture detector are studied and compared to determine the minor by-products and to establish finally, a systematic control of them in the different stages of the Water Treatment Plant of San Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain). (Author) 12 refs.

  7. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sicard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m−3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m−3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD. On average the diurnal (09:00–17:00 UT pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47–1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1 between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2 between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation

  8. Evaluation of an intervention to improve the management of allergens in school food services in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, M; Serral, G; López, M J; Balfagón, P; García-Cid, E; Caballé-Gavaldà, L

    2018-02-15

    An intervention to promote the development of an allergen control plan (ACP) and preventive measures for the management of allergens in school food services was implemented in all schools of Barcelona city over a three-year period (2013-2015) by the public health services. The present study aimed to assess changes regarding the management of food allergens in school food services in Barcelona after an intervention conducted by the public health services of the city. School meal operators of a random sample of 117 schools were assessed before and after the intervention using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire collected general information on the students and their demand for special menus, and included 17 closed questions regarding the implementation of specific preventive measures for the management of allergens. Based on these 17 questions, a food safety score was calculated for each school. The improvement in these scores was evaluated. The results showed positive increments in the percentage of implementation of 12 of the 17 preventive measures assessed. The percentage of school food services with an implemented ACP increased by 49%. Schools with external and internal food supplies increased their scores by 16.5% and 19.6%, respectively. The greatest improvements were observed in smaller food services and in schools located in districts with low gross household incomes. The intervention was effective in improving school food services' management of allergens and in reducing the differences found among food services in the pre-intervention survey. We must also focus efforts on reducing socio-economic inequalities linked to the management of allergens. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. De la perrera municipal al centro de acogida de animales de compañía de Barcelona From the municipal dog pound to the pet shelter in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peracho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la evolución de la política y los servicios de salud pública relativos a los animales de compañía en la ciudad de Barcelona de 1983 a 2001. Partiendo de una actividad centrada en la custodia y la eutanasia de los animales sin dueño de Barcelona, y ofertando también servicios al resto de la provincia, se formula un Plan de Animales de Compañía para la ciudad y se reorienta la actividad, centrándola en los límites estrictos del municipio y el estímulo de la adopción. Se busca la participación de profesionales y entidades proteccionistas, se remodelan las instalaciones, se fomenta la tenencia responsable de animales, se crean colonias urbanas controladas de gatos y se estimulan las adopciones, redefiniendo la actividad con una mayor orientación al cliente. La evolución de la actividad desde 1998 refleja una notable disminución en el volumen de animales custodiados, así como en la proporción de los sacrificados. Esta disminución puede reflejar una mejora en el problema de los animales abandonados. Estos cambios se han traducido en una modificación positiva de las relaciones con los medios de comunicación y las entidades proteccionistas.This article aims to present changes in public health policy and services related to pet dogs and cats in the city of Barcelona from 1983 to 2001. Initially the center's activity was limited to the custody and euthanasia of stray animals, serving not only the city but also the rest of the province. With the formulation of a city Plan for Pet Animals, the activities were redirected, concentrating on services within the city limits and stimulating adoption. Participation of both professional and humane organizations was sought, premises were renovated, responsible ownership of animals was promoted, controlled urban colonies of cats were established, and adoptions become the cornerstone of policy, centering the activity of the shelter toward its clients

  10. Seawater intrusion barrier and artificial recharge in the deltaic Llobregat aquifer (Barcelona, Spain); La barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina y la recarga artificial en el acuifero del Llobregat (Barcelona, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Armenter Ferrando, J. L.; Molinero Huguet, J.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion processes since 1970. The Catalan Water Agency is currently promoting several actions of enhanced aquifer recharge, including the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the advance of the seawater intrusion. Such a positive hydraulic barrier works by injecting reclaimed water in 14 wells. This is the first time that a project of this type is performed in Spain, and it is also pioneer in Europe. The positive hydraulic barrier produces the rise of the groundwater head near the coast and avoids seawater penetration inland. The injected reclaimed water comes from the WWTP of the Baix Llobregat after passing through several treatments (ultrafiltration, osmosis and disinfection). The pilot phase of the project has been working during the last 2 years, showing highly positive results. Substantial improvement of the groundwater quality has been observed in wells surrounding the injection points and no clogging has been appeared. The second phase of the project is currently under construction. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health : an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),

  12. Do we need full mesoscale models to simulate the urban heat island? A study over the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lauwaet, Dirk; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become an important part of the global climate change impact assessment. However, due to the high resolution required, these simulations demand a large amount of computational resources. Here we present a comparison between a simplified fast urban climate model (UrbClim) and a widely used full mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, over the city of Barcelona. In order to check the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, both simulations were compared with station data and with land surface temperature observations retrieved by satellites, focusing on the urban heat island. The effect of changing the UrbClim boundary conditions was studied too, by using low resolution global reanalysis data (70 km) and a higher resolution forecast model (15 km). Finally, a strict comparison of the computational resources consumed by both models was carried out. Results show that, generally, the performance of the simple model is comparable to or better than the mesoscale model. The exception are the winds and the day-to-day correlation in the reanalysis driven run, but these problems disappear when taking the boundary conditions from a higher resolution global model. UrbClim was found to run 133 times faster than WRF, using 4x times higher resolution and, thus, it is an efficient solution for running long climate change simulations over large city ensembles.

  13. Hepatitis C virus sequences from different patients confirm the existence and transmissibility of subtype 2q, a rare subtype circulating in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martró, Elisa; Valero, Ana; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Saludes, Verónica; Planas, Ramón; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma

    2011-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six genotypes and more than 70 subtypes with distinct geographical and epidemiological distributions. While 18 genotype 2 subtypes have been proposed, only 5 have had their complete sequence determined. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV isolates from three patients from the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for whom commercial genotyping methods provided discordant results. Full-length genome sequencing was carried out for 2 of the 3 patients; for the third patient only partial NS5B sequences could be obtained. The generated sequences were subjected to phylogenetic, recombination, and identity analyses. Sequences covering most of the HCV genome (9398 and 9566  nt in length) were obtained and showed a 90.3% identity to each other at the nucleotide level, while both sequences differed by 17.5-22.6% from the other fully sequenced genotype 2 subtypes. No evidence of recombination was found. The NS5B phylogenetic tree showed that sequences from the three patients cluster together with the only representative sequence of the provisionally designed 2q subtype, which also corresponds to a patient from Barcelona. Phylogenetic analysis of the full coding sequence showed that subtype 2q was more closely related to subtype 2k. The results obtained in this study suggest that subtype 2q now meets the requirements for confirmed designation status according to consensus criteria for HCV classification and nomenclature, and its epidemiological value is ensured as it has spread among several patients in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. BARCELONA: URBANSCAPES OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2015-04-01

    The Do.Co.Mo.Mo’s. database, referring to Barcelona, lists 34 buildings that could be classified as rationalists and / or modern. According to other sources, we could reach fifty constructed buildings between the late 1920s and the end of the war in Spain. The article presents the results of a field work that, using different sources, has tried to to order and record the architectural production that can be considered modern / rationalist in Barcelona in the 1920s and 1930s

  15. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV Proceedings of the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Barcelona, Spain, September 12-15, 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Figueras, Francesca; Hernanz, Margarita; Jordi, Carme

    2007-01-01

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future.

  16. El tabaco en los establecimientos de restauración y hostelería: estudio observacional en Barcelona, 2008 Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan R. Villalbí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la situación real del consumo de tabaco en los locales de restauración y hostelería tras la ley de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo, que establece exenciones en este sector a la prohibición general de fumar en el trabajo desde 2006. Métodos Estudio observacional descriptivo en Barcelona en 2008, con muestreo por conglomerados de 1130 establecimientos. Se presentan los resultados estratificados por tipo de establecimiento. Resultados: En el 85,7% de los comercios con degustación (panaderías, pastelerías… y el 85% de los locales de comida rápida se prohíbe fumar. El 40% de los restaurantes son libres de humo u ofrecen zonas separadas. En los bares-cafeterías y cafeterías-restaurantes (locales más abundantes no se suele prohibir fumar. Hay mayor oferta de locales sin humo en los distritos céntricos y centros comerciales. Conclusiones: En un 75,4% de los locales se permite fumar libremente. Estos resultados muestran las limitaciones de la ley.Objectives: To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. Methods: We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Results: Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops… ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Conclusions: Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law.

  17. Social-ecological perspective in the analysis of protected natural areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iago Otero, Armengol; Boada Junca, Marti

    2008-01-01

    Socio ecological approach tries to integrate natural sciences and social sciences to study reality from an interdisciplinary perspective. Under this point of view, the article analyses the environmental history in the municipality of Matadepera and studies the socio ecological heritage in Olzinelles valley. Through the two case studies we link socio ecological approach with the improvement of management and conservation of two natural protected areas in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: Sant Llorenc del Munt i l'Obac Natural Park and Montnegre i el Corredor Park

  18. City without barriers, ICT tools for the universal accessibility: study cases in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Biere Arenas, Rolando Mauricio; Arellano Ramos, Blanca; Roca Cladera, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Financed in the framework of the Call 2013, of the Program RecerCaixa (RecerCaixa and ACUP) This paper is the presentation of the results and developed tasks in the framework of the research project titled City without barriers. Tool for the evaluation and visualization of the accessibility into public space, using TLS, GIS and GPS Technologies,1 developed during 2014 and 2015 by the authors and others researchers and technicians in the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations (CPSV) and the V...

  19. Ergonomics and musculoskeletal pain among postgraduate students and faculty members of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutunian, Karmen; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the intensity and location of musculoskeletal pain suffered by students and professors from different postgraduate programs of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain), to identify the variables related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and signs, and to establish possible preventive measures for such disorders. A cross-sectional study was made among students and faculty members from different postgraduate courses of the School of Dentistry at the University of Barcelona between May and June 2007. A total of 74 dentists (54 postgraduate students and 20 faculty members) completed an anonymous questionnaire containing 19 questions. The variables were divided into three main groups: sociodemographic information, ergonomic features and musculoskeletal pain arising from professional practice. Most of the dentists (79.8%) had experienced some kind of musculoskeletal pain in the last 6 months. On comparing the different locations of pain (lumbar, cervical, dorsal, wrist, shoulder and others), the neck was found to be the most commonly affected location (58% of all subjects), and only 34% of the respondents took some preventive measures against musculoskeletal disorders. Women showed a higher frequency of intense pain involving the cervical, lumbar, dorsal and wrist areas (ppain was recorded in professionals exclusively dedicated to oral surgery (ppain in the different anatomical locations (p>0.05). An important incidence of pain symptoms secondary to musculoskeletal disorders was observed, particularly in the cervical region. Females and younger dentists showed a higher frequency of such symptoms. The implementation of preventive measures is necessary, in view of the high incidence of these disorders.

  20. Negative mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescent secondary-school students in Barcelona (Spain Estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de enseñanza secundaria de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Q. Ahonen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor mental health is a common problem in adolescence. Little information is available, however, about the factors influencing negative mood states in otherwise healthy adolescents. We aimed to describe the mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescents in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We administered a health survey to a sample of 2,727 students from public, subsidized, and private schools in Barcelona, aged approximately 14, 16, and 18 years old. To analyze the associations among moods and related factors, we used bivariate logistic regression, and fitted multivariate logistic regressions using the statistically significant variables from the bivariate analysis. To examine the possible group effects of the school on individual students, we employed multilevel analysis. Results: The frequencies of negative mood states increased with age, with girls consistently reporting more frequent negative mood states than boys. The factors associated with negative mood states were problematic alcohol use, perceived mistreatment or abuse, antisocial behavior, intention to use or current use of illegal drugs (not including cannabis, lower perceived academic performance, and feeling isolated. Conclusions: Mood states are influenced by lifestyle and social factors, about which there is little local information. To plan and implement appropriate public health interventions, more complete information about the possible areas of influence is required. To complement the information obtained from studies such as the present study, longitudinal and qualitative studies would be desirable.Introducción: El deterioro de la salud mental es un problema frecuente en la adolescencia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de los factores influyentes en los estados de ánimo negativos en adolescentes saludables. Pretendemos describir los estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de la ciudad de Barcelona. M

  1. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  2. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  3. Host-feeding patterns of native Culex pipiens and invasive Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban zones from Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñnoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel; Montalvo, Tomás; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    The feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the amplification and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. The establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) represents an example of how an invasive species can alter the risk of viral transmission to humans. Blood meal molecular identification from two sympatric mosquito species (the invasive Ae. albopictus and the native Culex pipiens) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Samples were collected in Barcelona metropolitan area, Spain, from June to October 2009 as part of a monitoring-control program. Blood meals were identified to the species level in 30 Ae. albopictus and 43 Cx. pipiens. Ae. albopictus acquired blood exclusively from human hosts (100%), whereas Cx. pipiens fed on a diversity of avian and mammalian hosts, including 35.7% of blood meals from humans. Based on mosquito diet, our results suggest that the Ae. albopictus invasion in Spain might increase the risk of virus transmission to humans and could support local outbreaks of imported tropical viruses such as dengue and chikungunya. However, in the studied area, the presence of this invasive species would have a negligible effect on the transmission of zoonotic agents such as West Nile virus. However, Cx. pipiens could amplify and transmit West Nile virus, but avian contribution to its diet was lower than that reported in North America. Feeding patterns of these mosquito species may help to understand the flavivirus outbreaks recently reported in southwestern Europe.

  4. Workshop on New Trends in Topological Insulators Held in Barcelona, Spain on 3-6 June 2013. Abstracts Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastián/Donostia, Basque Country, Spain b Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UPV/EHU, Apdo...a,*, Pablo San José a , Elsa Prada b Jorge Cayao a a Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones...Topological Insulator. Luis Brey Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid. CSIC brey@icmm.csic.es Abstract A topological insulator

  5. ‘Slow’ Urban Development, the History and the Future of Poblenou, 22. District of Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorján Anna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal projects are based on long-term strategies and huge economical resources. It takes a lot of time to successfully regenerate an abandoned area, create a new centre, infrastructure, businesses, communities. It also needs the kind of systematic and conscious focus that we see in Germany and Scandinavia. While Spain was one of the most touched countries of the economical crisis, it still succeeded at presenting interesting urban development initiatives.

  6. Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM2.5 in subway stations of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; van Drooge, Barend L; Reche, Cristina; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Centelles, Sonia; Querol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The present work assesses indoor air quality in stations of the Barcelona subway system. PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms of 4 subway stations were measured during two different seasons and the chemical composition was determined. A Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed to identify and quantify the contributions of major PM2.5 sources in the subway stations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations varied according to the stations design and seasonal periods. PM2.5 was composed of haematite, carbonaceous aerosol, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, trace elements, insoluble sulphate and halite. Organic compounds such as PAHs, nicotine, levoglucosan and aromatic musk compounds were also identified. Subway PM2.5 source comprised emissions from rails, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. The subway source showed different chemical profiles for each station, but was always dominated by Fe. Control actions on the source are important for the achievement of better air quality in the subway environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Planned reuse of wastewater effluents for environmental applications in Granollers (Barcelona, Spain); Reutilizacion planificada de aguas depuradas para uso ambientales en Granollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Domingo, V.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describe the technical characteristics, performance, and operation and maintenance activities of the 1 ha surface flow constructed wetland (SF) located in Can Cabanyes, Granollers, Barcelona, Spain. The system started in operation by April 2003 as restoration measure for a degraded zone near the river Congost. The SFis fed with treated effluent of Granollers wastewater treatment plant. Currently treats a small flow (approximately 100 m''3/d, hydraulic load of 10mm/d) because the effluents of the TP have a high concentration of ammonia N (approximately 30 mg N/L) and the system was designed to reach a concentration lower than 2 mg/l. Somewhat more of the 50% of the data have an ammonia concentration lower than 2 mg N/L. The 85% of the samples had a faecal coliform concentration lower than 1.4 ulog/100 mL, which was the target value used for design. The system is currently a key element in the natural environments surrounding the Congost river. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teijon, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-08-01

    The presence of 170 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) have been investigated at the Llobregat delta, south of Barcelona (Spain). In the area, reclaimed water is destined to satisfy environmental uses, irrigation and the construction of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the deep aquifer of the delta. A monitoring survey was undertaken of water samples from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (Depurbaix), treated waste water with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection (WWATP, for the hydraulic barrier injection). Groundwater samples from the aquifer receiving recharge were also investigated. The pharmaceutical group of substances was detected in sampled waters at concentrations rarely exceeding a few microg/L, among the compounds Caffeine, Nicotine and Galaxolide (musk fragrance) were found to be present in more than 60% of the samples. Diuron was the only priority substance detected. The four metals were always present in a variable concentration. After the WWATP treatment the majority of analytes are removed from tertiary treated wastewater or their concentration is reduced below 0.1 microg/L. Monitoring revealed a widespread occurrence of analysed compounds in groundwater. Among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory), Iopamidol, Iopromide (contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine) have only been detected in groundwater, and are not present in water currently being injected in the deep aquifer.

  9. Perfil de la casuística hospitalaria de la población inmigrante en Barcelona Profile of the hospital case mix of the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cots

    2002-10-01

    la envejecida estructura de edad de los pacientes autóctonos y plantea la necesidad de recuperar el mayor peso de los servicios de ginecología-obstetricia y pediatría. El hecho de que exista menor consumo de recursos por alta hospitalaria en la población inmigrante de países de renta baja contradice la relación esperada de inmigrante-peor situación socioeconómica-mayor intensidad de consumo de recursos por alta hospitalaria. Deben proponerse nuevas hipótesis de trabajo y análisis que permitan explicar esta realidad.Objective: Although the immigrant population in cities such as Barcelona has tripled in the last five years, until now the impact of this group on the health system has not been rigorously evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare hospital resource utilization among the immigrant population with that among the native population through case mix, demographic characteristics and hospital day use. Material and methods: We analyzed 15,057 discharges from Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2000. This hospital attends 60% of admissions from the Ciutat Vella district. In 2000, 21% of the population of this district were immigrants. Socio-demographic patient characteristics and case mix were compared between the immigrant and the native population. Hospital resource use was compared according to age, case mix (diagnosis related groups and seriousness (severity, complications and comorbidities of the events requiring medical care. Results: The case mix of the immigrant population differed from that of the autochthonous population due to pronounced ge differences and a higher fertility rate. Thirty-three percent of immigrant admissions were for deliveries. The mean cost of discharge of immigrants from low-income countries was 30% lower than that for the remaining discharges. After adjusting for age, case mix and severity, length of stay among the immigrant population was significantly shorter. A 5% reduction was found after adjusting for case mix and a

  10. Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM_2_._5 in subway stations of Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Drooge, Barend L. van; Reche, Cristina; Amato, Fulvio; Miguel, Eladio de; Capdevila, Marta; Centelles, Sonia; Querol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The present work assesses indoor air quality in stations of the Barcelona subway system. PM_2_._5 concentrations on the platforms of 4 subway stations were measured during two different seasons and the chemical composition was determined. A Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed to identify and quantify the contributions of major PM_2_._5 sources in the subway stations. Mean PM_2_._5 concentrations varied according to the stations design and seasonal periods. PM_2_._5 was composed of haematite, carbonaceous aerosol, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, trace elements, insoluble sulphate and halite. Organic compounds such as PAHs, nicotine, levoglucosan and aromatic musk compounds were also identified. Subway PM_2_._5 source comprised emissions from rails, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. The subway source showed different chemical profiles for each station, but was always dominated by Fe. Control actions on the source are important for the achievement of better air quality in the subway environment. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentrations varied according to stations design and seasonal periods. • Haematite was the most abundant component of PM_2_._5. • Organic compounds such as PAHs were detected in the subway stations. • The subway contribution to ambient PM_2_._5 on the platforms ranged from 9 to 58%. • The chemical profile of the subway emissions varies depending on the station. - Concentrations of PM_2_._5 chemical components varied according to stations design, seasonal periods, and chemical composition of rail, catenary and trains. PM_2_._5 consists mainly of Fe.

  11. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  12. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  13. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer in women in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, R; Agudo, A; Gonzalez, C A; Riboli, E

    1998-01-01

    Newly available data of a case-control study of lung cancer in women in Spain were analyzed to assess the relationship with the intake of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin). The study included 103 cases and 206 hospital controls, matched by age and residence. Usual food intake was estimated through a food-frequency questionnaire. With adjustment for smoking habit and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total flavonoid intake, no association was found for the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, or lutein. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for women in the highest tertile of lycopene intake with respect to the lowest was 0.56 (0.26-1.24), with p for trend = 0.15. A nonsignificant association was observed for the highest vs. lowest tertile intake of kaempferol (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.22-1.17), with p for trend = 0.10, after adjustment for smoking and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total carotenoid intake. No protective effect was observed for quercetin or luteolin or for total flavonoid intake.

  14. Spherical Panoramas, and non Metric Images for Long Range Survey, the San Barnaba Spire, Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cingolani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sagrada Familia by Gaudi in Barcelona about 80 years after the death of its creator is going quickly to take its final shape as well as, maintain its original form as Gaudi would have wanted, the actual builders say.  Complicated and elaborated forms, following the construction layout of the Chapel of Colonia Guell in Santa Coloma, tend to reproduce, on a gigantic scale, the organic forms of trees going to draw the charming and attractive complex of the small church derived from the model of wires used by Gaudi for its design. It has been long debated, and still it is debated on this approach as "camouflage", how it is consistent with the attitude of Gaudi architecture in the sense that he saw a sort of self-generating form of architecture during its own construction gradually responding to the stress placed by the same growth of structures, shapes, and materials. ("We do not reproduce the forms but we are able to reproduce a character owing its spirit,” A. Gaudi. But beyond this, the reality remains of the gradual suppression of what Gaudi realized until his death. Basically the sole facade of the Nativity, with its striking features and ending with four original towers as hyperboloids pinnacles with glittering glazed mosaics, is the only one that was finished by Gaudi himself, in particular the San Barnaba’s spire. In this action of progressive “destruction”, it is very important to analyze, survey and plot what realized by Gaudi for recovering the original forms and keeping them in their Gaudian formal and constructive features. The spire of St. Barnabas is one of the most architecturally significant occurrence of the whole building and its survey poses major technical problems: their possible solution represented by the experience here shown, has been already experimented in the previous 90 years as one of the first applications of expeditious photogrammetric techniques of survey (Clini, Fangi,1990. The technical problems

  15. Orígenes del Fútbol en Barcelona (1892-1903. | Origins of Fooball in Barcelona (1892-1903.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Torrebadella Flix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows some unpublished data that seek to clarify the origins of football in Spain and particularly in Barcelona. Apart from the influence of the English colony in the dissemination of football, the background of school sport is described and evaluated. It is provided data about football in Barcelona which reveal that before the constitution of the Football Club Barcelona, often considered the first team of the city, there were ten associations that practiced this sport. It emphasizes the importance of the British colony, gyms and sports clubs of Barcelona from 1892 to 1903, to generate the enabling environment that made ​​the modern sport of football triumph, stimulating in turn the context Regenerationism and the emergence of associations sports from the early twentieth century. The research method has focused on historical analysis techniques, with the treatment of the original documentary sources and complemented with historicist indirect sources.ResumenEn este artículo se presentan algunos datos inéditos que pretenden esclarecer los orígenes del fútbol en España y más concretamente en Barcelona. Aparte de la influencia que ejerce la colonia inglesa en la divulgación del fútbol, se describen y se valoran los antecedentes del deporte escolar. Sobre el fútbol en Barcelona se aportan datos que revelan que antes de la constitución del Fútbol Club Barcelona, considerado frecuentemente como el primer equipo de fútbol de la ciudad, existieron una decena de asociaciones que practicaron este deporte. Se acentúa la importancia que tuvo la colonia inglesa, los gimnasios y las sociedades deportivas de Barcelona entre 1892 y 1903, para generar el ambiente favorable que hizo que el fútbol triunfase como deporte moderno, estimulando a su vez el contexto regeneracionista y la emergencia del asociacionismo deportivo de principios del siglo XX. El método de investigación se ha centrado en técnicas de análisis histórico en

  16. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R.P.; Blom, M.J.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC).

  17. ESCO FORMATION AS ENABLING FACTOR FOR SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION (UE: SPAIN CASE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Morcillo Bellido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities have reached a huge magnitude and they represent great potential improvement platforms for wealth, employment and competitiveness creation, but also they involve an enormous amount of complexity that emphasized their future management challenges. Cities evolution could be seen as a strong trend towards the development of more efficient and livable cities that have been called "Smart Cities", where one of key topics is linked to how efficiently scarce resources are managed. This document analyzes the development of Energy Service Companies (ESCO in Spain, as a type of organization preliminary focused on promoting and managing projects related to the efficient use of energy, being their business success linked to energy savings achieved by their clients and getting their revenue from these achieved savings. Outcome of this study expects to provide information of interest to understand the current development of ESCO model projects in Spain as example of what is happening in several major European Union (EU countries in relation to Smart Cities development and subsequence ESCO growth, the important barriers they currently face to grow faster, and to find evidences of how collaboration between organizations could facilitate energy efficiency management, which at the end is linked to a better understanding of the future development of “Smart Cities” initiatives in EU countries.

  18. Evolución de las desigualdades según la clase social en el control del embarazo en Barcelona (1994-97 frente a 2000-03 Trends in social inequalities in pregnancy care in Barcelona (Spain, 1994-97 versus 2000-03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Roig

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y comparar las desigualdades según la clase social en el control del embarazo en Barcelona durante 2 períodos. Métodos: Se comparan 2 cuatrienios: 1994-1997 y 2000-2003. La población de estudio son las gestantes de Barcelona y la muestra los controles del Registro de Defectos Congénitos de Barcelona (n = 905 en 1994-1997; n = 927 en 2000-2003. Las fuentes de información son las historias hospitalarias y una encuesta realizada a las madres. Las variables dependientes son: planificación del embarazo, ingesta de ácido fólico antes del embarazo, consumo de tabaco, número de visitas al obstetra, trimestre de primera visita, número de ecografías, ecografía del quinto mes, prueba invasiva y abandono del tabaco. Las variables independientes son la edad y la clase social. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística para cada variable dependiente según la clase social y se compararon los resultados entre cuatrienios. Resultados: Tanto las gestantes de clases de ocupación manual como las de no manual presentan mejorías en el segundo cuatrienio en 7 de los 10 indicadores (no son exactamente los mismos en ambas clases. Sin embargo, cuando comparamos las variaciones interclase entre los 2 cuatrienios se registran diferencias en 8 de los 10 indicadores, 7 a favor de las clases más favorecidas y uno a favor de las menos favorecidas. Conclusiones: Excepto para una de las situaciones analizadas (hacer más de 3 ecografías, las clases menos favorecidas presentan peores resultados que las más favorecidas al comparar la tendencia de los indicadores entre los 2 períodos. La distancia entre clases en el ámbito del control de la gestación se acentúa con el tiempo.Objective: To describe and compare social inequalities in pregnancy care among pregnant women living in Barcelona (Spain in 2 periods. Methods: Two 4-year periods were compared: 1994-1997 and 2000-2003. The study population consisted of pregnant women living in

  19. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  20. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  1. «There’s no more Progressive Party in Barcelona». Social experience and workers protest into the 1869 republican up-rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert García Balañà

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona by adding an evidence unknown to the historiography of republicanism: its confluence with a massive cotton workers strike that paralyzed the first industry of the city from august to October in the aftermath of the armed fighting. So, the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona can be seen as a relevant case study in order to understand some major issues on 1868-1874 Spain: the nature of the rank-and-file/leadership relationship into the republican movement; the social (and not only political sources of popular or plebeian unrest; and the so many faces of the «cuestión obrera» in industrial and liberal societies, as Barcelona had been since the 1830s.

  2. In the matter of the application of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the export of pressurized water reactor to Asociacion Nuclear ASCO II, Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Mason, E.A.; Gilinsky, V.; Kennedy, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper contains the text of a decision of the US NRC that the export of the ASCO nuclear power unit II to Spain would not be inimical to the common defense and security of the United States, so that there are no objections to issue the license to Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Furthermore the paper contains the dissenting opinion of Commissioner Gilinsky. (HP) [de

  3. Environmental and comparative analysis between the conventional and movil recovery of municipal Solid Wastes in Barcelona (Spain); Analisis ambiental global y local comprativo entre la recogida neumatica movil y convencional de resiudos solidos muncipales en Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, C.; Domenech, X.; Rieradevall, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes, from an environmental point of view, these factors that are affected by refuse collecting with a mobile vacuum system, a new technology that is imposing in Spanish cities. Vacuum system consists in the suction of refuse through a pipe net to a collection station (Stationary system) or to a truck (Mobil system). The environmental impacts in vacuum system are compared with impacts in conventional system. I mean collecting in containers on the street. In the evaluation of environmental impacts produced by both systems, the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) has been used. LCA is an objective method for method for evaluating environmental charges associated to a product, process or activity in every stage of his life. The results reveal a global environmental impact lower in conventional system than vacuum system, but benefits in local environmental factors. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. Impacto del tabaquismo y del consumo excesivo de alcohol en la mortalidad de la población de la ciudad de Barcelona: 1983-1998 Impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on mortality in the population of Barcelona [Spain]: 1983-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jané

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la mortalidad atribuible al tabaquismo y al consumo excesivo de alcohol, así como su evolución, en la ciudad de Barcelona entre 1983 y 1998. Métodos: Se incluyen todas las defunciones de las personas residentes en Barcelona desde 1983 a 1998. Los datos poblacionales se han obtenido de los Padrones de Habitantes. La mortalidad atribuible al tabaquismo y al consumo de alcohol se obtiene calculando las Fracciones Atribuibles Poblacionales a partir de los riesgos relativos de estudios previos en la población de los EE.UU. Resultados: En 1998 se produjeron 2.205 muertes atribuibles al hábito tabáquico, lo que representó el 13,8% de la mortalidad en la población de 35 años o más, y una reducción del 9,6% respecto a 1983. Durante el período 1983-1998 aumentó, en varones y mujeres, la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón atribuible al tabaquismo (155,84/100.000 y 9,39/100.000 habitantes en 1998, respectivamente y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC (95,82 y 11,29/100.000 habitantes en 1998. La mortalidad por consumo de alcohol en 1998 representó el 4,3% de la mortalidad total, reduciéndose en un 26% desde 1983. La cirrosis hepática siguió siendo la primera causa de muerte atribuible al consumo de alcohol en varones en 1998, aunque su importancia relativa disminuyó (17,1% de la mortalidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol en 1998, 24,3% en 1983. Conclusiones: La mortalidad atribuible al hábito tabáquico y al consumo excesivo de alcohol ha descendido en la ciudad de Barcelona durante el período de estudio. Asimismo, se ha incrementado la importancia relativa de la mortalidad atribuible al tabaquismo para el cáncer de pulmón y la EPOC en ambos sexos, mientras que se ha reducido la proporción de mortalidad atribuible al consumo excesivo de alcohol para las cirrosis hepáticas en el caso de los varones.Objectives: To analyze the mortality attributable to smoking and alcohol consumption in the city of

  5. Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway L10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Filbà, Marta; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria; Jubany, Jordi; Carrasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a layer of hard boulders up to 1 m in size within the soft sediments of the Holocene Llobregat delta in the SW of Barcelona city caused the damage and stoppage of the EPB-type tunnel boring machine that excavated the subway L10 line. This layer constitutes a detrital deposit of exceptionally large grain size developed in the base of the delta. It originated as an alluvial fan in the northern margin of the delta during the last fall of the Mediterranean Sea level, at the end o...

  6. Report on Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education, Barcelona, Spain, June 9–11, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Murray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Participants representing various stakeholders, including medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, medical education companies, international regulatory bodies, and independent consultants from 17 countries, attended the annual meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME in Barcelona between 9 and 11 June 2013. The attendees took part in small-group exercises to explore the use of a 10-step empirical procedure as part of an instructional design model applied to the planning and implementation of educational activities in continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME/CPD. The strategic focus of GAME was presented to highlight areas of interest in patient safety, inter-professional education, and adult learning theory in CME/CPD. These areas were also underlined during presentations of abstracts by representatives of the World Health Organization, academic institutions, and medical education companies. These presentations demonstrated the wide array of educational activities and formats being conducted around the world, with live links to Rwanda and Uruguay emphasizing the global reach of GAME.

  7. Attitudes of students of a health sciences university towards the extension of smoke-free policies at the university campuses of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Méndez, Carlos; Sánchez, María; Martínez-Sánchez, José María

    To assess attitudes towards the extension of outdoor smoke-free areas on university campuses. Cross-sectional study (n=384) conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical and nursing students in Barcelona in 2014. Information was obtained pertaining to support for indoor and outdoor smoking bans on university campuses, and the importance of acting as role models. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine agreement. Most of the students agreed on the importance of health professionals and students as role models (74.9% and 64.1%, respectively) although there were statistically significant differences by smoking status and age. 90% of students reported exposure to smoke on campus. Students expressed strong support for indoor smoke-free policies (97.9%). However, only 39.3% of participants supported regulation of outdoor smoking for university campuses. Non-smokers (OR=12.315; 95% CI: 5.377-28.204) and students ≥22 years old (OR=3.001; 95% CI: 1.439-6.257) were the strongest supporters. The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM 10 –PM 2.5 –PM 1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM 10 . Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM 10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM 1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM 1 , one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM 1 . - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 defined for a Mediterranean urban site. • Vehicular source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 10 . • Crustal source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 1 . • Magnetic remanence may distinguish between North African and regional dust in PM 1 . - Capsule abstract two sources of magnetic atmospheric particles have been identified in Barcelona, a vehicular source which dominates in PM 10 and a crustal source that dominates in PM 1

  9. Storm water detention tanks in Barcelona; Los depositos de retencion de aguas pluviales de Barcelona: un nuevo enfoque en la lucha contra las inundaciones y la proteccion medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere Malgrat i Bregolat, P.; Verdejo, J. M.; Vilalta i Cambra, A.

    2004-07-01

    Storm water detention tanks are being implemented at first as a solution to the urban flooding problem and afterwards a second function was added to reduce the pollution of the sewerage waters before its overflow to the receiving bodies because these spills can contribute with up to 50% of the total pollution spilled. These solutions are often cheaper and have less impact on the urban activities than the classical solutions such as trunk sewers. In Spain, Barcelona was the first city to build this tanks to avoid flooding and also to reduce the contamination to the receiving waters, with a total volume of 492.200 m''3, operated by Clavegueram de Barcelona (Clabsa). These works have meant a big improvement in the management of the wet weather flows in Barcelona. These tanks have increased the capacity of the sewerage system and decreased the combined sewer overflows to the receiving waters (Besos river and Mediterranean sea). Another advantage is the protection of WWTP against flow variations. The environmental improvement achieved with the tanks is so hug that can even reduce the contamination spilled to the receiving waters around 30% and avoid the destruction of some ecosystems. Also, the contaminated sediments trapped in the detention tank are sen to to the WWTP so the don't reach the receiving waters. Also. the urban space close to the relieving waters are becoming more appreciated for leisure so the recovery and protection of these waters is a must. (Author)

  10. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  11. [The Ineq-Cities research project on urban health inequalities: knowledge dissemination and transfer in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Díez, Èlia; Morrison, Joana; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    The Ineq-Cities project analyzed inequalities in mortality in small areas and described interventions to reduce inequalities in health in 16 European cities. This field note describes the dissemination of the project in Spain. In accordance with the recommendations of the project, the objective was to translate relevant results to key stakeholders - mainly technical staff, municipal officers and local social agents - and to provide an introduction to urban inequalities in health and strategies to address them. Twenty-four workshops were given, attended by more than 350 professionals from 92 municipalities. Knowledge dissemination consisted of the publication of a short book on inequalities in health and the approach to this problem in cities and three articles in nonspecialized media, a proposal for a municipal motion, and knowledge dissemination activities in social networks. Users rated these activities highly and stressed the need to systematize these products. This process may have contributed to the inclusion of health inequalities in the political agenda and to the training of officers to correct them. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood Inequalities in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in an Urban Setting in Spain: A Multilevel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Muñoz, Dolores Ruiz; Salvador, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight (LBW), premature birth (PM) and small size for gestational age at birth (SGA) between 2000 and 2005 in Barcelona, Spain, jointly evaluating the effect of mother’s country of origin, and neighborhood of residence socioeconomic level measured using unemployment and educational level. We performed a cross-sectional study of births to mothers aged 12–49 years who were residents in the city of Barcelona in ...

  13. The intangible city. Environmental experiences in historical settings. The case of Ruzafa in Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Puig Tarín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The district of Ruzafa in Valencia (Spain is in a process of urban revitalization. These interventions need knowledge of the particular characteristics of existing urban weave and of the resident users. The information obtained will be managed through a graphical database that will allow to propose alternative models of energy rehabilitation based on existing heritage recovery. The proposal consists of the systematization of the information sensitive to urban environmental quality so it can be managed through a graphical database of the city (GIS. The use of this tool will allow to propose interventions adapted to the real needs of the users and to achieve a real penetration of the urban proposals among the population. 

  14. Construyendo la Barcelona creativa: nuevos actores, nuevas estrategias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Building A creative Barcelona: new actors, new strategies.Barcelona is under the international spotlight. The city that triumphed with the organisation of the Olympic Games in 1992 now wants to become a 21st Century creative city. In order to achieve this goal, the city must establish conditions that facilitate the emergence of a shared discourse around its ability to become an attractive city for creative talent and for businesses. The recognition of the historical-economic heritage, as a starting point for the creative city, along with the driving role played by culture in the generation of a exclusive and distinctive experience, turnBarcelona into a unique city. However, this is not sufficient. The participation and involvement of all the actors in a shared strategy pose significant challenges to Barcelona, as does the need to minimise the negative effects that inevitably accompany success. Companies, institutions and citizens constitute the city’s best assets: they must work in partnership and take advantage of the synergies generated amongst them. Consensus and participation are more than mere utopias in Barcelona: they have become requirements for the city of tomorrow. Moreover, leadership in Barcelona is largely left to public initiative: the emergence of linkages across the needs of the various creative sectors, based on public intervention mechanisms is the best way to ensure success.

  15. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  16. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  17. A Model for Assessing Pedestrian Corridors. Application to Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Delso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.

  18. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  19. Return period curves for extreme 5-min rainfall amounts at the Barcelona urban network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, X.; Casas-Castillo, M. C.; Serra, C.; Rodríguez-Solà, R.; Redaño, A.; Burgueño, A.; Martínez, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy rainfall episodes are relatively common in the conurbation of Barcelona and neighbouring cities (NE Spain), usually due to storms generated by convective phenomena in summer and eastern and south-eastern advections in autumn. Prevention of local flood episodes and right design of urban drainage have to take into account the rainfall intensity spread instead of a simple evaluation of daily rainfall amounts. The database comes from 5-min rain amounts recorded by tipping buckets in the Barcelona urban network along the years 1994-2009. From these data, extreme 5-min rain amounts are selected applying the peaks-over-threshold method for thresholds derived from both 95% percentile and the mean excess plot. The return period curves are derived from their statistical distribution for every gauge, describing with detail expected extreme 5-min rain amounts across the urban network. These curves are compared with those derived from annual extreme time series. In this way, areas in Barcelona submitted to different levels of flood risk from the point of view of rainfall intensity are detected. Additionally, global time trends on extreme 5-min rain amounts are quantified for the whole network and found as not statistically significant.

  20. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  1. Mortality on extreme heat days using official thresholds in Spain: a multi-city time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2003 heat wave had a high impact on mortality in Europe, which made necessary to develop heat health watch warning systems. In Spain this was carried-out by the Ministry of Health in 2004, being based on exceeding of city-specific simultaneous thresholds of minimum and maximum daily temperatures. The aim of this study is to assess effectiveness of the official thresholds established by the Ministry of Health for each provincial capital city, by quantifying and comparing the short-term effects of above-threshold days on total daily mortality. Methods Total daily mortality and minimum and maximum temperatures for the 52 capitals of province in Spain were collected during summer months (June to September for the study period 1995-2004. Data was analysed using GEE for Poisson regression. Relative Risk (RR of total daily mortality was quantified for the current day of official thresholds exceeded. Results The number of days in which the thresholds were exceeded show great inconsistency, with provinces with great number of exceeded days adjacent to provinces that did not exceed or rarely exceeded. The average overall excess risk of dying during an extreme heat day was about 25% (RR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = [1.19-1.30]. Relative risks showed a significant heterogeneity between cities (I2 = 54.9%. Western situation and low mean summer temperatures were associated with higher relative risks, suggesting thresholds may have been set too high in these areas. Conclusions This study confirmed that extreme heat days have a considerable impact on total daily mortality in Spain. Official thresholds gave consistent relative risk in the large capital cities. However, in some other cities thresholds

  2. Climate change, income and happiness: An empirical study for Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulova, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present article builds upon the results of an empirical study exploring key factors which determine life satisfaction in Barcelona. Based on a sample of 840 individuals we first look at the way changes in income, notably income reductions, associated with the current economic situation in Spain,

  3. NEWS: GIREP in Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-11-01

    The 18th biannual conference of GIREP was held in Barcelona from 27 August to 1 September 2000. GIREP stands for Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Enseignement de la Physique. Some 400 delegates from 53 countries attended the conference, whose main concern was Physics Teacher Education beyond 2000. All contributions had to made in English. A conference like this needs to be singularly interesting to keep delegates away from the sunsoaked attractions and delights of one of the most exciting cities in the world - even if some of the excitement comes from wondering whether or not you are going to get your pocket picked. A typical conference day begins with two or three plenary lectures in the morning, with the afternoon given over to a set of nine parallel sessions. These sessions consisted of tightly timetabled 20 minute talks or other types of presentation. This meant that even the most dedicated delegate could get to little more than 10% of the over 200 sessions that were on offer in the afternoons. The event was organized by Catalonian locals working at the conference site, the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and was superbly smooth. The list of organizations supporting the conference is too long to record, but ranged from the European Commission to Barcelona Science Museum. The UK can boast (if that is the right word) just 11 paid-up members of GIREP, which at about £10 per annum is hardly an expensive club - next year it goes up to 20 Euros - and the fee is worth it for the excellently produced book or CD-ROM of the conference proceedings. These contain a great deal of wisdom, plus the fair amount of infuriating rubbish that tends to be generated by educational research. I write here with all the prejudices of an aged ex-teacher, of course. The first morning lecture was given by Jon Ogborn, who used his recent work as organizer of the IoP post-16 Initiative to give some details of the Advancing Physics AS and A2 and make some general points about

  4. Epidemiology of imported malaria among children and young adults in Barcelona (1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Villarrubia Mireia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing international travel and migration is producing changes in trends in infectious diseases, especially in children from many European cities. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and determine the trends of imported malaria in patients under 20 years old in the city of Barcelona, Spain, during an 18-year period. Methods The study included malaria cases that were laboratory confirmed and reported to the malaria register at the Public Health Agency of Barcelona from 1990 to 2008, residing in Barcelona and less than 20 years old. Patients were classified as natives (born in Spain or immigrants. Differences in the distribution of demographic, clinical characteristics, and incidence per 100,000 person-year evolution were analysed. Natives and immigrants were compared by logistic regression by calculating the odds ratio (OR with a 95% confidence interval (CI and Chi-square for a linear trend (p Results Of the total 174 cases, 143 (82.1% were immigrants, 100 (57.5% were female, 121 (69.5% Plasmodium falciparum, and 108 (62.1% were visiting friends and relatives (VFR as the reason for travel. Among the immigrants, 99 (67.8% were from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrant cases more frequently travelled to Africa than natives (p = 0.02. The factors associated with imported malaria among immigrant residents was travelling for VFR (OR: 6.2 CI 1.9-20.2 and age 15-19 (OR: 3.7 CI 1-13.3. The incidence increased from 1990 to 1999 (p Conclusions The majority of cases of malaria in population less than 20 years in Barcelona were immigrants, travelling to Africa for VFR and Plasmodium falciparum was most frequently detected. The trend analysis of the entire study period did not show a statistically significant decline. It is recommended to be aware of malaria, especially among children of immigrants who travel to their parent's home country for VFR. Better access to pre travel advice should be provided.

  5. Saalivalvurid varastavad ka Barcelonas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hispaania politsei tabas Barcelona Arheoloogiamuuseumi saalivalvuri Manuel Gasca, kes varastas muuseumi hoidlaist umbes 35 miljoni Eesti krooni ulatuses vana-egiptuse, foiniikia, etruski ja vana-rooma arheoloogilisi leide (mündid, keraamika, skulptuur jt.) ning itaalia graafiku Giambattista Piranesi 150 gravüüri.

  6. The Botanical Expedition to New Spain, 1786-1803: Mexico City's Botanical Garden and Pro­fessorship in Botany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Maldonado Polo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Thís work is about a  scientific enterprise carried out by  the Spanish Crown during the illustrated period, as a part of the ex­peditionary project to the overseas  territories. It describes the details and circumstances in which the Botanical Expedition be­gan, considering the prevailing intellectual environment at the time and the people who took a Ieading role in the cultural life of  the  incipient but  vigorous New Spain scientific community. After describing this background, the  author considers one of the Expedition's main results: the creation of  Mexico City's Botanical Garden and  Professorship in Botany,  which was the first of its kind in the American continent and contributed toes­ establish the study of Botany and related sciences in New Spain.

  7. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine particles in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 m a.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l. during a 4 week period in September–October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5 nm are highly correlated with black carbon (BC at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under cleaner atmospheric conditions (low condensation sink, CS such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10–500 as well as particle number concentrations (N>5 nm allow us to identify three types of nucleation and growth events: (1 a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding urban background area; (2 a regional type event impacting only the regional background area but not the urban agglomerate; (3 an urban type event which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the optimal combination between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated

  8. Ingreso hospitalario de los recién nacidos según el origen étnico y el país de procedencia de los progenitores en una área urbana de Barcelona Hospital admission in newborns according to ethnicity and parents' country of origin in an urban area of Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Puig Sola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El aumento continuado de la inmigración ha ocasionado un incremento de la natalidad a expensas de este grupo de población. El origen étnico y el nivel socioeconómico pueden ser factores que condicionen las diferencias de salud maternoinfantil. El objetivo fue conocer si hay diferencias en los diagnósticos neonatales según el origen étnico de los progenitores. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo de los recién nacidos vivos en el Hospital del Mar (Barcelona entre 2003 y 2005. Las variables estudiadas fueron: riesgo de ingresar, categorías diagnósticas y grupo étnico de los progenitores. Resultados: El 46,7% de los 2.118 recién nacidos eran inmigrantes (mayoritariamente de Centroamérica y Sudamérica y el 6,4% gitanos. En más del 60% de los 1.445 recién nacidos ingresados, la categoría diagnóstica más frecuente fue el riesgo o la sospecha de infección. Los recién nacidos no autóctonos y gitanos tuvieron más riesgo de embarazo poco o no controlado (odds ratio [OR] = 2,58; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,76-3,77, y OR = 5,84; IC95%: 3,45-9,90, respectivamente. Los recién nacidos no autóctonos tuvieron menos riesgo de bajo peso al nacimiento (OR = 0,17; IC95%: 0,03-0,90 y consumo materno de tóxicos (OR = 0,12; IC95%: 0,03-0,44. Conclusiones: Las diferencias en las categorías diagnósticas en los recién nacidos no autóctonos y gitanos, comparados con los autóctonos, no se deben a enfermedades importadas o a diferente carga genética, sino que posiblemente son consecuencia del entorno social y cultural de la gestante. Sería necesario reforzar y promover el uso de medidas preventivas de salud, así como mejorar el acceso y la calidad de la asistencia a estas mujeres y sus hijos.Objective: The birth rate in Spain has increased due to the continuous rise in the number of immigrants. Ethnic origin and socioeconomic position can be determining factors in differences in maternal and child health. The

  9. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process of the hydrological cycle. Infiltration also controls the soil water resources, and the development of the vegetation, and moreover, in the Mediterranean, determines the runoff generation (Cerdà, 1996; 1997; 2001). In the Mediterranean, the infiltration in forest soils shows high spatial variability and seasonal and temporal changes (Cerdà, 1999; Bodí and Cerdà, 2009) and is being affected by forest fires (Cerdà, 1998), which introduce a new temporal change in the seasonality of the infiltration rates. Although the forest soils are well assessed, there is no information about the infiltration in urban areas in Mediterranean cities. The Mediterranean dense urban systems use to be treated as impermeable areas. However, the cities show areas covered by vegetation and with soils that allow the rainfall to infiltrate. Those areas are mainly the parks. In order to shed some light on the infiltration capacity of the soils of the urban area of Valencia city 30 rainfall simulations experiments (Cerdà, 1996) and 90 ring infiltrometer (10 cm diameter) measurements were carried out in January 2011, and they were repeated in July 2011, to compare wet (19.4 % of soil moisture) and dry (5.98 % of soil moisture) soils. The infiltration curves where fitted to the Horton (1933) equation and they lasted for 1 hour. The results show that the infiltration is 11 times higher when measured with ring infiltrometer than with the simulated rainfall at 55 mmh-1, and that the infiltration rates where higher in summer than in winter: 2.01 higher for the ring infiltrometer, and 1.45 higher when measured with the rainfall simulator. In comparison to the soils from the forest areas, the infiltration rate in the gardens were lower, with values of 10.23 and 21.65 mm h-1 in average for winter and summer when measured with the rainfall simulator. Similar results were found with the ring infiltrometer. It was also found a clear relationship between the vegetation

  12. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  13. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Arroyo, L.; Torre, I.; Gordo, O.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha) bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future. (Author)

  14. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...

  15. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontcuberta, M.; Arques, J.F.; Villalbi, J.R.; Martinez, M.; Centrich, F.; Serrahima, E.; Pineda, L.; Duran, J.; Casas, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan α, β or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements

  16. Sowing Resilience and Contestation in Times of Crises: The Case of Urban Gardening Movements in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Camps-Calvet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper we argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need. Specifically, this research examines the role of urban gardens in (i building community resilience and (ii articulating forms of resistance and contestation to development pressure and commodified urban lifestyles. Our research is based on data collected among 27 urban gardening initiatives in Barcelona, Spain, including 13 self-governed community gardens and 14 public gardens. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with gardeners and with staff from the Barcelona City Council. Our results show mechanisms through which urban gardens can contribute to build resilience by nurturing social and ecological diversity, generating and transmitting local ecological knowledge, and by creating opportunities for collective action and self-organization. We further examine collectively managed gardens as urban commons that emerge as a form of resistance to the privatization of public urban space, and that offer opportunities to experiment with new models of urban lifestyles. We show how gardening initiatives can be seen to represent an emerging form of urban green commons that provides a suitable ground to ‘sow’ resilience and contestation in times of crises and socio-ecological deterioration.

  17. Barcelona A ja B = Barcelona A and B / Inga Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raukas, Inga, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Barcelona arendamisest. Herzog ja de Meuroni büroos kavandatud Foorumi näitusekeskuses 2006. a. märtsist juuni alguseni avatud näitusest "Barcelona in Progress", mis püüab haarata eduloo ajalugu ja tulevikku. Bibliograafia lk. 71

  18. Smart Cities and Apps for Citizenship: Analysis of innovation Cases in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Barceló Ugarte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities represent the natural development of the traditional major city because of new information and Communications Technology applied to their daily operating processes. in the cities’ process of comprehensive transformation, the citizens and the content aimed at them should appear in order of priority. However, they seem to be missing in the large majority of studies and research on the topic. This article focuses its attention on the analysis of digital apps by pioneering Spanish cities such as Valencia, Coruña and Burgos, in the field smart city apps and their content, as well as innovations that improve their integration into the new digital ecosystem.

  19. Commuters’ valuation of travel time variability in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Asensio; Anna Matas

    2007-01-01

    The value given by commuters to the variability of travel times is empirically analysed using stated preference data from Barcelona (Spain). Respondents are asked to choose between alternatives that differ in terms of cost, average travel time, variability of travel times and departure time. Different specifications of a scheduling choice model are used to measure the influence of various socioeconomic characteristics. Our results show that travel time variability.

  20. [Implementation of a health promotion programme for women in social exclusion in the city of Seville (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Fernández-Viagas, Cristina; García Gil, Carmen; Bayo Barroso, Nora; Villalba Quesada, Cristina; Álvarez Girón, Manuela

    2018-01-09

    Health promotion can contribute towards reducing inequality and ensuring equal opportunities, providing the means to enable the entire population to develop its maximum health possibilities. Women living in areas with social transformation needs (ASTN) are an especially vulnerable group due to the situation of material deprivation and social exclusion in which they live. Health promotion programmes for this group can bring about an improvement in their health. This paper describes the health promotion programme Socio-educational Groups of Primary Care for Women (SEGPC-W), and evaluates its implementation in ASTN in the city of Seville (Spain), as well as the benefits and difficulties of its development through a documentary analysis and interviews with participating professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  2. Edificio Atalaya Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa, Federico

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available This unique building, situated at the crossing Diagonal-Carretera of Sarría of Barcelona, consists of four basements, two levels for premises and offices that occupy the entire site and of twenty two of apartments that assume the shape of a cross so as to obtain the maximum independence of view between the different wings, in addition to other aesthetic and volumetric considerations. The structure is of reinforced concrete with flat floors without beams and the curtain walls of prefabricated pieces and artificial stone. An attempt has been made, and we consider the aim to have been achieved to construct a well planned and well balanced tall building, viewed from close by as well as from a distance.Este edificio singular, situado en el cruce Diagonal-Carretera de Sarria, de Barcelona, consta de cuatro plantas de sótanos, dos de locales y oficinas que ocupan todo el solar y veintidós de apartamentos, que adoptan la forma de cruz gamada con el fin de conseguir la máxima independencia de vistas de unos con respecto a otros, aparte de otras consideraciones estéticas y volumétricas. La estructura es de hormigón armado con forjados planos, sin vigas, y los cerramientos, modulares, de piezas prefabricadas de piedra artificial. Se ha pretendido, y consideramos logrado, el doble efecto de un rascacielos humano que se aprecia ponderado y equilibrado, tanto si se mira desde lejos como si se contempla desde cerca.

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  4. The role of GIS in urban seismic risk studies: application to the city of Almería (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.; Bernabé, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    This work describes the structure and characteristics of the geographic information system (GIS) developed for the urban seismic risk study of the city of Almería (southern Spain), identifying the stages in which the use of this tool proved to be very beneficial for adopting informed decisions throughout the execution of the work. After the completion of the regional emergency plans for seismic risk in Spain and its subsequent approval by the National Civil Defence Commission, the municipalities that need to develop specific local seismic risk plans have been identified. Hence, the next action is to develop urban seismic risk analyses at a proper scale (Urban Seismic Risk Evaluation - Risk-UR). For this evaluation, different factors influencing seismic risk such as seismic hazard, geotechnical soil characteristics, vulnerability of structures of the region, reparation costs of damaged buildings and exposed population are combined. All these variables are gathered and analysed within a GIS and subsequently used for seismic risk estimation. The GIS constitutes a highly useful working tool because it facilitates data interoperability, making the great volume of information required and the numerous processes that take part in the calculations easier to handle, speeding up the analysis and the interpretation and presentation of the results of the different working phases. The result of this study is based on a great set of variables that provide a comprehensive view of the urban seismic risk, such as the damage distribution of buildings and dwellings of different typologies, the mean damage and the number of uninhabitable buildings for the expected seismic motion, the number of dead and injured at different times of the day, the cost of reconstruction and repair of buildings, among others. These results are intended for interpretation and decision making in emergency management by unspecialised users (Civil Defence technicians and managers).

  5. 2015 Barcelona Asteroid Day

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsevich, Maria; Palme, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of the research presented at the International Asteroid Day workshop which was celebrated at Barcelona on June 30th, 2015. The proceedings discuss the beginning of a new era in the study and exploration of the solar system’s minor bodies. International Asteroid Day commemorates the Tunguska event of June 30th, 1908. The workshop’s goal was to promote the importance of dealing proactively with impact hazards from space. Multidisciplinary experts contributed to this discussion by describing the nature of comets and asteroids along with their offspring, meteoroids. New missions to return material samples of asteroids back to Earth such as Osiris-REx and Hayabusa 2, as well as projects like AIM and DART which will test impact deflection techniques for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids encounters were also covered. The proceedings include both an outreach level to popularize impact hazards and a scientific character which covers the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as offeri...

  6. Multi-Criteria Analyses of Urban Planning for City Expansion: A Case Study of Zamora, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Criado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has established a methodology to determine the most environmentally suitable area for the expansion of Zamora (Spain using geographic information system (GIS technology. The objective was to develop a GIS-based methodology for the identification of urban peripheral areas that are suitable for the accommodation of new buildings and services, that are compliant with environmental criteria, and that guarantee an adequate quality of life for the future population such that extra construction costs are avoided. The methodological core is based on two multi-criteria analyses (MCAs: MCA-1 determines areas suitable for building—the most environmentally sustainable areas that do not present risks or discomforts to the population—by analyzing the restrictive factors; MCA-2 takes the sectors that received a favorable evaluation in MCA-1, determines which of those have a lower economic overhead for construction, and analyzes the different conditioning criteria related to their pre-existing infrastructures. Finally, the location of the sectors is determined by a decision factor that satisfies some strategic need of the municipality.

  7. REPENSAR LA VIVIENDA, REINVENTAR LA CIUDAD. LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DEL BARRIO BARCELONÉS DE LA MINA / Rethinking housing, reinventing the city. The transformation of the la Mina district of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriano Sainz Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el actual contexto de búsqueda de alternativas más sostenibles para la construcción de la ciudad, la renovación urbana se presenta como un ámbito privilegiado para la reflexión y la práctica de la arquitectura y el urbanismo. En este sentido, la intervención sobre los polígonos de vivienda masiva construidos en las ciudades españolas hace cuarenta o cincuenta años —muchos de los cuales se hallan sometidos en la actualidad a procesos de degradación y marginalidad de cierta envergadura— es una de las experiencias de mayor interés por su notable complejidad, ya que en ellos se entrelazan de manera inseparable los aspectos físicos y sociales. Este artículo se centra en uno de los casos españoles más relevantes de este tipo de intervenciones: el plan para la transformación del barrio barcelonés de la Mina, desarrollado en torno a un Plan Especial de Reordenación y Mejora aprobado en 2002 y ya ejecutado en gran parte. Por la sensatez de sus planteamientos y por la operatividad de sus propuestas, la actuación ha sido objeto de numerosos reconocimientos a nivel nacional e internacional. Vivienda colectiva y espacio público constituyen dos de los ejes que vertebran todo el proyecto urbano de la Mina; aquí se presta particular atención al análisis de las actuaciones relacionadas con el tejido residencial y a las estrategias para relacionar las nuevas manzanas habitacionales con un renovado sistema de espacios libres. SUMMARY In the current search for more sustainable alternatives for the construction of the city, urban renewal is presented as a prime area for the reflection and practice of architecture and urbanism. In this connection, the work on the massive housing estates built forty or fifty years ago in Spanish cities, many of which are currently subject to considerable degradation and marginalization, is one of the more interesting experiences because of its considerable complexity, as the physical and social

  8. Schooling Effects on Undergraduate Performance: Evidence from the University of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…

  9. HISTORIC CENTRE(S OF BARCELONA: PRACTICAL AND SYMBOLIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Martínez Robles

    2007-09-01

    The model of compact city that Barcelona aims, has required the renewal of its historical areas, and in order to improve their level of centrality, taking into account, that in addition of its historical centre “Ciutat Vella”, Barcelona contains diverse traditional neighborhoods each of them having their own historical centre. The difference centre‐periphery should also be perceived among these other historical centers. Integration should not be confused with standardization, neither differentiation with segregation.

  10. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  11. Factores asociados con la intención de fumar y el inicio del hábito tabáquico en escolares: resultados del estudio ESFA en Barcelona Factors associated with smoking and the intention to smoke in secondary school pupils: results of the ESFA project in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nebot

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores asociados con el consumo de tabaco y la intención de fumar en el futuro en una muestra representativa de escolares de primer curso de educación secundaria en Barcelona. Sujetos y métodos: Se seleccionaron 37 escuelas al azar para participar en la evaluación de un programa europeo de prevención del tabaquismo (European Smoking prevention Frame Approach, proyecto ESFA. En estas escuelas 1.041 alumnos de primer curso de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO contestaron a un cuestionario diseñado por la Universidad de Maastricht para estudiar las actitudes y conductas relacionadas con diversos comportamientos, incluyendo el consumo de tabaco. Resultados: El 9,8% de los chicos y el 12,6% de las chicas manifestaron fumar de forma regular u ocasional. Entre los no fumadores, un 61,4% de los chicos y un 73,3% de las chicas declararon tener intención de fumar en el futuro. En los chicos, los determinantes del consumo son la norma social (odds ratio [OR] = 2,5; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,2-5,2, el consumo de tabaco por parte de los hermanos (OR = 2,4; IC del 95%, 1,1-5,2, las actitudes contrarias al consumo (OR = 0,3; IC del 95%, 0,1-0,6, la práctica de deporte en el tiempo libre (OR = 0,3; IC del 95%, 0,1-0,7 y el dinero semanal disponible (OR = 3,2; IC del 95%, 1,5-6,8, mientras que la intención únicamente se asoció de forma significativa a las actitudes contrarias (OR = 0,3; IC del 95%, 0,2-0,5. Para las chicas, el consumo se asoció a la presión (OR = 2,5; IC del 95%, 1,2-5,0 y el consumo (OR = 6,0; IC del 95%, 2,4-15,4 por parte de los amigos, y las actitudes contrarias (OR = 0,2; IC del 95%, 0,1-0,4, mientras que la intención se halla asociada a las actitudes contrarias (OR = 0,4; IC del 95%, 0,2-0,6 y pasar tiempo libre en la calle (OR = 2,1; IC del 95%, 1,3-3,5. Conclusiones: Los resultados corroboran la necesidad de abordar simultáneamente los distintos factores relacionados con el

  12. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  13. "Piedra Dorada": a natural stone as an intrinsic part of two World Heritage Cities in Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sánchez-Valverde, Josefina; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Piedra Dorada" was used to construct some of the most important heritage buildings in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza, in Jaén (Spain). UNESCO declared these cities World Heritage Cities in 2003. Although there are some Iberian or Roman ruins in which is already possible to see the use of this stone, it is from the XVI century when "Piedra Dorada" is extensively used in the construction of the main historical buildings. Some of well-known monuments are Vázquez de Molina Palace or chain Palace (XVI), San Salvador Church (Sacred Chapel of El Salvador) (XVI) o the Royal Colegiata of Santa María la Mayor de los Reales Alcázares (XVI) in Úbeda or the Justice House-The House of the Corregidor (XVI), the Saint Cathedral of the Natividad de Nuestra Señora (XVI) or Jabalquinto Palace (XV), in Baeza, among many others. "Piedra Dorada" includes several varieties with similar mineralogical and chemical characteristics, called "Piedra Viva" or "Jabaluna", more cemented and used mainly with structural purposes (ashlars, columns, etc) and "Piedra Franca", less cemented and used mainly with decorative purposes (façades, statues, etc). From a geological point of view, "Piedra Dorada" is a medium to fine grain size bioclastic calcarenite, part of the upper Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It is made up of quartz (8% to 29%), calcite and/or dolomite (34% to 80%), and some feldspar. The intergranular calcite cement proportion varies between 7% and 33%. Physical and mechanical properties are highly variable depending on the variety. "Piedra Viva" has an open porosity of 5,2%, bulk density of 2,63 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 1,5-2,7 %, compressive strength (dry) between 20,1-18,0 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 87,3-77,0 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 2,5%. "Piedra Franca" has an open porosity of 24,3%, bulk density of 2,00 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric

  14. Vaikne torm Barcelonas / Katrin Koov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koov, Katrin, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. sügisel Barcelonas toimunud 5. Euroopa maastikuarhitektuuri biennaalist "Torm ja tung", sümpoosionist. Rosa Barba nimelise võistluse peaauhinna võitis Kristine Jenseni büroo Taanist projektiga "Nicolai". Auhinnavõistlusel ja valitud tööde näitusel esindas Eestit Tallinna Harju tänava park

  15. Barcelona contemporánea: el ocaso de un modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pizza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona is a city, which through the democratization of public space in the second half of the seventies, developed with a noticeable intention of balancing the public and private. The municipalities’ efforts were focused towards the planification and regeneration of dilapidated spaces and the construction of new structures for public benefit. However, since 2007 new phenomena have come to light that emphasise urban problems in which public interests become less important than private investment initiatives. New market priorities, together with tourism and myriad immigration have caused an “expropriation” of the city from its inhabitants.

  16. Field evidence of social influence in the expression of political preferences: the case of secessionists flags in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in "natural" social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia's 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the 'clustering index' of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote.

  17. Construction and preliminary validation of the Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Qureshi, Adil; Antonin, Montserrat; Collazos, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    In the study of mental health and migration, an increasing number of researchers have shifted the focus away from the concept of acculturation towards the stress present in the migratory experience. The bulk of research on acculturative stress has been carried out in the United States, and thus the definition and measurement of the construct has been predicated on that cultural and demographic context, which is of dubious applicability in Europe in general, and Spain in particular. Further, some scales have focused on international students, which down-played the importance of the migratory process, because it deals with a special subset of people who are not formally immigrating. The Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale was developed to measure acculturative stress appropriate to immigrants in Spain, using expert and focus group review and has 42 items. The scale shows acceptable internal validity, and, consistent with other scales, suggests that immigration stress is a complex construct.

  18. Circular migration and the Internet: The role of social networks in the sociocultural context of Mexican residents in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramírez Plascencia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the circular migration between America and Europe, particularly in the discussion about knowledge transfer and the way that social networks reconfigure the form of information distribution among people, that due to labor and academic issues have left their own country. The main purpose of this work is to study the impact of social media use in migration flows between Mexico and Spain, more specifically the use by Mexican migrants who have moved for  multiple years principally for educational purposes and then have returned to their respective locations in Mexico seeking to integrate themselves into the labor market. Our data collection concentrated exclusively on a group created on Facebook by Mexicans who mostly reside in Barcelona, Spain or wish to travel to the city for economic, educational or tourist reasons.  The results of this research show that while social networks are spaces for exchange and integration, there is a clear tendency by this group to "narrow lines" and to look back to their homeland, slowing the process of opening socially in their new context.

  19. New mediterranean elements in contemporary housing. The case of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Bagnato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the face of increasing and differentiating the low-cost housing demand and the trend of establishing new paradigms in the contemporary housing design, the architectural investigation has replaced into its disciplinary statement the topic of housing as central question in research and design experimentation. The city of Barcelona has codified in the last years innovative modalities of public management in social housing, offering interesting points of reflection on the idea of housing and of Mediterranean quality in urban, architectural and constructive terms. The paper proposes a key to the reading on the recent experiences of social housing in Barcelona illustrating the different forms through which architecture interprets the relationship between housing and public space, between innovation and constructive tradition.

  20. A new method for developing compassionate communities and cities movement-"Todos Contigo" Programme (We are All With You): experience in Spain and Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librada Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Todos Contigo (We are All With You) is a programme for social awareness, training, and implementation of care networks for citizens to support, accompany and care for those who face advanced chronic disease and end of life situations. From New Health Foundation this programme collaborates with the Public Health and Palliative Care International Charter of Compassionate Communities. It seeks to promote a new integrated palliative care model in the daily lives of individuals, to make families and health/social professionals the main promoters of compassionate communities and compassionate cities movement. This workshop aims to: (I) describe the methodology of the programme: required tools and steps for building and developing a compassionate city or community; (II) identify stakeholders and organizations to join the compassionate community as networking agents; (III) sharing experiences from the implementation of this project in various contexts while providing specific examples and lessons learned from the perspective of various roles; (IV) explain the process of becoming a part of the project and of getting the official recognition for being a compassionate city. This workshop aims to share a new methodology "Todos Contigo" (We are all with you) Programme for the development of compassionate communities and cities movement. We describe our experiences in Spain and Latin American countries. The method is based on creating community networks, carrying out social awareness and training programmes related to end of life care.

  1. About the “salaried of love”: the legal statute of prostitution (Argentina and Spain, fin-du-siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Adriana Miranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is concentred about the public management of prostitution, considered as a biopolitic strategy that was applied over the binomial "sexuality-reproduction", especially in Argentina and Spain during the end of XIX Century and the beginning of the XX Century. This comparative interest was sustained in the existence of cities with similar cultural levels, as Buenos Aires and Barcelona, with increasing urbanization and parallel male immigration, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, in the slant toward an eugenics-biotipologyc that was shared between both towns and that was functional to some hypothesis organized about the venereal diseases

  2. Trabajo sexual en Barcelona. Sobre la gestión municipal del espacio público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Vartabedian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author will reflect on the management of public spaces in Barcelona through the case of sex work. The different ways that the Barcelona City Council has promoted the control and restriction of the free exercise of street sex work will be discussed. Recognising that the spaces are not fully accessible to everyone, the model of "civility" that Barcelona plans to implement will be explained. As a result of former zoning practices, there is a political will to make this activity "invisible", which perpetuates the vulnerability of sex workers themselves. En este artículo la autora reflexionará sobre la gestión del espacio público en Barcelona a través del caso del trabajo sexual. Se analizarán las distintas modalidades que el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona ha promovido para, en definitiva, controlar y restringir el libre ejercicio del trabajo sexual callejero. Partiendo del reconocimiento que los espacios no son plenamente accesibles para todas y todos, se explicará el modelo de “civismo” que Barcelona pretende implementar. Mediante antiguas prácticas de zonificación, se observa una voluntad política de invisibilizar esta actividad al mismo tiempo que se perpetúa la vulnerabilidad de las propias trabajadoras.Download this paper from SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1953623

  3. Cervantes, el Quijote y Barcelona. (Hipótesis de una estancia barcelonesa de Cervantes en 1571

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Riera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper "Cervantes, the Quixot and Barcelona (Hypotesis of Cervantes' stage in Barcelona in 1571" tries to establish the possibility of Cervantes visit in Barcelona in 1571 with the soldiers of Miguel de Moneada when they were leaving for Lepanto. Theses remambrances (the feast of San Juan, the arrival of Sir Juan of Austria to the city would help him to readress his book, by making his hero visit Catalonia. This would happen in the summer of 1614, after reading Avellaneda.

  4. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  5. Frankova éra ve Španělsku ze zorného úhlu El Clásica: FC Barcelona proti Realu Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Vakulenko, Darya

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis "Franco years in Spain through El Clásico: FC Barcelona vs. Real Madrid" explores the football rivalry between Real Madrid and Barcelona teams during the franquismo. The theme of Real Madrid, understood as a team supported and promoted by the Spanish regime is prevailing throughout the paper. Another part describes deep cultural symbolism of FC Barcelona in Catalonian region. The last part unites those two subjects by explaining how their rivalry or El Clásico games, were more...

  6. Dust modelling and forecasting in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center: Activities and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Jimenez-Guerrero, P; Jorba, O; Haustein, K; Basart, S [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center. Barcelona (Spain); Cuevas, E [Izanaa Atmospheric Research Center. Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: carlos.perez@bsc.es

    2009-03-01

    The Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) is the National Supercomputer Facility in Spain, hosting MareNostrum, one of the most powerful Supercomputers in Europe. The Earth Sciences Department of BSC operates daily regional dust and air quality forecasts and conducts intensive modelling research for short-term operational prediction. This contribution summarizes the latest developments and current activities in the field of sand and dust storm modelling and forecasting.

  7. Dust modelling and forecasting in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center: Activities and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Jimenez-Guerrero, P; Jorba, O; Haustein, K; Basart, S; Cuevas, E; Nickovic, S

    2009-01-01

    The Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) is the National Supercomputer Facility in Spain, hosting MareNostrum, one of the most powerful Supercomputers in Europe. The Earth Sciences Department of BSC operates daily regional dust and air quality forecasts and conducts intensive modelling research for short-term operational prediction. This contribution summarizes the latest developments and current activities in the field of sand and dust storm modelling and forecasting.

  8. HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY AND TOURISM: IS THERE AN IMPACT ON INTERMEDIATE CITIES? EVIDENCE FROM TWO CASE STUDIES IN CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen VÁZQUEZ VARELA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectations of cities served by High Speed Rail are numerous. Improvements in a destination’s accessibility could lead to an increase in transport demand and the revitalization of urban and business tourism. However, High Speed Rail services do not automatically affect the choice of destination even if they improve accessibility. Even so, they can improve visitation rates when tourist amenities are located near High Speed Rail stations becoming therefore easily accessible. The development of tourism is also influenced by the collective strategies of local stakeholders. Larger cities also appear able to leverage higher tourist volumes from the construction of High Speed Rail and most analyses to date have focused upon them. Thus we focus here on how the arrival of High Speed Rail services has impacted tourism on medium sized cities. Using a diachronic study of different socio-economic variables and tourist features, this article analyses the impact that the new rail infrastructure can have on tourism in two selected cases in Spain: Cuenca and Toledo.

  9. Barcelona más allá de Barcelona. La ciudad cinematográfica transformada en otras ciudades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Bonet Balaguer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the late twentieth century, the duality tourism and cinema, commonly referred to as film-induced tourism, has become one of the most emerging and dynamic tourist modalities. Amongst the various types of film-induced tourism accepted by the academia, this research has been based on one that has a double filmic identity: as film destination and as film setting. Meaning a film that is shot in a particular place but is actually representing elsewhere. The main objective of this research is to identify and analyse the international audio-visual productions or co-productions that have been partially or completely shot in Barcelona yet in fiction represent another city. The results were essentially obtained from an analytical-descriptive methodology. As a main conclusion of the study, it can be stated that international films which are shot in Barcelona but represent elsewhere in the film, have great potential to strengthen or create a competitive offer of film-induced tourism in Barcelona.

  10. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  11. The Experience of Implementing Urban HEART Barcelona: a Tool for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Echave, Cynthia; de Olalla, Patricia G; Calvo, M Jesús; Pasarín, Maribel; Diez, Èlia; Borrell, Carme; Calvo, M Jesús; Cormenzana, Berta; Cortés, Imma; Diez, Èlia; Echave, Cynthia; Espelt, Albert; de Olalla, Patrícia G; Gòmez, Josep; Novoa, Ana M; Pallarès, Montserrat; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2017-10-16

    Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) is a tool developed by the World Health Organization whose objective is to provide evidence on urban health inequalities so as to help to decide the best interventions aimed to promote urban health equity. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of implementing Urban HEART in Barcelona city, both the adaptation of Urban HEART to the city of Barcelona, its use as a means of identifying and monitoring health inequalities among city neighbourhoods, and the difficulties and barriers encountered throughout the process. Although ASPB public health technicians participated in the Urban HEART Advisory Group, had large experience in health inequalities analysis and research and showed interest in implementing the tool, it was not until 2015, when the city council was governed by a new left-wing party for which reducing health inequalities was a priority that Urban HEART could be used. A provisional matrix was developed, including both health and health determinant indicators, which allowed to show how some neighbourhoods in the city systematically fare worse for most of the indicators while others systematically fare better. It also allowed to identify 18 neighbourhoods-those which fared worse in most indicators-which were considered a priority for intervention, which entered the Health in the Barcelona Neighbourhoods programme and the Neighbourhoods Plan. This provisional version was reviewed and improved by the Urban HEART Barcelona Working Group. Technicians with experience in public health and/or in indicator and database management were asked to indicate suitability and relevance from a list of potential indicators. The definitive Urban HEART Barcelona version included 15 indicators from the five Urban HEART domains and improved the previous version in several requirements. Several barriers were encountered, such as having to estimate indicators in scarcely populated areas or finding adequate

  12. Ancient earthquakes in the Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, South of Spain): Fifteen years of archaeosimology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.G.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Reicherter, K.; Rodriguez-Pascua, J.L.; Gruetzner, C.; Garcia-Jimenez, I.; Carrasco Garcia, P.; Bardaji, T.; Santos, G.; Roquero, E.; Roez, J.; Perucha, M.A.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Fernandez Macarro, B.; Martinez-Grana, A.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work illustrates the state of the art on archaeoseismology of the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz) after nearly fifteen years of research. This ancient Roman site was affected by two earthquakes in the years AD 40–60 and AD 260–290 which promoted important urban and architectural changes and eventually the destruction and further abandonment of the city in AD 365–390. Earthquake Archaeoseismological Effects (EAEs) are catalogued, described and mapped in the entire monumental sector of the city mainly witnessing the last earthquake which occurred in AD 260–290. Mapping of oriented EAEs illustrate damage distribution all over the lower sector of the city, as well as the occurrence of suspect coseismic landslide and tsunami events. The structural analysis of oriented EAEs throughout the entire mapped sector suggests that the intervening ground motion was preferentially oriented in a SW to NE direction. The geoarchaeological analysis and some relevant archaeological anomalies, strongly suggest the occurrence of coeval tsunami events during both ancient earthquakes, pointing to the occurrence of an offshore seismic source SSW of the city. Several N-S normal faults have been identified around the Bolonia Bay area and some of them continue offshore SSW of Baelo Claudia. These faults with clear Quaternary activity can be considered as the more probable seismic sources for the events affecting the ancient Roman site and they are consistent with the mapped damage orientation displayed by the structural analysis of EAEs within the old Roman city. (Author)

  13. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  14. La reglamentación de la prostitución en la Barcelona de la Restauración (1870-1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alcaide González

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available «Hygienism» was a medical doctrine which incorporated the social features that were directly related to disease into its treatment. One of the fields where hygienic doctrine had most influence was on the exercise of prostitution. This was because the study of the causes that originated prostitution and the series of moral prophylactic measures that were introduced to halt prostitution were both added to medical practice. It was through these methods that the medical profession tried to control and shape social behaviour and to prevent the effects of contagious venereal and syphilitic diseases. These elements were reflected in the regulation of prostitution that was adopted in the most important cities in Spain from the middle of the nineteenth century onwards. In this legislation the creation of Sections of special hygiene was included. These were designed to record, prevent and control the exercise of prostitution, as well as all the illnesses derived from it. In the city of Barcelona, during the Restauration, the Section of special hygiene under Carlos Ronquillo´s government focused particularly on the treatment of prostitution as a social disease and on the female prostitute as a victim of the precarious social and labour circumstances of the working class in the late nineteenth-century industrial city.

  15. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3 were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4

  16. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-08-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  17. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  18. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  19. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  20. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tessitore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982–1984, 1992–1995 and 2004–2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  1. A study of the application of permeable pavements as a sustainable technique for the mitigation of soil sealing in cities: A case study in the south of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Huertas-Fernández, F; Moreno, B; Martínez, G; Grindlay, A L

    2018-01-01

    The use of 'Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems' (SuDS) has become a more sustainable alternative for managing stormwater, greatly reducing the effects of soil sealing. However, the lack of monitored projects is a barrier to their implementation, as the companies which manage sewer systems cannot quantify the impact and cost-efficiency of SuDS. This paper presents a project developed in the south of Spain, in which the hydrological performance of 3 types of permeable pavements has been analyzed. The efficiencies obtained (over 70%), are higher than or similar to the efficiencies of vegetated SuDS, demonstrating the capacity of these pavements for delaying catchment area response and slow flow velocities, reducing the operating costs of sewer systems and the flood risk, while also ensuring service conditions for cities and safety for pedestrian and vehicular circulation. This pilot site has generated results which are sufficiently consistent so as to be representative, and serve as a reference for other cities with a similar climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of seasonal forecasting for the drought forecasting in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Zaragoza, Albert; Aznar, Blanca; Cabot, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    Low flows and droughts are a hydro-climatic feature in Spain (Alvarez et al, 2008). The construction of dams as water reservoirs has been a usual tool to manage the water resources for agriculture and livestock, industries and human needs (MIMAM, 2000, 2007). The last drought that has affected Spain has last four years in Catalonia, from 2004 to the spring of 2008, and it has been particularly hard as a consequence of the precipitation deficit in the upper part of the rivers that nourish the main dams. This problem increases when the water scarcity affects very populated areas, like big cities. The Barcelona city, with more than 3.000.000 people concentrated in the downtown and surrounding areas is a clear example. One of the objectives of the SOSTAQUA project is to improve the water resources management in real time, in order to improve the water supply in the cities in the framework of sustainable development. The work presented here deals with the application of seasonal forecasting to improve the water management in Catalonia, particularly in drought conditions. A seasonal prediction index has been created as a linear combination of climatic data and the ECM4 prediction that has been validated too. This information has implemented into a hydrological model and it has been applied to the last drought considering the real water demands of population, as well as to the water storage evolution in the last months. It has been found a considerable advance in the forecasting of water volume into reservoirs. The advantage of this methodology is that it only requires seasonal forecasting free through internet. Due to the fact that the principal rivers that supply water to Barcelona, birth on the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees region, the analysis and precipitation forecasting is focused on this region (Zaragoza, 2008).

  3. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Challenges, opportunities and perspectives” took place November 21–22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants. PMID:24413145

  4. Understanding How and Why Cities Engage with Climate Policy: An Analysis of Local Climate Action in Spain and Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analysis show a trend towards an increasing awareness on climate mitigation (highly focused on energy efficiency and the promotion of cleaner energy sources, while adaptation remains an incipient local policy area in both countries. The analysis identifies also the beneficial influence of national and international climate city networks.

  5. Air pollution and mortality in Barcelona.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyer, J; Castellsagué, J; Sáez, M; Tobias, A; Antó, J M

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Barcelona reported a short term relation between daily air pollutant values and emergency department admissions for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Air pollution in Barcelona is mainly generated by vehicle exhaust and is below the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The acute relation between air pollution and mortality was assessed. DESIGN: Daily variations in total mortality, mortality in subjects older ...

  6. Multi-level Governance as an Alternative: The Municipality of Barcelona and the Ciutat Refugi Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Irgil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the response of the Municipality of Barcelona to the Syrian refugee crisis in Europe as an alternative solution that challenges the national government’s restrictive approach. This response introduces the Ciutat Refugi Plan with a city-to-city network at the municipal level that involves other European cities in creating safe routes for refugees at the local government level. In line with multi-level governance theory, I argue that central governments’ inaction has pressured local governments to take action during the Syrian refugee influx. Relying on the influence of local government networks, the Municipality of Barcelona uses discourse as a tool of action in opening discursive spaces for humanitarian political responses to the refugee crisis. Using critical discourse analysis, I test this argument by examining in-depth interviews, speeches of people in power that have appeared in news articles, and statements on official websites.

  7. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: ► A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions.

  8. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  9. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urosevic, Maja, E-mail: maja@ugr.es [Dept. Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Yebra-Rodriguez, Africa [Dept. Geology-Associated Unit IACT (CSIC-UGR), Faculty of Experimental Science, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Sebastian-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina [Dept. Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness ({Delta}L*) and chroma changes ({Delta}C*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone

  10. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  11. Climate change and its impact on water infrastructure: the case of Alcala de Henares (Spain) and Mexico City (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, M.; Tortajada, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and its possible impacts on precipitation are still a matter of controversy due to lack of data as well as models which are considered reliable. Even though the science of climate change has advanced significantly in recent years, many uncertainties still prevail, ranging from reliable prediction of extreme river flow events to downscaling of rainfall to smaller planning areas. That is, present knowledge is still insufficient to understand and accurately predict how global changes, climate change one of them, may affect precipitation and streamflows over specific geographical units. In terms of planning and investment in urban areas, where more than 50 percent of the population live at present, freshwater supply and flood risk management have to be considered on long-term basis. This includes development of water infrastructure for drinking water supply and drainage as well as flood control which responds to the needs of the growing populations and their economies. Impacts of climate change are slow over time and take place over thousands of years. However, their study is relatively recent, mostly in terms of impacts on the hydrological cycle and therefore in terms of run-off. In the case of urban centres, the rationale is that governments will have to adapt the water infrastructure according to the expected changes and thus have to plan for them. For example, in the case of Mexico City, the way the drainage system was designed 100 years ago is very different from the way it would be done at present and the way it would be planned in about 50 years time. In the case of the city of Alcalá de Henares in the region of Madrid, the analysis of precipitations has shown a slight tendency towards a wet period from the decade of the 60´s. Due to this tendency, the calculations for the design of water infrastructures have remained virtually unchanged. In the case of this specific city, there is no indication that there will be dramatic or rapid changes in

  12. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  13. Comparative 25-OH-vitamin D level in institutionalized women older than 65 years from two cities in Spain and Argentina having a similar solar radiation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, María Luz Pita Martin; Mónico, Amália; Barahona, Antonieta; Dupraz, Hernan; Sol Gonzales-Chaves, Macarena Maria; Zeni, Susana Noemi

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated and compared vitamin D nutritional status and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in institutionalized women >65 y from two cities that have a similar sun irradiation index (heliophany). The study was carried out in women living in similar social-status institutions from geographic cities having a similar solar radiation index (Lleida, Spain, n=49, and suburban Buenos Aires, Argentina [BA], n=48) at the end of summer. Fish consumption was higher in the Lleida group, as was red-meat consumption in the BA group. In both groups mean calcium intake was 800 mg/d. The daily intake of vitamin D was higher in the BA group (P100 pg/mL were found in 24% and 20% of women in Lleida and BA, respectively. There was a marked increase in carboxy-terminal telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen levels and a decrease in 25OHD with an increase in PTH levels (Pbone alkaline phosphatase increased significantly only when the PTH concentration duplicated the reference range. Even at the end of summer, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was prevalent in the two studied institutionalized elderly women. In the narrow range of the dietary calcium intake (close to 800 mg/d) of both studied groups, secondary hyperparathyroidism was absent when 25OHD levels were >17 ng/dL, indicating changes in the regulation control of serum PTH and consequently the changes in this threshold. As a result, vitamin D deficiency must be reversed to avoid the increment in bone turnover and to ensure the endocrine and paracrine functions of vitamin D for overall health and well-being. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. La difusión de la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck en la revista La Abeja (1862-1870) de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Camós Cabeceran, Agustí

    1997-01-01

    Between 1862 and 1864 Lamarck's works were diffused in Spain through a magazine called La Abeja which was edited by Antoni Bergnes de las Casas, and published in Barcelona. This may reveal a more important influence of Lamarck's theory on the introduction of evolutionary theories in Spain. La Abeja includes the translation of the Histoire naturelle des végétaux where Lamarck incorporated an early explanation of his theory of evolution; and a series of anonymous articles about the reproduction...

  15. Economic crisis, immigrant women and changing availability of intimate partner violence services: a qualitative study of professionals' perceptions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A; Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-09-10

    Since 2008, Spain has been in the throes of an economic crisis. This recession particularly affects the living conditions of vulnerable populations, and has also led to a reversal in social policies and a reduction in resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers' perceptions of the impact of the current economic crisis on these resources in Spain and on their capacity to respond to immigrant women's needs experiencing IPV. A qualitative study was performed based on 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews to social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, police officers and health professionals from different services dealing with IPV (both, public and NGO's) and cities in Spain (Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante) in 2011. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (Atlas.ti), and analysed using qualitative content analysis. We identified four categories related to the perceived impact of the current economic crisis: a) "Immigrant women have it harder now", b) "IPV and immigration resources are the first in line for cuts", c) " Fewer staff means a less effective service" and d) "Equality and IPV policies are no longer a government priority". A cross-cutting theme emerged from these categories: immigrant women are triply affected; by IPV, by the crisis, and by structural violence. The professionals interviewed felt that present resources in Spain are insufficient to meet the needs of immigrant women, and that the situation might worsen in the future.

  16. What are people thinking about floods? A study in two Mediterranean areas: Costa Brava, Spain and Talcahuano City, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A.; Ribas, A.; Cifuentes, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Mediterranean areas are not immune to flood problems. The Spanish Mediterranean coast is a reflection of this, where flooding continues to be the greatest natural hazard with negative effects on the territory. The urbanization of coastal watersheds, very pronounced in the last 15 years, has led to the creation of authentic urban continuums in the seafront and the appearance of residential developments therein. The municipalities of Costa Brava, in the province of Girona, are an example of this dynamic of the increasing risk, exposure, and impact of floods. In Chile, floods are considered one of the main natural hazards, especially in the province of Concepcion. One of the most important cities of this area is Talcahuano, which has suffered continual flood episodes during recent years. Flood episodes could yet increase in the future due to the high frequency of extraordinary atmospheric events and a higher exposure to flood risk created by the development of intensive urbanization processes. However, after the February 27th 8.8 degrees earthquake (Richter scale) that affected the center-south of Chile and originated the tsunami which flooded a large percentage of the residential area and military base of the city of Talcahuano, the risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concepts changed. This research looks at the social perception and social knowledge of Mediterranean residents affected and unaffected by floods, emphasizing which is their risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concept and what kind of measures they proposed to reduce their flood vulnerability. The end objective of this research is to become a framework for future local flood policies and a tool that could be reviewed by specialists in other regions that might be affected by this hazard. This social assessment has been carried out through surveys of residents in Costa Brava and Talcahuano whose endogenous and exogenous characteristics have been significant in explaining their

  17. Cinco puntos sobre la revista Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone Crippa, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    El humor, como género y narrativa mediática, ocupa un lugar destacado al interior del campo del periodismo gráfico argentino. Como emergente contemporáneo dentro de este ámbito, la revista Barcelona se vuelve un objeto de estudio sugestivo al trabajar, a partir del registro del humor, sobre la agenda y la enunciación de los medios gráficos de actualidad. De esta manera, se analizan las condiciones de producción del discurso de Barcelona para ver qué novedades aporta al campo del hu...

  18. Immigration and labor productivity: New empirical evidence for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper of this paper is to explore the immigration and productivity in Spain. We estimate the effect of immigration on labor productivity from 2004 until 2008 for Spain. Using firms (SABI) and individuals data (Social Security Records) we calculate the effect by sector and municipality for the two big Spanish provinces that have received most immigrants in the last decade: Barcelona and Madrid. After controlling for endogeneity of immigration, the results demonstrate that i...

  19. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Millet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission.Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency.Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25% were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total and in 34 (77.3% public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases.Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the

  20. Online network organization of Barcelona en Comú, an emergent movement-party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Pablo; Gallego, Helena; Laniado, David; Volkovich, Yana; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The emerging grassroots party Barcelona en Comú won the 2015 Barcelona City Council election. This candidacy was devised by activists involved in the Spanish 15M movement to transform citizen outrage into political change. On the one hand, the 15M movement was based on a decentralized structure. On the other hand, political science literature postulates that parties develop oligarchical leadership structures. This tension motivates to examine whether Barcelona en Comú preserved a decentralized structure or adopted a conventional centralized organization. In this study we develop a computational methodology to characterize the online network organization of every party in the election campaign on Twitter. Results on the network of retweets reveal that, while traditional parties are organized in a single cluster, for Barcelona en Comú two well-defined groups co-exist: a centralized cluster led by the candidate and party accounts, and a decentralized cluster with the movement activists. Furthermore, results on the network of replies also shows a dual structure: a cluster around the candidate receiving the largest attention from other parties, and another with the movement activists exhibiting a higher predisposition to dialogue with other parties.

  1. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  2. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brines

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain. A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS site and the Urban Background (UB site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM and the Torre Collserola (TC sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1 vehicle exhaust and wear (2–9 µg m−3, 10–27 % of PM10 mass on average, (2 road dust (2–4 µg m−3, 8–12 %, (3 mineral dust (5 µg m−3, 13–26 %, (4 aged marine (3–5 µg m−3, 13–20 %, (5 heavy oil (0.4–0.6 µg m−3, 2 %, (6 industrial (1 µg m−3, 3–5 %, (7 sulfate (3–4 µg m−3, 11–17 % and (8 nitrate (4–6 µg m−3, 17–21 %. Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city relative to the upper levels: (1 vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher, (2 road dust (1.8 higher and (3 local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher. Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor

  3. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brines, Mariola; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Amato, Fulvio; Cruz Minguillón, María; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 µg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 µg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 µg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 µg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 µg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 µg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulfate (3-4 µg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 µg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  4. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycentricity, Performance and Planning: Concepts, Evidence and Policy in Barcelona, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip-Tresserra

    2017-11-01

    that is located in Spain. The study on the multiple links among polycentricity, performance, and planning within the Barcelona metropolitan region yields learning potential for other metropolitan regions because there exists, for example, a strong historical planning tradition in Catalonia and ideas on polycentric development have been around for many decades. This enables the study of transition patterns in the conceptualization of polycentric development in planning over time. Even the most recent plan for the Barcelona metropolitan region, the 2010 Barcelona Metropolitan Territorial Plan, is influenced by a planning vision of polycentricity that was coined by the 1966 Director Scheme of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. The latter plan was one of the first to break with the then-popular concentric model of green belts and satellite cities and to propose networked, polycentric spatial configurations to resolve the pressure of urbanization on metropolitan regions’ central cities. Research methods This dissertation employs several research methods to explore how the multiple relationships among polycentricity, performance, and planning manifest themselves in the Barcelona metropolitan region. The methods used include qualitative methods such as policy/discourse analysis to answer the first general research question about how the conceptualization of polycentric development in spatial plans has evolved over time and what can be learned from this evolution. Additionally, this thesis employs quantitative methods such as descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis, simple regression models, and advanced regression models (in which both spatial autocorrelation and endogeneity issues are controlled to avoid biased estimation results to address the second general question, which refers to how polycentricity has been identified and measured in research and how this identification and measurement of polycentricity can inform planning practice. Finally, this research uses

  6. Inclusive city: Vallcarca – Space extension idea for social and urban housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, A.; Gaxioala, A.

    2018-03-01

    The neighborhood of Vallcarca, Barcelona - Spain, is located near the valley formed by the three hills called El Putxet, Creueta del Coll and Muntanya Pelada adjacent to the back area of Park Guell. Vallcarca first urbanized at the XIX century as a place to spend summer for the nearby inhabitants of the city of Barcelona. Since the end of XX century, the area has been under the pressure of different urban plannings and economic speculations that have just erase a big portion of its original physiognomy, without being able to organize a new area of town. The empty land that located at the former center and across Vallcarca becoming part of research to produce an outcome for compatible housing within the area. The data gives a focus on the social and urban rehabilitation of the neighborhood that introducing a program of social housing with communal facilities using an approach of connection and topography that existed on the site as a catalyst to change this fragmented part of the city into inclusive neighborhood.

  7. Sprawl in Barcelona Region and the PTMB 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Acierno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Barcelona metropolitan region is composed of 164 municipalities distributed over an area of ​​about 3234 sq km with a population of 5 million inhabitants. In the last decades, the growth of metropolitan region has been characterized by some critical problems: high land occupation, dispersed occupation of the territory, low building density, considerable fragmentation and high specialization (residential developments, commercial centers, industrial areas, etc, growing social segregation. The sprawl, together with changes in economic and social structure, caused a loss of landscape and environment values in the territory, a reduction of natural areas, involving an increase in consumption of resources. The sprawling development was already evident in the early 1970s, and a study of dynamic of the sprawl was conducted to show the main features of this process. The morphology of discontinuity, fragmentation and heterogeneity are common features of the metropolitan regions in Southern Europe. The changes from the traditional compact city to a dispersed one caused important effects in the functioning of the territories and in the lifestyles of their users. The main problems addressed by the plan have been identified in the sprawl, the territorial fragmentation and the growing social segregation. The adoption of the Barcelona Metropolitan Plan is a notable innovation in the scenario of spatial planning and urban policies in Catalonia. In fact, the PTMB, that comes to close more than 40 years of controversy and failed attempts, presents some aspects of particular interest and represents a planning tool providing a methodology for administrative and political management for the future. The plan has been proposed by regional government in concert with municipalities through an interesting participatory process that has secured a broad consensus. The plan structure founded on three main systems: Open Spaces, Settlements and Infrastructures; all of

  8. Barcelona - Talent Latent 09 / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2010-01-01

    Fotonäitusest "Talent Latent 09" Barcelonas Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses. Loetletud näitusel eksponeeritud fotode autorid. Pikemalt Rafael Milach'i (sünd. 1978), Lucia Ganieva, Javier Marquerie Thomas'i (sünd. 1986), Amaury da Cunha (sünd. 1976) töödest. Lühidalt ka teistest näitustest Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses

  9. Near Zero Consumption Building as an Urban Acupuncture for a Vertical Slum. A Case Study in the City of Malaga, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos; Nebot, Nuria; García Moreno, Alberto; José Márquez Ballesteros, María

    2017-10-01

    A vertical slum is defined as a socially vulnerable community in a building, with serious problems of functionality, safety and habitability. It is related to an important level of physical degradation, and a precarious socioeconomic situation of its occupants. Their inability to create a real community for proper and mandatory maintenance increases the physical deterioration of the building. The abandonment of the original owners of the houses can cause a system of illegal occupation and illegal activities, and vice versa. In many cases, the new occupants are primarily interested in maintaining the building in a state of precariousness in order to avoid any attempt of renovation by administrations. These security and habitability problems often extend outside the building and they affect a whole community of neighbours within the neighbourhood who feel threatened and insecure, causing their rejection and a strong social segregation in the area. This article wants to show some of the results from a research work developed on a case study of vertical slum in the city of Malaga, in Spain. In this context of marginality previously described, the research project explores different alternatives for the renovation of a building, its vulnerable community and the neighbourhood in which it is inserted. The project establishes four major objectives: (a) a physical renovation of the building, (b) social transformation in a disadvantaged environment, (c) functional evolution-from a residential model to a new hybrid model with a mixed supply of social services, and (d) the incorporation of new parameters of environmental sustainability that improve the energetic behaviour of the building (transforming it into a building of almost zero consumption). The research closes with a series of strategies and results for the case study. However, the main contribution of the work is related to the research methodology that has been developed. This is structured according to the four

  10. Los cambios del comercio étnico en los suburbios de Barcelona (2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Nofre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CHANGES IN THE ETHNIC RETAIL TRADE IN THE SUBURBS OF BARCELONA (2004-2011. A DEBATE ABOUT PROCESSES OF ETHNOGENTRIFICATION. This paper aims to explore an early process of ethnogentrification, previously reported by the local media, in a working-class suburban district of Barcelona. Following a brief description of the research carried out in 2004 (published in 2006 on the urban and social changes in this study area, this paper presents a comparative analysis between the continuities and changes on ‘retailscape’ in the period of 2004 to 2011, by updating its ethnic-retail cartography. Comparative results will allow to opening up a debate about some lexical abuses on the use of the term ‘ethno-gentrification’ in the specific context of Mediterranean cities.

  11. Patrimonios incómodos para la imagen que Barcelona ofrece al mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reventós Gil de Biedma, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona is today a city of reference within the world’s tourist map. Created as a process of both an economic evolution towards the third sector as well as a powerful brand image, from the Olympics up to nowadays. Within this scene, Culture and Arts have been pushed at the center of the strategy, building a “cultural spectacle” aimed to differentiate the city’s offer in the market. Furthermore, some specific icons oriented to give it a Catalan, Cosmopolitan and Modern identity are promoted, adding also new symbolic values such as diversity, tolerance or Mediterranean character. Meaning that some range of cultural heritages should be reinforced while others are put aside or even hidden. Barcelona appears then as the result of a perfectly drawn political strategic planning, under the appearance of social consensus and citizens’ involvement

  12. El barrio de la Chueca of Madrid, Spain: an emerging epicenter of the global LGBT civil rights movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) barrio (community) of Chueca in Madrid, Spain, from political and sociological perspectives. First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July 2007 in the Spanish cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca. A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca. Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain. Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors. Last, we examine the current state of the Chueca community relative to other developing LGBT Latino/a communities in the United States.

  13. Optimal football strategies: AC Milan versus FC Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Papahristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    In a recent UEFA Champions League game between AC Milan and FC Barcelona, played in Italy (final score 2-3), the collected match statistics, classified into four offensive and two defensive strategies, were in favour of FC Barcelona (by 13 versus 8 points). The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent the optimal game strategies derived from some deterministic, possibilistic, stochastic and fuzzy LP models would improve the payoff of AC Milan at the cost of FC Barcelona.

  14. Illicit drug policy in Spain: the opinion of health and legal professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Blay, Ester; Costela, Víctor; Torrens, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao. The questionnaire included sociodemographic and work-related data, and assessed interviewees' information about the response to drug-related crime and opinion on drug policy issues. This article presents the results from Spain. The main results showed that both groups of professionals value alternative measures to imprisonment (AMI) as useful tools to prevent offenses related to drug use and claim a broader application of AMI. They also evaluated positively the regulations on cannabis use in effect. Though the attitude of healthcare professionals towards the application of AMI is more permissive, both groups favour restricting these sanctions in cases of recidivism. Both groups show mild satisfaction with the current addiction healthcare system and express dissatisfaction with actual drug policies in Spain.

  15. The Bernades herbarium in the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The BC-Bernades herbarium is one of the oldest collections conserved in the Botanical Institute of Barcelona. It contains part of the field collections of Miquel Bernades i Mainader and Miquel Bernades i Clarís, doctors of medicine and botanists of Catalonian origin living in Madrid in the 18th century. The collection consists of 817 sheets, the complete list provided in the annexe. We also present information concerning the localities of certain specific recollections, the taxonomic groups and families, as well as a list of sheets of special interest. This list contains witness of cornfield weed now very rare or extinct in Iberian lands, such as Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi or Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , and also some of the first witness known from Spain of introduced plants, such as Aster cordifolius L. or Bidens bipinnata L.

    [es] El herbario BC-Bernades es una de las colecciones más antiguas conservadas en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Contiene parte de las recolecciones de Miquel Bernades y Mainader y Miquel Bernades y Clarís, médicos y botánicos catalanes del siglo XVIII establecidos en Madrid. Consta de 817 pliegos, la relación de los cuales presentamos en un anexo. También mostramos datos sobre las localidades de recolección, grupos taxonómicos y familias presentes, y una relación de pliegos de interés. Entre estos aparecen testimonios de plantas arvenses extinguidas o muy raras en tierras ibéricas como Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi o Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , y también algunos de los primeros testimonios conocidos en España de plantas introducidas como Aster cordifolius L. o Bidens bipinnata L. [ct] L’herbari BC-Bernades és una de les col·leccions més antigues de les conservades a l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. Conté part de les recol·leccions de Miquel Bernades i Mainader i Miquel Bernades

  16. [A prospective study of drug-facilitated sexual assault in Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-05-08

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Space in Barcelona (1992-2017) - Evolution and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu Arboix, Ignacio; Martín, Estefanía

    2017-10-01

    The construction of the public space has become in the last decades something so important and fundamental in the architecture of the cities, that requires a specific discipline and a concrete study that evaluates the characteristics and actions on it. Not already from an urbanistic perspective but from its own design and constructive perspective, with its character as a place for everyone and for everything, must gather a series of elements that are unique to this space. Barcelona is one of the densest cities in the world that, since the end of the s. XX until our days, tries to solve the public space with a design of quality and optimum. The shortage of public space, which also hosts more than eight million tourists each year, makes it necessary to propose a type of meticulous intervention in order to accommodate all types of users and activities. From the first Universal Exhibition of 1888 through 1929 to the 1992 Olympics as the most important stimulus for this renewal of urban space, Barcelona has been rethinking and evolving in the modus operandi in terms of its urban space. From our professional experience as architects both in the municipal, private and university spheres, we believe that it is our responsibility to confer the public space, that is to say, the design of the urban infrastructure with the attributes necessary to consolidate it in a space Suitable for all without exception and as a place of expression of citizenship. Through the projects of public space developed in our office we will analyze this change of procedure in the construction of squares, parks and other spaces in the city of Barcelona.

  18. Bioaerosols in the Barcelona subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadó-Margarit, X; Veillette, M; Duchaine, C; Talbot, M; Amato, F; Minguillón, M C; Martins, V; de Miguel, E; Casamayor, E O; Moreno, T

    2017-05-01

    Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily; therefore, air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B, and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity. The results showed low bioaerosol concentrations regarding the targeted microorganisms, although the bacterial bioburden was rather high (10 4 bacteria/m 3 ). Airborne bacterial communities presented a high degree of overlap among the different subway environments sampled (inside trains, platforms, and lobbies) and were dominated by a few widespread taxa, with Methylobacterium being the most abundant genus. Human-related microbiota in sequence dataset and ascribed to potentially pathogenic bacteria were found in low proportion (maximum values below 2% of sequence readings) and evenly detected. Hence, no important biological exposure marker was detected in any of the sampled environments. Overall, we found that commuters are not the main source of bioaerosols in the Barcelona subway system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector::Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Madsen, Anders Koed

    2016-01-01

    This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation m...

  20. Smart Tourism y Patrimonio Literario: Los casos de Edimburgo y Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Arcos Pumarola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the opportunities that arise from the creation of products based on mobile technology that help to interpret the literary heritage in tourist destinations. In first place and as state of the art, a research about mobile applications in Edinburgh, which is a consolidated touristic literary destination, is carried out. The conclusions of this research, together with the principal ideas of the Educating Cities movement, let the authors value, from a socioeducative and touristic perspective, the viability and the opportunities that come from the creation of these products in the context of Barcelona.

  1. Variación estacional de la mortalidad en la ciudad de Valencia, España Seasonal variation of mortality rates within the city of Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRAN BALLESTER-DÍEZ

    1997-03-01

    variable. La asociación de las variables de temperatura con la mortalidad es mayor en los grupos de edad más avanzada y en las mujeres. Conclusiones. Se observa una marcada variación estacional en la mortalidad por todas las causas en ambos sexos, con picos en las tasas de mortalidad en enero, y un menor número de defunciones en septiembre. La variación estacional en la mortalidad se hace mayor a medida que aumenta la edad, lo que no se aprecia en el grupo de edad más joven. Por sexos, el patrón estacional es más marcado en las mujeres que en los hombres, de tal modo que se aprecia una asociación positiva de mayor magnitud entre la mortalidad y la variable frío en los hombres del grupo de edad más elevado, y con la variable calor en las mujeres de mayor edad.Objective. To study the seasonal variation in mortality for all causes, grouped according to age and sex, within the city of Valencia during the period 1976-1990 and its relationship with air temperature. Material and methods. This is an ecological study using monthly global mortality and mean atmospheric temperature statistics for the city of Valencia, Spain between 1976 and 1990. The principal variable has turned out to be mortality for all causes. Mortality rates have been determined for specific age groups (0-4, 35-49, 50-64, 65-74 and > or = 75, as well as for both genders, within the city of Valencia for each of the 180-month period of investigation. Average monthly mortality data has been obtained and the percentage variation has been calculated. Graphical analysis has been used to examine the seasonal variation in mortality and in order to discern the nature of any relationship between atmospheric temperature and mortality. The regression line has been adjusted using the Loess method (smoothed regression motive, locally pondered. The association between mean temperature and mortality has calculated by means of multiple regression analysis controling for trend, seasonality and period effect. Results

  2. Tourism and the city: towards new models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and new information technology are bringing significant changes to tourism. Tourism experiences are now increasingly being co-produced by tourism companies, tourists and local residents. This has significant implications for cities such as Barcelona, where there has been an explosion of new tourism products through new intermediaries such as Airbnb. As a result, tourism is penetrating further into the fabric of the city, and is also being produced by the residents of Barcelona themselves. Perhaps for this reason they complain less about the negative effects of tourism than might be expected.

  3. Nation, space, and identity in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    of Catalonia problematizes the role of ‘the city’ in the Catalan independence movement. Through the actors’ narrative inscriptions of certain spaces as Catalan and active markings of the cityscape, the city itself helps to orient understandings of national identity. Visual cues, both in architecture...... ideas of nation and state are encountered and contested in Barcelona through activists’ spatial engagements, exploring how the city, the nation, and the political are connected in Catalonia. The position of Barcelona in activists’ narratives as both ‘less Catalan’ and as the undeniable capital...

  4. La difusión de la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck en la revista La Abeja (1862-1870) de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Camós Cabeceran, Agustí

    1997-01-01

    Between 1862 and 1864 Lamarck's works were diffused in Spain through a magazine called La Abeja which was edited by Antoni Bergnes de las Casas, and published in Barcelona. This may reveal a more important influence of Lamarck's theory on the introduction of evolutionary theories in Spain. La Abeja includes the translation of the Histoire naturelle des végétaux where Lamarck incorporated an early explanation of his theory of evolution; ...

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life, Gender, and Culture of Older People Users of Health Services in the Multicultural Landscape of the City of Ceuta (Spain): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Sánchez-Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Aguilar Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Ruiz-Villaverde, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are influenced by sociodemographic variables and by cultural-religious concepts of health, disease, and old age, among others. To assess the HRQOL of older people in a population with a long history of multiculturalism, the city of Ceuta (Spain), and to compare the results with Spanish reference values. A total of 372 individuals (55.4% females) were interviewed using the Spanish version of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The subjects' mean age was 70.9 (SD = 5) years: 253 were Christians, 93 Muslims, and 26 Jews, representing the proportions in the overall population of these cultural-religious groups. HRQOL differs according to the cultural-religious affiliation, which specifically affects social and psychological dimensions. All groups obtained lower social function scores than the reference values, especially the Muslim and Jewish groups. Health care providers may consider integrating culturally sensitive interventions to improve HRQOL. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Contribution to the improvement of radon risk evaluation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Vargas, A.

    2002-01-01

    The 96/29/Euratom Directive aims to introduce radon regulation at working places in European Countries. Within the framework, the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is interested in obtaining a reliable level of quality for radon measurements in Spain. The radon laboratory group at the Institute of Energetic Techniques of the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona (INTE) has been commissioned to adequate its radon chamber for testing radon instruments using standards as IEC 61577 and ISO 13466

  7. Methodology for the Detection of Residential Vulnerable Areas - the Case of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornado, Cossima; Garcia-Almirall, Pilar; Vima, Sara; Vila Busqued, Gemma; Uzqueda, Angel

    2017-10-01

    In a context of a shifting environmental, economic and social paradigm, European cities face a situation that is at the same time challenge and opportunity: the need for urban rehabilitation of the vulnerable degraded socio residential fabric. Public administrations in big cities and metropolitan areas are confronted with both the undercurrent need of actualization of the built stock and the rise of urban residential vulnerability. The city of Barcelona, as many others, is the result of multiple phenomena with high urban and social consequences. The socio spatial integration of immigrant population, the touristic rise and gentrification processes are current situations simultaneously taking place in the city. In parallel, a framework of economic crisis in which public investments in urban and social matters decrease, provides a temporal juncture that results into an increase of social polarization and socio economic inequality that becomes evident and expressed in the territory. This research focuses in the case of Barcelona, and presents a methodology based on a system of indicators elaborated through the exploitation of statistical data complemented with very specific data supplied by the Barcelona City Council. The accurate knowledge of socio demographic, socioeconomic and residential and urban characteristics is crucial in order to define the very complex urban dynamics that describe in the city neighbourhoods and areas. Residential vulnerability is defined as an assembly of objective conditions that relate to residential space and indicate situations of social discrimination and structural disadvantage of the population, related to a specific time and context. Thus, it is relevant to analyse the concentration of certain indicators of vulnerability in specific places or neighbourhoods, to contrast its effect on the socio-residential situation and its temporal evolution in order to identify tendencies. The present study contributes to the identification of data

  8. Financial Feasibility of Public Bike Rental Systems in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Diaz, A.G.; Sastre, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.D.; Cuello, M.; Molina, J.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many public bike rental systems have proliferated in Spain. Unfortunately, many have had to close because of their poor financial feasibility. The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, a benchmarking of the main public bicycle systems in Spain is conducted, analysing the growth in the last decades, with special emphasis on successful systems and on the recently failed. In addition, the financial feasibility of some successful systems in Spain is analysed: Seville, Valencia and Barcelona. Thus, major factors directly related to the viability of such systems are discussed. A proper and correct knowledge of these factors is essential when making decisions in mobility policies. The main factors on which the management company may decide are: pricing policy (annual and weekly rate), advertising rates, and system dimensions (number of docking stations, anchors and bicycles). There are other external factors not directly controlled by the company (subscribers, occupancy rate of advertising space and system maintenance cost) but which are crucial to their feasibility. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, mobility studies in Seville (1400 surveys) and Barcelona (1000 surveys) were conducted in order to achieve more accurate parameter values (time cycling, distances, used rate, frequencies, etc.). Despite the similarities between the systems in Valencia and Seville, they have shown very different profitability. The high profitability in Valencia and Barcelona is highlighted in contrast to the case of the Seville system. (Author)

  9. An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bech

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an observational study of the tornado outbreak that took place on the 7 September 2005 in the Llobregat delta river, affecting a densely populated and urbanised area and the Barcelona International airport (NE Spain. The site survey confirmed at least five short-lived tornadoes. Four of them were weak (F0, F1 and the other one was significant (F2 on the Fujita scale. They started mostly as waterspouts and moved later inland causing extensive damage estimated in 9 million Euros, three injured people but fortunately no fatalities. Large scale forcing was provided by upper level diffluence and low level warm air advection. Satellite and weather radar images revealed the development of the cells that spawned the waterspouts along a mesoscale convergence line in a highly sheared and relatively low buoyant environment. Further analysis indicated characteristics that could be attributed indistinctively to non-supercell or to mini-supercell thunderstorms.

  10. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Annual Congress Report From Barcelona 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kimio; Takahashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Tatebe, Shunsuke; Aoki, Tatsuo; Kikuchi, Yoku; Hao, Kiyotaka; Ohyama, Kazuma; Nogi, Masamichi; Suda, Akira; Kasahara, Shintaro; Sato, Koichi; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2017-11-24

    From August 26th to 30th, the 2017 Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC 2017) was held in Barcelona, Spain. Despite the terrorism tradegy just before the ESC congress, the congress attracted many medical professionals from all over the world to discuss the recent topics in cardiovascular medicine in more than 500 sessions, including COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS Trial), CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study), and ORION (which assessed the effect of a novel siRNA inhibitor to PCSK9 on reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Japanese cardiologists and the Japanese Circulation Society greatly contributed to the congress. This report briefly introduces some late-breaking registry results, late-breaking clinical trials, and ESC Guidelines from the ESC 2017 Congress.

  11. School success of Moroccan youth in Barcelona. Theoretical insights for practical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera, Diego

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship between ethnic identity and school performance of Moroccan youth living in Barcelona (Spain, particularly in cases of academic success. The bulk of the article makes reference to examples from ethnographical research to pinpoint the strategies used by some of these youths and their families to transcend the cultural, linguistic, and social barriers they face both in school and in their wider community. In so doing, we shift our gaze from John Ogbu’s immigrant/involuntary typology to the patterns of variability along ethnic, class and gender lines that exist within this minority group. Results from recent ethnographic research points out that high academic performance does not necessarily entails neither rejection of ethnicity nor simple conformity. Rather, some of these Moroccan youth adopt an instrumental view of education that promotes the development of new and proactive cultural identities inside and outside the school arena.

  12. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  13. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona

  14. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  15. Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll, I.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O 3 in spring and summertime. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, a numerical modeling approach was adopted and the episode that took place between 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990, when weak pressure synoptic conditions took place. The emissions inventory was calculated with the EIM-LEM model, giving highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in the zone studied, an 80 x 80 km 2 area around the city of Barcelona. Major sources of VOC were road traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NO x were mostly emitted by road traffic (88%). However, emissions from some industrial stacks can be locally important and higher than those from road traffic. Photochemical simulation with the MARS model revealed that the combination of mesoscale wind flows and the above-mentioned local emissions is crucial in the production and transport of O 3 in the area. On the other hand, the geostrophic wind also played an important role in advecting the air masses away from the places O 3 had been generated. The model simulations were also evaluated by comparing meteorological measurements from nine surface stations and concentration measurements from five surface stations, and the results proved to be fairly satisfactory. (author)

  16. Feasibility study of introducing smart technologies in Barcelona Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Guiu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to define and evaluate the diferent alternatives for implementing new Smart concepts and technologies in Barcelona Airport. The structure of the project activities will follow an initial approach (not exhaustive) consisting of: Context and background, justification of the project, assessment of Barcelona Airport baseline, identification of needs, technolgy Stae-of the art, definition of potential solutions and implementation scenarios, evaluation of altern...

  17. Lymphogranuloma venereum: a hidden emerging problem, Barcelona, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguas, H; Garcia de Olalla, P; Arando, M; Armengol, P; Barbera, Mj; Vall, M; Vives, A; Martin-Ezquerra, G; Alsina, M; Blanco, J; Munoz, C; Caballero, E; Andreu, A; Ros, M; Gorrindo, P; Dominguez, A; Cayla, Ja

    2012-01-12

    From the beginning of 2007 until the end of 2011, 146 cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) were notified to the Barcelona Public Health Agency. Some 49% of them were diagnosed and reported in 2011, mainly in men who have sex with men. Almost half of them, 32 cases, were reported between July and September. This cluster represents the largest since 2004. This article presents the ongoing outbreak of LGV in Barcelona.

  18. Xafardera?. No, esclava. Etnografia sobre les porteres de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Brufau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bestard, Joan (ed. (2006. Les porteries a Barcelona. Entre l’espai públic i l’espai privat. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura. “Un poco dura esta profesión. Aunque ellos [els veïns] no lo crean, o es. Siempre hay un mal humor de ellos. Siempre hay alguna cosa, que la paga el trabajador” Testimoni d’una portera recollit en el llibre

  19. Cambios en las formas del comercio y el consumo en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Carreras I Verdaguer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the historical evolution of retail forms and infrastructures in the city of Barcelona and of the cosummer patterns of its citizens. First, some antecedents are defined at the very beginnig of xxth Century, looking after to the big transformation of the sixties, the real and late Spanish bourgeois revolution. The next period corresponds to the changes started in 1986, with the integration of Spanish economy into the European Market. An evaluation of the present situation remarks the relevance of the legal constraints and of the relative delay in the development of some modern commercial forms in the City. From the study of some relevants questions on the consumers behaviour a clear conclusion appears relative to the inercia of some local trends in front of the weight of globalization.

  20. Big Data for better urban life?: An exploratory study of critical urban issues in two Caribbean cities: Paramaribo (Suriname) and Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Poorthuis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is increasingly seen as important in studying the city. This pertains to both its methodological capacity and the societal implications it may have. In this article we draw on contemporary literature to discuss the potentials and challenges of Big Data for addressing pressing urban issues.

  1. The pergolas of Barcelona Forum, an example of sustainable architecture; Las pergonas de Barcelona Ejemplo de arquitectura sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The use of technologies FV in Barcelona Forum Claims the goal of reducing the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. The pergolas allow reducing the emission of approximately 440 Mg/year of CO{sub 2}.

  2. Capitalidad autonómica y proceso de terciarización: el caso de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberich González, Joan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona has been since many years ago the functional centre of a vast territory, beyond the strict scope of Catalonia. From this fact, the aim of the study is to determine whether the regional capital of Barcelona and the general process of tertiarisation, two phenomena almost contemporary, have reinforced its centrality and if they have done with greater intensity than in other cities from the Catalan urban system. In agreement with this, we have divided this work into two sections. The first one analyzes the evolution of jobs of Barcelona and the Catalan cities of over 50,000 inhabitants from the late 1980s and the first decade of the 21st century and their distribution by activity branches. The second part, as an example of this tertiarisation process, we analyze the functional change and valorisation of a Barcelona’s old obsolete industrial area for its renewal into an advanced tertiary sector use, known as district 22@.Barcelona es desde hace muchos años el centro funcional de un extenso territorio, que va más allá del ámbito estricto de Cataluña. A partir de esta realidad, el objetivo del trabajo es conocer si la capitalidad autonómica de Barcelona y el proceso general de terciarización, dos fenómenos casi contemporáneos, han reforzado su centralidad y si lo han hecho con mayor intensidad que en otras ciudades del sistema urbano catalán. De acuerdo con este planteamiento, hemos dividido este trabajo en dos apartados. El primero analiza la evolución de los puestos de trabajo y su distribución por ramas de actividad de Barcelona y las ciudades catalanas de más de 50.000 habitantes entre finales de la década de 1980 y la primera década del siglo XXI . La segunda parte, como un ejemplo de este proceso de terciarización, analiza el cambio funcional y la puesta en valor de un antiguo espacio industrial barcelonés en desuso, para su reconversión en uso del terciario avanzado, el llamado distrito 22@. [fr] Barcelone a

  3. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  4. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  5. The southern gate of the walled city of León, Spain (I-XII centuries. Stratigraphic and interpretive analysis of a new constructive evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Morillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 took place the discovery of a large wall ashlar, actually integrated into the basement of a shop in the historic town of León (Spain. The typology of his constructive system and its topographic position into the plan of the town, allow us to identify it as the front of one of the flanking towers of the southern gate (porta praetoria of the roman legionary fortress of legio VII gemina. This camp was built at the end of the first century-early second century AD. The wall has many architectural reforms and adjustments. Their analysis testifies its evolution between Early Roman Empire and the twelfth and thirteenth centuries AD. The analysis of the mural stratigraphy presented here show the relative chronologies of different masonry and constructive activities determining the diachronic development of the construction. We can also clarify historical aspects about the south wall of León. The data obtained have been compared with three-dimensional topographic space in which are found, illustrating on the evolution of the urban landscape.

  6. Análisis de la mortalidad en ciudades: resultados en Valencia y Alicante Mortality surveillance in cities: results in Valencia and Alicante [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Nolasco

    2004-02-01

    selected specific causes in Valencia and Alicante, to establish internal inequalities by districts, and to evaluate changes in the magnitude of these inequalities over time. Methods: Deaths among residents of Valencia and Alicante in the periods 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 were assigned to residential municipal districts. Comparisons between the periods studied and between cities were carried out using the relative risk derived from a Poisson regression model. A comparative mortality figure was calculated using the 17 largest groups of the 9th International Classification of Diseases. Rates adjusted by the direct method, standardized mortality ratio, potential years of life lost (PYLL ratio and life expectancy at birth were calculated by districts in each study period. Results: The risks of death from all causes decreased between the first and second periods in both men and women in both cities. Life expectancy significantly increased in both cities for men and in Valencia for women. The city of Valencia had the greatest risk of death in both periods. Some causes of death increased (groups 5 and 6, mental and nervous system disorders and sensory organ diseases. By districts, there was greater variability in Valencia than in Alicante, especially in districts 1 and 11 in Valencia, which showed a high risk of death. Conclusions: The process of internal mortality surveillance by districts is reproducible. In the city of Valencia there were inequalities in mortality that were maintained over time. The city of Alicante showed less internal variability in its mortality indicators.

  7. Smart city planning and development shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Angelidou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores smart city planning and development shortcomings. In particular, it investigates eleven cases of smart city strategies and the shortcomings that were observed during their planning and implementation stages. The cases include: Barcelona Smart City, PlanlT Valley, Stockholm Smart City, Cyberjaya, King Abdullah Economic City, Masdar City, Skolkovo, Songdo International Business District, Chicago Smart City, Rio de Janeiro Smart City, and Konza Technology City. The paper proceeds with the synthesis of the findings and their critical appraisal. Shortcomings are classified into economic and budget shortages, bureaucratic and organizational challenges, challenges in the development and layout of digital services, poor physical planning, struggle to attract investment and support the development of new businesses, low performance in attracting and engaging users, and stakeholder resistance. In turn, the shortcomings are clustered in two distinct groups and analyzed in terms of causes and effects. The paper closes with mitigation propositions, accounting for past experience and novel approaches to this end.

  8. Responsabilidad y marcas de calidad conferencia pronunciada en Barcelona, el 11 de diciembre de 1974 en el II Congreso Nacional de la Calidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila, Miguel

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a reproduction of the lecture held by the author at the 11 National Congress of Quality in Barcelona, Spain, which gives account of concepts, projects, works and plans for the future, and information is given on completed works and the philosophy of a Working Group CIETSID, with the participation of Instituto Eduardo Torroja, CENIM, AECC, of the official organisations, professional colleges, UNESID and manufacturers.Se reproduce aquí la conferencia pronunciada por el autor en el II Congreso Nacional de la Calidad, en Barcelona (España, en la que se exponen conceptos, proyectos, realizaciones y planes para el futuro, representando las inquietudes del sector, y se transmiten las obras concretas y la filosofía de un grupo de trabajo CIETSID, con la participación del Instituto Eduardo Torreja, CENIM, A.E.C.C., de los organismos oficiales, colegios profesionales, UNESID y fabricantes.

  9. Job Loss at Home: Children's School Performance during the Great Recession in Spain. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1364

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of parental job loss on children's school performance during the Great Recession in Spain, using an original panel dataset for students observed since the beginning of the crisis in a school in the province of Barcelona. By using fixed effects, this paper is more likely to deal with the problem of selection into…

  10. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  11. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  12. Instrumentos de marketing aplicados a la compra de productos ecológicos: Un caso de estudio entre Barcelona, España y La Paz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado Beltrán, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    "Marketing Mix Applied to Ecological Product Purchasing: a Case Study of Barcelona, Spain and La Paz, Mexico".TEXT:This doctoral thesis is based on theoretical and empirical evidence regarding marketing mix and its effects on ecological purchase decision-making. The methodology was based on the structural equations model (SEM) using endogenous and exogenous variables, which were determined to influence ecological purchase decision-making. In order to contrast the hypothesis, the study was car...

  13. Comparative study of airborne Alternaria conidia levels in two cities in Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain), and correlations with weather-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Silvia; Bouso, Veronica; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria conidia are among the airborne biological particles known to trigger allergic respiratory diseases. The presented paper reports on a study of seasonal variations in airborne Alternaria conidia concentrations in 2 cities in the central Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete and Toledo. The influence of weather-related variables on airborne conidia levels and distribution was also analysed. Sampling was carried out from 2008-2010 using a Hirst sampler, following the methodology established by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. Annual airborne Alternaria conidia counts were higher in Toledo (annual mean 3,936 conidia) than in Albacete (annual mean 2,268 conidia). Conidia were detected in the air throughout the year, but levels peaked between May-September. Considerable year-on-year variations were recorded both in total annual counts and in seasonal distribution. A significant positive correlation was generally found between mean daily Alternaria counts and both temperature and hours of sunlight, while a significant negative correlation was recorded for relative humidity, daily and cumulative rainfall, and wind speed. Regression models indicated that between 31%-52% of the variation in airborne Alternaria conidia concentrations could be explained by weather-related variables.

  14. Estimating GHG emissions of marine ports-the case of Barcelona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Gara; Gemechu, Eskinder Demisse

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, GHG inventories of cities have expanded to include extra-boundary activities that form part of the city's urban metabolism and economy. This paper centers on estimating the emissions due to seaports, in such a way that they can be included as part of the city's inventory or be used by the port itself to monitor their policy and technology improvements for mitigating climate change. We propose the indicators GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled or per passenger and emissions per value of cargo handled as practical measures for policy making and emission prevention measures to be monitored over time. Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona, we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions (CO 2 equivalents) for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions). The highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. Knowing the highest emitters, the port can take action to improve the ship's activities within the port limits, such as maneuvering and hotelling. With these results, the port and the city can also find ways to reduce the land-based emissions. - Research highlights: → Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona (PoB), we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions) → Emissions per ton of cargo handled is proposed as an indicator to pin point high polluting vessels-a measure independent of the city the port belongs to. For 2008, the highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. → An additional measure of emissions per value of cargo handled is proposed to complement the emissions per weight indicator. For 2008, the volume of cargo

  15. Jean Nouveli supermodernism Barcelonas / Raili Seppänen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppänen, Raili

    2005-01-01

    2005. a. suvel valmivast prantsuse arhitekti Jean Nouveli (sünd. 1945) projekteeritud tornmajast Torre Agbar Barcelonas Avinguda Diagonal 209-211. Abiks hispaania arhitekt Fermin Vazquez arhitektibüroost b720 Arquitectura S.L. Jean Nouveli tuntud projekte. Ill.: J. Nouveli portreefoto, tornmaja välisvaade

  16. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kirabaev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  17. Performing Home in Barcelona: A Practice-Based Photo Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Esther Belvis

    2018-01-01

    During the winter of 2016, I carried out an artistic project in Barcelona entitled 'Performing Home' that aimed to explore the affective and social challenges that artists in political asylum or refuge cope with. The project began with a simple question: "where in public spaces do artists in asylum feel 'at home'?" It explored how public…

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. We evaluated children 7-11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012-2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect

  19. Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reche, C.; Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Hillamo, R.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Mean annual biomass burning contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM X) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution

  20. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Un artista cortesano en la Barcelona de Carlos III de Austria: apuntes prosopográficos sobre Andrea Vaccaro II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Rosado, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 18th century Barcelona was a principal entry point for the introduction of Italian courtly culture in Spain during the brief reign of Carlos III of Habsburg. This study analyzes the presence of the little-known Neapolitan painter Andrea Vaccaro II in Cataluña, and his connections with the Royal Chamber and the Spanish Habsburg ministry, as well as the concession of offices in Reame as payment for palace services.La diversidad de focos de introducción de la cultura de corte italiana en los inicios del siglo XVIII español obliga a indagar en la circulación de artistas napolitanos en la Barcelona de Carlos III de Austria. Bajo esta premisa, en el estudio se analiza la estancia catalana del desconocido pintor napolitano Andrea Vaccaro II, sus lazos con la Real Cámara y el ministerio español del monarca Habsburgo, así como la concesión de oficios en los tribunales de Nápoles como pago por servicios en palacio.

  2. Edificios con forjados postesados mediante tendones no adherentes. Edificio Mapfre-Vía Augusta, en Barcelona-España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llombart Jaques, José Antonio

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The technique of unbonded tendons applied to post-tensioned flat-slabs of buildings of certain importance has not been very frequent in Spain to date; in fact, it was used on very few occasions. This article gives the basic characteristics of the post-tensioned floors comparing them with the conventional solutions of reinforced concrete floors. The second part of the article brings a description of the main aspects of the design and construction of the Mapfre-Vía Augusta building in Barcelona. This recently raised building has the floor construction with slabs post-tensioned by unbonded tendons.

    La técnica del postesado no adherente, aplicada a losas de forjado de edificios de cierta entidad, ha sido hasta el momento poco común en España, habiéndose utilizado solamente en contadas ocasiones. Se indican, en primer lugar, las características fundamentales de los forjados postesados y se establecen comparaciones con soluciones convencionales de forjados de hormigón armado. En la segunda parte del artículo se describen los principales aspectos de proyecto y construcción de la estructura del Edificio Mapfre-Vía Augusta, en Barcelona, de reciente construcción, cuyos forjados están constituidos por losas postesadas mediante tendones no adherentes.

  3. Capitalists, managers, professionals and mortality: findings from the Barcelona social class and all cause mortality longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Solà, Judit; Marì-Dell'olmo, Marc; Chung, Haejoo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; Noh, Samuel

    2009-11-01

    To examine the effects of Neo-Marxian social class (i.e. measured as relations of control over productive assets) and potential mediators such as labour-market position, work organization, material deprivation and health behaviours upon mortality in Barcelona, Spain. Longitudinal data from the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey (n = 7526) with follow-up interviews through the municipal census in 2008 (95.97% response rate) were used. Using data on relations of property, organizational power, and education, social classes were grouped according to Wright's scheme: capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, managers, supervisors, and skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. Social class, measured as relations of control over productive assets, is an important predictor of mortality among working-class positions for men but not for women. Workers (hazard ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.35), managers and small employers had a higher risk of death than capitalists. The extensive use of conventional gradient measures of social stratification has neglected sociological measurements of social class conceptualized as relations of control over productive assets. This concept is capable of explaining how social inequalities are generated. To confirm the protective effect of the capitalist class position and the ''contradictory class location hypothesis'', additional efforts are needed to properly measure class among low-level supervisors, capitalists, managers, and small employers.

  4. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  5. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Update on fertility preservation from the Barcelona International Society for Fertility Preservation-ESHRE-ASRM 2015 expert meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Francisca; Yding Andersen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended...... on the need to provide counselling about currently available FP options to all individuals wishing to preserve their fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: An international meeting with representatives from expert scientific societies involved in FP was held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 2015. PARTICIPANTS...... treatment, and need an adequate FP approach. Women wishing to postpone maternity and transgender individuals before starting hormone therapy or undergoing surgery to remove/alter their reproductive organs should also be counselled accordingly. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are first-line FP methods...

  7. The disarticulated forms of neoliberal urbanism in the XXI century: the case of Barcelona Forum 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelino Mazza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contradictions within the policies of requalification of the City of Barcelona have become more evident in relation to some of the most recent urban transformations, as in the case of the project for the renewal of the Diagonal-Mar area; urban space where the Forum of Cultures 2004 has been held. The Forum turned into a failure, according to the paradigm of the criticisms, on the cultural and, above all, political (or marketing level; in its urban dimension, it has been the expression of the city that mires to the global insertion: it is a urban planning which is prevalently oriented to the external demand. The regeneration of the Diagonal-Mar has shown a scant consideration of social objectives, with the creation of spaces, where the concept of value of exchange predominates over the value of use. The actor (public and above all private investors, that participated to the redaction of the project of urban renewal of the area, produced a great propagandistic effort, presenting it as an open cultural initiative which can assume also the social criticisms.A lot of social and civil organization did not participate, and their proposals have not been accepted, and so, today, urban and social processes, rebound on the success or failure of the urban planning in an important area of the city. From that, what Borja (2005 defines the “urban malaise of Barcelona” starts, over the years of social and economic growth, the inhabitants of Barcelona fell a certain malaise, which is highlighted by the today’s crisis. The big urban projects do not generate any enthusiasm, citizens feel themselves progressively less owners of the own city, the architecture of the “great singular objects” does not represent the element of identity of the society. By scanning those urban imaginaries from a theoretical-conceptual viewpoint, which is formal and empiric, the question emerges, if the punctual urban planning operation of a sector could create evaluations

  8. Gobernanza Urbana y Participación Comunitaria. Los Casos de Barcelona, Bilbao y Pamplona (Urban Governance and Community Involvement. Cases of Barcelona, Bilbao and Pamplona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanol Telleria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a detailed study of three cases (Barcelona, ​​Pamplona and Bilbao trying to address from a theoretical perspective a more current characterization of urban movements, joining in a framework of analysis the contributions of the American and European schools study of social movements. To do this, we present the results of empirical research conducted in the districts of the three cities and perform a comparison of the most important variables. This research shows that urban movements have become increasing their ability to access aided by the opening of opportunities on local governance (EOP and have driven participatory processes articulated from a communitarian methodology (repertoires, intended to promote democratic management of the city (speech from reticular logic (organization oriented at re-structuring of society, as a prelude to increasing its influence on urban policies. Este artículo se basa en un estudio en profundidad de tres casos (Barcelona, Pamplona y Bilbao tratando de abordar desde una perspectiva teórica una caracterización más actual de los movimientos urbanos, aunando en un marco de análisis los aportes de las escuelas americana y europea de estudio de los movimientos sociales. Para ello, presentamos los resultados de la investigación empírica realizada en los barrios de las tres ciudades y realizamos una comparativa de las variables más importantes. Este estudio demuestra que los movimientos urbanos se han transformado aumentando su capacidad de acceso ayudados por  la apertura de oportunidades provocada por la gobernanza local (EOP y han impulsado procesos participativos que, articulados desde la metodología comunitaria (repertorios, pretenden provocar un impulso de la gestión democrática de la ciudad (discurso a partir de lógicas reticulares (organización orientadas a la re-vertebración de la sociedad, como paso previo al aumento de su  influencia sobre las políticas urbanas

  9. Heavy rain prediction using deterministic and probabilistic models - the flash flood cases of 11-13 October 2005 in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, A.; Altava-Ortiz, V.; Llasat, M. C.; Barnolas, M.

    2007-09-01

    Between the 11 and 13 October 2005 several flash floods were produced along the coast of Catalonia (NE Spain) due to a significant heavy rainfall event. Maximum rainfall achieved values up to 250 mm in 24 h. The total amount recorded during the event in some places was close to 350 mm. Barcelona city was also in the affected area where high rainfall intensities were registered, but just a few small floods occurred, thanks to the efficient urban drainage system of the city. Two forecasting methods have been applied in order to evaluate their capability of prediction regarding extreme events: the deterministic MM5 model and a probabilistic model based on the analogous method. The MM5 simulation allows analysing accurately the main meteorological features with a high spatial resolution (2 km), like the formation of some convergence lines over the region that partially explains the maximum precipitation location during the event. On the other hand, the analogous technique shows a good agreement among highest probability values and real affected areas, although a larger pluviometric rainfall database would be needed to improve the results. The comparison between the observed precipitation and from both QPF (quantitative precipitation forecast) methods shows that the analogous technique tends to underestimate the rainfall values and the MM5 simulation tends to overestimate them.

  10. Transcultural study on quality of life in patients diagnosed of schizophrenia from Mexico and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Peró Cebollero; Mónica Arroyo Medrano; Joan Guàrdia Olmos; Adolfo Jarne Esparcia; Teresita Villaseñor Cabrera

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the differences between two samples of schizophrenic patients from two different cultural contexts. Matched by age and gender, each 40-subject sample includes patients with differential diagnosis of schizophrenia. One sample was taken from the Barcelona Hospital network (Spain) and the other one from the Hospital Civil Universitario of Guadalajara (Mexico). Several demographic and clinical variables were evaluated and the Health Related Quality of Life Sc...

  11. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be: A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Font

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Health Area “Barcelona Esquerra” ('Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra' – AIS-BE, which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity.

  12. TAN CERCA, TAN LEJOS: ALDO ROSSI Y EL GRUPO 2C. ARQUITECTURA, IDEOLOGÍA Y DISIDENCIAS EN LA BARCELONA DE LOS 70 / So close, so far: Aldo Rossi and the 2C group. Architecture, ideology and dissents in the Barcelona of the 70s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Beatriz García Estévez

    2014-11-01

    architectural shape as a linguistic structure, Italy dips its roots in the Modern Movement tradition as an origin for a new temporal and ideological architectural dimension. The first contacts between Rossi and Spain verify this search and allow the Italian to construct common itineraries with some architects from Barcelona. From these exchanges the 2C group will be born, taking part on typical vanguardist mechanisms: they will publish the magazine, 2C. The construction of the city (1972-1985, they will attend the XV Triennale di Milano in 1973 with the Torres Clavé Plan (1971 and the Aldo Rossi + 21 Spanish architects exhibition (1975 while he will organize the three issues of the Seminarios Internacionales de Arquitectura Contemporánea (S.I.AC. which took place in Santiago, Sevilla and Barcelona between 1976 and 1980. In front of the unfolding of the firsts, the American contacts of Federico Correa, Oriol Bohigas, Lluís Domènech and the PER studio or the teaching work of Rafael Moneo from Barcelona since 1971, allow to draw replica itineraries with the foundation of the magazine Arquitecturas Bis (1974-1985, the organization of the meetings between international publications such as Lotus and Oppositions in Cadaqués (1975 and New York (1977, while stablishing exchanges with members of the Five Architects. Replicas that in 1976 conduct the initial ideological affirmations between Rossi and the 2C group towards irreconcilable distancing. Verifying the itinerary of the journey that the Italian leads from the Italian resistance towards the American backing down is part of the aim of this article.

  13. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  14. [Analysis of drug-related problems in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, Olivia; Casañ, Borja; Grau, Santiago; Louro, Javier; Salas, Esther; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2018-05-07

    To describe drug-related problems identified in hospitalized patients and to assess physicians' acceptance rate of pharmacists' recommendations. Retrospective observational study that included all drug-related problems detected in hospitalized patients during 2014-2015. Statistical analysis included a descriptive analysis of the data and a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between pharmacists' recommendation acceptance rate and the variable of interest. During the study period 4587 drug-related problems were identified in 44,870 hospitalized patients. Main drug-related problems were prescription errors due to incorrect use of the computerized physician order entry (18.1%), inappropriate drug-drug combination (13.3%) and dose adjustment by renal and/or hepatic function (11.5%). Acceptance rate of pharmacist therapy advice in evaluable cases was 81.0%. Medical versus surgical admitting department, specific types of intervention (addition of a new drug, drug discontinuation and correction of a prescription error) and oral communication of the recommendation were associated with a higher acceptance rate. The results of this study allow areas to be identified on which to implement optimization strategies. These include training courses for physicians on the computerized physician order entry, on drugs that need dose adjustment with renal impairment, and on relevant drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns of use of electronic cigarettes and use in public and private settings in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sáchez

    2018-03-01

    Younger users of e-cigarettes are more likely than older individuals to use flavors other than tobacco and respond that the primary motivation for using is to be able to use where cigarettes are prohibited. Moreover, e-cigarette use in private settings and in public settings where their use is not regulated by law is high. Therefore, the public health administration should enact more expansive e-cigarette regulations.

  16. Cities heading towards 100% renewable energy by controlling their consumption. Food for thought and action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringault, Anne; Eisermann, Miriam; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Fauchadour, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    This report provides guidance and solutions to cities and metropolitan areas anxious to embark on a 100% renewable energy path. It is based on the knowledge and experience of the authors' networks, as well as on around 30 interviews of councillors and city employees from about fifteen French local governments. It also features 5 European pioneers: Barcelona, Frankfurt, Frederikshavn, Geneva and Malmoe

  17. Empresas familiares de inmigrantes en Barcelona y Montevideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Martínez Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es observar las diferentes dimensiones que adquiere la familia en las empresas familiares de inmigrantes. En este caso, la propuesta metodológica es analizar, de forma comparativa, la realidad empresarial consolidada del colectivo gallego en Montevideo con las empresas familiares de inmigrantes de reciente creación en el área metropolitana en Barcelona.

  18. Latent variables definition for a new mobility model in Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puignau, S.A.; Ciommo, F. di; Sauri, S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on the recent travel behaviour literature, time and space perceptions and the awareness of shared economy seem to gain importance in mobility patterns. The objective of this article is to evaluate how far the behaviour of new generations brings about different mobility patterns in Barcelona. For this purpose, we have designed a web-based survey that provides innovative revealed-preference data. (Author)

  19. Ciudad, muerte y transformación social. La Barcelona de ayer y hoy en tres películas del III milenio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelisa Addolorato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a comparative analysis of three films on Barcelona. The movies look like a portrait of the Catalan society of XXI Century and show the relationship among the idea of death and the city in the third millennium, through a code between the filmic language of fiction and documentary. Death appear as part of life, and has several meanings. Different definitions were detected by 'death': as an event and social and social and anthropological change, natural transformation of neighborhood, city, but also as opportunity to preserve the memory; or is social evil, violence and personal tragedy. The three filmmakers witness the ebb and death of an era in a city, in a Barcelona neighborhood to make way for the future. Art represents a possibility of urban survival. The work investigate relations among transformation, death and society in the three movies. The preservation and maintenance of memory is realized through the eyes of the camera too. The three artists focus their attention in Barcelona, its suburbs and especially in the central neighborhood of Raval, or Barrio Chino", in recent decades  of remodeling this part of the city. Their aesthetics could be compared to the one aesthetics of others Spanish artists of XX Century. Development concerning the passage of time in urban areas are interwoven with personal stories that define individual to society today and through chronic feature. Death is also a mutation of a social model of manners, which leaves room for the development of a different society: multi-ethnic and open.

  20. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  1. The ecodesign and planning of sustainable neighbourhoods: the Vallbona case study (Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farreny, R.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global sustainability is increasingly an issue of urban sustainability, being essential to encourage more benign trajectories of urbanisation. For this, there is need for a framework that could aid in the process of designing and redesigning (retrofitting cities. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the methodology of urban ecodesign, which is characterized by a systematic incorporation of environmental life cycle considerations into the design of urban systems. The paper presents a case study of neighbourhood ecodesign from the city of Barcelona (Vallbona neighbourhood. This practical experience shows that the inclusion of sustainability criteria at an early stage of the design and planning of urban systems is the best strategy for environmental protection.In addition; a methodological framework is described in order to provide planners with a structured way of designing urban settlements so as to move towards sustainable urban environments.

    La sostenibilidad global es cada vez más un tema de sostenibilidad urbana. Por este motivo, es necesario un marco de trabajo que pueda ayudar en el proceso de diseño y rediseño (rehabilitación de nuestras ciudades. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar y describir la metodología de ecodiseño adaptada a los entornos urbanos, la cual se caracteriza por la incorporación sistemática de las consideraciones ambientales a lo largo de su ciclo de vida. El documento presenta un caso de estudio de ecodiseño del barrio de Vallbona (Barcelona. Esta experiencia demuestra que la inclusión de criterios de sostenibilidad en las etapas iniciales de diseño y planificación de los sistemas urbanos es la mejor estrategia para la prevención ambiental. Además, se presenta un marco metodológico con el fin de proporcionar a los planificadores una forma estructurada de diseño de los asentamientos urbanos que les permita avanzar hacia entornos urbanos más sostenibles.

  2. Estima de la abundancia de Palomas (Columba livia var. de la ciudad de Barcelona y valoración de la efectividad del control por eliminación de individuos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senar, J. C.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimate of the abundance of pigeons (Columba livia var. in the city of Barcelona and evaluation of effectiveness of elimination measures Culling is one of the most commonly used methods to control urban pigeon populations. The Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB eliminated a total of 227,479 pigeons using this technique between 1991 and 2006. We compared the estimate of abundance of pigeons in Barcelona city in 1991 (183.667 ± 14.914 with that in 2006 ( 256.663 ± 26.210 (CI 95%. While pigeon density did not increase in the city centre during this period, density in a ring around the city increased significantly, leading to a general increase in the urban population of these birds. The number of complaints regarding pigeons received per district did not correlate with abundance. ASPB culling per district correlated with abundance and not with numbers of complaints received, indicating interventions generally followed a technical protocol. Pigeon density per district correlated significantly with the human population density but not with the total number of inhabitants. Findings indicate the effectiveness of culling is low in this setting and suggest greater emphasis should be placed on control measures centered on limiting factors, particularly reduction of food availability and nest removal.

  3. Ceremonia y conflicto: Entradas reales en Barcelona en el contexto de la Guerra Civil Catalana (1460-1473

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufast Chico, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the royal entry ceremonies celebrated in Barcelona between 1460 and 1473, in the light of their meaning and importance in relation to the unsettled period marked by the Catalan Civil War (1462-1472. Starting from the premise that these sort of events are likely to reflect the sociopolitical reality in which they occur, it sets out to determine just how far the receptions offered to the monarchy by the city during these years can contribute towards explaining the origin, development and conclusion of the warlike conflict which set the institutions of the Principate against John II.

    Este estudio recorre las ceremonias de entrada real que se celebraron en Barcelona, entre 1460 y 1473, a la luz de su significación y trascendencia en relación al conflictivo período marcado por la Guerra Civil Catalana (1462-1472. Partiendo de la premisa de que este tipo de eventos son susceptibles de reflejar la realidad sociopolítica en la que tienen lugar, se intenta aquí determinar en qué medida las recepciones ofrecidas por la ciudad a la monarquía durante estos años pueden contribuir a explicar la génesis, desarrollo y conclusión del conflicto bélico que enfrentó a las instituciones del Principado con Juan II.

  4. El Raval de Barcelona, un laboratori d'estudis urbans

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez i Rigol, Sergi; Carreras i Verdaguer, Carles; Frago i Clols, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    El Raval de Barcelona s'ha convertit en un dels barris més estudiats de la ciutat. En aquest article els autors aprofiten les seves experiències i treballs sobre el barri per reflexionar sobre les eines i els conceptes de la Geografia urbana en l'anàlisi i comprensió de les ciutats contemporànies. De forma quasi cronològica es presenten aquestes reflexions que culminen en un balanç desapassionat de les aportacions que s'han fet des de l'Acadèmia per al coneixement del barri i s...

  5. La Vall, vestíbul a Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Calvet Gómez, Clàudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualificació obtinguda: 10 M.H. En una ciutat canviant i en constant creixement, com ho és Barcelona, el metro hi juga un paper fonamental. Amb la seva arribada, el model de centre i perifèria canvia i les zones pròximes a les estacions passen a ser molt properes a la resta de la ciutat. Es converteixen en nous centres per als habitants, i que tot i ser zones ·privilegiades i molt freqüentades no han estat projectades com a tal. Aprofitar l’energia generada per el metro es considera idoni ...

  6. The Barcelona Mobile Cluster: Actors, Contents and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication mediated by mobile devices is one of the most dynamic sectors of the global economy and is transforming different aspects of our lives, including our ways of relating and our cultural production, distribution and consumption models. Media studies should not ignore these transformations. This paper presents the results of a study carried out during 2008 to determine the actors, contents produced and trends of the mobile communication companies in Barcelona. The study outlines an initial map of the situation, proposes a series of analysis categories and lays the foundations for more specific future studies on mCommunication.

  7. From Protest to Political Parties: Online Deliberation in New Parties in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge Bravo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new parties that emerged following the 15-M movement and against the austerity measures in Spain want to build parties open to the participation and deliberation for all the citizenry. To what extent are these ideals being fulfilled? The aim of this article is to describe and assess some of the main online deliberative processes of the two most important parties, Podemos and Barcelona En Comú, following commonly accepted criteria in the literature for measuring online deliberation. Specifically, we have examined the two most-voted proposals from the online platform Plaza Podemos and the online development of the electoral programme of Barcelona En Comú. Thus, we have conducted a content analysis of 713 (Plaza Podemos and 563 (Barcelona En Comú posts. Both platforms meet the structural and technical criteria for fostering deliberation, but the external impact is high only in the case of Barcelona En Comú. The deliberative quality of the communication is good but not the criteria of reflexivity, inclusion and plurality.

  8. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; García, Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Felt, Emily; Benavides, Fernando G

    2011-08-17

    Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  9. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-González Diana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008 amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related. The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12, change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI. Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %. Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60, and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80. 40% (95% CI 24-53 PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  10. Edificio en La Plaza Lesseps de Fernando Lesseps – Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danés, Albert

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available This interesting example of urban architecture is situated in Barcelona, facing two streets of different widths, for which reasons the number of floors on the two sides is also different. The basements are reserved for parking space. Further the building comprises commercial ground floors with very attractive shopping arcades; a mezzanine commercial floor as well and the top floors, that are intended for housings. Pleasant exterior with solid colours. The work has been achieved thanks to the valuable contribution of Lluciá Navarro i Rodón.Esta interesante muestra de la arquitectura urbana está emplazada en Barcelona, con fachadas a dos calles de anchura diferente, por lo que el número de plantas es también distinto. Sótanos destinados a estacionamiento de vehículos. Plantas bajas comerciales, con galerías de paso muy atractivas. Entresuelo, también comercial, y plantas altas de viviendas variadas. Tratamiento exterior atrayente, a base de colores sólidos y sistema esgrafiado, contando con la valiosa colaboración de Lluciá Navarro i Rodón.

  11. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borras, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats

  12. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  13. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  14. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. Analysis of the material nature of public space. The case of the new “Camp de l’Arpa” Square (Barcelona)

    OpenAIRE

    Malo Larrea, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, after several years of constant neighborhood demands, it was inaugurated in the place that was once a vacant lot, the place that takes the name of the neighborhood, the Camp de l’Arpa square.This new public space in the city of Barcelona, despite being an urgent requirement of the neighbours, is currently being underutilized. On a first visit of observation, it was observed that among the many causes of this situation, a significant percentage derived from the materiality of public s...

  16. Paremiología y refranes de la Casa de Caritat de Barcelona, desde el punto de vista de la Pragmática

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda Gil, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    This paper gathers a collection of proverbs set as an ornamental motif at the old “Casa de Cartitat” (the Charity House, in Barcelona) and analyzes its contents from a pragmatic point of view. The house was one of the main charitable city organization in the 19th century. The collection consists of nineteen proverbs, written in Catalan and set by means of glazed tiles on the walls of the women's courtyard of the Charity House. To set an example, one of this proverbs says: “Sempre ...

  17. Sustainability Commitment, New Competitors’ Presence, and Hotel Performance: The Hotel Industry in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Aznar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry is facing major challenges, among them the new competition from novel forms of supply in the sharing economy. Airbnb, Homeaway, and Niumba, among other websites offering accommodations, are having an important impact in the sector, changing existing conditions and the market for the traditional hospitality industry. In this context, a strategy based in differentiation can help to prevent drops in revenues and profitability. The main objective of this paper is analyse if commitment towards sustainability has a positive impact on financial performance and can be considered a positive strategy in this new environment. The empirical data refer to a sample of hotels in Barcelona, one of the most important tourist cities in Europe. Our results suggest that there is no clear relationship between sustainability and better financial performance; however, sustainability commitment is associated with a minimum size, which can also have positive effects in terms of economies of scale and finally affect profitability. Hotels more committed to environmental issues are located in areas with a lower density of Airbnb apartments, and this geographical distribution can be more positive than a situation of massive tourist concentration in specific areas with negative externalities for neighbours.

  18. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  19. Cultural Heritage in Smart City Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, M.; Karachaliou, E.; Angelidou, T.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how the historical and cultural heritage of cities is and can be underpinned by means of smart city tools, solutions and applications. Smart cities stand for a conceptual technology-and-innovation driven urban development model. By becoming `smart', cities seek to achieve prosperity, effectiveness and competitiveness on multiple socio-economic levels. Although cultural heritage is one of the many issues addressed by existing smart city strategies, and despite the documented bilateral benefits, our research about the positioning of urban cultural heritage within three smart city strategies (Barcelona, Amsterdam, and London) reveals fragmented approaches. Our findings suggest that the objective of cultural heritage promotion is not substantially addressed in the investigated smart city strategies. Nevertheless, we observe that cultural heritage management can be incorporated in several different strategic areas of the smart city, reflecting different lines of thinking and serving an array of goals, depending on the case. We conclude that although potential applications and approaches abound, cultural heritage currently stands for a mostly unexploited asset, presenting multiple integration opportunities within smart city contexts. We prompt for further research into bridging the two disciplines and exploiting a variety of use cases with the purpose of enriching the current knowledge base at the intersection of cultural heritage and smart cities.

  20. CITY GROUND DESIGN AND THE IMAGE OF THE CITY: THE PORTUGUESE CALÇADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2014-10-01

    The pavement-form - including the "calçada-form"-is at the root of some of the flagship operations creating the image of the city (Havana, 1928; Alicante, 1957; the Ramblas in Barcelona, 1969; reform of the Avenida Atlantica in Rio by Burle Marx, 1970. However, these same operations show that the "form-calçada" does not meet many of the requirements of economy, security or universal accessibility required by the contemporary city. In the paper was to analyze the causes and reasons that hover over the announced death of calçada á Portugueza.

  1. HAS IMPLEMENTING AN ECOLABEL INCREASED SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN BARCELONA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Arenado Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio es detectar si la implementación de una eco etiqueta en destinos turísticos con un modelo SDM, incrementa su sostenibilidad. Para dicha investigación, se han puesto en práctica tres medidas en Barcelona: (1 entrevistas con agentes locales clave (DMOs, para comprobar su aceptación e implicación en el proyecto de certificación; (2 la puesta en práctica de dos acciones relevantes para el estudio: (a contrastar los criterios de la eco etiqueta objeto de estudio con los criterios del GSTC (2016, (b comprobar si la eco etiqueta se adecua al estudio de Font (2001 sobre las mismas. Por último, como tercera medida (3, se plantea una discusión para conocer si los medios de comunicación y la población local perciben la ciudad como turísticamente sostenible. Los resultados establecen que tanto Barcelona Tourism Board como los agentes claves muestran preocupación, interés y compromiso frente a la sostenibilidad turística. Y respecto a la ecoetiqueta, puede comprobarse que es fiable, pues se adapta a las exigencias tanto del modelo de Font (2001 como a los criterios del GSTC. Sin embargo, la población local muestra una clara insatisfacción y malestar con el volumen de turistas que visita a la ciudad. Esta parece no entender de etiquetas, pero sí de impactos negativos del turismo en sus vidas. La principal limitación del estudio es que solo ha sido analizado el caso de Barcelona. Mientras que su contribución más interesante es la puesta en práctica de conceptos ampliamente aceptados, pero que por lo general se estudian más de forma teórica que sobre los destinos turísticos.

  2. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  3. La colección ibero-balear de Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionoidea del Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ibero-Balearic collection of Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionoidea of the Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona A commented catalogue of the Ibero-Balearic collection of Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810 housed in the Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona is presented. The studied material consists of 2,129 specimens belonging to 49 of 64 species from the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The temporal coverage of the collection extends from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the present time. Revision, documentation, and computerization of the material have been made, resulting in 963 collection records (June 2014. For each lot, the catalogue includes the register number, geographical data, collection date, collector or origin of the collection, and number of specimens. Information about taxonomy and distribution of the species is also given. Chorological novelties are provided, extending the distribution areas for most species. The importance of the collection for the knowledge of the Ibero-Balearic fauna of Meloidae is discussed, particularly concerning the area of Catalonia (northeastern Iberian peninsula as it accounts for 60% of the records. Some rare or particularly interesting species in the collection are highlighted, as are those requiring protection measures in Spain and Catalonia. The catalogue also shows a brief gallery of photographs that includes four type specimens.

  4. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intervención en la ciudad construida: Plan Especial de Reforma Interior de Area Plazaburu, barrio de Loyola, San Sebastián, España. /Intervention in the city built: Special Plan Area Interior Redesign Plazaburu, Loyola neighborhood, San Sebastian, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro, José Antonio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available En un viejo barrio, sin interés histórico-artístico, la Administración Municipal ha decidido intervenir para reformular su forma y función dentro de la ciudad, adaptándolas a la creciente demanda de mejora de la calidad de vida. Se resume los criterios y objetivos de ordenación con referencias al contexto jurídico y tecnológico en el que se desarrolla el urbanismo español./In an old suburb of San Sebastián, Spain, without particular historical or artistic interest, the Municipal Administration decided to intervene to reformulate its form and function within the city, adapting them to the growing demand for improvement in the quality of life. The criteria and objectives of the ordinance are summarised with reference to the legal and technological context in which Spanish urbanism is unfolded.

  6. O individualismo-coletivismo no Brasil e na Espanha: correlatos sócio-demográficos Individualim-collectivism in Brazil and Spain: socio-demographic correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretendeu conhecer os correlatos sócio-demográficos do individualismo-coletivismo, considerando três cidades do Brasil (João Pessoa, Brasília e São Paulo e três da Espanha (Pontevedra, Madri e Barcelona. Um total de 471 brasileiros e 476 espanhóis, estudantes universitários de diversos contextos sócio-demográficos, providenciaram os dados; a maioria era do sexo feminino (76% e solteiro (91%, com uma média de idade de 22 anos (amplitude de 16 a 55 anos. Estes responderam ao Questionário de Individualismo-Coletivismo e ao Questionário Sócio-Demográfico. Os resultados indicaram que as seguintes variáveis se correlacionaram sistematicamente com a dimensão individualismo-coletivismo: intensidade das amizades, identificação endogrupal e gênero, nesta ordem. Comprovou-se, também, que algumas variáveis são mais adequadas em um país que em outro; por exemplo, a religiosidade no Brasil e o número de amigos íntimos na Espanha. Tais resultados são discutidos à luz dos previamente encontrados na literatura.The socio-demographic correlates of individualism and collectivism were investigated in three Brazilian cities (Joao Pessoa, Brasilia and Sao Paulo and in three Spanish cities (Pontevedra, Madrid and Barcelona. A sample of 471 Brazilian and 476 Spanish undergraduates, from a wide variety of socio-demographic contexts, provided data for the study. The majority was female (76% and unmarried (91%, with an average age of 22 years (range from 16 to 55. They answered the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire and the Socio-Demographic Questionnaire. The results indicated that the following variables are consistently correlated to the individualism-collectivism dimension: degree of friendship, index of identification with in-groups and gender, in this order. It was also observed that some variables are more adequate in one country than another; for example, religiosity in Brazil and the number of close friends in

  7. Rooftop greenhouses in educational centers: A sustainability assessment of urban agriculture in compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Pons, Oriol; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    Today, urban agriculture is one of the most widely used sustainability strategies to improve the metabolism of a city. Schools can play an important role in the implementation of sustainability master plans, due their socio-educational activities and their cohesive links with families; all key elements in the development of urban agriculture. Thus, the main objective of this research is to develop a procedure, in compact cities, to assess the potential installation of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in schools. The generation of a dynamic assessment tool capable of identifying and prioritizing schools with a high potential for RTGs and their eventual implementation would also represent a significant factor in the environmental, social, and nutritional education of younger generations. The methodology has four-stages (Pre-selection criteria; Selection of necessities; Sustainability analysis; and Sensitivity analysis and selection of the best alternative) in which economic, environmental, social and governance aspects all are considered. It makes use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and Multi-Criteria Decision Making, through the Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessments and the participation of two panels of multidisciplinary specialists, for the preparation of a unified sustainability index that guarantees the objectivity of the selection process. This methodology has been applied and validated in a case study of 11 schools in Barcelona (Spain). The social perspective of the proposed methodology favored the school in the case-study with the most staff and the largest parent-teacher association (social and governance indicators) that obtained the highest sustainability index (S11); at a considerable distance (45%) from the worst case (S3) with fewer school staff and parental support. Finally, objective decisions may be taken with the assistance of this appropriate, adaptable, and reliable Multi-Criteria Decision-Making tool on the vertical integration and

  8. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  9. [Analysis of the otorhinolaryngological doctoral theses submitted in Spain between 1976 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Juan Ignacio; Prim, María Pilar

    2008-01-01

    The importance of otorhinolaryngology as a separate branch of medicine has grown in the last decades. The objective of this work is to analyze the doctoral theses in ENT presented in Spain between 1976 and 2005. The TESEO database was searched for theses on otorhinolaryngology produced in Spain between 1976 and 2005. The search criteria used were the terms "Otorhinolaryngology," "Ear, nose, and throat surgery," "Hearing physiology," "Vestibular physiology," "Hearing physics," and "Bioacoustics". 468 theses were found (15.6 theses/year). Of these, 343 (73.6 %) were submitted by otorhinolaryngologists. The Universities of Valencia (Estudi General) (49), Complutense of Madrid (42), Salamanca (39), Barcelona (35), and Autònoma of Barcelona (31) accounted for most of the theses. The name of the supervisor was listed in 376 of the 468 theses (80.4 %); 286 of them had only 1 supervisor (76.1 %) and 90 had 2 (23.9 %). The most frequent topics were otology and audiology (35.1 %). Otorhinolaryngology in Spain has produced a similar number of theses as other areas of knowledge evaluated. The supervision of theses has tended to be shared in the most recent years studied. The number of theses submitted each year did not have only academic influences but also non-academic reasons.

  10. [Epidemiology of atherogenic dyslipidemia in an urban area of the city of Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sarmiento, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study data on lipid profile and blood glucose of sample collected in 2021 consecutive and anonymous patients. We calculated the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia by sex, according to several cutoff HDL cholesterol in women, and in the whole sample, and its association with diabetes. There is in the study selection bias, as it is performed in patients attending in a Primary Care Laboratory and not in a sample of the general population. Prevalence epidemiological data are therefore approximate and provisional. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  11. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  12. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  13. Mercury and methylmercury intake estimation due to seafood products for the Catalonian population (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study estimates mercury and methylmercury levels in fish and fishery products commercialized in the city of Barcelona from 2001 to 2007. Combining food levels data with the consumption data of 2158 people (as the median of two 24-hour-recall), the total Mercury intake of the Catalonian population was calculated. Mercury was detected in 32,8% of analyses samples. The general population average weekly intake of total mercury in Catalonian population was 0.783 ?g/k...

  14. NEWS FROM THE ANNUAL CONGRESS OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY (BARCELONA 2014: REALIZED AND UNREALIZED EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available News from Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (Barcelona, 2014 is highlighted. Results of recent controlled clinical trials, new clinical recommendations and registers data that were presented at the Congress are discussed.

  15. NEWS FROM THE ANNUAL CONGRESS OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY (BARCELONA 2014: REALIZED AND UNREALIZED EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available News from Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (Barcelona, 2014 is highlighted. Results of recent controlled clinical trials, new clinical recommendations and registers data that were presented at the Congress are discussed.

  16. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Immigrants in a Large City with Large-Scale Immigration (1991-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Jesús E; Orcau, Àngels; Millet, Joan-Pau; Ros, Miriam; Gil, Sonia; Caylà, Joan A

    2016-01-01

    The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and risk factors were described. The annual incidence was calculated for various periods and geographical areas of origin. In the linear trend analysis, a p-value of immigrants is decreasing in Barcelona. Organizational actions, such as incorporating CHWs and TBCUs, have been decisive for the observed improvements.

  17. Toxic potential of organic constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in an urban road site (Barcelona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; van Drooge, Barend L; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Grimalt, Joan O; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor contributing to a number of diseases in human populations and wildlife globally. Organic matter is a major component of PM, but its contribution to overall toxicity of PM has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. In the present work, the biological activity of organic extracts from PM1 (particles with less than 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter) collected from an urban road site in the centre of Barcelona (NE Spain) was evaluated using a yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) and different gene expression markers in zebrafish embryos. Dioxin-like activity of the extracts correlated to primary emissions from local traffic exhausts, reflecting weekday/weekend alternance. Expression levels of cyp1a and of gene markers for key cellular processes and development (ier2, fos) also correlated to vehicle emissions, whereas expression of gene markers related to antioxidant defence and endocrine effects (gstal, hao1, ttr) was strongly reduced in samples with strong contribution from regional air masses with aged secondary organic species or with strong influence of biomass burning emissions. Our data suggest that the toxic potential of PM1 organic chemical constituents strongly depends on the emission sources and on the process of ageing from primary to secondary organic aerosols.

  18. Simulation Study of the Effect of Decreasing Truck Traffic Flow on Safety on Almeria-Barcelona Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashova, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the effect of truck traffic on road safety has been analyzed through simulation study. The main objective of the study is to quantify the effect of the decreasing average annual daily traffic of heavy duty vehicles (trucks) on road safety. As the road safety indicators the frequency road accidents is considered. The data used in the study were collected from one of the most crowded routes in Spain which connects Almeria (south-east) with Barcelona (northeast). The observed data covers year 2010 and were classified into 2 road types: dual carriageways and toll roads. The estimation was carried out using negative binomial model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Using the estimation results new traffic scenarios were proposed where the traffic flow is assumed to change its values. A total of 33 scenarios were proposed and new accidents data were generated through MCMC sampling. The comparison of the simulated and observed accident data shows that the effect of decreasing truck traffic flow could meliorate road safety in the route. The simulation tool could be applied to evaluate the effects of freight modal shift from road to rail. (Author)

  19. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  20. A General Overview of Natural Sources in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncela, L.S.Q.; Fernandez, C.S.; Merino, I.F.; Villanueva, J.L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nationwide and regional surveys have been conducted to evaluate natural radiation exposure of the Spanish population. In these surveys, indoor radon, external gamma dose rates outdoors and indoors were measured. In the nationwide radon survey, 9% of the tested houses presented radon levels above 200 Bq/m 3 and 25% of houses with radon concentrations above this reference level were located in areas with high radon indoor levels. In 2010, the Radon Group in collaboration with two research groups from the University of Santiago de Compostela and University Autonoma de Barcelona has started the Radon 10 x 10 project which is bases on radon integrated measurements using track-etched detectors using grid 10 x 10 km 2 . In this work we present data measured during the last 30 years in Spain as well as some preliminary results of this new project

  1. Bon Pastor (Barcelona un territori en construcció

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Salas Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available L'article desenvolupa alguns dels aspectes de la tesi doctoral de l'autor (Sales, 2015. Es planteja una anàlisi de l'evolució del territori en el qual es troba el barri del Bon Pastor (Barcelona, posant l'accent en l'entorn construït. Per a això, la narrativa històrica es complementa amb documentació gràfica, part d'ella a partir dels diversos tallers de participació que l'autor ha desenvolupat i continua desenvolupant-se en aquest barri, en cooperació amb l'Associació de Veïns i l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (Districte de Sant Andreu amb l'objectiu de desenvolupar intervencions en l'espai públic de la zona en relació amb la preservació de la memòria cívica de Bon Pastor i en el context d'avançar en els processos de governaza urbana basada en la participació creativa dels veïns  Alhora s'organitzaven els primers processos participatius, vam començar a documentar la història de Bon Pastor. També a fer rutes pel barri per veure les seves característiques urbanes actuals i recopilar informació sobre els plans urbanístics vigents. Els següents paràgrafs són una síntesi del relat literari de la història de Bon Pastor i les seves principals característiques urbanes. Com va succeir amb Baró de Viver, és un relat que s'haurà d'anar completant a mesura que es desenvolupin els diferents processos participatius amb els relats de les vivències de la població, així com la diferent documentació que ens puguin aportar

  2. The beginnings of women in the practice of chess in Spain (1922-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Brasó Rius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early feminist movements in different fields won’t appear until the end of nineteenth century. One of these fields is sport, which includes chess: the object of study of this article. Using a methodology based on hermeneutic analysis of the principal information sources, it is possible to conclude that the introduction of women in chess associations toke place in the middle of the nineteenth century in England. In Spain, Barcelona led this practice. Spanish chess societies include women at the beginnings of Twentieth century, but it was not until the thirties when significant female movements appear in this sport.

  3. Togetherness, coexistence or confrontation : the impact of school climate and culture on peer-to-peer social relations in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Carrasco-Pons, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results of the study ‘Coexistence and Confrontation among Peers in Secondary Schools in Catalonia’ commissioned by the Ombudsman’s Office of the Catalan government and carried out at the Institute of Childhood and the Urban World (CIIMU) in Barcelona, Spain, in 2005-2006. It offers a description of the indicators of malaise and exclusion among students at nine public and private secondary schools serving varying social environments in Cataloni...

  4. Assessment of female prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Barcelona using a self-administered screening questionnaire: the Cuestionario de Autoevaluación del Control de la Vejiga (CACV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Salcedo, Félix; Sánchez Borrego, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common urological condition, usually underdiagnosed and difficult to identify. The screening of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through patient self-administered questionnaires can be useful not only for timely identification of these patients but to implement early interventions for symptoms and their implication in a patients' quality of life (QOL). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of OAB symptoms in patients attending general gynecology units in Barcelona, Spain, through a self-administered screening questionnaire. A cross-sectional, multicenter, observational, epidemiological study was carried out at general gynecology units of ten primary health centers in Barcelona, Spain. The study was conducted during a patient's single visit through self-administered forms. Patients recorded sociodemographic data, medical history and comorbidities, and scored the presence and bother related to specific urological symptoms using the Cuestionario de Autoevaluación del Control de la Vejiga (CACV), the validated Spanish version of the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ). A score ≥6 on the symptoms scale of the CACV was taken as an indicator of suspected OAB. One thousand and four women aged between 18 and 82 participated in the study. The overall prevalence of OAB was 11.8 %. A patient being >50 years was significantly associated with suspected OAB in comparison with the younger group [odds ratio (OR) 3.1 (2.1-4.7); p bladder showed significant association with factors other than age, menopause, and previous urogynecological history, such as high body mass index (BMI) and parity. The estimated prevalence of suspected OAB in patients attending general gynecological services in Barcelona is 11.8 %. Overweight or obese patients and those with three or more children were found to be at elevated risk for developing OAB.

  5. Gastronomy, Tourism and Destination Differentiation: A Case Study in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tom¨¢s L¨®pez-Guzm¨¢n; Sandra S¨¢nchez-Ca?izares

    2012-01-01

    Gastronomy is becoming a key factor in the competitiveness of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of food tourism in the city of Cordoba (Spain) and its relation with the motivation. Similarly, the paper shows the connection between local cuisine and the satisfaction of tourists. The main results of this study reflect the high level of education of this kind of travelers, the importance of gastronomy for visiting this city and the satisfaction with both the l...

  6. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  7. A childhood obesity prevention programme in Barcelona (POIBA Project): Study protocol of the intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Juárez, Olga; Serral, Gemma; Valmayor, Sara; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pasarín, María Isabel; Díez, Élia; Ariza, Carles

    2018-01-01

    disadvantaged neighbourhoods and it is precisely these environments that have the lowest involvement in preventive interventions. Consequently, it is very important to target these populations when designing an intervention. This study will provide an evaluated childhood obesity intervention which includes the perspective of gender and social inequalities. In addition, a sustainability plan has been developed for the intervention. It is planned that, in the near future, the intervention and its reinforcement are part of the set of health educational programmes offered by the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona (Spain) to schools, with funding both the cost of the training and the materials borne by the Agència.

  8. Ciudadanos del este de Europa consumidores de drogas en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde mayo de 1999 hasta mayo de 2001, hemos contactado en el SAPS (Servicio de Atención Social y Sanitaria de Barcelona con usuarios de drogas de países del este de Europa. Acuden a centros terapéuticos gratuitos, aunque pagan por la organización del viaje unos 500 euros. Son jóvenes entre 18 y 30 años y mantienen el contacto con sus familiares. Conocen los riesgos de transmisión de enfermedades, pero suelen reutilizar las jeringas. Es alta la prevalencia de hepatitis C (92% y B (62% y menor la de infección por el VIH (19%. Si no abandonan las drogas, el retorno es un fracaso y tienen dificultades para proseguir los tratamientos con metadona o antirretrovirales. La respuesta asistencial ha de adecuarse a sus necesidades. Se debe procurar la mediación cultural y la información en los lugares de origen, supervisar los centros terapéuticos y diseñar alternativas a los abandonos. Hay que desarrollar la colaboración internacional, estimular programas de disminución de riesgos derivados del consumo y evitar que del tratamiento se haga un comercio.

  9. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  10. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  11. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  12. Characterization and main pathologies of the sandstone “Piedra Dorada” used in historic buildings in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza (Jaén, southern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisbert, J.; Navarro, R.; Sánchez-Valverde, J.; Baltuille, J.M.; Sebastián-Pardo, E.

    2017-01-01

    The sandstone known as “Piedra Dorada”, or golden stone, is one of the most commonly used materials in the construction of many of the main historic buildings in the province of Jaén. Many examples can be found in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza, declared World Heritage Cities by UNESCO. A thorough characterization of their main varieties: “Viva”, “Franca” and “Jabaluna” has been done. Original quarry materials as well as samples of monuments have been analyzed. In this study we present a characterization of the mineralogical, textural and geochemistry features as well as the main physical properties of the varieties of “Piedra Dorada”. Furthermore, this research investigates in depth the main pathologies found in historic buildings in the cities mentioned above. We have established an order of quality of the varieties mentioned from the different parameters determined. We have also characterized the deterioration mechanisms amongst which are: biological colonization (lichens, algae, moss and higher plants), an increase in capillary action, surface deposits (salts and black crust) and anthropic factors such as leaks into the sewer network, absence of covers and downspouts, etc. This study has allowed us to know in detail one of the most important construction stones of Andalusia in order to ensure its durability for future year. [es

  13. La construcción de la ‘Cuestión Gitana Rumana’ en el Área Metropolitana de Barcelona: espacios públicos urbanos, conflictos vecinales y política local The genesis of a 'Romanian Roma Issue' in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: urban public spaces, neighbourhood conflicts and local politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar López Catalán

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene la intención de presentar un panorama general de la situación de la población Rrom (gitana rumana en el Área Metropolitana de Barcelona y describir brevemente y analizar las maneras en las que su presencia está siendo gestionada. La metodología utilizada va desde el análisis mediático al trabajo de campo etnográfico. Primero, ofreceré algunas referencias y un contexto general de la presencia y el proceso migratorio de la población rrom inmigrada en España y Barcelona. A continuación, me centraré en la construcción local de la ‘cuestión gitana’, usando brevemente tres ejemplos diferentes e interrelacionados: regulación del espacio público y estrategias económicas marginales; políticas de asentamiento y la idea del nomadismo-movilidad; y finalmente la construcción política y culturalización de conflictos vecinales. Por último, se ofrecen algunas conclusiones y reflexiones sobre la posible evolución de dichos proceso a un nivel local y estatal.This paper intends to present a general overview of the situation of the Romanian Roma Population in Barcelona Metropolitan Area and briefly describe and analyze the ways in which their presence is being managed. First, I will offer some references as well as a general background of the presence and migratory process of the Romanian Roma population in Spain and Barcelona. Next, I will focus on the local construction of the “Roma Issue”, using three different and interrelated examples: public space regulation and marginal economic strategies; settlement policies and the idea of nomadism-mobility; and finally political construction and culturalization of concrete neighbourhood conflicts. Finally, I intend to offer some conclusions as well as some reflections about the possible evolution of these processes both at a local and state level.

  14. Algebraic Topology : New Trends in Localization and Periodicity : Barcelona Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Casacuberta, Carles; Mislin, Guido

    1996-01-01

    Central to this collection of papers are new developments in the general theory of localization of spaces. This field has undergone tremendous change of late and is yielding new insight into the mysteries of classical homotopy theory. The present volume comprises the refereed articles submitted at the Conference on Algebraic Topology held in Sant Feliu de Guíxols, Spain, in June 1994. Several comprehensive articles on general localization clarify the basic tools and give a report on the state of the art in the subject matter. The text is therefore accessible not only to the professional mathematician but also to the advanced student.

  15. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Saliba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%. Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders.

  16. Latin-American inmigration in Spain in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora García Ballesteros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Latino-American immigration in Spain increased in the last fourth of the 20th century and in the first decade of the 21st century, promoted by historical and social links and by bilateral covenants. Country provenance also changed due to the social-economic and political circumstances the countries were going through. Nowadays, most immigrants come from Ecuador and Colombia. The main effects that this emigration had on the countries of origin as well as immigrants’ legal situation in Spain are studied. The age and gender structures and their health situation are also analysed. Later on, their spatial distribution is looked into, specially in Madrid and Barcelona where almost half of Latin-Americans are concentrated. In the last part, labour and their main activities are examined as well as the existing differences depending on the country of origin.

  17. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan,

  18. On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) for cities, offering examples of IoT-powered 21st century smart cities, including the experience of the Spanish city of Barcelona in implementing its own IoT-driven services to improve the quality of life of its people through measures that promote an eco-friendly, sustainable environment. The potential benefits as well as the challenges associated with IoT for cities are discussed. Much of the 'big data' that are continuously generated by IoT sensors, devices, systems and services are geo-tagged or geo-located. The importance of having robust, intelligent geospatial analytics systems in place to process and make sense of such data in real time cannot therefore be overestimated. The authors argue that IoT-powered smart cities stand better chances of becoming healthier cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities Network and associated national networks have hundreds of member cities around the world that could benefit from, and harness the power of, IoT to improve the health and well-being of their local populations. PMID:24669838

  19. On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb M

    2014-03-27

    This article gives a brief overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) for cities, offering examples of IoT-powered 21st century smart cities, including the experience of the Spanish city of Barcelona in implementing its own IoT-driven services to improve the quality of life of its people through measures that promote an eco-friendly, sustainable environment. The potential benefits as well as the challenges associated with IoT for cities are discussed. Much of the 'big data' that are continuously generated by IoT sensors, devices, systems and services are geo-tagged or geo-located. The importance of having robust, intelligent geospatial analytics systems in place to process and make sense of such data in real time cannot therefore be overestimated. The authors argue that IoT-powered smart cities stand better chances of becoming healthier cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities Network and associated national networks have hundreds of member cities around the world that could benefit from, and harness the power of, IoT to improve the health and well-being of their local populations.

  20. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  1. The Barcelona agreement: a manifesto towards the spearfishing of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Sbragaglia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spearfishing Association of Barcelona (APS recently celebrated its 70th anniversary and decided to write a manifesto called: “The Barcelona Agreement: A Manifesto Towards the Spearfishing of the Future”. The Manifesto was discussed and approved during a round table at the Maritime Museum of Barcelona on 27 February 2016, in which delegates of several stakeholders took part. The Agreement is a revision of the most important points that the authors consider to be fundamental for a sustainable development of spearfishing in the future. The authors expect that this manifesto will be a starting point for a constructive discussion to increase knowledge, efficient practice and effective management of spearfishing.

  2. The (recreation of postmodern Spanish cities. The role of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza Medina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of full incorporation into the European Union and the effects of globalisationcontributed to the modification of social structures in Spain. The accelerated rise inimmigration has been decisive in creating the post-modern Spanish city. The cities of thetwenty-first century are more complex, but also more cosmopolitan, multi-cultural, rich anddynamic.

  3. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  4. Tourism Planning and Tourismphobia: An Analysis of the Strategic Tourism Plan of Barcelona 2010-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of tourism has brought new challenges to destinations; how to plan themselves to avoid overtourism and this new form of intolerance, the so-called tourismphobia. In order to address the negative impacts of tourism and enhance the positive ones Barcelona has developed and implemented a strategic tourism plan. This paper seeks to understand how Barcelona addressed the tourismphobia problematic through planning: how it was done and which results were achieved in the end. This research reveals a clear gap between the planner’s intention and the plan’s implementation.

  5. Air quality in schools and children's exposure to particulate pollution in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Lara, Ioar

    2015-01-01

    L'exposició als contaminants atmosfèrics s'ha relacionat amb efectes negatius a la salut i els infants constitueixen un subgrup de la població particularment vulnerable. Es determinà la qualitat de l'aire a l'interior i exterior de 39 escoles de Barcelona i Sant Cugat del Vallès. El mateixos contaminants mesurats a les escoles també es monitoritzaren a una estació de fons urbà a Barcelona (UB-PR). Les concentracions de carboni negre equivalent (EBC), NO2 i partícules ultrafines (UFP) mostrare...

  6. La Cultura mediterránea en los Juegos Olímpicos de Barcelona'92

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas Spà, Miquel de,

    1993-01-01

    En este artículo publicado en la revista INCOM, se describe y analiza la presencia de elementos mediterráneos en las ceremonias de los Juegos Olímpicos de Barcelona'92. Dans cet article publié dans la revue INCOM, il est décrit et analyse la présence d'éléments méditerranéens dans les cérémonies des Jeux Olympiques de Barcelona'92.

  7. Ildefonso Cerdà and the development of gas in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Huguet, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo explica las hasta ahora escasamente conocidas actuaciones del Ingeniero de Caminos Ildefonso Cerdà en la instalación del gas en Barcelona. Desde su puesto como concejal primero y como síndico más tarde en el ayuntamiento de Barcelona y por su amistad con el promotor francés Charles Lebon, Cerdà tuvo oportunidad de marcar algunas políticas administrativas tendentes a evitar el monopolio sobre un proceso unitario de producción, distribución y consumo de un artículo, el gas, que p...

  8. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  9. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  10. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  11. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  12. Cosas de mujeres: familias monoparentales dominicanas en Barcelona y Nueva York Women’s issues: Dominican single-parent families in Barcelona and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Alcalde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios a escala internacional y española avalan en la actualidad el riesgo de pobreza que presentan los hogares monoparentales encabezados por mujeres en las sociedades contemporáneas desarrolladas. Este artículo recoge  algunos de los principales resultados de sendas investigaciones llevadas a cabo en las ciudades de Barcelona y Nueva York sobre la incidencia de estas formas de hogar entre las mujeres inmigrantes, focalizando el análisis en las mujeres dominicanas.Several international and Spanish studies have shown that one-parent families are at considerable risk of poverty in contemporary and developed societies, particularly when the mother is the head, which is usually the case. This paper  provides the main results of some research carried out in Barcelona and New York about one-parent families and immigrant women, with particular emphasis on Dominican women.

  13. International Conference on Marine Corrosion and Fouling (5th), held 19-23 May 1980, Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    aguas de puertos i talianos." C.A. Viviani and L.H. Disalvo ( Chile ) :,"Biofouling in a north-central Chilean coastal bay." A.F.A. Ghobashy and A.K. Hassan...34Estudio del mechanismo de formaci6n de incrustationes en enfriadores por el uso de agua de mer." S.M. Coelho de Souza Medeiros Bastos and L.R...naval con cubierta de pinturas en agua de mar sintetica." T. Skoulikidis and P. Vassiliou (Greece): "Kinetic data on the leaching of 152?- antifouling

  14. Food consumption frequency and excess body weight in adolescents in the context of financial crisis in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arechavala

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents.

  15. Quantitative and qualitative analysis for the study of Middle Paleolithic retouched artifacts: Unit III of Teixoneres cave (Barcelona, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, M.G.; Bustos-Pérez, G.; Rivals, F.; Blasco, R.; Rosell, J.

    2017-01-01

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.02.021 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352409X16305351 Filiació URV: SI Retouched artifacts constitute an important part of Paleolithic lithic assemblages. Evaluating what constraints shaped morphological variability can provide data about mobility, territorial management, and even about different adaptive strategies. This study attempts to understand what factors conditioned the intensity of retouch and the morphological variability...

  16. Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine Held in Barcelona, Spain, 25–26th September 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Castell; Sandra Saldaña-Ruíz; Maria José Rodríguez-Lagunas; Àngels Franch; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of, and disseminate the latest findings on the healthy properties of cocoa and chocolate, the International Society of Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine (ISCHOM) was founded in 2010 in Florence (http://ischom.com/ischom/). This Society aims to gather information and become a forum of discussion and debate on cocoa and chocolate, not only among researchers from around the world, but also to introduce the science involved and the latest findings to the public...

  17. Knowledge, aptitudes, and preferences in implant dentistry teaching/training among undergraduate dental students at the University of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral implant rehabilitation should be considered a treatment option for any edentulous patient and Implant Dentistry is currently a discipline taught in the undergraduate formation. The level of knowledge acquired and how the students perceive the quality of training in Implant Dentistry could assess to know if it is necessary to improve the syllabus. Material and Methods A questionnaire was developed with 11 questions: Basic knowledge (7); Perception of training received (2); Ways in which students would receive training (2). To be responded anonymously and voluntarily for undergraduates students in the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Barcelona, Spain). Results One hundred and seven students, 76 third year (Group A) and 31 fourth year (Group B) answered the questionnaire. In Group A, 98.68% of students and in Group B 93.54% believed they were poorly informed; 100% of both groups would prefer to receive more training as part of the degree or as postgraduate training through modular courses imparted by experts (A: 71,05%, B: 70,96%) Training through postgraduate programs or training given by private businesses were the least desirable options (A: 42%, B: 64.51%). Questions about basic knowledge acquired received varying responses, which might indicate a certain level of confusion in this area. Conclusions The undergraduate syllabus must be revised to include sufficient content and training to allow the student to indicate implant-based treatments based on evidence. Students would prefer training to be included in the undergraduate syllabus. Key words:Dental implants, dental students, dental education, dental syllabus, implant dentistry. PMID:28578375

  18. Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic pollutants in the air particles of subway stations in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Prats, Raimon M; Reche, Cristina; Minguillón, MariCruz; Querol, Xavier; Grimalt, Joan O; Moreno, Teresa

    2018-06-09

    Underground subways transport large numbers of citizens in big cities, which must breathe air with limited ventilation. These atmospheric conditions may enhance the concentration of air pollutants from both outdoor and indoor air. The influence of ventilation conditions and maintenance activities on the concentrations of air pollutants have been studied. Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in indoor air was sampled in ten platforms of nine subway stations of the metropolitan area of Barcelona in 2015 and 2016. These particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organic tracer compounds. The concentrations of PAH were in the range of the street air levels with higher PAH values in the colder period. No influence of nighttime maintenance activities was observed on the platform air quality during daytime. Source apportionment analysis using the concentrations of hopanes, nicotine and levoglucosan as molecular tracer compounds showed that 75% of the detected PAH at the platforms have an outdoor PM origin. The modern subway stations, with advanced ventilation and platform screen doors that separate the subway system from the platform, showed lowest PAH and PM concentrations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  20. Latent variables definition for a new mobility model in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Puignau, Sara; Di Ciommo, Floridea; Saurí, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In many European cities, mobility patterns are changing mainly due to advances in information and communications technology. Besides from this, people living in urban areas have now more transport mode alternatives to travel and the ownership of a vehicle is losing relevance to the modern world. In addition, the new generations value the time spent in the trip in a different way and they take advantage of travel time by means of connectivity (i.e. multitasking). As a re...

  1. [Health services' utilization patterns in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen; Salvador, Xavier; Faixedas, M Teresa; Gallo, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care. A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care. Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables. The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiretroviral treatment switch strategies for lowering the costs of antiretroviral therapy in subjects with suppressed HIV-1 viremia in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llibre JM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Josep M Llibre,1,2 Gloria Cardona,3 José R Santos,2 Angels Andreu,3 Josep O Estrada,4 Jordi Ara,4 Xavier Bonafont,3 Bonaventura Clotet1,21HIV Unit, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Lluita contra la SIDA Foundation, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hospital Management, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, SpainBackground: The current economic recession in European countries has forced governments to design emergency measures to reduce spending on drugs, including antiretroviral therapy (ART. Switching antiretroviral drugs for others that have the same efficacy and safety profile at a lower cost (cost-reduction measures, CRM could prove to be a valid means of generating savings.Methods: Descriptive study of prospective consensus-based CRM undertaken in 2011 in a Catalonian hospital HIV unit among patients with prolonged plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL.Results: During the study period, we made 673 switches (87.5% more than the previous year, of which 378 (56.2% were CRM (16% of all patients treated, leading to a savings of €87,410/month. Switching tenofovir/emtricitabine for abacavir/lamivudine was the most common CRM (129, 31.3%, followed by simplification to boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (bPImono, 102, 26%. The CRM that generated the greatest saving were switching to bPImono (38%, withdrawal or replacement of raltegravir (24%, switching tenofovir/emtricitabine for abacavir/lamivudine (13%, and switching to nevirapine (5%. Cost savings with CRM were slightly higher than those achieved with medication paid for by clinical trial sponsors (€80,333/month or through discount arrangements (€76,389/month.Conclusion: Proactively switching antiretroviral therapy in selected treated patients with sustained virological suppression can generate significant cost savings in pharmacy spending in

  3. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  4. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and Gonzalez et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  5. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Vivanco, M.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and González et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  6. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and Gonzalez et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  7. Equine viral arteritis in breeding and sport horses in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Lopez, Fatima; Newton, Richard; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ana; Ireland, Joanne; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Moreno, Miguel A; Fores, Paloma

    2017-12-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA) may have a high economic impact on breeding stud farms due to the occurrence of EVA-associated abortion outbreaks and the ability of the virus to persist in carrier stallions. While the consequences of EVA in premises with sport horses are usually less severe, the first confirmed outbreak of EVA in Spain occurred in a riding club in Barcelona, but no data on the seroprevalence of EVA in sport horses have been reported in Spain. Given the importance of both Spanish Purebred (SP) breeding horses and sport horses for Spain's equine industry, the aim of this study was to determine and compare the seroprevalence of EVA in these two horse populations in central Spain. Serum samples from 155 SP breeding horses residing in 16 stud farms and 105 sport horses of different breeds housed in 12 riding clubs, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercial EVA antibody ELISA test with a 100% sensitivity, and confirmed by seroneutralisation (SN) test. EVA seroprevalence in SP breeding horses was higher 21.1% (95% CI 15.3-26.8%) than that in sport horses (6.7%, 95% CI 1.89-11.45%). However, the primary use (breeding vs. sport) was not significantly associated with seropositivity to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV), suggesting that different management factors do not affect EVA circulation in these two horse populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Policy priority objectives: comparative assessment in four European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Ramos, A.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainability must be an urban issue. Cities should be managed so as to minimize their impacts on environment, but providing an appropriate framework for economic and social development. However, European cities are facing some trends that threaten sustainable development. The aim of the EC research project INSIGHT-7FP (2013/16) is to develop appropriate management tools that can help to achieve sustainability in the context of European cities. In the project, a set of policy objectives have been designed for the management of urban areas, in order to face the main threats existing over cities. The paper presents a methodology based on indicators for analysing the progress towards these ten policy objectives in the four EU cities participating in the project: London (12.3 mill. inhab.), Madrid (6.4 mill. inhab.), Barcelona (5.4 mill. inhab.) and Rotterdam (1.4 mill. inhab.). All the indicators used in the analysis have been validated by ten policy makers of European cities. These policy makers participated on the stakeholders consultation carried out in the project, where the importance of the policy objectives proposed was also assessed. The paper concludes determining the policy priority objectives in each city, in order to contain the main threats existing over them: London should especially address the threats of social exclusion and transport inefficiency; Madrid the threats of economic decline and urban sprawl; Barcelona the economic decline and Rotterdam the contribution to climate change and the urban sprawl. Finally, the role played by the land use and transport system in these policy objectives is analysed. To this end, the assessment allows for the comparability of the results in a horizontal manner, in the basis of common indicators. Nearly half of these indicators are related to the land use and transport system of the cities. (Author)

  9. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Minguillon, Maria; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  10. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minguillón, M.C.; Cirach, M.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Tsai, M.; Hoogh, K. de; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I.M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  11. Autoridad e imagen de la epidemia. La fiebre amarillean la Barcelona del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ortiz García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio es acercarse al contexto epidémico de Barcelona a lo largo del siglo XIX. De forma concreta, la investigación se centra en la fiebre amarilla sufrida en los años 1821 y 1870. El amplio abanico de referencias propone una mirada interdisciplinar sobre la medicina y las enfermedades en su marco histórico, artístico, social y religioso. ¿Qué reacción tuvieron los poderes municipales?, ¿Qué tipologías artísticas se desarrollaron durante y tras la infección deletérea en Barcelona? The aim of this study is an approach to the epidemic background in Barcelona during the XIX century. Specifically, the research is focus on the yellow fever that was suffered en 1821 and 1870. e large spectrum of references proposes an interdisciplinary point of view about medicine and illnesses in an historic, artistic, social and religious context. How was the official reaction of the municipal powers? What kind of artistic productions were made during and after de epidemic infection in Barcelona?

  12. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasarín M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  13. Assessing Public Leadership Styles for Innovation: A Comparison of Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Ricard (Lykke Margot); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.M. Lewis (Jenny M.); T. Ysa (Tamyko)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores which leadership qualities public managers regard as important for public innovation. It is based on a survey of 365 senior public managers in Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona. Five perspectives on leadership were identified and tested using a number of items.

  14. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  15. Teaching and Learning in the Virtual Campus: The Case of the University of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juana M. Sancho; Sanchez, Joan-Anton

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project aimed at analysing the teaching and learning models explicit and implicit in the different uses of e-learning platforms. From qualitative analysis of the interview with the coordinator of the Virtual Campus of the University of Barcelona (VC-UB) and the focus group with the 8 lecturers, emerged both the…

  16. The irruption of AirBNB and its effects on hotels' profitability: An analysis of Barcelona's hotel sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the existence of a relationship between the presence of nearby substitute products, mainly Airbnb flats or rooms, and the effect on the revenue and profitability of hotels. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on the analysis of financial information provided in the annual reports of a sample consisting of 43 hotels (11.78% of the population. As an explanatory variable for profitability, we have considered the presence of apartments listed in Airbnb that are no farther than one kilometer from each hotel. Considering that most of the variables used do not follow a normal distribution, the existence of a relationship between profitability and the explanatory variables has been tested using non-parametric tests, namely, the Spearman correlation coefficient and Kruskall-Wallis test. Findings: We found a positive correlation between presence of Airbnb apartments and return on equity. This fact can be explained by considering the presence of Airbnb apartments as a variable that measures the attractiveness of the location from a tourist’s point of view. Hotels located near the city center or main tourist areas of the city have a higher level of profitability. We also found no evidence of any relationship between profitability and star category; 4- and 3-star hotels have experienced, on average, a lower drop in revenues between 2008 and 2013 and they also obtained a higher average level of profitability in 2013 as compared to the upper segment of 5-star hotels. Research limitations/implications: This research has been conducted in the city of Barcelona. Future research using the same methodology should be applied to other cities with an important hospitality sector to reinforce our findings. The main implications of this research refer to the importance of location as a key strategic variable in hospitality, and to the change in the system customers use to evaluate the quality of a

  17. Municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality in Spain: Possible role of mining and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolar-Pujolar Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain shows the highest bladder cancer incidence rates in men among European countries. The most important risk factors are tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to a range of different chemical substances, such as aromatic amines. Methods This paper describes the municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality and attempts to "adjust" this spatial pattern for the prevalence of smokers, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè, with relative risk of lung cancer mortality as a surrogate. Results It has been possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk for bladder cancer adjusted for lung cancer mortality, on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 towns. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Towns that registered the highest relative risks for both sexes were mostly located in the Provinces of Cadiz, Seville, Huelva, Barcelona and Almería. The highest-risk area in Barcelona Province corresponded to very specific municipal areas in the Bages district, e.g., Suría, Sallent, Balsareny, Manresa and Cardona. Conclusion Mining/industrial pollution and the risk entailed in certain occupational exposures could in part be dictating the pattern of municipal bladder cancer mortality in Spain. Population exposure to arsenic is a matter that calls for attention. It would be of great interest if the relationship between the chemical quality of drinking water and the frequency of bladder cancer could be studied.

  18. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  19. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  20. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  1. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  2. Moving ethnography to explore children and youngsters trajectories in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of a mobile methodology to a research focused on adoption. Accompanying the participants in their routines we shared public spaces where, due to social constructions, they are taken by “immigrants” because of their physical features. Walking with them also allowed me to gain access to their perception of the city and the way they live in. This methodology is based on other ‘mobile methodologies’, which are briefly described in this article with an especial emphasis on French literature. As a result, we obtain a mobile ethnography that introduces Information and Communication Technologies [ICTs]; works from the horizontality; values the silence; collects urban emergencies and fate in order to have access to the information that is banned to direct and even indirect questions.

  3. Urban Seismology: on the origin of earth vibrations within a city

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Romero, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Urban seismology has become an active research field in the recent years, both with seismological objectives, as obtaining better microzonation maps in highly populated areas, and with engineering objectives, as the monitoring of traffic or the surveying of historical buildings. We analyze here the seismic records obtained by a broad-band seismic station installed in the ICTJA-CSIC institute, located near the center of Barcelona city. Although this station was installed to introdu...

  4. Dating of the Basal Aurignacian Sandwich at Abric Romanı́ (Catalunya, Spain) by Radiocarbon and Uranium-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Ludwig, Kenneth R.; Garcia, Jose Francisco; Carbonell, E.; Vaquero, Manola; Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Abric Romani{dotless}??, a rock shelter located near Barcelona, Spain, contains a charcoal-bearing basal Aurignacian occupation level sandwiched between beds of moss-generated carbonate. The Aurignacian culture is the oldest artefact industry in Europe with which anatomically modern human remains have been associated. Radiocarbon analysis of charcoal fragments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates the basal Aurignacian to about 37 ?? 2 ka bp. U-series analyses by alpha spectrometry (AS) and mass spectrometry (MS) date the enclosing carbonate to 43 ?? 1 ka bp. These results confirm the great antiquity of the Aurignacian in northern Spain and support the similar AMS dates from El Castillo and l'Arbreda caves. They also show that radiocarbon dates are significantly younger than U-series at 40 ka bp, as predicted by theory. ?? 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  6. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  7. Muusikamaailm : Sibeliuse preemia laureaat on Ligeti. Uusooperid Turus, Milanos, Barcelonas. Aasta dirigent on Daniel Barenboim / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Wihuri fondi Sibeliuse preemia sai G. Ligeti. Uusooperitest Turu toomkirikus, Milano La Scala ja Barcelona Gran Teatre del Liceu laval. D. Barenboim pälvis heliplaadipreemia Echo Klassik koos aasta dirigendi 2000 tiitliga

  8. Solar Energy as a Form Giver for Future Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Curreli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy is considered as a main influence on urban configurations. However, there is a difficulty on translating the city models based on theoretical renewable energy concepts into practical applications. This study considers the possibility of understanding this future model as a transformation of the existing urban centres. With this objective, a methodology to intervene in existing cities based on the study of solar access is developed. Therefore, an analysis of solar potential in relation with urban morphology is carried on through a simulation software in l’Eixample, a neighbourhood of Barcelona. The distribution of the sun factor in the different areas of the building blocks envelope displays possible morphological modifications that would facilitate solar energy collection. Consequently, the analytical method presented could be applied to regulate urban interventions with the aim of obtaining more solar energy based cities.

  9. Conclusions of the presidency. European council of Barcelona, March 15 and 16 2002; Conclusions de la presidence. Conseil europeen de Barcelone 15 et 16 mars 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document summarizes the conclusions of the European Council held in Barcelona (Spain) on March 15 and 16, 2002. Among the priority actions listed by the council figure the integration of energy, transportation and communication networks at the European scale. In particular, the council commits the Parliament and itself to start the final phase of opening of gas and electricity markets: free choice of a supplier, obligation of public utility, security of supplies, separation between transmission and distribution and between production and supply, non-discriminatory access of consumers and suppliers to networks with transparent tariffs, establishment of a regulatory agency in each member state, agreement for a tariffing system for the international electricity trades etc.. Concerning the sustainable development strategy of the European union, the council is pressing the member states for the completion of the national procedures of ratification of the Kyoto protocol. However, new measures need to be taken to develop technologies respectful for the environment, in particular in the domain of energy and transports. (J.S.)

  10. The PIERDUB project: International Project on Education and Research in Donation at University of Barcelona: training university students about donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Paredes, D; Ballesté, C; Menjívar, A

    2010-01-01

    Donation and transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option when organ failure or tissue replacements are needed to save or improve the quality of life. However, in most medical schools there is no specific training for it, thus disregarding the key role of university students for the future success of the process. Knowledge diffusion about the donation procedure to clarify doubts and stimulate positive attitudes toward donation. Training university students in the donation and transplantation process. Research about the previous donation knowledge and the impact in donation indexes. Three different phases have been designed: (1) Training the University of Barcelona Health Sciences School students; (2) Training the Health Sciences School students in other faculties of Catalonia, Spain, and International; and (3) research. Since 2005, we have offered yearly an Optional Credits Course to medical students with duration of 45 hours, and two Donation days opened to health sciences students. Since 2007, promotional campaigns have been carried out in medicine and other health sciences faculties. Until now, 818 answered surveys have been collected to evaluate previous knowledge among university students. Training medical and other health sciences students in the donation process will improve quality of medical education and develop a trainer role for future professionals to help improve donation rates.

  11. Recerca i ensenyament agronòmic a la Catalunya del vuit-cents : la granja experimental de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Cartañà i Pinén, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Barcelona’s Experimental Farm was the agronomic center of reference of Barcelona’s regions between 1853 and 1911. In addition to its educational function, it was an experimental center where many of the new features that agronomic science was developing in Europe were tested, emphasizing among others the studies on the performance of fodders, cereals, tobacco, beet and other vegetables, as well as the diffusion of new technologies. It was one of the first state institutions ...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  14. Immigration Policy of Spain in the Context of Problems of Ceuta and Melilla in the 90-ies of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Salamov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the migration policy of Spain in the context of immigration processes from Morocco through the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which are the territory of the European Union. The problem of immigration to the cities is one of the most serious in the relationship between the two countries.

  15. Study of the radioactive contents in Barcelona's water supply during 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Valles, I.

    1988-01-01

    Throughout 1986 several determinations were carried out of the contents in α and β radioactivity transmitters of different samples of the Barcelona water supply. It could be verified that beta radioactivity was ten times higher in the waters collected in the basin of Llobregat river than water from Ter river. Both rivers are the main sources of Barcelona supply. The reason for this unbalanced result is the high potassic content of the first river, coming from the mining exploitation of the basin. On the other hand, the contamination that could be measured in May, due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, showed that the supply system from Llobregat river was more sensitive to the incorporation of contaminants carried down by the rain, whereas in the case of Ter river, owing to the presence of impounding regulation, a higher retention time of these waters was obtained. (author)

  16. The impact of harm reduction programs and police interventions on the number of syringes collected from public spaces. A time series analysis in Barcelona, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, A; Villalbí, J R; Bosque-Prous, M; Parés-Badell, O; Mari-Dell'Olmo, M; Brugal, M T

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the effect of opening two services for people who use drugs and three police interventions on the number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces in Barcelona between 2004 and 2014. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis of the monthly number of syringes collected from public spaces during this period. The dependent variable was the number of syringes collected per month. The main independent variables were month and five dummy variables (the opening of two facilities with safe consumption rooms, and three police interventions). To examine which interventions affected the number of syringes collected, we performed an interrupted time-series analysis using a quasi-Poisson regression model, obtaining relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The number of syringes collected per month in Barcelona decreased from 13,800 in 2004 to 1655 in 2014 after several interventions. For example, following the closure of an open drug scene in District A of the city, we observed a decreasing trend in the number of syringes collected [RR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95)], but an increasing trend in the remaining districts [RR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.05-1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99-1.18) for districts B and C, respectively]. Following the opening of a harm reduction facility in District C, we observed an initial increase in the number collected in this district [RR=2.72 (95% CI: 1.57-4.71)] and stabilization of the trend thereafter [RR=0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.03)]. The overall number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces has decreased consistently in parallel with a combination of police interventions and the opening of harm reduction facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  18. MANCHESTER UNITED, INTERNAZIONALE MILANO AND FC BARCELONA – WHAT´S DIFFERENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Sarmento; M. Teresa Anguera; Jorge Campaniço; Rui Resende; José Leitão

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although football is considered a universal language, there are particularities that characterize the way it is practiced in several countries. Overall, the style of English football is known as “Kick and Rush”, the Italian as “Catenaccio”, and the Spanish as “Fúria Española”. This study aims to understand which aspects in the characterization of playing styles of the different teams (Manchester United, Internazionale Milano and Barcelona) are the most important for coaches. Met...

  19. La base de dades i servei de sumaris a la Biblioteca de la Universitat de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Lluïsa

    1999-01-01

    Es presenta el servei de sumaris de la Biblioteca de la Universitat de Barcelona. Els usuaris del servei poden consultar, a través de la web de la biblioteca, els sumaris de les revistes subscrites i rebre els que desitgin per correu electrònic. El servei permet racionalitzar la inversió en subscripcions i mantenir l'usuari puntualment informat.

  20. El comercio de los inmigrantes en el centro histórico de Barcelona en 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Serra del Pozo, Pau

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade the increasing number of foreign immigrants in Catalonia has been especially apparent in the Ciutat Vella district of Barcelona, where immigrants’ shops have multiplied. The Ciutat Vella immigrant shops have several features such as small size, a long working day and the presence of employed relatives together with other employees of the same origin as that of the employer. The dominant typologies of the shops are: groceries, tele shops, money transfer (for remittances), ba...

  1. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  2. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  3. Repositioning of Barcelona's Image in the Light of a Redefinition of the Urban Tourism Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Francesc Valls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de desarrollo urbanístico-turístico de Barcelona en los últimos quince años ha obtenido un éxito extraordinario en cuanto a número de visitantes, pernoctaciones, llegadas de pasajeros de cruceros, incremento de camas hoteleras y visitas a monumentos de pago. De este modo, la ciudad se ha convertido en una de las ciudades más visitadas de Europa y de mayor crecimiento del número de turistas. Pero, este crecimiento cuantitativo ha generado masificación turística, concentración en determinados barrios, enfrentamiento por el uso del espacio urbano entre turistas y residentes, además de generar algunas deficiencias infraestructurales como la conectividad y la intermodalidad. Estos problemas amenazan la posición competitiva de Barcelona. Este artículo revisa la competitividad entre las ciudades, comparando Barcelona con otras diez ciudades europeas. A partir de un análisis cualitativo a los players internos y externos y de un Estudio Delphi con players externos, se exploran las correcciones que hay que introducir en el modelo y los vectores del repo- sicionamiento. Esta nueva posición refuerza la competitividad en base a tres objetivos: la sostenibilidad del modelo, la gestión integral de la metrópolis turística y su gobernanza, y la orientación al cliente.

  4. Bailando la diferencia: identidades culturales y música salsa en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Llano Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el baile de la salsa hay muchos estilos. En Barcelona, el estilo cubano fue el primero en difundirse a inicios de 1990. Sin embargo, el estilo Los Ángeles comenzó a proliferar desde comienzos de 2000, a la vez que empezó a replicarse el modelo de los congresos de salsa a nivel mundial. La internacionalización del baile de la salsa coincidió con el boom de la inmigración latinoamericana en España, por lo que la emergencia de las primeras escuelas y compañías de baile de salsa dirigidas al público local, a principios del nuevo siglo, ocurrió paralelamente a la apertura de nuevas discotecas de salsa, merengue y bachata dirigidas a los residentes latinoamericanos. Dada la programación de salsa, realizada por las discotecas y salas de baile, sería posible dar por hecho que los latinoamericanos residentes en Barcelona y los autóctonos convergen en estos espacios, sin embargo, la realidad es otra. Considerando el concepto kinetopia, en este artículo aportamos un análisis sobre la oposición de “baile de escuela” y “baile callejero”, que explicaría la segmentación de los espacios de baile de la salsa en Barcelona, más allá de las diferencias culturales

  5. About One Memorable Date in the History of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1714 the Catalans, being in the camp of the losers in the War of the Spanish Succession, finally lost any hope to gain independence. 300 years later, nationalists, who are in power now in Catalonia, want to take advantage of that memorable date by organizing a regional referendum in order to choose their own path of development. In the aggravating conflict of interests between Madrid and Barcelona both parties use not only political and propaganda measures, but also financial leverages of influence. The ethnonational issue in the multiethnic Spain is far from being solved, because for centuries the process of forming a unified Spanish state was characterized by political union of several genetically related (except Basque ethnic communities, although with significant socio-cultural and linguistic differences among them. It is not coincidental that regional identity in Spain is still extremely strong, while the interethnic consolidation of the Spanish nation can be characterized as incomplete, which can be seen, particularly, in the intensification in recent decades of radical nationalist and separatist sentiments in Catalonia, the Basque Country and some other autonomies. Among reasons which escalated confrontation between supporters and opponents of Catalonian independence, we should mention the global financial crisis that hit the regions of Spain as well as the overall national economy. The separatists have many barriers on their way, starting from the constitutional provisions proclaiming Spain a united and indivisible state which impede to carry out regional plebiscites, and ending by an ambiguous attitude towards the hypothetical independence of Catalonia by both the residents of the region and in other parts of the country. It is important to keep in mind that in today's world the possibility of breaking large multiethnic state into ethnically constituting elements is more possible than 40-50 years ago. Disintegration of Yugoslavia and

  6. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  8. Characteristics of wild boar (Sus scrofa habituation to urban areas in the Collserola Natural Park (Barcelona and comparison with other locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel growth of urban areas and wild boar populations in recent years has increased the presence of this species around cities and in suburban areas, often leading to conflict with local people. In the Collserola Natural Park, situated within the metropolitan area of Barcelona, wild boar have become habituated to humans and urban settings because of direct feeding by local residents. Their attraction to these areas due to an abundance of anthropogenic food sources is especially strong during the warmer summer season when foraging conditions are poorer in their natural woodland habitat; the number of captures of habituated wild boar in peri–urban areas is significantly correlated with mean monthly temperatures. Habituated boar are primarily matriarchal groups, whereas adult and sub–adult (>1 year males are significantly less represented than in non–habituated boars. In Collserola, habituated sub–adult and adult females are significantly heavier than their non–habituated counterparts and these weight differences increase with age; in the > 3 year–old age class they may be 35% heavier. Conflicts generated by the presence of wild boar in peri–urban areas are complex, and the responses by authorities are similarly diverse and often exacerbated by ambivalent public attitudes, both towards wild boar presence and applied mitigation measures. By 2010, at least 44 cities in 15 countries had reported problems of some kind relating to the presence of wild boar or feral pigs.

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  11. Urban NH3 levels and sources in six major Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M Aranzazu; López-Mahía, Purificación; Blanco-Heras, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Mantilla, Enrique; Tang, Y Sim; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  13. Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havranek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Mendez, Gara Villalba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  14. Evolución de los niveles de inmisión de contaminación atmosférica en una ciudad industrial (Alcoy desde 1989 a 2000 Evolution of the emission levels of atmospheric pollution in an industrial city (Alcoy, Spain from 1989 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carratalá Giménez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la evolución de los niveles de contaminantes atmosféricos medidos en la ciudad de Alcoy en las estaciones de la red manual (SO2 y Humos negros desde el año 1989 al año 2000 y de las estaciones de la red automática (SO2, NO2 y partículas en suspensión totales desde el año 1995 al año 2000. El análisis de las series de datos permiten detectar el paralelismo de los dos sistemas de medida y la mejora de la calidad del aire, acusado descenso de los niveles de SO2 y humos negros, registrada por el cambio de combustible a gas natural a partir de 1997. Así mismo, el análisis de los patrones de evolución diaria en las series de las estaciones automáticas junto con las características topográficas permiten interpretar las variaciones de las diferencias espaciales encontradas.This work presents the evolution of the levels of atmospheric contaminants measured in the city of Alcoy (Spain in the stations of the manual network (SO2 and Black smokes from the year 1989 till 2000; as well as in the stations of the automatic network (SO2, NO2 and suspended particles between the years 1995 and 2000. The analysis of these data series allow to detect the parallel existing between the two measuring systems and the improvement of the air quality: a significant decrease in the levels of SO2 and Black smokes coinciding with the change from Diesel to natural gas in the heating systems of the region in 1997. At the same time, the analysis of the patterns of daily evolution in the series obtained in the automatic network, together with the topographic characteristics, has allowed to interpret the spatial variations found.

  15. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  16. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Uranium-series dating of the Mousterian occupation at Abric Romani, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, J L; Julia, R; Mora, R

    1988-03-03

    The precise evolutionary position of the Neanderthal people continues to be a major uncertainty in human evolution. Their origin and their relationship to anatomically modern people are unclear and are clouded by poor chronology. Lithic artefacts of the Mousterian type, found throughout Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, are believed to be the tool kit of the Neanderthals, but dates within Mousterian-bearing deposits are extremely rare. We report here on 20 high-quality uranium-series dates from Mousterian beds at Abric Romani, a rock shelter near Barcelona, Spain. The dates range from 39 to 60 kyr before present in an orderly stratigraphic succession and provide precise chronological control on an important Mousterian archaeological site.

  19. CHESS BOOKS IN SPAIN (1900-1939: A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHIC DIRECTORY AND A BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Brasó Rius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a description and analysis of chess books in Spain in the period 1900 to 1939. The tools used have been the main database of the Spanish libraries, along with bibliographical indexes of the subject matter. This has been contextualized with secondary sources. This allows us to locate the works analyzed in the social context of the time. Subsequently, a bibliometric statistical analysis used to assess and interpret issues of authorship, place of publication, publishers, years of increased circulation of works or controlling specific contents of the contributions. The results are useful to check that Barcelona and Madrid topped the printing of books. Also it manifests high Spanish and foreign production around the year 30. Other data is remarkable the informative function that had the most publications.

  20. Information Technology, Human Resources Management Systems and Firm Performance: An Empirical Analysis from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ficapal-Cusí

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper uses survey data on 1.518 Catalan firms (in Spain, with capital in Barcelona to examine the relationship between IT use, innovative human resources management systems (IHRMS and firm’s performance. Using factor and cluster analysis, we find that only one-third of Catalan firms use IHRMS. Using association analysis we find that firms that adopt IHMRS are more internationalised; show grater ability to adapt to the change environment, to innovate and to collaborate; focuses product/service differentiation strategy enhancing quality; apply a greater degree of new forms of work organization; use IT more intensively; and invest more in training their employees Using regression analysis, we find that features which are structural, technological, strategic, organisational and result-related explain the adoption of IHRMS.

  1. The visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno (Jaen, Spain): A study with IBA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.; Enguita, O.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Calusi, S.; Migliori, A.; Montero, I.

    2006-01-01

    The visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno (Jaen, Spain) was found by chance in the year 1926 buried in an olive grove. The finding consisted of some hundreds fragments of gold objects and gems coming from several votive crowns and crosses, some of them belonging to an unidentified visigothic king. The treasure may belong chronologically to the same period as the Guarrazar treasure or, possibly, to a somewhat later time, but the pieces are fragmented and of less technological workmanship than the latter. This is the reason why the Torredonjimeno treasure has not attracted as much attention from archeologists and art historians as that from Guarrazar. On the occasion of an exhibition showing together all the objects of the treasure, it is normally kept in three different museums in Barcelona, Cordoba and Madrid, a number of pieces were analyzed, using PIXE, PIGE and RBS, at the external microbeam facility installed at the Center for Micro-Analysis of Materials

  2. Reforma fiscal con criterios ambientales: cómo puede estimular la creación de empleo / How Green Fiscal reform in Spain Could Stimulate Job Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2014-01-01

    burden. The document notes that Spain is the country of the European Union (EU) where environmental taxation has a lower percentage of relationship between environmental taxes and GDP: 1.6% compared to the EU average of 2.4%. A change in the tax distribution would mean that taxes related to energy...... of climate change, renewable energy and move towards a low carbon economy efficiency”. Español: Hay margen para incrementar la fiscalidad ambiental en el Estado español, según un estudio promovido por el IEB Un informe sobre fiscalidad ambiental encargado por el Instituto de Economía de Barcelona (IEB...

  3. Martirologio, etnología y espectáculo: la Exposición Misional Española de Barcelona (1929-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Gómez, Luis Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available After the successful Vatican Universal Missionary Exhibition of 1925, the Catholic Church gathered an euphoric exhibitionary-missionary momentum that reached a new climax in Spain a few years later. As part of the International Exhibition of Barcelona of 1929-1930, a Missionary Exhibition held there attracted all the missionary orders and congregations working in the country. Although this exhibition had strong martiriologic overtones, the majority of the objects then presented —including many sculptures of native types— were of ethnographic interest. Supplementary to the exhibition, an extensive repertoire of materially significant and symbolically charged events was also offered: days of study, conferences, civil and religious processions, mass eucharists, etc. The author analyzes these events and ponders on the use made by the religious orders of both ethnographic materials and ethnological knowledge

    Tras el éxito cosechado por la Exposición Universal Misionera celebrada en el Vaticano en 1925, la Iglesia católica vive una etapa de euforia expositivo-misional que alcanza su segundo momento de gloria en España, en 1929-1930. Formando parte de la Exposición Internacional de Barcelona se organiza entonces una exposición misional en la que participan todas las órdenes y congregaciones misioneras presentes en España. Aunque la exhibición tiene una marcada orientación martiriológica, la inmensa mayoría de los objetos presentados pertenece al ámbito de la etnografía, a los que se suman además numerosas esculturas de tipos nativos. Como complemento de la exposición se organiza un amplio repertorio de actos de enorme interés material y sobre todo simbólico: jornadas de estudio, congresos, cabalgatas, misas multitudinarias, etc. En el texto se analizan todos estos eventos y se valora el uso que las órdenes religiosas hacen de los materiales etnográficos y de los conocimientos etnológicos disponibles.

  4. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  5. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  6. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  7. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  8. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  9. Trastornos menores de salud en una muestra de estudiantes de la Universidad de Barcelona Minor health disorders in a sample of students of the University of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Icart Isern

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: conocer la prevalencia de algunos trastornos menores de salud (TMS en una muestra de estudiantes de la Universidad de Barcelona (2004-05. Material y métodos: El estudio se realizó en las facultades de Ciencias Económicas, Farmacia, Medicina, Psicología y Químicas y Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad de Barcelona. Se empleó un diseño observacional, descriptivo y transversal mediante un cuestionario mixto administrada a 600 estudiantes durante el mes de diciembre de 2004. Las variables estudiadas corresponden a los siguientes TMS: insomnio, estreñimiento, cefalea, dolor osteomuscular, tics nerviosos, onicofagia y tricotilomania. Resultados: El sexo femenino representa el 64% de la muestra; la media de edad de los encuestados es de 22,7 (DE: 3,27; IC 95%: 22,43-22,96. Las mujeres acumulan el 67,79% de los 1.245 TMS identificados. Por sexo, se observan diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las prevalencias de cefalea, dolor osteomuscular y tricotilomania que afectan en mayor medida al sexo femenino. La onicofagia (264; 21,20%; IC 95%: 18-24,4 es el más extendido de los TMS, seguido de la cefalea (233; 18,72%; IC 95%: 15,6-21,84. los estudiantes de Psicología presentan el mayor número, seguidos de los de Ciencias Económicas; los que presentan un menor número son los de Farmacia y Químicas. Conclusiones: El sexo femenino presenta la mayor prevalencia de TMS. La onicofagia y la cefalea son los principales TMS identificados en la muestra. Los estudiantes de Psicología acumulan el mayor número de TMS, siendo los que presentan más cefalea, dolor osteomuscular y tricotilomania.Background: To determine the prevalence of certain minor health disorders (MHD in a sample of students from the University of Barcelona (2004-05. Methods: The study was carried out in the faculties of Economic Sciences, Pharmacy, Medicine, Psychology and Chemistry, and in the School of Nursing, all of the University of Barcelona. An

  10. Cities through the Prism of People’s Spending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data–anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer’s age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents’ spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it. PMID:26849218

  11. Cities through the Prism of People's Spending Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.

  12. Cities through the Prism of People's Spending Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Sobolevsky

    Full Text Available Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.

  13. The (recreation of postmodern spanish cities. The role of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. González Pérez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of full incorporation into the European Union and the effects of globali-sation contributed to the modification of social structures in Spain. The accelerated rise in immigration has been decisive in creating the post-modern Spanish city. The cities of the twenty-first century are more complex, but also more cosmopolitan, multi-cultural, rich and dynamic.

  14. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  15. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  16. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  17. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  18. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  19. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  20. Programa de restauración de áreas periurbanas, 1994-2002 en Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogue i Moya, Antoni P.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available San la Coloma de Gramenet is a municipality of 125.000 inhabitants located within the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, well on its way lo sustainability: Between the fifties and the seventies a heavy wave of immigration led lo largely unplanned urban growth . This had serious impact on the surrounding natural area, where there are still spaces preserving a certain ecological value in spite of the high human pressure and pollution by solid wastes. In 1994 the City Council se t up the Sub urban Restoration Programme under taken by five successive Vocational Training centres which succesfully achieved the following goals: , The ecological restoration often sites in urban fringe areas (former uncontrolled waste tips or other degraded areas and its transformation in leisure areas for the population, carefully designed in order lo minimise their environmental impact and costs of works and maintenance. , The work training in environmentally-related professions of 215 young unemployed people of ages between 16 and 25. achieving an index of later labour insertion of 60%. , The participation of neighbourhoods civic organisations, thus improving the relationship citizens-environment, towards the ecological sustainability: Previous altitudes that had led to the degradation of the areas underwent positive change. From 1924 lo 2002 this experience has been enhanced by the adoption 01 Local Agenda 21 (approved in 1999 with the consensus of more than 80 civic organisations and the participation of the European Commission through the economic instrument LIFE (200 1.Santa Coloma de Gramenet es una ciudad de 125.000 habitantes del área metropolitana de Barcelona que ha iniciado el camino hacia la sostenibilidad. El crecimiento urbanístico no planificado. debido a la inmigración entre los años 50 y 70. provocó un fuerte impacto sobre la zona natural colindante. que aún conserva valores ecológicos a pesar de la presión antrópica y la contaminación por

  1. Relationship between patient dependence and direct medical-, social-, indirect-, and informal-care costs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens2 1Department of Economics, University of Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, Spain Objective: The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' dependence on others relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of patient dependence measured by the Dependence Scale on costs for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD in Spain. Methods: The Co-Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease study is an 18 multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients with AD according to the clinical dementia rating score and their caregivers in Spain. This study also gathered data on resource utilization for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. The data of 343 patients and their caregivers were collected through the completion of a clinical report form during one visit/assessment at an outpatient center or hospital, where all instruments were administered. The data collected (in addition to clinical measures also included sociodemographic data concerning the patients and their caregivers. Cost analysis was based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Resource unit costs were applied to value direct medical-, social-, and indirect-care costs. A replacement cost method was used to value informal care. Patient dependence on others was measured using the Dependence Scale, and the Cumulative Index Rating Scale was administered to the patient to assess multi-morbidity. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of dependence and other sociodemographic and clinical variables on cost of care. Results: The mean (standard deviation costs per patient

  2. Subsidence monitoring in Seville (S Spain) using multi-temporal InSAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Armenteros, A.M.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Lamas-Fernández, F.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Sousa, J.J.; De Galdeano, C.S.; Delgado, J.M.; Pedrera-Parias, A.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Gil, A.J.; Caro-Cuenca, M.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Seville, with a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, is the capital and largest city of Andalusia (S Spain). It is the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union and contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Seville harbour, located about 80 km from the Atlantic Ocean, is

  3. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  4. Leisure Coast City : A comparative history of the urban leisure waterfront. Barcelona. Chicago. Buenos Aires. 1870-1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martire, A.

    2008-01-01

    *** NOTIFICATION *** With reference to this thesis, I express my debt to Dr. Sonia Berjman’s numerous and pioneer publications on Buenos Aires landscape history, which were not only inspiring but also the basis of my analysis of Courtois, Bouvard, Thays, Carrasco brothers, Forestier and other

  5. Reinterpretando la ciudad: la cultura skater y las calles de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavi Camino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos el desarrollo de la práctica del skateboarding por las calles de Barcelona como un ejemplo de apropiación informal del espacio urbano que deja ver claramente las contradicciones que se generan en la producción del espacio de la ciudad. Para ello, partiremos de los datos extraídos de un trabajo de campo realizado entre los años 2003 y 2007, mediante métodos tradicionales de la antropología como son la observación participante y las entrevistas en profundidad. Después de explicar la situación actual y la perspectiva teórica que hemos adoptado, nos adentramos en el estudio cultural de esta experiencia urbana, desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad. Seguidamente describimos cómo se desarrolla el fenómeno cultural en Barcelona, atendiendo la dialéctica generada entre el ayuntamiento, los skaters y otros usuarios de la ciudad. A continuación, siguiendo cronológicamente los procesos, damos cuenta de cómo la proliferación de un diseño del espacio urbano que internacionaliza la imagen de la ciudad de Barcelona, a finales de los 90, favorece también su reconocimiento internacional como un lugar idóneo para la práctica del skateboarding. Finalmente, valoraremos el papel que juegan los skateparks –las instalaciones adecuadas– ante el desarrollo del skateboarding por las calles.

  6. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Cuixart, M.; Capdevila Prim, C.; Girbau Solà, T.; Rodríguez Caba, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como...

  7. La satisfacción de los clientes de los centros deportivos municipales de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Elasri Ejjaberi, Amal; Triadó i Ivern, Xavier Ma.; Aparicio Chueca, Ma. del Pilar (María del Pilar)

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar y analizar las variables que más influyen en la satisfacción del cliente en los centros deportivos de Barcelona. Los datos fueron recogidos en una encuesta entre los clientes actuales de centros deportivos municipales. Un análisis factorial aplicado a esta información revela cinco dimensiones que subyacen a los múltiples componentes de la oferta de servicios en dichas instalaciones: su calidad, los recursos humanos, la comunicación, el entorno social...

  8. La satisfacció dels clients dels centres esportius municipals de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Elasri Ejjaberi, Amal; Triadó Ivern, Xavier M.; Aparicio Chueca, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    L’objectiu d’aquest treball és identificar i analitzar les variables que més influeixen en la satisfacció del client als centres esportius de Barcelona. Les dades van ser recollides en una enquesta entre els clients actuals de centres esportius municipals. Una anàlisi factorial aplicada a aquesta informació revela cinc dimensions que subjeuen als múltiples components de l’oferta de serveis en aquestes instal·lacions: la seva qualitat, els recursos humans, la comunicació, l’entorn social i la ...

  9. Apropiaciones sociodeportivas de espacios públicos urbanos. El caso de la comunidad cochabambina en Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás Tissoni, Omar

    2013-01-01

    [spa] Estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo de las apropiaciones de espacios públicos y semipúblicos de Barcelona y poblaciones limítrofes para la práctica del deporte por parte de colectivos de trabajadores extranjeros procedentes preferentemente de la región de Cochabamba, en Bolivia. Una parte del trabajo investigador se realizó en las poblaciones bolivianas de origen, con el fin de establecer qué pautas se reproducen y cuáles se modifican o se generan de nuevo en Catalunya. La investigac...

  10. La Unidad de Terapia de Conducta de la Universidad de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña García, Carmina; Bados López, Arturo; García-Grau, Eugeni; Balaguer, Gemma; Fusté-Escolano, Adela

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo presenta la Unidad de Terapia de Conducta (UTC) de la Universidad de Barcelona. La UTC nació en 1985 con la voluntad de formar a los psicólogos recién licenciados en la práctica profesional desde el modelo cognitivoconductual y crear un Servicio Clínico en la Facultad de Psicología que permitiera una mejora de la calidad de las actividades docentes e investigadoras a través de la asistencia psicológica a personas de dentro y fuera de la UB que así lo solicitaran. En el trabajo se d...

  11. Consciència de la higiène urbana en una Barcelona ofegada

    OpenAIRE

    el Haddad, Marie

    2017-01-01

    El Casc Antic de Barcelona va patir de sobrepoblació, congestió i diversos brots epidèmics fets que van augmentar la vigilància i preocupació per la higiene urbana. Un dels primers intents va començar quan Carles III i Carles IV van emetre reials decrets relatius a l'exhumació dels cementiris. El primer va prohibir de l'enterrament al costat de esglésies i hospitals i va imposar la conversió dels existents en places públiques, i el segon va permetre la construcció de cementiris extramurs llun...

  12. Real-time micro-modelling of city evacuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner, Rainald; Haug, Eberhard; Zinggerling, Claudio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2018-01-01

    A methodology to integrate geographical information system (GIS) data with large-scale pedestrian simulations has been developed. Advances in automatic data acquisition and archiving from GIS databases, automatic input for pedestrian simulations, as well as scalable pedestrian simulation tools have made it possible to simulate pedestrians at the individual level for complete cities in real time. An example that simulates the evacuation of the city of Barcelona demonstrates that this is now possible. This is the first step towards a fully integrated crowd prediction and management tool that takes into account not only data gathered in real time from cameras, cell phones or other sensors, but also merges these with advanced simulation tools to predict the future state of the crowd.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  15. Comparative Study About 4 and 5 Star Hotels in Antalya and Barcelona According to Tourist Ratings at Holidaycheck Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GÜNGÖR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the intangibilty of tourism product, reviews and ratings at online review web sites where real consumers share their experiences, become the most important information sources. In this research, according to ratings at Holidaycheck web site which is used mainly by German speaking tourists, it is aimed to compare 4 and 5 star hotels in Barcelona and Antalya. Documents analysis was used to collect data, collected data were uploaded to SPSS 20.0 and non paramectric methods were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that tourists were more satisfied with staff service at hotels in Barcelona than hotels in Antalya. Plus, they were more satisfied with sports and entertaintment facilities at hotels in Antalya than hotels in Barcelona.

  16. Análisis de la prestación de servicios a inmigrantes en la red Bibliotecas de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes-Martínez, Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the quality of library service provision to immigrants in the Bibliotecas de Barcelona network using as a reference IFLA’s Multicultural Communities: Guidelines for Library Services. By adopting these guidelines, public libraries can become environments capable of facilitating social cohesion, knowledge and cultural exchange, as well as interaction between users from different cultures. To carry out this study, several information sources were reviewed and two library managers from the Barcelona Library Consortium were interviewed. The results show a high level of compliance with the Guidelines by the Bibliotecas de Barcelona network. The possible implications of these results are discussed in relation to the role of public libraries as spaces of interaction and cultural exchange.El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la calidad de la prestación de servicios bibliotecarios a inmigrantes en la red Bibliotecas de Barcelona utilizando como referencia el documento Comunidades Multiculturales: Directrices para el Servicio Bibliotecario, elaborado por la International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA. La adopción de estas Directrices convierte a las bibliotecas públicas en entornos que pueden facilitar la cohesión social, el conocimiento e intercambio cultural y la interacción entre usuarios de distintas culturas. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se han revisado distintas fuentes de información y se ha entrevistado a dos responsables del Consorcio de Bibliotecas de Barcelona. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian la existencia de un alto nivel de cumplimiento de las Directrices en la red Bibliotecas de Barcelona. Se discuten las posibles implicaciones de estos resultados en relación con el papel de las bibliotecas públicas como espacios de interacción e intercambio cultural.

  17. La restauración de la iglesia de Sant Quirze de Pedret (Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Sant Quirze de Pedret is a small church built on late first millennium of our era. It belongs to the Town Council of Berga (province of Barcelona. Its Romanesque and pre- Romanesque paintings, found in 1922 and 1937 and kept in Barcelona and Solsona, enjoy international recognition. However, the first restoration carried out by the province county council of Barcelona (1959-1964 evidenced the successive phases of construction, and the evolution of its masonry is often subject to polemics. Twenty five years later a new restoration was needed. To complete the reconstruction initiated in 1959 and after thorough historical studies, mural paintings (originals and reproductions are once again decorating its walls.

    Sant Quirze de Pedret es una pequeña iglesia de finales del primer milenio propiedad del ayuntamiento de Berga (provincia de Barcelona. Es conocida internacional mente por las pinturas románicas y prerrománicas halladas en 1922 y 1937, conservadas en Barcelona y Sobona. La evolución de su fábrica ha sido, a menudo, origen de polémica. La primera restauración realizada por la Diputación de Barcelona (1959-1964, sin embargo, evidenció las sucesivas fases de construcción. Transcurridos 25 años fue necesaria una nueva restauración, también a cargo de la Diputación. Se completaron los estudios históricos y la reconstrucción formal iniciada en 1959 y las pinturas murales (originales o reproducidas han vuelto a decorar los muros.

  18. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  19. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    By 2050, nearly 70% of the global population is projected to live in urban areas. Because the environments we inhabit affect our health, urban and transport designs that promote healthy living are needed. We estimated the number of premature deaths preventable under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces. We developed and applied the Urban and TranspOrt Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to Barcelona, Spain. Exposure estimates and mortality data were available for 1,357,361 residents. We compared recommended with current exposure levels. We quantified the associations between exposures and mortality and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of premature deaths preventable. We also modeled life-expectancy and economic impacts. We estimated that annually, nearly 20% of mortality could be prevented if international recommendations for performance of PA; exposure to air pollution, noise, and heat; and access to green space were followed. Estimations showed that the greatest portion of preventable deaths was attributable to increases in PA, followed by reductions of exposure to air pollution, traffic noise, and heat. Access to green spaces had smaller effects on mortality. Compliance was estimated to increase the average life expectancy by 360 (95% CI: 219, 493) days and result in economic savings of 9.3 (95% CI: 4.9, 13.2) billion EUR/year. PA factors and environmental exposures can be modified by changes in urban and transport planning. We emphasize the need for a) the reduction of motorized traffic through the promotion of active and public transport and b) the provision of green infrastructure, both of which are suggested to provide opportunities for PA and for mitigation of air pollution, noise, and heat. Citation: Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Basagaña X, Cirach M, Cole-Hunter T, Dadvand P, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Foraster M

  20. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  1. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S

    2016-04-21

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago's are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others.

  2. Co-Governing Smart Cities Through Living Labs. Top Evidences From EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BIFULCO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to identify the relevance of participative governance in urban areas characterized by smart cities projects, especially those implementing Living Labs initiatives as real-life settings to develop services innovation and enhance engagement of all urban stakeholders. A research on the three top smart cities in Europe – i.e. Amsterdam, Barcelona and Helsinki – is proposed through a content analysis with NVivo on the offi cial documents issued by the project partners (2012-2015 to investigate their Living Lab initiatives. The results show the increasing usefulness of Living Labs for the development of more inclusive smart cities projects in which public and private actors, and people, collaborate in innovation processes and governance for the co-creation of new services, underlining the importance of the open and ecosystem-oriented approach for smart cities.

  3. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  4. Wiki en la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Alcance y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Robles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde mayo del año 2004, un grupo de profesores de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona ha llevado a cabo distintas experiencias docentes en educación superior enfocadas a los nuevos planes piloto definidos en el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES basadas en la utilización del wiki, con el fin de mejorar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Se han desarrollado distintos materiales docentes para el aprendizaje autónomo y semi-presencial, diseñados para potenciar el trabajo colaborativo y a distancia. El análisis de los resultados obtenidos con la aplicación del wiki a la docencia ha permitido identificar las ventajas y las carencias del sistema de trabajo inicial y ampliar sus posibilidades con herramientas que aseguran una mejor adaptación de esta plataforma al EEES. La labor desarrollada por el grupo y el interés despertado en la comunidad universitaria son el punto de partida de la integración del wiki en el Campus Virtual (la plataforma institucional de soporte virtual del aprendizaje de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona que se está llevando a cabo actualmente.

  5. Guillem Eimeric, a Jurist of a Patrician Family of Barcelona († 1301

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batlle i Gallart, Carme

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to draw the biography of Guillem Eimeric, a Jurist born in Barcelona, who lived in the second half of 13th century. The study is based on the Guillem Eimeric’s will and on the inventory of his properties and goods. Among his goods, his rich Library deserves to be especially mentionned. The paper finishes with a study of the lineage from Eimeric de Perusia and with an analysis of the banking affairs of his relatives.

    L’objecte d’aquest article és traçar la biografia de Guillem Eimeric, jurista de Barcelona, que visqué a la segona meitat del segle XIII. El treball es basa sobretot en l’anàlisi del seu testament i en l’inventari dels seus béns, entre els quals destaca una rica biblioteca. L’article es completa amb l’estudi del llinatge procedent d’Eimeric de Perusia i dels negocis realitzats pels seus familiars banquers.

  6. 6th International Accounting Congress of Barcelona (1929 organised by the Association of Accountants of Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josepa Alemany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the work presented is a descriptive, contextual and detailed analysis of the activity, and the conclusions developed in the first international accounting conference held in Barcelona. The 6th International Conference on Accounting which took place in Barcelona coinciding with the International Exhibition of 1929, was organised by the Association Internationale de Comptabilité of Brussels. This association proposed holding regular meetings to discuss and study technical accounting and economic issues related to that time. Approach: the originality of the work lies in being an analytical description of the original documents prepared by the Association of Accountants of Catalonia about the conference. Findings/Originality: this study allows redoing assumptions made in previous works, because the documents before this work were contradictory regarding dates, facts and some of the content covered. Limitations: the biggest limitation of the work comes from the lack of written documentation existing on this conference. Value: the present study continues the research on topics of history of accounting in Catalonia. It is expected to complement this work by a deeper analysis of the contents and the topics covered in the papers presented at the conference, and by linking them with the theoretical accounting lines existing at that time.

  7. TURISMO SOSTENIBLE: LUGAREÑOS FRENTE A TURISTAS. EL CASO DE LA CIUDAD DE BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abril Sellares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer cómo ha afectado el incremento de turistas y sus actividades en su estancia en una ciudad concreta y cómo afectan sus actitudes y acciones a los lugareños de dicha zona. Así mismo se pretende tratar la problemática de los apartamentos turísticos ilegales creados a raíz de una fuerte demanda y las primeras respuestas que ha dado la administración ante las constantes manifestaciones de rechazo de los vecinos de la zona a tratar. La tipología de turismo en la que se centra este estudio es el llamado turismo de masas y concretamente en el turismo de sol y playa y de borrachera, que ha alcanzado altas cotas en estos últimos diez años (Ajuntament de Barcelona 2014, donde los criterios de sostenibilidad parece que no son los principios rectores en la práctica de la actividad turística. Por tanto, hemos visto, por un lado, la necesidad de tratar los conceptos de turismo sostenible y la aplicación que se dan en un caso real: la ciudad de Barcelona y concretamente un barrio marinero como es la Barceloneta y, por otro lado, conocer qué efectos tanto sociales como económicos ha tenido en esta área geográfica concreta la práctica de este turismo.

  8. Microbiological quality for bathing water in the "Conde del Guadalhorce" reservoir of Málaga City, Spain, 2000-2005 Calidad microbiológica de las aguas de baño del embalse Conde de Guadalhorce, de Málaga (España, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jesús Gámez de la Hoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determine the presence and evolution of indicators microorganisms of water pollution in “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir, Málaga city, Spain. A second objective was to analyze pollution degree and evaluate the sanitary quality of bathing water and compliance with European Directive 76/160/CE. Method. A total of 120 water samples were collected in two bathing freshwater sites during May to September sampling period between 2000 to 2005, and the numbers of total coliforms (CT, faecal coliforms (CF and faecal streptococci (EF were enumerated using the membrane filtration method. We used the log-normal distribution method and calculate the logarithmic means, percentile points, ratios CF:EF, ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results. Only two samples overcome CF limit values at Camping sampling station during 2000 year. Ratios CF:EF values were higher (> 4 during 2000 to 2002, and lower (∝ ∝ Conclusions. “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir showed hygienic conditions for safety bathing. Globally, water bathing quality is good. CT, CF y EF indicators were agreed with UE Directive during 2000-2005, with exception CF at Camping station in 2000 year. CT y CF concentrations at Camping were frecuently higher than Kiosko, it could be caused to swimmers abundance and recreational activities. There was a trend towards rising EF, it could be caused to faecal pollution source of animal origin, needed to research it.Introducción. Determinar la presencia y evolución de microorganismos indicadores de contaminación en las aguas del embalse Conde del Guadalhorce, Málaga (España. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el grado de contaminación y evaluar la calidad sanitaria del agua de baño según la Directiva 76/160/CE. Método. Se tomaron 120 muestras de aguas en 2 lugares de baño durante la temporada de mayo a septiembre en el período 2000 a 2005, y se enumeraron las bacterias coliformes totales (CT, coliformes fecales (CF y estreptococos

  9. The BdV screen of memory and Ciutat d'Asunción boulevard at the Baró de Viver neighborhood (Barcelona: (rethinking citizens' participation in urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeu Vidal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of citizen participation to design some public spaces in Baró de Viver, a neighbourhood of the city of Barcelona. Our aim is to reflect on the ways to understand citizen participation in political and academic agenda, the role of different actors (citizens, professionals, politicians... and strategies and methods used in participatory urban planning. The experience showed in this paper is located in a scale of urban design very close and well known to the people. We begin with a brief historical overview of the neighborhood where the project arose. Then we give an account of the stages of the participatory process, showing the main milestones, features and methods. Finally we propose some ideas to rethink the conceptual and methodological aspects of the intervention and urban research in environmental psychology and people-environment studies.

  10. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  11. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  12. Dysfunctional workplace behavior among municipal employees in Spanish and Finnish cities: a cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varhama, Lasse M; Báguena, María José; Toldos, María Paz; Beleña, María Angeles; Roldán, María Consuelo; Díaz, Amelia; Osterman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2010-04-01

    A comparative study measuring differences in the prevalence of conflicts, burnout, bullying, and sexual harassment among municipal employees between two European cities was conducted using a self-report instrument, the Psychosocial Workplace Inventory. The cities were Valencia, Spain (n=1,007) and Vaasa, Finland (n=1,979). Significant differences were found between reports of employees from the two cities. The Spanish employees reported higher scores on every type of dysfunctional workplace behavior measured: conflicts, burnout, bullying, and sexual harassment.

  13. Using hybrid latent class model for city-HUBs´users behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ciommo, Floridea; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; Oña, Rocío de; Oña López, Juan de; Hernández del Olmo, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Data from an attitudinal survey and stated preference ranking experiment conducted in two urban European interchanges (i.e. City-HUBs) in Madrid (Spain) and Thessaloniki (Greece) show that the importance that City-HUBs users attach to the intermodal infrastructure varies strongly as a function of their perceptions of time spent in the interchange (i.e.intermodal transfer and waiting time). A principal components analysis allocates respondents (i.e. city-HUB users) to two classes with substant...

  14. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  15. City face to face with nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Hendro; Dewi, Mahargyantari P.

    2017-11-01

    Within the perspective of environmental psychology, there are some forms of earth destruction such as global warming, deforestation, pollution, and species extinction. These have been caused by the massive growth of population that inevitably means more housingis needed while at the same time, agricultural land for food production has been shrinking. Nisbet, Zelenski, and Murphy (2009) proposed that personal relationships with nature may provide some insight into the way people treat the environment. In other words, disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. In addition, Koger and Winter (2011) proposed green urban planning and green buildings as solution not only for overcoming the destruction, but also they are useful to reduce stress. Wilson (1984) pioneered the term "biophilia" to refer to a fundamental hypothesized, genetically based human need and propensity to affiliate with "life and lifelike processes." Studies have shown, for example, that even minimal connection with nature—such as looking at it through a window—can promote the healing of hospitalized patients; can increase health in the workplace; and can reduce the frequency of illness in prisons. In hundreds of other studies, interaction with pets has shown a wide range of benefits forclinical patients—from adults with Alzheimer's disease to children with autism—as well as for people within the general population (Kahn, Severson, & Ruckert, 2009). This paper is an attempt to collect data regarding the efforts of cities today in adapting to nature, such as Barcelona which tried to control the bird population with contraception;Austin city coexists with bats; dozens of cities in the US which conform with bees and honey, and Masdar city that is designed along with its nature.

  16. Hydrogeological study in the catalonian potassic tertiary basin. Sallent-Barcelona, Spain; Estudio hidrogeologico de la cuenca potasica catalana en el entorno de Sallent y la antigua Mina Enrique. Provincia de Barcelona (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera, F.; Dorca, H.; Martinez, P.; Pina, J.; Otero, N.; Palau, J.; Solar, A.

    2009-07-01

    The Catalonian Potassic Basin is described as a thick regressive-sedimentary Tertiary basin that includes marine, evaporitic-transitional and continental facies, overlying by no-consolidated quaternary alluvial sediments. The intense underground mining activity used in the exploitation of salts with rich K contents in the CPC during the last century, has provoked some problems related to surface and groundwater contamination and the existence of subsidence areas. The objective of the hydrogeological studies in the CPC area are focused in the characterization of the Tertiary aquifer and the definition of their conceptual model of behaviour. The last challenge of the project is to determine the relationship between subsidence and hydrogeology in these salt bodies. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. The Determinants of Transitions in Youth. Papers from the Conference Organized by the ESF Network on Transitions in Youth, CEDEFOP and GRET (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) (Barcelona, Spain, September 20-21, 1993). 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document consists of the 24 papers delivered at a conference that had five workshops examining various dimensions of the social and occupational transition of young people. The papers are arranged by workshop/session. A summary report precedes the other papers presented during a session. The papers in the session on perspectives on systems,…

  18. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  19. Defectos en soldaduras de estructura metálica. Aplicación a una obra en Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Vergara, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Estudio de los defectos y aceptación de los mismos, en las uniones soldadas de una estructura metálica importante de una obra singular en Barcelona. Análisis de los ensayos destructivos y no destructivos de Aceptación de las soldaduras.

  20. Los Juegos Olímpicos de Barcelona, 25 años después (3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Solanellas Donato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los ejes básicos de la organización de unos juegos olímpicos son sus instalaciones deportivas. Desde esta perspectiva se analizan la inversión, la gestión y el impacto que estas han tenido en la ciudad de Barcelona. Las instalaciones olímpicas de Barcelona 1992 no se situaron únicamente en la ciudad ni todas ellas fueron explotadas en base al mismo deporte que albergaron. Uno de los éxitos de Barcelona fue dimensionar la inversión de acuerdo con las necesidades reales de la ciudad. También en materia de instalaciones deportivas se cumplió este principio. En este tercer artículo se aportan datos económicos, información sobre la construcción y posterior gestión de las instalaciones deportivas y su impacto en el incremento de la práctica deportiva de la ciudadanía de Barcelona.

  1. El Plan Especial de transformación urbana del barrio de La Mina, Barcelona, Premio Nacional de Urbanismo

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Editor

    2011-01-01

    Lo que ha ido ocurriendo en el barrio de La Mina en los últimos 30 años es un magnífico ejemplo de las luces y sombras que rodean la gran transformación urbana, económica y social que ha sacudido la ciudad de Barcelona y su entorno en estos decenios.

  2. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  3. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Involuntary outpatient treatment (iot) for severe mental patients: current situation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Pérez-Prieto, Juan F; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Leal-Cercós, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary Outpatient Treatment (IOT) expects to improve treatment compliance and, therefore, prevent the impairment of patients with severe mental illness, as well as the risk for them and others. Besides IOT introduction defenders and opponent's states, scientific literature offers contradictory results. Legislative changes have been taken in the vast majority of our neighbouring countries in order to regulate IOT application. There is no legal regulation in Spain; however, OIT application is possible in certain Spanish cities. This article reviews IOT in Spain and surrounding countries.

  5. Emprendimiento y supervivencia empresarial en época de crisis: El caso de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Buil Fabregá

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objeto: El trabajo que se presenta en este artículo es la primera parte de un estudio sobre las estrategias llevadas a cabo por las empresas en épocas de crisis. Este primer artículo analiza las características financieras de las empresas creadas en Barcelona en los inicios de la crisis y que han sobrevivido durante la misma. Este estudio pretende contrastar las características financieras de las empresas analizadas con las medidas llevadas a cabo para mantener su rentabilidad en épocas de crisis y determinar si existen patrones de comportamiento distintos entre empresas creadas en sectores industriales y no industriales. Diseño/metodología: Análisis estadístico-descriptivo de las medias y variaciones de los principales indicadores financieros y de recursos humanos que se relacionan con  las medidas tomadas por las empresas  en época de crisis. La base de datos utilizada ha sido el SABI y el período de referencia 2008-2013. Aportaciones y resultados: Las empresas creadas en Barcelona en los inicios de la crisis y que han sobrevivido presentan algunos rasgos comunes: muestran un EBITDA positivo, los recursos propios constituyen una fuente relevante de financiación, tienden a reducir su nivel de endeudamiento o se disminuye inversión. Los ratios de la rentabilidad financiera son muy bajos ya que el patrimonio neto de la empresa es alto y la deuda es baja. Referente a los indicadores de recursos humanos, nos indican la importancia de las empresas de nueva creación en la generación de empleo y sus tasas de productividad son altas. Valor añadido: Determinar las características financieras de las empresas creadas en los inicios de la crisis y que sobreviven en Barcelona en época de crisis para determinar si siguen medidas para mantener su rentabilidad. La existencia de un conjunto de medidas estadísticamente significativas puede servir de guía a los emprendedores del futuro así como de las políticas públicas de apoyo a los

  6. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  7. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  8. Radiocarbon concentration in modern tree rings from Valladolid, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Nakamura, Toshio; Pazdur, Anna; Charro, Elena; Villanueva, Jose Luis Gutierrez; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    New results of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from the City of Valladolid (Spain) covering a growth period of 22 year have been measured using an AMS. Samples were taken using a hollow drill from a living tree, and α-cellulose was extracted from each of annual rings (early and late wood separately). The set of data shows lower radiocarbon concentration than that reported for 'clean air' at the reference station, indicating a remarkable input of 'dead' CO 2 of fossil fuel origin. Using data of carbon dioxide and 14 C concentrations from Schauinsland, the corresponding summer and winter values of the fossil component (c f ) in carbon dioxide were calculated for the City of Valladolid. By fitting exponential and linear functions to the experimental data, the exchange time was calculated, and the expected future 14 C concentration in the atmosphere was estimated.

  9. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Vibration Characteristics of Buildings and Civil Structures: Recent Case Studies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Fernández, Enric

    2017-03-24

    The potential of a coherent microwave sensor to monitor the vibration characteristics of civil structures has been investigated in the past decade, and successful case studies have been published by different research teams. This remote sensing technique is based on the interferometric processing of real aperture radar acquisitions. Its capability to estimate, simultaneously and remotely, the displacement of different parts of the investigated structures, with high accuracy and repeatability, is its main advantage with respect to conventional sensors. A considerable amount of literature on this technique is available, including various case studies aimed at testing the ambient vibration of bridges, buildings, and towers. In the last years, this technique has been used in Spain for civil structures monitoring. In this paper, three examples of such case studies are described: the monitoring of the suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, the communications tower of Collserola in Barcelona, and an urban building located in Vilafranca del Penedès, a small town close to Barcelona. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of these case studies, underlining the advantages and limitations of the sensors currently available, and concluding with the possible improvements expected from the next generation of sensors.

  10. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  11. Sustainable Drainage Practices in Spain, Specially Focused on Pervious Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish climate is full of contrasts, with torrential rains and long droughts; under these conditions, appropriate water management is essential. In Spain, until the end of the twentieth century, water management and legislative development lagged behind other more developed countries. Nowadays, great efforts are being made to reverse this situation and improve both water management and legislation in order to control the two main problems related to stormwater management in cities: floods and diffuse pollution. In this context, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS were developed as the main solution to these problems. The study of these techniques started in the 1970s in the USA, but they were not studied in Spain until 1993 when the University of Cantabria and CLABSA started to look into solutions for stormwater management. After 20 years of research and application, sustainable drainage in Spain is still behind other countries in spite of the efforts to change this situation, notably by the University of Cantabria with 10 years of experience in these techniques, mainly regarding pervious pavements, where more than 13 related research projects have been carried out. The future challenges focus on the application of pervious pavements for Urban Hydrological Rehabilitation.

  12. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  13. Bodies or organisms? Medical encounter as a control apparatus at a primary care centre in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaballos Samper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical practice is driven by technology, discourses, and knowledge about health and illness. This has resulted in its gaining a dominating position in power relations achieved by means of diagnosis, medicalization, and habit and conduct creation and maintenance. Interaction at primary care centres is built on mainstream biomedical views of both the medical discourse and the social practices related to health, illness and the human body. Moreover, it is also rooted on the ideologies conveyed by those social concepts, which in turn, permeate interaction all through with power relations. The present paper takes ethnographic data and in-depth interviews as a departing point to analyse how diagnosis, medicalization, and biopolicies for health prevention and improvement carried out in primary care centres in Barcelona make up a control apparatus. Furthermore, this essay also explores how the apparatus is developed in the medical encounter and turns the body into an organism.

  14. Estudio del impacto atmosférico del cambio del parque vehicular en Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Moya, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Este TFG tiene como finalidad el cálculo de emisiones de contaminantes atmosféricos debidos al tráfico rodado en Barcelona para vehículos de más de 15 años de antigüedad que circulen por la ciudad y la posible retirada de estos vehículos a cambio de incentivos de transporte público gratuito durante 1 año. En éste se estiman las emisiones de óxido nitroso y partículas en suspensión producidas por el parque vehicular barcelonés (turismos, camiones, furgonetas, motocicletas y ciclomotores). P...

  15. Los futuros pedagogos ante el hecho religioso. Estudio exploratorio en la Universidad de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Freixa Niella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio exploratorio sobre la diversidad religiosa-­‐cultural y el diálogo interreligioso surgido de la investigación financiada por la Generalitat de Cataluña “Gestionar la diversitat religiosa i cultural des de l’educació. Els Futurs agents socioeducatius” (2014 RELIG 00019. Se analizan los planes docentes de los grados de la facultad de Educación de la Universidad de Barcelona y se valida un instrumento de medición de las actitudes de los futuros agentes socioeducativos aplicándolo a una muestra de estudiantes de último curso de Pedagogía. Los resultados indican actitudes moderadamente altas y la importancia de estar formado para promover el diálogo interreligioso.

  16. Highlights of the EANM Congress Barcelona 2009: increasing our impact in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The EANM Congress 2009 took place in Barcelona from 10 to 14 October under the chairmanship of Dr. Martin-Comin. As always, the meeting was successful with high-level scientific content and a great number of participants. In spite of the economic crisis, industry made an important contribution presenting new revolutionary equipment and tracers, and in particular the pharmaceutical industry has increased its involvement in our speciality. This article is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions presented at the annual congress 2009, highlighting the fields of nuclear medicine at a higher level of development, including those with an increased clinical impact (especially oncology, but also cardiology, neurology and other clinical sciences), new detectors and multimodality imaging, and those fields showing important progress, including radiochemistry and pharmacy (with the development of new tracers and increased collaboration of industry). (orig.)

  17. Regularizaciones y trayectorias de inmigrantes no comunitarios en la provincia de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Domingo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es triple: 1 comparar el impacto de la Normalización de 2005, con el proceso de Arraigo instaurado en 2006; 2 analizar las trayectorias de los solicitantes de ambos programas después de su regularización; y 3 examinar la repesca de los solicitantes que no pudieron regularizar su estatus a través de la Normalización o posteriormente con el Arraigo. Se han adoptado dos enfoques, uno transversal, para analizar el volumen y la intensidad de entrada, y otro longitudinal para monitorizar las trayectorias de los solicitantes de ambos procesos. Para ello se han utilizado datos de la Subdelegación del Gobierno en Barcelona desde 2005 hasta 2010. Si bien los resultados arrojan cierto optimismo respecto a ambos procesos, también se demuestra la difi cultad de regularización en tiempos de crisis.

  18. Infancia, familias monoparentales e inmigración latinoamericana en Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Alcalde-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre pobreza, monoparentalidad e infancia es un hecho constatado en numerosos estudios. Menos exploradas han sido las condiciones de vida de los niños y niñas de familias monoparentales inmigradas. En este artículo presentamos los hallazgos de una investigación cualitativa llevada a cabo en Barcelona entre 2008 y 2009 con 18 familias monoparentales encabezadas por mujeres latinoamericanas migrantes. Describimos el elevado riesgo de pobreza y de exclusión social que sufren estas personas menores y los efectos educativos y sociales que se derivan de sus condiciones de vida en España.

  19. Infancia, familias monoparentales e inmigración latinoamericana en Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Pávez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre pobreza, monoparentalidad e infancia es un hecho constatado en numerosos estudios. Menos exploradas han sido las condiciones de vida de los niños y niñas de familias monoparentales inmigradas. En este artículo presentamos los hallazgos de una investigación cualitativa llevada a cabo en Barcelona entre 2008 y 2009 con 18 familias monoparentales encabezadas por mujeres latinoamericanas migrantes. Describimos el elevado riesgo de pobreza y de exclusión social que sufren estas personas menores y los efectos educativos y sociales que se derivan de sus condiciones de vida en España.

  20. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…