WorldWideScience

Sample records for barbiturate coma therapy

  1. Influence of hypothermia, barbiturate therapy, and intracranial pressure monitoring on morbidity and mortality after near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D J; Biggar, W D; Smith, C R; Conn, A W; Barker, G A

    1986-06-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and pathologic effects of hypothermia and high-dose barbiturate therapy on hypoxic/ischemic cerebral injury after near-drowning in children. Of 40 near-drowned patients admitted to the ICU, 13 died, seven had permanent cerebral damage, and 20 survived. Twenty-four patients (group 1) were treated with a regime of hyperventilation, hypothermia, and high-dose phenobarbitone while intracranial pressure (ICP) was continuously monitored. Of ten who died in this group, three were diagnosed as having cerebral death shortly after admission; autopsy revealed severe cerebral edema with herniation. The remaining seven nonsurvivors had severe cerebral hypoxia without raised ICP and had the features of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome and hypoxic/ischemic damage to other organs. Six of these seven patients developed septicemia which was invariably associated with a profound neutropenia. Sixteen patients (group 2) were treated with a similar protocol but without hypothermia. Three of these patients died but only one developed septicemia. Neutropenia after resuscitation from near-drowning seemed to indicate a poor prognosis; the mean polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in nonsurvivors (1.9 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) cell/L) was significantly (p less than .01) lower than that in survivors (6.4 +/- 1.1 X 10(9) cell/L). Hypothermia was associated with a decreased number of circulating PMNs but did not increase the number of neurologically intact survivors. Similarly, although barbiturates may control ICP, their use did not improve outcome. Because severe cerebral edema and herniation after near-drowning is usually associated with irreversible brain damage, measures to control brain swelling such as hypothermia and barbiturates will be of little benefit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed al...

  3. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  4. Myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2006-12-01

    Myxedema coma is the term given to the most severe presentation of profound hypothyroidism and is often fatal in spite of therapy. Decompensation of the hypothyroid patient into a coma may be precipitated by a number of drugs, systemic illnesses (eg, pneumonia), and other causes. It typically presents in older women in the winter months and is associated with signs of hypothyroidism, hypothermia, hyponatremia, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia. Treatment must be initiated promptly in an intensive care unit setting. Although thyroid hormone therapy is critical to survival, it remains uncertain whether it should be administered as thyroxine, triiodothyronine, or both. Adjunctive measures, such as ventilation, warming, fluids, antibiotics, pressors, and corticosteroids, may be essential for survival.

  5. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period.

  6. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment

  7. Primary study on median nerve stimulation therapy in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by head traumas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of median nerve stimulation in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas and the possible mechanism of its hastening awakening from coma. Methods: 30 unconscious patients with severe brain traumas were randomly assigned to the treated group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). The patients in the control group were treated routinely. Besides routine therapy the patients in the treated group were treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. As the treated group were treated with initial stimulation, SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after 30 minutes' median nerve electrical stimulation under the same condition. The changes of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of lesion spot of brain were compared and analysed with visual method and semi-quantitative method in BFCK% mathematical model. A week after stimulation authors assess the therapeutic effect in the two groups with GCS scores. Results: The patients in the treated group's rCBF of the lesion spot increased significantly after stimulation. A week later the patients in the treated group had improved by average of 4.8 on the GCS in contrast to 2.0 on the GCS in the control group which showed that the GCS scores of the two groups had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The median nerve electrical stimulation can improve the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas. The increase of rCBF of lesion spot of brain can be one of mechanisms of its hastening awakening from coma

  8. Myxedema coma leading to respiratory depression in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kathryn; Aubert, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    A 10-year-old, intact male, cocker spaniel was presented with hypothermia, without shivering, and progressive stupor leading to coma. Myxedema coma, potentially precipitated by diuretic therapy, was tentatively diagnosed and treatment initiated, but progressive respiratory depression led to the decision to euthanize. Postmortem findings supported the diagnosis of myxedema coma.

  9. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our findings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the prefrontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  10. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats:mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Feng; Ying-jun Zhong; Liang Wang; Tian-qi Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually in-creased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our ifndings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the pre-frontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  11. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  12. Comparative Actions of Barbiturates Studied by Pollen Grain Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordan, Herbert A.; Mumford, Pauline M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple experimental system whereby the comparative actions of long, medium, and short-acting barbiturates can be demonstrated in a relatively short period of time under optical microscopy using pollen grains as the biological test or assay system. (Author/HM)

  13. Identifying Barbiturate Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with [3H]Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital, a Photoreactive Barbiturate

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Chiara, David C.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    At concentrations that produce anesthesia, many barbituric acid derivatives act as positive allosteric modulators of inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibitors of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research on [3H]R-mTFD-MPAB ([3H]R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyldiazirinylphenyl)barbituric acid), a photoreactive barbiturate that is a potent and stereoselective anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has identified a second class of intersubunit binding si...

  14. What Is a Coma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is a Coma? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is ...

  15. Stupor and Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immediately given intravenously. Giving glucose often results in instant recovery if the coma is caused by a ... the bladder to drain urine. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Sidebar ...

  16. Application of thermoresponsive HPLC to forensic toxicology: determination of barbiturates in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Sanae; Watanabe, Kanako; Hirano, Seishiro; Yamagishi, Itaru; Gonmori, Kunio; Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the assays of five barbiturates in human urine using a new thermoresponsive polymer separation column, which is composed of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer. According to elevating the column temperature from 10 ℃ to 50 ℃, five barbiturates, such as metharbital, primidone, phenobarbital, mephobarbital and pentobarbital, became well separated by this method. Five barbiturates showed good linearity in the range of 0.2-10...

  17. [Treatment of head injury coma with prolonged pentobarbital anaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, F; Guerin, J M; Latarjet, J; Deleuze, R

    1981-04-11

    Forty-five patients in deep coma resulting from head injury were treated with pentobarbital in doses adjusted to maintain serum barbiturate levels between 15 and 25 mg/l and short burst suppression phases on EEG. Brain death occurred in 20%. The overall mortality rate was 60%, no death being attributable to treatment; 24% of the patients were able to resume active life. Patients with non-reactive pupils during the early phase of coma were compared with patients of similar ages and neurological symptoms non treated with pentobarbital. In treated patients the incidence of brain death was reduced by 50% and the mortality rate by 25% (p less than 0.05), without increase in deaths from intercurrent complications and in severe sequelae among survivors.

  18. Capturing the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1, as seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft on June 21, 2005. It was taken using the clear filter of the spacecraft's medium resolution imager camera. The spacecraft was 11,564,081.7 kilometers (7,185,920 miles) away from the comet. Twelve images were combined together, and a logarithmic stretch was applied to enhance the coma of the comet.

  19. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  20. Effect of arousal methods for 175 cases of prolonged coma and its factors after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江基尧; 包映晖; 殷玉华; 潘耀华; 梁玉敏; 罗其中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of arousal methods for prolonged coma of 175 patients with severe traumatic brain injury and related factors.Methods: There were 175 cases with persistent coma longer than 1 month after severe traumatic brain injury. Coma lasted 1-12 months. Arousal procedures included hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy and arousal drugs. Results: In the 175 prolonged coma patients 110 got recovery of consciousness; in 118 cases with coma of 1-3 months, 86 cases recovered consciousness (72.9%); in 42 cases with coma of 4-6 months, 20 cases recovered consciousness (47.6);and in 15 cases with coma of longer than 6 months, only 4 cases recovered consciousness (26.7%). The recovery of consciousness depended on patient's primary brain stem damagme, cerebral hernia, GCS score, and age .Conclusions: Application of appropriate arousal procedures improves recovery of consciousness in patients with prolonged coma.

  1. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  2. Cyanoacetamide based Barbiturates, Thiobarbiturates and their Biological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various cyanoacetamide based Knoevenagel adducts were coupled with barbituric acid / thiobarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate via a one pot three component reaction in 2-butanol availing the desired compound in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds (2-15) were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis and were screened for antibacterial, antiurease, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and chymotrypsin inhibition studies. In case of antibacterial studies 2 was found appreciably active against the six selected strains whereas the rest of the compounds were moderately active. The urease inhibition studies revealed compound 5 and 12 as potent whereas the rest were found inactive where thiourea was used as control. Antioxidant activity results exhibited with 2 as the most active and rest of compounds showed good activity. In case of chymotrypsin inhibition studies all the synthesized compounds were found inactive with the exception of 6 which was moderately active. (author)

  3. How to encounter the child in coma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Aelami; Sepideh Bagheri; Seyed Morteza Rasti Sani

    2014-01-01

    Non-traumatic coma is a medical emergency and should be evaluated as soon as possible. Pediatric coma is more serious because of patient’s capacity of pathological stressor tolerance is limited especially in neonates. Several etiologies could be listed for loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma in childhood. According to the epidemiological studies, causes of coma are different all around the world. Glasgow Coma Scale has been used for coma scaling. In this review, we focused on some highlight ...

  4. Coma scales: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Bordini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS, the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness, as well as other scales that have had less impact and are rarely used outside their country of origin. DISCUSSION: Of the five main scales, the GCS is by far the most widely used. It is easy to apply and very suitable for cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, it has shortcomings, such as the fact that the speech component in intubated patients cannot be tested. While the Jouvet scale is quite sensitive, particularly for levels of consciousness closer to normal levels, it is difficult to use. The Moscow scale has good predictive value but is little used by the medical community. The FOUR score is easy to apply and provides more neurological details than the Glasgow scale.

  5. Coma in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonovska Joveva, Elena; Arsovska, Anita; Karakolevska Ilova, Marija; Petrovski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Coma is a state of unconscions which lasts more then six hours , when the pacient can not wake up , does notrespont normal to the painful stimuli, light, sound , does not have normal cyc;e of sleep - wakefulness and not initiate volunatary movment. Glazgov coma score estimated degree og disturbance of conscionsness. Score of 3-8 indicates comatous condition.

  6. Neuroimaging after coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  7. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric ...

  8. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-01-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment fo...

  9. How to encounter the child in coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Aelami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic coma is a medical emergency and should be evaluated as soon as possible. Pediatric coma is more serious because of patient’s capacity of pathological stressor tolerance is limited especially in neonates. Several etiologies could be listed for loss of consciousness (LOC and coma in childhood. According to the epidemiological studies, causes of coma are different all around the world. Glasgow Coma Scale has been used for coma scaling. In this review, we focused on some highlight causes of coma in pediatric medicine.

  10. UCDs in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Marzke, Ronald O; Phillipps, Steven; Price, James; Peng, Eric W; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2010-01-01

    As part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we have undertaken a Keck/LRIS spectroscopic campaign to determine membership for faint dwarf galaxies. In the process, we discovered a population of Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the core region of the Coma cluster. At the distance of Coma, UCDs are expected to have angular sizes 0.01 < R_e < 0.2 arcsec. With ACS imaging, we can resolve all but the smallest ones with careful fitting. Candidate UCDs were chosen based on magnitude, color, and degree of resolution. We spectroscopically confirm 27 objects as bona fide UCD members of the Coma cluster, a 60% success rate for objects targeted with M_R < -12. We attribute the high success rate in part to the high resolution of HST data and to an apparent large population of UCDs in Coma. We find that the UCDs tend to be strongly clustered around giant galaxies, at least in the core region of the cluster, and have a distribution and colors that are similar to globular clusters. These findings sugg...

  11. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with ... tests that help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means ...

  12. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  13. Psycho-pharmacotherapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the issue of prolonged barbiturate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Robert E; Kranz, Gottfried; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Kasper, Siegfried

    2009-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 32-year-old man who had been treated for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder and had received 800 mg methylphenobarbital (MPB). After switching to a barbiturate-free schedule, his condition continued to be unstable for more than 21 MPB half-lives (approx. 30 days) and did not stabilize until MPB-metabolites dropped below their urinary detection limit. Considering that this article provides findings from a single patient, the authors use this experience to discuss and emphasize the importance of clinical control of barbiturates in psychiatry. PMID:19630487

  14. Imaging in the diagnosis of coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging has become one of the main methods to diagnose and monitor coma. CT is the technique of choice in the exploration of traumatic coma or spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, but MRI is better than CT to explore comas of ischaemic, infective, tumoral or toxic origin, as it provides earlier and more precise images

  15. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  16. Decerebrate posturing in alcoholic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, A J; Grant, P T

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of alcoholic coma are presented where extensor responses to noxious stimuli are demonstrated. Decerebrate posturing normally indicates severe structural or functional depression of midbrain function but can be caused by depressant drugs. Blood alcohol measurements are a vital test in the comatose patient as the clinical picture may be caused, or temporarily significantly worsened, by severe alcohol intoxication. The preservation of pupillary light reflexes in the presence of deep co...

  17. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  18. Diffuse radio emission in the Coma cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Coma cluster is peculiar in the radio domain owing to the presence of cluster-wide diffuse sources: the radio halo Coma C, the relic source 1253+275, and the bridge between them. Diffuse radio sources in clusters are a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. We summarize here the properties of the diffuse radio sources in Coma and their relation to other cluster properties.

  19. Neurophysiological assessment of alpha pattern coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Obeso, J A; Iragui, M I; Marti-Masso, J. F.; Maravi, E; Teijeira, J M; Carrera, N; Teijeria, J

    1980-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials, blink reflexes, and H wave reflexes, were recorded on several days from three patients with alpha pattern coma. Coma was secondary to cardiac arrest in two cases and to brainstem infarction in one. Results are compatible with damage to the brainstem reticular formation with sparing of thalamo-cortical circuits as the main physiopathological characteristic of alpha pattern coma. This condition should not be regarded as a discrete entity when establishing the pr...

  20. High Plasma Erythropoietin Levels are Associated With Prolonged Coma Duration and Increased Mortality in Children With Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Estela; Opoka, Robert O.; Idro, Richard; Schmidt, Robert; Park, Gregory S.; Bangirana, Paul; Gregory M Vercellotti; Hodges, James S.; Widness, John A.; John, Chandy C.

    2014-01-01

    In children aged >18 months with cerebral malaria, elevated erythropoietin levels were associated with increased mortality, prolonged coma duration, and a lack of neuroprotection. Caution is warranted in the use of systemic erythropoietin as adjunctive therapy in cerebral malaria.

  1. Supramolecular chiral host-guest nanoarchitecture induced by the selective assembly of barbituric acid derivative enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien; Maurel, Francois; Dong, Changzhi

    2016-10-01

    Barbituric acid derivatives are prochiral molecules, i.e. they are chiral upon adsorption on surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that barbituric acid derivatives self-assemble into a chiral guest-host supramolecular architecture at the solid-liquid interface on graphite. The host nanoarchitecture has a sophisticated wavy shape pattern and paired guest molecules are nested insides the cavities of the host structure. Each unit cell of the host structure is composed of both enantiomers with a ratio of 1:1. Furthermore, the wavy patterns of the nanoarchitecture are formed from alternative appearance of left- and right-handed chiral building blocks, which makes the network heterochiral. The functional guest-host nanoarchitecture is the result of two-dimensional chiral amplification from single enantiomers to organizational heterochiral supramolecular self-assembly.

  2. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric acid), an aromatic aldehyde and urea or thiourea in the presence of nanoporous silica SBA-Pr-SO3H under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of spiro compounds were tested against Jack bean urease using Berthelot alkaline phenol-hypochlorite method. Five of 13 compounds were inhibitor and two of them were enzyme activators. Analysis of the docking results showed that, in most of the spiro molecules, one of the carbonyl groups is coordinated with both nickel atoms, while the other one is involved in the formation of hydrogen bonds with important active-site residues. The effect of inserting two methyl groups on N atoms of barbiturate ring, S substituted, ortho, meta and para substituted compounds were investigated too. PMID:26664377

  3. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  4. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core

  5. How typical is the Coma cluster?

    CERN Document Server

    Pimbblet, K A; Davies, R L

    2013-01-01

    Coma is frequently used as the archetype z~0 galaxy cluster to compare higher redshift work against. It is not clear, however, how representative the Coma cluster is for galaxy clusters of its mass or X-ray luminosity, and significantly: recent works have suggested that the galaxy population of Coma may be in some ways anomolous. In this work, we present a comparison of Coma to an X-ray selected control sample of clusters. We show that although Coma is typical against the control sample in terms of its internal kinematics (substructure and velocity dispersion profile), it has a significantly high (~3sigma) X-ray temperature set against clusters of comparable mass. By de-redshifting our control sample cluster galaxies star-formation rates using a fit to the galaxy main sequence evolution at z 99 per cent. One way to alleviate this discrepency and bring Coma in-line with the control sample would be to have the distance to Coma to be slightly lower, perhaps through a non-negligible peculiar velocity with respec...

  6. Is the Coma cluster binary dominated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is investigated whether the model of an expanding cluster dominated by a massive binary galaxy, first suggested by Valtonen and Byrd (1979), is consistent with optical data on the surface density and velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The evolution of this model is simulated for a wide variety of initial conditions. It is found that galaxy counts in the model can be made to agree with observation, but that the observed velocity dispersion profile cannot be reproduced. A number of other arguments suggest that the central galaxies in Coma cannot be as massive as required by the model. This model is not a viable representation of the Coma cluster. 25 refs

  7. The effect observation of early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain trauma coma wake and prognosis%早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒及预后的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄的; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒率及预后程度。方法:将170例脑外伤昏迷的患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,各85例。对照组给予常规药物治疗及康复护理,观察组在此基础上给予高压氧及音乐疗法,随访6个月,比较两组患者清醒时间及格拉斯哥预后结局量表(Glasgow outcome scale,GOS)等级情况。结果:两组患者的清醒时间及格拉斯哥预后结局等级比较,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。结论:早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒有较好的临床疗效,而且能减轻后遗症。%Objective:To observe the effect of early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain trauma coma wake and prognosis. Nethods:170 cases of brain injury coma were randomly divided into control group(85 cases)and observation group(85cases). The control group was given conventional drugs and rehabilitation nursing,and the observation group with music therapy and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. After active treatment and follow - up for six months,the awake time,and Glasgow Outcome Scale for prognostic outcomes in the two groups were compared. Results:The comparison of awake time,and Glasgow Outcome Scale for prognostic outcomes between the two groups difference was statistically sig-nificant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain injury coma wake has better clinical curative effect, and can reduce sequel.

  8. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany J. Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.

  9. Anorexia nervosa presenting as reversible hypoglycaemic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Zalin, A. M.; Lant, A F

    1984-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic coma was the presenting feature in two patients with anorexia nervosa, both of whom rapidly regained consciousness following intravenous administration of glucose. This uncommon complication of malnutrition does not appear to have been reported previously in anorexia nervosa.

  10. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying-ying; YANG Qing-lin; PANG Ying; LV Xiang-ping

    2005-01-01

    Background Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment. Coma patients after CPR had been studied prospectively at the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital since 2002. In this study, we focused on the topic of how to evaluate the severity of coma after CPR .Methods From April 2002 to November 2004, patients in coma 24 hours after CPR were monitored, the evaluation methods included Glasgow coma score (GCS),brain stem reflection, and spinal reflection. Laboratory evaluation included electroencephalography (EEG),brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), short latency somatosensory evoked potential (SLSEP), and transcranial Doppler (TCD) .Results Twenty-four of 35 patients(68.57%)were in deep coma. The GCS was 3 except for 2 patients;EEG was evaluated not less than grade Ⅳ except for 4 patients, BAEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 3 patients, and SLSEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 1 patient.Twenty-four patients died within 1 month and 11 of them(45.83%)were determined as brain death. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was evaluated as grade Ⅰ. Eleven of the 35 patients survived and their consciousness changed from deep coma to coma vigil. EEG was evaluated as gradeⅠin 5 patients, BAEP and SLSEP were evaluated as grade Ⅰ in 3 patients, and GOS was all evaluated as grade Ⅱ among the 11 patients.Two patients(18.18%)regained consciousness in 35 and 90 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and GOS was evaluated as grade Ⅳ and Ⅲ, respectively.Conclusion Combined or continuous evaluation of clinical examinations and laboratory tests can accurately and objectively determine brain function after CPR.

  11. Chemical and Hydrodynamical Models of Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Multi-fluid modelling of the outflowing gases which sublimate from cometary nuclei as they approach the Sun is necessary for understanding the important physical and chemical processes occurring in this complex plasma. Coma chemistry models can be employed to interpret observational data and to ultimately determine chemical composition and structure of the nuclear ices and dust. We describe a combined chemical and hydrodynamical model [1] in which differential equations for the chemical abundances and the energy balance are solved as a function of distance from the cometary nucleus. The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of 1P/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [2]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions and calculate the impact of these anions on the coma physics and chemistry af the coma.

  12. E.E.G. and multiple unit activity during ketamine and barbiturate anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamásy, V; Korányi, L; Tekeres, M

    1975-12-01

    Cortical e.e.g. and multiple unit activity (m.u.a.) of the mesencephalic reticular formation, the anterior hypothalamic area, the basal nuclear group of the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus were studied before and following i.p. injection of different doses of ketamine hydrochloride and a barbiturate in cats with chronically implanted electrodes. Barbiturate administration resulted in a rapid decrease in m.u.a. in the mesencephalic reticular formation which was accompanied by a significant decrease of activity in the limbic structures. No m.u.a. response was observed to visual, acoutic or somatosensory stimulation or to pain. The m.u.a. of the mesencephalic reticular formation and limbic structures increased gradually following ketamine injection. Intermittent or continuous hypersynchronous activity was characteristic in the cortical e.e.g. During the hypersynchronous activity the responsiveness of m.u.a. in the mesencephalic reticular formation, to visual and acoustic stimuli, was blocked. Somatosensory and painful stimulation, however, resulted in a significant increase in the activity both of the mesencephalic reticular formation and of the limbic neuronal pools. PMID:1218162

  13. Acupuncture Treatment for 15 Cases of Post-traumatic Coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jing; Wu Bin; Zhang Yongling; Wang Xinzhong

    2005-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of acupuncture combined with point-injection therapy on post-traumatic coma, 30 such cases were randomly divided into the following two groups. The patients in the control group were simply treated with the basic neural medical treatment; while patients in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture and point-injection therapy in addition to the above treatment. Comparisons were made between the two groups in the therapeutic effects by GCS evaluations as well as in the changes of main symptoms. The results showed that the GCS value in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group, but with no statistical significance (P>0.05). However, the main symptoms of the patients in treatment group, such as aphasia, hemiplegia, and injuries of cranial nerves (including injuries of the facial, oculomotor and abducent nerves) were obviously improved, showing significant differences as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion can be made that acupuncture combined with point-injection has the consciousness-inducing effect for post-traumatic coma, and shows good effects for the cranial nerve injuries and aphasia.

  14. Coma Chemistry of Sun-grazing Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Gicquel, Adeline

    2014-11-01

    The recent apparition of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), and its disruption during perihelion passage, has motivated numerous observations of the associated variations in the gas and dust composition. More generally, comet ISON has regenerated interest in the physics and chemistry of Sun-grazing comets. Chemical models of cometary comae have typically always been developed to model comets at about 1 AU and beyond [1]. Apart from one early coma chemistry model [2], which calculated the coma chemistry of a comet at 0.125 AU with assumed single-fluid physics, there have been no detailed studies of coma chemistry at the small heliocentric distances experienced by comet ISON and other Sun-grazing comets.In this contribution we will discuss the various physical and chemical processes that have to be considered when modeling the comae of Sun-grazing comets. We will present comet models in which the physical and chemical structures of the multi-fluid flow are calculated self-consistently [3] as a function of decreasing heliocentric distance.[1] Rodgers, S.D., Charnley S.B., Boice, D.C. & Huebner, W.F. (2004) In COMETS II, Eds. Festou, M., Keller, H.U. & Weaver, H.A., University of Arizona Press, 505-522 [2] Swift, M.B. & Mitchell, G.F. (1978) Icarus, 47, 412 [3] Rodgers, S.D. & Charnley, S.B. (2002) MNRAS, 330, 660This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Astronomy Programs.

  15. Photochemical processes in the inner coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for the inner-coma chemistry of comets are reviewed. The physics relevant to the coma's chemistry is summarized, and the interaction of solar radiation with the coma is described, along with photolytic and chemical processes. The formation and destruction of several observed species are traced through a chemical reaction network, and model results are compared with observations. The species considered include CN, C2, C3, NH2, CH, CO, CO(+), OH, H2O, HCO, C2H4, and C2H3. The models most consistent with observations are shown to indicate that only trace amounts (2% in all) of molecules bearing CN, C2, C3, and NH2 can be present in the nucleus of a comet

  16. Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris and concomitant fatal botulism of one : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. Clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. The occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids. This report relates to 3 adult captive cohabiting tigers that simultaneously developed signs of abdominal discomfort, progressive ataxia, recumbency and comatose sleep resembling stage 2 anaesthesia, alternating with periods of distracted wakefulness and ataxic movements. These signs occurred 4 days after being fed the carcass of a horse that had ostensibly died of colic and not been euthanased. The male tiger that was the dominant animal in the feeding hierarchy was worst affected and had to be given intravenous fluids. The female that was lowest in hierarchy was unaffected. After 48-72 hours of treatment at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital the females could eat and made an uneventful recovery. The male tiger showed partial recovery but died during the night a few hours after drinking water on his return to the owner. Necropsy revealed severe oesophageal dilation and impaction with decaying grass; some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. Colon content tested negative for common pesticides but, together with liver, tested positive for barbiturate. Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay

  17. The magnetic field in the Coma cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Feretti, L.; D. Dallacasa; Giovannini, G.; Tagliani, A.

    1995-01-01

    The polarization data of the radio galaxy NGC4869, belonging to the Coma cluster and located in its central region, allow us to obtain information on the structure of magnetic field associated with the cluster itself. A magnetic field of $\\sim$ 8.5 $\\mu$G, tangled on scales of the order of less than 1 kpc, is required to explain the observed fluctuations of the rotation measure. This magnetic field is more than one order of magnitude stronger than the equipartition value obtained for Coma C. ...

  18. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression. The actions of alcohol, pentobarbital, bicuculline, and the ampakine CX717, alone and in combination, were measured via 1) ventral root recordings from newborn rat brain stem-spinal cord preparations and 2) plethysmographic recordings from unrestrained newborn and adult rats. We found that ethanol caused a modest suppression of respiratory drive in vitro (50 mM) and in vivo (2 g/kg ip). Pentobarbital induced an ∼50% reduction in respiratory frequency in vitro (50 μM) and in vivo (28 mg/kg for pups and 56 mg/kg for adult rats ip). However, severe life-threatening apnea was induced by the combination of the agents in vitro and in vivo via activation of GABA(A) receptors, which was exacerbated by hypoxic (8% O(2)) conditions. Administration of the ampakine CX717 alleviated a significant component of the respiratory depression in vitro (50-150 μM) and in vivo (30 mg/kg ip). Bicuculline also alleviated ethanol-/pentobarbital-induced respiratory depression but caused seizure activity, whereas CX717 did not. These data demonstrated that ethanol and pentobarbital together caused severe respiratory depression, including lethal apnea, via synergistic actions that blunt chemoreceptive responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and suppress central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The ampakine CX717 markedly reduced the severity of respiratory depression. PMID:22837171

  19. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  20. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cottaar, Michiel [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fleming, Scott W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21211 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  1. Behaviour of Some Activated Nitriles Toward Barbituric Acid, Thiobarbituric Acid and 3-Methyl-1-Phenylpyrazol-5-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Habashy

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some active methylene containing heterocyclic compounds, namely barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid and 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one on a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamonitrile and ethyl a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (1a,b was investigated. The structure of the new products was substantiated by their IR,1H-NMR and mass spectra.

  2. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J Naftalin; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide...

  3. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  4. Peritoneal dialysis in hypernatraemic, ketoacidotic diabetic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køolendorf, K; Møoller, B B

    1976-01-01

    Hypertonic dehydration in a 13-year-old boy with ketoacidotic diabetic coma has been treated successfully with peritoneal dialysis and isotonic fluids. Modes of treatment with either hypotonic or isotonic fluids are discussed, as is the feasibility of peritoneal dialysis. We recommend isotonic solutions composed of equal parts of 5.5% glucose and 0.9% sodium chloride combined with peritoneal dialysis in order to secure a relatively slow correction of the hypertonic state.

  5. FK Comae, King of Spin: the Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of O VI and C III, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint Fe XXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we also are proposing}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE O VI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in Ne X by Chandra HETGS, are caused by a massive coronal outflow {perhaps implicated in magnetic braking}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are mapped onto specific locations in the global

  6. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, ; Ronald O.; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects ...

  7. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma cluster, a success rate >60% for targeted objects brighter than MR = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster population, we find strong support for a star cluster origin for the majority of the Coma UCDs. However, a few UCDs appear to have stellar population or structural properties which differentiate them from the old star cluster populations found in the Coma cluster, perhaps indicating that UCDs may form through multiple formation channels.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel barbituric acid derivatives in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenjia; Wyman, Arlene R; Alaamery, Manal A; Argueta, Shannon A; Ivey, F Douglas; Meyers, John A; Lerner, Adam; Burdo, Tricia H; Connolly, Timothy; Hoffman, Charles S; Chiles, Thomas C

    2016-09-01

    We have used a high throughput small molecule screen, using a fission yeast-based assay, to identify novel phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors. One of the most effective hit compounds was BC12, a barbituric acid-based molecule that exhibits unusually potent immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory actions on T lymphocyte function, including inhibition of T cell proliferation and IL-2 cytokine production. BC12 treatment confers a >95% inhibition of IL-2 secretion in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat T cells. The effect of BC12 on IL-2 secretion is not due to decreased cell viability; rather, BC12 blocks up-regulation of IL-2 transcription in activated T cells. BC12 also inhibits IL-2 secretion in human peripheral T lymphocytes stimulated in response to CD3/CD28 co-ligation or the combination of PMA and ionomycin, as well as the proliferation of primary murine T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin. A BC12 analog that lacks PDE7 inhibitory activity (BC12-4) displays similar biological activity, suggesting that BC12 does not act via PDE7 inhibition. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition of IL-2 production by BC12, we performed microarray analyses using unstimulated and stimulated Jurkat T cells in the presence or absence of BC12 or BC12-4. Our studies show these compounds affect the transcriptional response to stimulation and act via one or more shared targets to produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-stress effects. These results demonstrate potent immunomodulatory activity for BC12 and BC12-4 in T lymphocytes and suggest a potential clinical use as an immunotherapeutic to treat T lymphocyte-mediated diseases. PMID:27302770

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel barbituric acid derivatives in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenjia; Wyman, Arlene R; Alaamery, Manal A; Argueta, Shannon A; Ivey, F Douglas; Meyers, John A; Lerner, Adam; Burdo, Tricia H; Connolly, Timothy; Hoffman, Charles S; Chiles, Thomas C

    2016-09-01

    We have used a high throughput small molecule screen, using a fission yeast-based assay, to identify novel phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors. One of the most effective hit compounds was BC12, a barbituric acid-based molecule that exhibits unusually potent immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory actions on T lymphocyte function, including inhibition of T cell proliferation and IL-2 cytokine production. BC12 treatment confers a >95% inhibition of IL-2 secretion in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat T cells. The effect of BC12 on IL-2 secretion is not due to decreased cell viability; rather, BC12 blocks up-regulation of IL-2 transcription in activated T cells. BC12 also inhibits IL-2 secretion in human peripheral T lymphocytes stimulated in response to CD3/CD28 co-ligation or the combination of PMA and ionomycin, as well as the proliferation of primary murine T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin. A BC12 analog that lacks PDE7 inhibitory activity (BC12-4) displays similar biological activity, suggesting that BC12 does not act via PDE7 inhibition. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition of IL-2 production by BC12, we performed microarray analyses using unstimulated and stimulated Jurkat T cells in the presence or absence of BC12 or BC12-4. Our studies show these compounds affect the transcriptional response to stimulation and act via one or more shared targets to produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-stress effects. These results demonstrate potent immunomodulatory activity for BC12 and BC12-4 in T lymphocytes and suggest a potential clinical use as an immunotherapeutic to treat T lymphocyte-mediated diseases.

  10. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OUTSKIRTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot (∼8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to ∼2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r500 reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r500, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters

  11. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OUTSKIRTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W. [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Walker, S. A. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mantz, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Matsushita, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Takei, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 Japan (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot ({approx}8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to {approx}2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r{sub 500} reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r{sub 500}, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters.

  12. Radial U-band Coma galaxy luminosity functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; Hoekstra, H; van Dokkum, PG; van der Hulst, JM; Hibbard, JE; Rupen, MP; VanGorkom, JH

    2001-01-01

    We have mapped 1.3 degree(2) of the Coma cluster from the core to beyond the NGC4839 group. Here, we present radial U-band Coma galaxy luminosity functions (LF). The central LF can be represented by a Schechter function, but the radial LFs have very different shapes. We speculate that the derived st

  13. An X-ray Temperature Map of Coma

    OpenAIRE

    Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. Patrick

    1997-01-01

    We present an X-ray temperature map of the Coma cluster of galaxies obtained with the ROSAT PSPC. As expected from the X-ray surface brightness distribution the intracluster gas of Coma is not isothermal. The temperature structure resembles a bow shock of hot gas produced by the passage of the subcluster around NGC 4839 through the main cluster, confirming hydrodynamical simulations.

  14. Gabapentin-induced coma: A MR-spectrometry analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdennour, Lamine; Sanchez-Peña, Paola; Galanaud, Damien; Navarro, Vincent; Weiss, Nicolas; Puybasset, Louis

    2007-01-01

    As for the majority of antiepileptic drugs, encephalopathy, manifested by transient somnolence, mood and motor disorders, is a possible side-effect. To our knowledge, there is little information about gabapentin-induced coma. We report a third case of gabapentin-induced coma where magnetic resonance-spectrometry was performed in diagnosis assessment.

  15. Myxedema coma with cardiac tamponade and severe cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Majid-Moosa, Abdulla; Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Mora, Adan

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of hypothyroidism. We present a rare case of previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting in cardiogenic shock from pericardial tamponade and depressed myocardial contractility in myxedema coma. Here, we focus on cardiovascular complications associated with the condition.

  16. Memory disorder related to coma duration after head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkki, J; Poropudas, K; Servo, A

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of memory and intelligence test performances to coma duration was studied in 51 head injured patients who had not been operated on for intracranial haematoma. Memory defect was related to coma duration, and was not secondary to impaired perceptual or conceptual analysis of the material to be remembered.

  17. Structure of the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is based primarily upon a sample of 1722 galaxies in the Coma cluster observed by Abell. Abell's observations of the inner part of the Coma cluster (within 75 arc-min) are compared with those of several other observers, and a catalog of observations from several observers was prepared. The distribution of galaxies is tested for irregularities, finding marginal evidence that there are some clumps of galaxies in certain regions and magnitude ranges. However, it is found that axially symmetric bumps in the radial density distribution of galaxies are not significant. The projected spatial distribution of galaxies is then fitted in order to determine the core radius. The value of the core radius is found to be larger than that found by most previous authors, and it increases with increasing galaxy magnitude. This finding implies that a degree of mass segregation exists in the cluster. Finally, the spatial luminosity density at the center of the cluster is determined. The impact of the inclusion of non-members on the analysis is discussed along with different methods of determining membership in the cluster and correcting for the effects of nonmembers upon the observations

  18. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP compound leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilation may improve survival. The aim of the study was to correlate between the clinical score described by Peradenya Organophosphorus Poisoning (POP scale, glasgow coma scale (GCS and serum Pseudocholinesterase level at presentation, ventilator requirement and the outcome. This sectional study conducted at tertiary care centre, Nagpur from October 2011 to September 2013. 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the study. Majority of patients were in younger age group with male preponderance. Agriculture is the most common occupation found in the patients in the study. Mortality was found in 17.5% patients and mortality was found to be higher in patients with severe grade of Paradeniya poisoning scale (score > or = 7 and severe grade of Glasgow coma scale (score < or = 8. Patients with normal cholinesterase levels showed significantly higher chances of survival as compared to those with less than 10% of the normal cholinesterase levels. Patients with severe grade of POP scale and GCS needed ventilatory support more frequently than patients with mild to moderate grade. Thus GCS, POP scale and Pseudocholinesterase levels can very well be used in assessing prognosis and mortality of patients of OP poisoning.

  19. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Kathleen; Giacino, Joseph T

    2005-01-01

    The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I-IV and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe. The CRS was recently revised to address a number of concerns emanating from our own clinical experience with the scale, feedback from users and researchers as well as the results of Rasch analyses. Additionally, the CRS did not include all of the behavioural criteria necessary to diagnose the minimally conscious state (MCS), thereby limiting diagnostic utility. The revised JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) includes addition of new items, merging of items found to be statistically similar, deletion or modification of items showing poor fit with the scale's underlying construct, renaming of items, more stringent scoring criteria, and quantification of elicited behaviours to improve accuracy of rating. Psychometric properties of the CRS-R appear to meet standards for measurement and evaluation tools for use in clinical and research settings, and diagnostic application suggests that the scale is capable of discriminating patients in the minimally conscious state from those in the vegetative state.

  20. The Spinning Corona of FK Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of OVI and CIII, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint FeXXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we are carrying out}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE OVI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in NeX by Chandra HETGS, are caused by persistent coronal flows {outflows, perhaps implicated in magnetic braking; or inflows, like "coronal rain" on the Sun}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are

  1. Synthesis of barbituric acid containing nucleotides and their implications for the origin of primitive informational polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungi, Chaitanya V; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Chugh, Jeetender; Rajamani, Sudha

    2016-07-27

    Given that all processes in modern biology are encoded and orchestrated by polymers, the origin of informational molecules had to be a crucial and significant step in the origin of life on Earth. An important molecule in this context is RNA that is thought to have allowed the transition from chemistry to biology. However, the RNA molecule is comprised of intramolecular bonds which are prone to hydrolysis, especially so under the harsh conditions of the early Earth. Furthermore, the formation of nucleotides with extant bases and their subsequent polymerization have both been problematic, to say the least. Alternate heterocycles, in contrast, have resulted in nucleosides in higher yields, suggesting a viable and prebiotically relevant solution to the longstanding "nucleoside problem". In the present study, we have synthesized a nucleotide using ribose 5'-monophosphate (rMP) and barbituric acid (BA), as the base analog, using dry-heating conditions that are thought to be prevalent in several regimes of the early Earth. Polymerization of the resultant monomers, i.e. BA-nucleotides, was also observed when dehydration-rehydration cycles were carried out at low pH and high temperature. The resulting RNA-like oligomers have intact bases unlike in reactions that were carried out with canonical nucleotides, which resulted in abasic sites under acidic conditions due to cleavage of the N-glycosidic linkages. Furthermore, the incorporation of BA directly into preformed sugar-phosphate backbones was also observed when rMP oligomers were subjected to heating with BA. The results from our aforementioned experiments provide preliminary evidence that BA could have been a putative precursor of modern nucleobases, which could have been incorporated into primitive informational polymers that predated the molecules of an RNA world. Moreover, they also highlight that the prebiotic soup, which would have been replete with alternate heterocycles, could have allowed the sampling of other

  2. Synthesis of barbituric acid containing nucleotides and their implications for the origin of primitive informational polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungi, Chaitanya V; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Chugh, Jeetender; Rajamani, Sudha

    2016-07-27

    Given that all processes in modern biology are encoded and orchestrated by polymers, the origin of informational molecules had to be a crucial and significant step in the origin of life on Earth. An important molecule in this context is RNA that is thought to have allowed the transition from chemistry to biology. However, the RNA molecule is comprised of intramolecular bonds which are prone to hydrolysis, especially so under the harsh conditions of the early Earth. Furthermore, the formation of nucleotides with extant bases and their subsequent polymerization have both been problematic, to say the least. Alternate heterocycles, in contrast, have resulted in nucleosides in higher yields, suggesting a viable and prebiotically relevant solution to the longstanding "nucleoside problem". In the present study, we have synthesized a nucleotide using ribose 5'-monophosphate (rMP) and barbituric acid (BA), as the base analog, using dry-heating conditions that are thought to be prevalent in several regimes of the early Earth. Polymerization of the resultant monomers, i.e. BA-nucleotides, was also observed when dehydration-rehydration cycles were carried out at low pH and high temperature. The resulting RNA-like oligomers have intact bases unlike in reactions that were carried out with canonical nucleotides, which resulted in abasic sites under acidic conditions due to cleavage of the N-glycosidic linkages. Furthermore, the incorporation of BA directly into preformed sugar-phosphate backbones was also observed when rMP oligomers were subjected to heating with BA. The results from our aforementioned experiments provide preliminary evidence that BA could have been a putative precursor of modern nucleobases, which could have been incorporated into primitive informational polymers that predated the molecules of an RNA world. Moreover, they also highlight that the prebiotic soup, which would have been replete with alternate heterocycles, could have allowed the sampling of other

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Changes Induced by Solvent and Substituent in Electronic Absorption Spectra of New Azo Disperse Dyes Containig Barbiturate Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Hamidian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4-amino hippuric acid and coupled with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. Then, the products were reacted with aromatic aldehyde, sodium acetate, and acetic anhydride, and oxazolone derivatives were formed. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromic behavior of azo disperse dyes was evaluated in various solvents. The effects of substituents of aromatic aldehyde, barbiturate, and thiobarbiturate ring on the color of dyes were investigated.

  4. Radio observations of the peripheral region of the Coma cluster near Coma A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLA and WSRT observations are reported for the extended radio source 1253+275 on the periphery of the Coma cluster and for two active Coma radio galaxies within 20 arcmin of 1253+275. The data are presented in contour maps and characterized in detail. Source 1253+275 is shown to be a relic radio galaxy with physical conditions similar to those seen in the external regions (30-50 kpc from the cores) of the two active sources (NGC 4789 and NGC 4827). It is suggested that these regions survived for long periods (400 Myr) after the last acceleration of the radiating electrons because transverse expansion was inhibited by the local intergalactic medium, which has a density comparable to that in other rich clusters of galaxies. 7 references

  5. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by an introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperatu...

  6. SOCCER: Comet Coma Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Uesugi, K. T.; Tsou, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. Sample Of Comet Coma Earth Return (SOCCER), a joint effort between NASA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, has two primary science objectives: (1) the imaging of the comet nucleus and (2) the return to Earth of samples of volatile species and intact dust. This effort makes use of the unique strengths and capabilities of both countries in realizing this important quest for the return of samples from a comet. This paper presents an overview of SOCCER's science payloads, engineering flight system, and its mission operations.

  7. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Marzke, Ronald O; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects brighter than M_R = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster p...

  8. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  9. Which EEG patterns in coma are nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Leitinger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is common in patients with coma with a prevalence between 5% and 48%. Patients in deep coma may exhibit epileptiform EEG patterns, such as generalized periodic spikes, and there is an ongoing debate about the relationship of these patterns and NCSE. The purposes of this review are (i) to discuss the various EEG patterns found in coma, its fluctuations, and transitions and (ii) to propose modified criteria for NCSE in coma. Classical coma patterns such as diffuse polymorphic delta activity, spindle coma, alpha/theta coma, low output voltage, or burst suppression do not reflect NCSE. Any ictal patterns with a typical spatiotemporal evolution or epileptiform discharges faster than 2.5 Hz in a comatose patient reflect nonconvulsive seizures or NCSE and should be treated. Generalized periodic diacharges or lateralized periodic discharges (GPDs/LPDs) with a frequency of less than 2.5 Hz or rhythmic discharges (RDs) faster than 0.5 Hz are the borderland of NCSE in coma. In these cases, at least one of the additional criteria is needed to diagnose NCSE (a) subtle clinical ictal phenomena, (b) typical spatiotemporal evolution, or (c) response to antiepileptic drug treatment. There is currently no consensus about how long these patterns must be present to qualify for NCSE, and the distinction from nonconvulsive seizures in patients with critical illness or in comatose patients seems arbitrary. The Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE [1] have been modified according to the Standardized Terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society [2] and validated in three different cohorts, with a sensitivity of 97.2%, a specificity of 95.9%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 96.3% in patients with clinical signs of NCSE. Their diagnostic utility in different cohorts with patients in deep coma has to be studied in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  10. Multifrequency study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral characteristics of normal spiral galaxies are examined, focusing on the relationships between emission mechanisms in the radio continuum, the 21-cm H line, FIR, NIR, and optical bands. Also, the relationship between these mechanisms and the environmental properties of the galaxy is discussed. The study uses a sample from the Coma supercluster, focusing on the three-dimensional structure of the Coma supercluster, the dependence of average radio continuum and FIR luminosities on star formation, and the H I characteristics of galaxies in the Coma superlcuster. 36 refs

  11. Evidence against the Bm1P1 protein as a positive transcription factor for barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G C; Sung, C C; Liu, C H; Lin, C H

    1998-04-01

    The Bm1P1 protein was previously proposed to act as a positive transcription factor involved in barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in Bacillus megaterium. We now report that the bm1P1 gene encodes a protein of 217 amino acids, rather than the 98 amino acids as reported previously. In vitro gel shift assays indicate that the Bm1P1 protein did not interact with probes comprising the regulatory regions of the P450BM-1 gene. Moreover, disruption of the bm1P1 gene did not markedly affect barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. A multicopy plasmid harboring only the P450BM-1 promoter region could increase expression of the chromosome-encoded P450BM-1. The level of expression is comparable with that shown by a multicopy plasmid harboring the P450BM-1 promoter region along with the bm1P1 gene. These results strongly suggest that the Bm1P1 protein is unlikely to act as a positive regulator for barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. Finally, deletion of the Barbie box did not markedly diminish the effect of pentobarbital on expression of a reporter gene transcriptionally fused to the P450BM-1 promoter. This suggests that the Barbie box is unlikely to be a key element in barbiturate-mediated induction of P450BM-1. PMID:9525898

  12. Reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely hospitalized elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, B.; Olsen, L.; Poulsen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    Undisclosed use of illicit drugs and prescription controlled substances is frequent in some settings. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely...

  13. Practical procedure for coma-free alignment using caustic figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical procedure for coma-free alignment using a single defocused transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image is presented. Caustic figures observed in the defocused TEM image of a focused probe are utilized. Coma-free alignment can be carried out by coinciding a bright-field spot with the center of a caustic curve as observed in an underfocus TEM image. With this method, beam tilt misalignment is reduced to the sub-mrad order (e.g. 0.3 mrad for 300 kV FEG-TEM). This can be done without intentional beam tilting, an amorphous specimen, high-resolution TEM images, or fast Fourier transform for diffractogram or cross-correlation, which are used in previous methods. Residual coma aberration is detected using the multiple Bragg images of a known crystal. Similarity between the present coma-free alignment and well-known STEM alignment using shadow image is discussed

  14. Improvement of Multi-Particle Tracking Code COMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>COMA is a multi-particle tracking code for cyclotrons. It was developed by TRIUMF in 1975[1]. The code simulates particle acceleration by performing successive transformations on the particle co-ordinates

  15. [Intracranial hypertension in severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, P L; Bedock, B; Jay, S; Martin, A; Marc, J M

    1994-11-19

    We observed two cases of severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma and shock. In one case, coma was present at admission and in the second occurred within 15 hours. In both cases, intracranial hypertension was confirmed with an extradural captor. These findings are in agreement with observations of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Clinical data suggest that brain oedema may occur after a latency period but that clinical expression is much more rare, perhaps favoured by treatment (excessive rehydratation, alkalinization, too sharp drop in blood glucose level). In our cases, despite major fluid infusion, shock persisted requiring norepinephrine. This shock could have been the expression of the severe ketoacidosis or have resulted from an underlying infection. In case of sudden onset coma, a regularly encountered manifestation of brain oedema, respiratory assistance and mannitol infusion must be instituted rapidly. With this type of management, it should be possible to improve the severe prognosis of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:7899292

  16. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. PMID:25810464

  17. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  18. 21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity, 21 cm line observations of 130 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 Supercluster region are presented and used to study the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the direction of the Coma Supercluster and the H I content in spiral galaxies as a function of the local galaxy density. Groups of galaxies are found to form a quasi-continuous structure that connects the Local Supercluster to the Coma Supercluster. This structure is composed of real filaments only in the vicinity of the Coma Cluster. Spiral galaxies in the surveyed groups and multiple systems have H I content not dissimilar from that of isolated galaxies. Galaxies within about 1 Abell radius from the Coma Cluster contain about three times less hydrogen on average than isolated galaxies. There is a strong tendency for galaxies that are more severely H I-depleted to be redder and of earlier Hubble type. In the Coma Cluster a considerable fraction of late-type, blue galaxies have large deficiency parameters. 51 references

  19. Synthesis, X-Ray Crystal Structures, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies of a Series of Barbiturate Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of barbiturates derivatives synthesized and screened for different set of bioassays are described. The molecular structures of compounds 5a, 5d, and 5f were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of bioassay show that compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, and 4g are potent antioxidants in comparison to the tested standards, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and N-acetylcysteine. Compounds 4a–4e (IC50=101.8±0.8–124.4±4.4 μM and 4g (IC50=104.1±1.9 μM were more potent antioxidants than the standard (BHT, IC50=128.8±2.1 μM. The enzyme inhibition potential of these compounds was also evaluated, in vitro, against thymidine phosphorylase, α-glucosidase, and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Compounds 4c, 4h, 4o, 4p, 4q, 5f, and 5m were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors and showed more activity than the standard drug acarbose, whereas compounds 4v, and 5h were found to be potent thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors, more active than the standard drug, 7-deazaxanthine. All barbiturates derivatives (4a–4x, 4z, and 5a–5m were found to be noncytotoxic against human prostate (PC-3, Henrietta Lacks cervical (HeLa and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast (MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and 3T3 normal fibroblast cell line, except 4y which was cytotoxic against all the cell lines.

  20. Cometary Matter Analyser (COMA/CRAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, K.; Igenbergs, E.; Klein, J. W.; Krueger, F. R.; Kuczera, H.; Morfill, G.; Palme, H.; Roessler, K.; Weishaupt, U.; Zerrull, R.; Schmidt, R.; Strazulla, G.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, B.; Hanner, M.; Johnson, R.; Utterback, N.; Zinner, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project was part of an international program under which the chemical composition of cometary dust particles was to be measured 'in situ' during a rendezvous and flyby mission of a Mariner Mark 2 space probe and a comet (depending on the time of launch). Two necessary tasks, preliminary hardware development and interface definition, have been completed within the projects submitted for approval. As a result a model close to the flight configuration has been created, which was to be made available to the flight hardware contractor and his purposes. The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission was abandoned after joint resolution adopted by NASA and the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in 1992. Since an instrument like CoMA is an important contribution both to future cometary rendezvous missions, such as ROSETTA, as well as for accompanying laboratory activities, this project was terminated in a 'qualified conclusion'. In the process, components suitable for the laboratory developed from the preliminary units were produced and put into operation.

  1. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    CERN Document Server

    Hackman, Thomas; Mantere, Maarit J; Jetsu, Lauri; Korhonen, Heidi; Granzer, Thomas; Kajatkari, Perttu; Lehtinen, Jyri; Strassmeier, K G

    2012-01-01

    FK Comae is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the flip-flop phenomenon was discovered. Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is \\Delta \\phi 0.031. The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity j...

  2. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pérez Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management. It has been defined as acute alteration of wakefulness state, in which patients have a primitive response (or no response at all to nociceptive stimulus without waking up and could reach the total absence of all reflex. This document includes a review and update of the main clinical aspects, concepts, aetiology and therapy for this condition. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del paciente en coma. Definido como la alteración aguda del estado de vigilia en la cual los pacientes responden primitivamente o no responden a los estímulos nociceptivos, sin despertarse, que puede llegar a la ausencia de todos los reflejos. El documento revisa y actualiza los aspectos clínicos fundamentales, conceptos, etiología y el tratamiento terapéutico. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

  3. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan); Lombriser, Lucas; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C., E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: david.bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bob.nichol@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |f{sub R0}| < 6 × 10{sup −5}, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.

  4. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |fR0| < 6 × 10−5, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales

  5. Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium Associated with the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Takei, Y; Finoguenov, A; Mitsuda, K; Tamura, T; Fujimoto, R; Briel, U G; Takei, Yoh; Finoguenov, Alexis; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Tamura, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Briel, Ulrich G.

    2006-01-01

    We present our XMM-Newton RGS observations of X Comae, an AGN behind the Coma cluster. We detect absorption by NeIX and OVIII at the redshift of Coma with an equivalent width of 3.3+/-1.8 eV and 1.7+/-1.3 eV, respectively (90% confidence errors or 2.3 sigma and 1.9 sigma confidence detections determined from Monte Carlo simulations). The combined significance of both lines is 3.0 sigma, again determined from Monte Carlo simulations. The same observation yields a high statistics EPIC spectrum of the Coma cluster gas at the position of X Comae. We detect emission by NeIX with a flux of 2.5+/-1.2 x 10^-8 photons cm^-2 s^-1 arcmin^-2 (90% confidence errors or 3.4 sigma confidence detection). These data permit a number of diagnostics to determine the properties of the material causing the absorption and producing the emission. Although a wide range of properties is permitted, values near the midpoint of the range are T = 4 x 10^6 K, n_H = 6 x 10^-6 cm^-3 corresponding to an overdensity with respect to the mean of ...

  6. Coma hiperosmolar associado ao transplante de fígado Hyperosmolar coma associated with liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico diferencial dos pacientes inconscientes sempre inclui o coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não-cetótico. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 22 anos, tipo sangüíneo O+, branca, natural e procedente do Recife - PE com queixa de icterícia e astenia há um mês. Ao exame físico, havia icterícia 3+/4+, desnutrição leve (IMC 17,5 e asterixis. Os exames laboratoriais sugeriram hepatite fulminante. Após 12 horas da inclusão na lista de espera pelo transplante, recebeu enxerto de fígado de doador cadáver, mediante o uso de técnica de piggback sem intercorrências. No 10º dia pós-operatório evoluiu com trombose de artéria hepática (TAH, diagnosticada por ultra-som com doppler de artéria hepática. Após 48 horas foi retransplantada sem intercorrências. A partir do 13º dia de pós-operatório, evoluiu com hiperglicemia grave (> 600 mg/dl e alteração do nível de consciência (9 pontos na escala de coma de Glasgow. Osmolaridade sérica nesse momento igual a 309 mOsm/kgH2O. O nível sérico de tacrolimus nesse dia foi de 11 ng/dl. Coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não-cetótico foi tratado clinicamente por 48 horas. Recebeu alta no 30º dia de pós-operatório do retransplante, sem diabete mellitus. CONCLUSÃO: O coma hiperosmolar é um evento raro no pós-operatório de transplante de fígado e pode modificar a evolução do paciente.BACKGROUND: The literature described an increased incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. These tumors typically occur in the small intestine, and frequently are multiple. Often the behavior of the tumor in this association is more favorable than in sporadic cases. CASE REPORT: Incidental diagnosis of GIST was done in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 during treatment for acute abdomen. Trans-operatively was identified a retrocecal perforated appendicitis and a neoplastic mass in the proximal jejunum. The

  7. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VIII. Barred Disk Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Hammer, Derek; Brok, Mark den; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Peletier, Reynier F; Peng, Eric; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2012-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We use high resolution (~0.1") F814W ACS images from the HST ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z~0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), and in dwarf galaxies in the Coma core. Our study helps constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. (1) We characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M_V 10^9.5 M_sun) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. Measuring the S0 bar fraction must be handled carefully, as the results depend on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50%+/-11%, 65%+/-11%, and 60%+/-11% for three methods of bar detection: strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (Coma core, A901/902, Virgo). We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 ...

  8. Extragalactic Gamma Ray Excess from Coma Supercluster Direction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pantea Davoudifar; S. Jalil Fatemi

    2011-09-01

    The origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray is not accurately known, especially because our suggestions are related to many models that need to be considered either to compute the galactic diffuse gamma ray intensity or to consider the contribution of other extragalactic structures while surveying a specific portion of the sky. More precise analysis of EGRET data however, makes it possible to estimate the diffuse gamma ray in Coma supercluster (i.e., Coma\\A1367 supercluster) direction with a value of ( > 30MeV) ≃ 1.9 × 10-6 cm-2 s-1, which is considered to be an upper limit for the diffuse gamma ray due to Coma supercluster. The related total intensity (on average) is calculated to be ∼ 5% of the actual diffuse extragalactic background. The calculated intensity makes it possible to estimate the origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray.

  9. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  10. Dynamic analysis of constellation of Coma Berenices galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preceding note, the equations of the simplest dynamical model accounting for most of available data on Coma Cluster have been established. One finds typically: the optical core radius 30', the X-ray core radius 18'; the total radius of Coma is found to be approximately 3 deg, while the X-ray emission is restricted to within a radius 75'. The galaxy central mass density ranges around: 10-27 g/cm-3 and the central electron density is 2x10-3 cm-3. The mean dynamical mass of Coma is 8x1014M of the sun (H0=50km/s/Mpc). 2/3 of the total mass is due to galaxies up to msub(ν)=19.4 and the remaining 1/3 is due to the X-ray emitting plasma. This total mass depends on the temperature gradient, which can be more or less steep

  11. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-IR magnitudes have been obtained for 136 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and near-IR colors (J-H) and (H-K) for 90 and 87 objects, respectively. The near-IR colors are contained in a small range and do not depend on morphological types, galaxy inclination, or environment. Optical-to-IR colors depend strongly on a galaxy's morphological type and inclination. There is a dependence of the relative excess of radio, and to a lesser degree, of far-IR emission on recent star formation activity. The magnitude-line width relation for galaxies in Coma and A1367 obtained with these data has a larger spread than previously found with smaller samples. The data suggest a distance modulus to Coma of about 35, regardless of the choice of primary calibrators. 43 refs

  12. Knoevenagel condensation of α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid under non-catalytic and solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An efficient route for the synthesis of 5-(arylpropenylidine)-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione 3 from an appropriate α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes 1 and barbituric acid 2 under both non-catalytic and solvent-free microwave irradiation conditions was described. In this way, a range of biologically important compounds 3 was obtained in good to excellent yields (86-98 %) in a very short reaction time (30-80 s).

  13. Evaluation of the protein metabolism during hepatic coma evidenced by 15N tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients in coma hepaticum as well as in pigs with experimental hepatic coma the protein metabolism was studied under conditions of parenteral application of an amino acid diet using 15N-glycine as tracer

  14. Hydrosectoral Disorders of Patients in Birth in Eclamptic Coma

    OpenAIRE

    I.H. Hapy; Y.S. Podolsky

    2009-01-01

    Research objective is to detect hydrosectoral disorders of patients in birth in eclamptic coma. It has been shown that hyper-hydration of isotonic character in patients in eclamptic coma has been revealed. Total liquid volume has been in 31,26 % higher than the normal one and it has occured due to extracellular fluid expansion. The expansion has been due to hyper-hydration in the interstitial sector in all cases, its volume has been in 97,4% higher than the normal one. The volume of blood cir...

  15. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  16. Spectroscopic Investigations of Fragment Species in the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Cochran, Anita L.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The content of the gaseous coma of a comet is dominated by fragment species produced by photolysis of the parent molecules issuing directly from the icy nucleus of the comet. Spectroscopy of these species provides complementary information on the physical state of the coma to that obtained from observations of the parent species. Extraction of physical parameters requires detailed molecular and atomic data together with reliable high-resolution spectra and absolute fluxes of the primary source of excitation, the Sun. The large database of observations, dating back more than a century, provides a means to assess the chemical and evolutionary diversity of comets.

  17. Doppler shifts in the coma of Comet P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative radial velocities across 70-100 arcsecs of the coma of Comet P/Halley were measured on four days in 1985-1986 on coude CCD spectrograms in order to search for detectable Doppler shifts. The measurements show a trend of positive velocity with respect to projected distance from the nucleus. The shifts are most clearly observed at r = 1.1 AU, where the relative velocity at 10000 km amounted to 3-4 km/s. The Doppler shifts represent an integration through the whole coma. It is suggested that a proper model of the comet is needed to convert the shifts into true outflow velocities. 14 refs

  18. HCO+ in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Bergin, E. A.; Dickens, J. E.; Devries, C. H.; Senay, M. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Maps of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in the millimeter-wave emission of the ion HCO+ revealed a local minimum near the nucleus position, with a maximum about 100,000 km in the antisolar direction. These observed features of the HCO+ emission require a low abundance of HCO+ due to enhanced destruction in the inner coma of the comet, within a region of low electron temperature (Te). To set constraints on the formation of HCO+ in the coma, as well as the location and magnitude of the transition to higher Te, the data are compared with the results of ion-molecule chemistry models.

  19. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso Hyponatremic coma induced by oxcarbazepine: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda; Saul Cavalcanti de Medeiros Quinino; José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.We report a rare case of severe hyponatremia with coma induced by the use of oxcarbazepine after one month of treatment, in pos-operatory of neurosurgery...

  20. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Bilgin; Arzu Guclu-Gunduz; Hakan Oruckaptan; Nezire Kose; Bülent Celik

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27)received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

  1. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  2. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  3. Complete recovery after severe myxoedema coma complicated by status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjølner, Jesper; Opstrup, Ulla Kampmann; Søndergaard, Esben;

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening myxoedema presenting with hypothermia, hypotension, bradycardia, pericardial effusion and deep coma. The condition was complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The optimal treatment strategy has been debated over the years and the literature is briefly...

  4. VLA HI imaging of the brightest spiral galaxies in Coma

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo-Alfaro, H; Van Gorkom, J H; Balkowski, C

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained 21cm images of 19 spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster, using the VLA in its C and D configurations. The sample selection was based on morphology, brightness, and optical diameters of galaxies within one Abell radius (1.2 degrees). The HI detected, yet deficient galaxies show a strong correlation in their HI properties with projected distance from the cluster center. The most strongly HI deficient (HI Def > 0.4) galaxies are located inside a radius of 30 arcmin (aprox 0.6 Mpc) from the center of Coma, roughly the extent of the central X-ray emission. These central galaxies show clear asymmetries in their HI distribution and/or shifts between the optical and 21cm positions. Seven so called blue disk galaxies in Coma were observed in HI and six were detected. We did a more sensitive search for HI from 11 of the 15 known post starburst galaxies in Coma. None were detected with typical HI mass limits between 3 and 7x10^7 solar masses. Our results present and enhance a picture already familiar for ...

  5. Color gradients in the coma of P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some important information relevant to the understanding of the gas/dust dynamics near the surface of a comet nucleus concerns knowledge of the grain composition and scattering properties as well as the particle size distribution of dust in the coma. Ground based measurements of light scattered from the dust comae can provide some information about the physical grain properties, in particular about the mean optically dominant grain size. Optical spectra of continua of nine comets presented by Jewitt and Meech, 1986, show that all of the scattered light is reddened with respect to the Sun. There is significant scatter in the amount of reddening seen for different comets. In the near IF regions, the reddening decreases until near 2 to 3 micrometers where the reflectivity is nearly neutral. It is of particular interest to see if there are any observable changes in the grain size distribution during outburst. Although no coma colar changes were observed during the Nov. 1985 outbursts, a color gradient within the coma has been observed in Halley. Radial color gradients in J, H, and K images of Halley as reported by Campins have not been observed by the author

  6. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  7. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care u

  9. A preliminary model of the coma of 2060 Chiron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Konno, I.; Stern, S. Alan; Huebner, Walter F.

    1992-01-01

    We have included gravity in our fluid dynamic model with chemical kinetics of dusty comet comae and applied it with two dust sizes to 2060 Chiron. A progress report on the model and preliminary results concerning gas/dust dynamics and chemistry is given.

  10. Analysis on care outcome of patients with polytrauma and coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xing-ji; KONG Ling-wen; DU Ding-yuan; SU Hong-jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To make further improvement of outcome of patients with polytrauma and coma. Methods:The data of 3 361 patients (2 378 males and 983 females,aged from 5-95 years,38.2 years on average) with severe polytrauma and coma admitted to Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Level I Trauma Center), Chongqing,China, from November 1978 to December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively in this study.Results:The overall survival rate and mortality were 93.2 % (3 133/3 361 ) and 6.8 % ( 228/3 361 ),respectively.The mortalities in patients with coma duration < 1 hour and combined with neural dysfunction and in patients with coma duration ≥ 1 hour and combined with or without neural dysfunction were significantly higher than that of those with coma duration < 1 hour but without neural dysfunction[39.5 % (136/344) vs 3.0 % ( 92/3 017 ),P < 0.01 ].There existed significant differences in GCS,ISS,and revised trauma score (RTS) between the death group and the survival group (P <0.01). RTS was in good correspondence with patient's pathophysiological status and outcome in patients with multiple trauma and coma for different groups of systolic blood pressure (SBP).The mortality in patients with SBP < 90 mm Hg was significantly higher than that of those with SBP ≥ 90 mm Hg [33.3 %(68/204) vs 5.1%(160/3 157),P <0.01].The mortality in polytrauma patients combined with serious head injury (AIS≥3) was 8.2%,among which,76.5% died from lung complications.The morbidity rate of lung complications and mortality rate increased in patients with head injury complicated with chest or abdomen injury (23.9 %,61.1%vs 27.3%,50.0%).The mortality reached up to 61.9% in patients complicated with severe head,chest and abdomen injuries simultaneously. Conclusions:It plays a key role to establish a fast and effective trauma care system and prompt and definite surgical procedures and to strengthen the management of complications for improving the survival rate of patients with severe

  11. Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.

  12. Coma of modified Gregorian and Cassegrainian mirror systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The equivalence of the classical Newtonian, Cassegrainian, and Gregorian mirror systems with respect to the first two Seidel aberrations is rederived by means of a simple congruence. The effects of arbitrary small modifications of the two mirror systems are then studied and general formulas are derived for the effects of such modifications on the spherical aberration and coma. Spherical aberration is corrected to the third order if the amount of glass removed from one surface is replaced at the corresponding zone of the other surface. Modifications in which one surface is made spherical while the other is adjusted to eliminate spherical aberration result in large increases of coma for systems having the usual amplifying ratios.

  13. The radio halo and active galaxies in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cambridge Low-Frequency Synthesis Telescope has been used to map the Coma cluster at 151 MHz. Two new extended sources are found, associated with the cluster galaxies NGC4839 and NGC4849. The central halo radio source is shown not to have a simple symmetrical structure but to be distorted, with separate centres of brightening near the radio galaxies NGC4874 and IC4040. The structure cannot be accounted for by cluster-wide acceleration processes but implies a close connection with current radio galaxies and, in particular, models requiring diffusion of electrons out of radio sources seem to be favoured. The other large source, near Coma A, is detected and higher resolution data at 1407 MHz are used to clarify its structure. (author)

  14. COMAS: representative spreading experiments with view to core melt mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the COMAS (corium on material surfaces) project representative experimental and analytical investigations on the ex-vessel spreading behaviour of prototypic corium were performed to provide a realistic technical basis for the development of core catchers for future nuclear reactor generations. In various large-scale experiments melts in the Mg-range with real corium compositions and temperatures around 2000 C were tested using different substratum materials (concrete, ceramics, cast iron). The COMAS results indicate that for a sufficiently high melt release rate a quick and homogeneous coverage of an ex-vessel spreading compartment as realized in the Franco-German EPR project can be expected. Regarding the analytical assessment it can be concluded that some spreading codes have reached a sufficient level to provide guidelines for the evaluation of spreading concepts. Open questions are mainly related to segregation and immobilization of the melt. (orig.)

  15. Ammonia abundance in the coma of Halley's Comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to recent work by Allen et al. (1987) which suggests that the value of the ratio of the abundance of the atomic masses 19 to 18 observed in situ in the inner coma of Comet Halley is incompatible with a pure H2O nucleus and requires an NH3 abundance of 1-2 percent. The present authors discuss possible ways of explaining the radial profile of r = 19/18, which deemphasizes the presence of NH3. It is shown that the observed value of the 19/18 mass ratio in the inner coma does not necessarily imply the existence of a significant abundance of NH3. An elevated UV flux, for which there is circumstantial evidence, could produce the same effect. 21 references

  16. Distribution of dark matter in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations on positional and kinematical data for the distribution of dark matter in the Coma cluster are shown to cast doubt on any assumption of a constant M/L ratio. Attention is given to the possible forms of a smooth, spherical background potential (BP) for which positive phase space distribution functions that agree with available positions and radial velocities. Virial theorem, as applied to clusters of galaxies, assumes that galaxies and dark matter have similar distributions. The theorem can be used, together with complete velocity profiles calculated from velocity dispersion data, to constrain the distribution of dark matter. The constant M/L ratio then could be valid for the Coma cluster, provided subclustering or asymmetries in the galaxy distribution are negligible. 28 references

  17. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Holanda Maurus Marques de Almeida; Quinino Saul Cavalcanti de Medeiros; Silva José Alberto Gonçalves da

    2003-01-01

    Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.

  18. Model of the constellation of Coma Berenices galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new theoretical results and observations show that the usual isothermal hypothesis must be rejected for the dynamical analysis of Coma. Equations are established of the simplest model which allows one, in the dynamical analysis, to make use of the correlations observed between galaxy velocity dispersion and either masses or radial distances and of the data on intergalactic X-ray emission. Furthermore, the model must allow other data to fit in: galaxy density profiles and luminosity function

  19. Dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies. I. The Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and dynamics of the Coma cluster are analyzed using self-consistent equilibrium dynamical models. Observational material for Coma is culled from a variety of sources. Projected surface, density, and velocity-dispersion profiles are derived extending out to a radius of 30 from the cluster center, which are essentially free from field contamination. Segregation of galaxies by luminosity and morphology are discussed and a quantitative estimate of the latter is made. The method of constructing self-consistent dynamical models is discussed. Four different forms of the distribution function are analyzed allowing for different possible dependences of f on energy and angular momentum. Properties of typical models that might resemble actual clusters are presented, and the importance of having velocity-dispersion information is empha sized. The effect of a central massive object such as a cD galaxy on the core structure is illustrated. A comparison of these models with Coma reveals that only models with a distribution function in which the ratio of tangential to radial velocity dispersions is everywhere constant give acceptable fits. In particular, it is possible to rule out models that have isotropic motions in the core and predominantly radial motions in the halo. For H0 = 50, the best-fitting models give a total projected mass inside 30 of 2.9 x 1015 M/sub sun/ , a core radius of 340--400 kpc (8.5'--10'), an upper limit to any central massive object of approx.1013 M/sub sun/ , and a mass-to-blue-light ratio of M/L = 181. From cosmological considerations the cluster ''edge'' is determined to lie at rapprox.50--60. The possible distribution of ''dark matter'' in Coma is discussed and it is argued that this distribution cannot be significantly different from that of the galaxies. The dynamics of morphological segregation are examined quantitatively, and are explained at least qualitatively

  20. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Putten, van, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care units. Continuous EEG was measured during the first 3 days. EEGs were classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, burst-suppression with identical bursts), intermediate, or favorable (continu...

  1. Cometary coma chemical composition (C4) mission. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.; Clark, B. C.; Niemann, H. B.; Alexander, M.; Knocke, P. C.; O'Hara, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary missions are of enormous fundamental importance for many different space science disciplines, including exobiology. Comets are presumed relics of the earliest, most primitive material in the solar nebula and are related to the planetesimals. They undoubtedly provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system (contributing to atmospheres and oceans) and may have been key to the origin of life. A Discovery class, comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, was selected for further study by NASA earlier this year. The C4 Mission is a highly focused and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission, concentrating exclusively on measurements which will lead to an understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. The scientific goals of the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission are to rendezvous with a short-period comet and (1) to determine the elemental, chemical, and isotopic composition of the nucleus and (2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. Further, it is a goal to obtain preliminary data on the development of the coma (dust and gas composition) as a function of time and orbital position.

  2. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  3. Model of comet comae. II. Effects of solar photodissociative ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements to our computer model of coma plotochemistry are described. These include an expansion of the chemical reactions network and new rate constants that have been measured only recently. Photolytic reactions of additional molecules are incorporated, and photolytic branching ratios are treated in far greater detail than in our previous work. A total of 25 photodissociative ionization (PDI) reactions are now considered (as compared to only 3 PDI reactions previously). Solar PDI of the mother molecule CO2 is shown to compete effectively with photoionization of CO in the production of observed CO+. The CO+ density peak predicted by our improved model, for COP2 or CO mother molecules, is deep in the inner coma, in better agreement with observation than our old CO2 model. However, neither CO2 nor CO mother molecule calculations reproduce the CO+/H2O+ ratio observed in comet Kohoutek. PDI products of CO2, CO, CH4, and NH3 mother molecules fuel a complex chemistry scheme, producing inner coma abundances of CN, C2, and C3 much greater than previously calculated

  4. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trentham, Neil [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hammer, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn (Australia); Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Balcells, Marc [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Peng, Eric W., E-mail: marinova@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to

  5. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso Hyponatremic coma induced by oxcarbazepine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.We report a rare case of severe hyponatremia with coma induced by the use of oxcarbazepine after one month of treatment, in pos-operatory of neurosurgery. We discuss the importance of this condition and its differential diagnosis.

  6. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use high-resolution (∼0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z ∼ 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (MV ∼* > 109.5 M☉) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% ± 11%, 65% ± 11%, and 60% ± 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of ±11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n ∼ 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc–3) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low-density environments for two reasons. First, S0s in rich clusters are

  7. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  8. A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Siddharth; Dutta, Manoj Kumar; Namdeo, Mayank

    2015-05-01

    Myxedema coma or hypothyroid crisis is an endocrine emergency and needs ICU management. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is another medical emergency which needs high degree of clinical suspicion else mortality can be high. There is a paradox in co existence of myxedema coma and NMS. While one is hypometabolic state another is hypermetabolic state and both can be precipitated by antipsychotics use. Hypothermia and flaccidity commonly expected in myxedema coma may mask fever and rigidity of classical NMS contributing to diagnostic problem and treatment delay. Scientific literature on coexistance of myxedema coma and NMS is sparse. We hereby report first case with coexisting myxedema coma and NMS in a patient of schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic, where classical symptoms of NMS were masked by myxedema coma. Prompt diagnosis and effective management by a team resulted in favourable outcome in our patient. This case is reported to alert intensive care physicians to atypical manifestations of NMS in presence of hypothyroidism.

  9. Daily isoflurane exposure increases barbiturate insensitivity in medullary respiratory and cortical neurons via expression of ε-subunit containing GABA ARs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith B Hengen

    Full Text Available The parameters governing GABAA receptor subtype expression patterns are not well understood, although significant shifts in subunit expression may support key physiological events. For example, the respiratory control network in pregnant rats becomes relatively insensitive to barbiturates due to increased expression of ε-subunit-containing GABAARs in the ventral respiratory column. We hypothesized that this plasticity may be a compensatory response to a chronic increase in inhibitory tone caused by increased central neurosteroid levels. Thus, we tested whether increased inhibitory tone was sufficient to induce ε-subunit upregulation on respiratory and cortical neurons in adult rats. Chronic intermittent increases in inhibitory tone in male and female rats was induced via daily 5-min exposures to 3% isoflurane. After 7d of treatment, phrenic burst frequency was less sensitive to barbiturate in isoflurane-treated male and female rats in vivo. Neurons in the ventral respiratory group and cortex were less sensitive to pentobarbital in vitro following 7d and 30d of intermittent isoflurane-exposure in both male and female rats. The pentobarbital insensitivity in 7d isoflurane-treated rats was reversible after another 7d. We hypothesize that increased inhibitory tone in the respiratory control network and cortex causes a compensatory increase in ε-subunit-containing GABAARs.

  10. 3D-QSAR Studies on Barbituric Acid Derivatives as Urease Inhibitors and the Effect of Charges on the Quality of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ul-Haq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5 has been determined as a virulence factor in pathogenic microorganisms that are accountable for the development of different diseases in humans and animals. In continuance of our earlier study on the helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by barbituric acid derivatives, 3D-QSAR (three dimensional quantitative structural activity relationship advance studies were performed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA methods. Different partial charges were calculated to examine their consequences on the predictive ability of the developed models. The finest developed model for CoMFA and CoMSIA were achieved by using MMFF94 charges. The developed CoMFA model gives significant results with cross-validation (q2 value of 0.597 and correlation coefficients (r2 of 0.897. Moreover, five different fields i.e., steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic, H-bond acceptor and H-bond donors were used to produce a CoMSIA model, with q2 and r2 of 0.602 and 0.98, respectively. The generated models were further validated by using an external test set. Both models display good predictive power with r2pred ≥ 0.8. The analysis of obtained CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps provided detailed insight for the promising modification of the barbituric acid derivatives with an enhanced biological activity.

  11. A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Siddharth; Dutta, Manoj Kumar; Namdeo, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma or hypothyroid crisis is an endocrine emergency and needs ICU management. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is another medical emergency which needs high degree of clinical suspicion else mortality can be high. There is a paradox in co existence of myxedema coma and NMS. While one is hypometabolic state another is hypermetabolic state and both can be precipitated by antipsychotics use. Hypothermia and flaccidity commonly expected in myxedema coma may mask fever and rigidity o...

  12. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  13. MMN and Novelty P3 in Coma and Other Altered States of Consciousness: A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    International audience In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how pass...

  14. Analysis of CCD images of the coma of comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The modeling analysis objective of this project is to make use of the skill acquired in the development of Monte Carlo particle trajectory models for the distributions of gas species in cometary comae as a basis for a new dust coma model. This model will include a self-consistent picture of the time-dependent dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma and the three-dimensional time-dependent trajectories of the dust particles under the influence of solar gravity and solar radiation pressure in the outer coma. Our purpose is to use this model as a tool to analyze selected images from two sets of data of the comet P/Halley with the hope that we can help to understand the effects of a number of important processes on the spatial morphology of the observed dust coma. The study will proceed much in the same way as our study of the spatially extended hydrogen coma where we were able to understand the spatial morphology of the Lyman-alpha coma in terms of the partial thermalization of the hot H atoms produced by the photodissociation of cometary H2O and OH. The processes of importance to the observed dust coma include: (1) the dust particle size distribution function; (2) the terminal velocities of various sized dust particles in the inner coma; (3) the radiation scattering properties of dust particles, which are important both in terms of the observed scattered radiation and the radiation pressure acceleration on dust particles; (4) the fragmentation and/or vaporization of dust particles; (5) the relative importance of CHON and silicate dust particles as they contribute both to the dusty-gas dynamics in the inner coma (that produce the dust particle terminal velocities) and to the observed spatial morphology of the outer dust coma; and (6) the time and direction dependence of the source of dust.

  15. EXTINCTION IN THE COMA OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 2007 October 29, the outbursting comet 17P/Holmes passed within 0.''79 of a background star. We recorded the event using optical, narrowband photometry and detect a 3%-4% dip in stellar brightness bracketing the time of closest approach to the comet nucleus. The detected dimming implies an optical depth τ ≈ 0.04 at 1.''5 from the nucleus and an optical depth toward the nucleus center τn d = 0.006 ± 0.002 at α = 16° phase angle. Our measurements place the most stringent constraints on the extinction optical depth of any cometary coma.

  16. Evolution of near UV Halley's spectrum in the inner coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, Phillippe; Clairemidi, Jacques; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    A direct way to observe the photodissociation of water vapor in a cometary coma is to detect the OH prompt emission. This emission is shifted of delta lambda = 4 nm with respect to the OH 309 nm fluorescence band. The extended data set obtained with the three-channel spectrometer on-board Vega 2 reveals at short distance of the nucleus (i.e., less than 600 km) an excess of emission on the right wing of the OH band which may be interpreted as being mainly due to prompt emission.

  17. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kinoshita, Y.; Yokota, J.I.; Yoshioka, T.; Sugimoto, T.

    1987-07-01

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint.

  18. The kinetics and dynamics of the coma of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This grant to the University of Michigan supported the efforts of Michael R. Combi to serve as a co-investigator in collaboration with a larger effort by the principal investigator, William Smyth of Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. The overall objective of this project was to analyze in a self-consistent manner unique optical O((sup 1)D) and NH2 ultra-high resolution line profile data of excellent quality and other supporting lower-resolution spectral data for the coma of comet P/Halley by using highly developed and physically-based cometary coma models in order to determine and explain in terms of physical processes the actual dynamics and photochemical kinetics that occur in the coma. The justification for this work is that it provides a valuable and underlying physical base from which to interpret significantly different types of coma observations in a self-consistent manner and hence bring into agreement (or avoid) apparent inconsistencies that arise from non-physically based interpretations. The level of effort for the Michigan component amounted to less than three person-months over a planned period of three years. The period had been extended at no extra cost to four years because the Michigan grant and the AER contract did not have coincident time periods. An effort of somewhat larger scope was undertaken by the PI. The importance of the O((sup 1)D) profiles is that they provide a direct trace of the water distribution in comets. The line profile shape is produced by the convolution of the outflow velocity and thermal dispersion of the parent water molecules with the photokinetic ejection of the oxygen atoms upon photodissociation of the parent water molecules. Our understanding of the NH2 and its precursor ammonia are important for comet-to-comet composition variations as they relate to the cosmo-chemistry of the early solar nebula. Modeling of the distribution of NH2 is necessary in order to infer the ammonia production rates from NH2

  19. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint. (orig.)

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope advanced camera for surveys coma cluster survey. I. Survey objectives and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium w

  1. X-ray archaeology in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies. These maps, made with the ROSAT satellite, have much higher SNR than any previous X-ray image of a galaxy cluster, and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than might have been anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases, there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies, the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected to the limit of our field, about 1 deg from the cluster center, and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show clearly that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was, in fact, formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  2. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, ; Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters, and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGC...

  3. Image Enhancement Techniques for Quantitative Investigations of Morphological Features in Cometary Comae: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinha, Nalin

    2014-01-01

    Many cometary coma features are only a few percent above the ambient coma (i.e., the background) and therefore coma enhancement techniques are needed to discern the morphological structures present in cometary comae. A range of image enhancement techniques widely used by cometary scientists is discussed by categorizing them and carrying out a comparative analysis. The enhancement techniques and the corresponding characteristics are described in detail and the respective mathematical representations are provided. As the comparative analyses presented in this paper make use of simulated images with known coma features, the feature identifications as well as the artifacts caused by enhancement provide an objective and definitive assessment of the various techniques. Examples are provided which highlight contrasting capabilities of different techniques to pick out qualitatively distinct features of widely different strengths and spatial scales. On account of this as well as serious image artifacts and spurious fe...

  4. The role of regional nerve block anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: an experimental comparison with previous series with the use of general anesthesia and barbiturates for cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrifoglio, G; Agus, G B; Bonalumi, F; Costantini, A; Carlesi, R

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of 60 cases divided into two groups given carotid endarterectomy (C.E.) for atherosclerotic disease. In the first group general anesthesia and barbiturate cerebral protection were employed; in group two, loco-regional anesthesia. Indications and risk factors were similar in the two groups; the surgical procedure was identical. The differences in the results are reported and factors contributing to cerebral protection or reduction in the risk of stroke are analyzed. The analysis indicates that loco-regional anesthesia for C.E. is a reliable method for detecting cerebral ischemia and guaranteeing cerebral protection by means of a temporary shunt when strictly necessary. PMID:3450753

  5. Distribucion de Hidrogeno Neutro EN Galaxias Espirales de Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Alfaro, H.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.

    1998-11-01

    We have carried out a study of environmental effects on the properties and evolution of galaxies in clusters. We have studied the HI content of spiral galaxies in two nearby clusters, Abell~262 and Abell~1656 (Coma), from 21cm observations obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and with the Very Large Array. These observations have provided us the HI images of a sample of 11 galaxies in Abell~262, and 19 in Coma. We have computed the HI content and analyzed the HI distribution of detected galaxies, what enabled us to study the environmental effects on cluster galaxies, as well as the possible involved physical mechanisms. We confirm the tendency of HI deficient galaxies to be closer to the cluster core. We also estimate in a quantitative fashion the role that ram pressure stripping can play in the central cluster region, where the intra--cluster medium shows its most hostile density and temperature conditions. Most of galaxies showing a perturbed neutral hydrogen distribution are likely affected by ram pressure. Five star--bursting galaxies and one post--starburst were detected among the 19 HI detected objects in Coma. We conclude, from the analysis of their HI distribution and from the correlations of their positions in the cluster and U--V colors with the HI deficiency, that some cluster galaxies may follow an evolutionary sequence: galaxies would first become blue because of the interaction with the ICM, what trigger a burst of star--formation. Galaxies appear at this stage as HI deficient. The next step in this sequence would be the PSB stage, where galaxies arrive once they quench most of their HI reservoir and the star--formation stops in a short time-scale. The deep neutral gas stripping explain why these galaxies are hardly detected in HI. None of the closest galaxies to NGC~4839 have been detected in our observations around the Southwest group, what hints a previous passage across the cluster core with the consequence of a stripping process

  6. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  7. Estudio clínico del proceso conductual de la emergencia del coma grave por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Romero López, Modesto Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar el proceso de la emergencia del coma en pacientes en coma grave por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV). Método: Se han evaluado a 32 pacientes ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos por un coma de origen cerebrovascular. Se ha realizado un seguimiento diario por neuropsicólogos e intensivistas y monitorizado el despertar del coma mediante 8 escalas de evalua ... ción clínica de los niveles de coma. Se han analizado las variables: edad, género, residencia, índice prem...

  8. PULSATING VARIABLE STARS IN THE COMA BERENICES DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present B, V, I time-series photometry of the Coma Berenices dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a faint Milky Way (MW) satellite, recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have obtained V, B - V and V, V - I color-magnitude diagrams that reach V ∼ 23.0-23.2 mag showing the galaxy turnoff at V ∼ 21.7 mag, and have performed the first study of the variable star population of this new MW companion. Two RR Lyrae stars (a fundamental-mode, RRab, and a first overtone, RRc, pulsator) and a short period variable with period P = 0.12468 days were identified in the galaxy. The RRab star has a rather long period of P ab = 0.66971 days and is about 0.2 mag brighter than the RRc variable and other nonvariable stars on the galaxy horizontal branch (HB). In the period-amplitude diagram, the RRab variable falls closer to the loci of Oosterhoff type-II systems and evolved fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic globular cluster M3. The average apparent magnitude of the galaxy HB, (V HB) = 18.64 ± 0.04 mag, leads to a distance modulus for the Coma dSph μ0 = 18.13 ± 0.08 mag, corresponding to a distance d = 42+2-1 kpc, by adopting a reddening E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.015 mag and a metallicity [Fe/H] =-2.53 ± 0.05 dex.

  9. Binary model for the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of galaxies in the Coma cluster and find that the cluster is probably dominated by a central binary of galaxies NGC 4874--NGC4889. We estimate their total mass to be about 3 x 1014 M/sub sun/ by two independent methods (assuming in Hubble constant of 100 km s-1 Mpc-1). This binary is efficient in dynamically ejecting smaller galaxies, some of of which are seen in projection against the inner 30 radius of the cluster and which, if erroneously considered as bound members, cause a serious overestimate of the mass of the entire cluster. Taking account of the ejected galaxies, we estimate the total cluster mass to be 4--9 x 1014 M/sub sun/, with a corresponding mass-to-light ratio for a typical galaxy in the range of 20--120 solar units. The origin of the secondary maximum observed in the radial surface density profile is studied. We consider it to be a remnant of a shell of galaxies which formed around the central binary. This shell expanded, then collapsed into the binary, and is now reexpanding. This is supported by the coincidence of the minimum in the cluster eccentricity and radical velocity dispersion at the same radial distance as the secondary maximum. Numerical simulations of a cluster model with a massive central binary and a spherical shell of test particles are performed, and they reproduce the observed shape, galaxy density, and radial velocity distributions in the Coma cluster fairly well. Consequences of extending the model to other clusters are discussed

  10. Phase synchronization in electroencephalographic recordings prognosticates outcome in paediatric coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nenadovic

    Full Text Available Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the paediatric population. Due to the lifetime impact of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000-2010 analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, <8 admitted to the paediatric critical care unit (PCCU following brain injury from TBI, cardiac arrest or stroke. Phase synchrony of the EEGs was evaluated using the Hilbert transform and the variability of the phase synchrony calculated. Outcome was evaluated using the 6 point Paediatric Performance Category Score (PCPC based on chart review at the time of hospital discharge. Outcome was dichotomized to good outcome (PCPC score 1 to 3 and poor outcome (PCPC score 4 to 6. Children who had a poor outcome following brain injury secondary to cardiac arrest, TBI or stroke, had a higher magnitude of synchrony (R index, a lower spatial complexity of the synchrony patterns and a lower temporal variability of the synchrony index values at 15 Hz when compared to those patients with a good outcome.

  11. Spatial structure in the color of the dust coma of Comet P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant spatial variations are noted in the color of the dust in Comet Halley's dust coma, out to 156,000 km from the optocenter, in the present March 1-6, 1986 narrowband CCD images. In particular, the envelope of intermediate-mass particles formed around the nucleus by solar radiation pressure is redder than the rest of the dust coma, and a strong jet noted in the March 1 images is redder than both the dust envelope and the remainder of the dust coma. A wavelength-dependence model of the Comet Halley dust's color is developed on the basis of Mie theory. 28 refs

  12. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - VII. Structure and Assembly of Massive Galaxies in the Center of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Weinzirl, Tim; Neistein, Eyal; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kormendy, John; Marinova, Irina; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Brok, Mark den; Hammer, Derek; Peletier, Reynier F; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Trentham, Neil; Erwin, Peter; Puzia, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We constrain the assembly history of galaxies in the central 0.6 Mpc of the rich Coma cluster at z~0.02 based on the structure of 69 massive (M*>1e9 M_sun) galaxies using images from the HST Treasury Survey of Coma. Our findings are: (1) We make no a priori assumptions on the shape of the profile for outer and central structures, which can include disk-dominated components, bars, and classical bulges/ellipticals. After excluding the 2 cDs, we find that most (56%) of the galactic stellar mass resides in classical bulges/Es while (44%) resides in cold disk-dominated structures. This suggests that most of the stellar mass in Coma galaxies may have been assembled and shaped through the redistribution of stars during major mergers, and possibly minor mergers, but that gas-rich dissipative processes that build disk-dominated structures remain important even in the center of a rich cluster like Coma. (2) We see strong evidence of a morphology-density relation. In the central 0.6 Mpc of the Coma cluster, there are 2 ...

  13. Solar wind effects on the outer ion coma of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple two-dimensional model is developed to examine the composition of the cometary ion coma in the region outside the ionopause which is strongly affected by the solar wind. Two-dimensional ion distributions are obtained assuming a cylindrically symmetric ion coma which accounts for the dynamic effects of the mass-loaded solar wind flow around the cometary ionosphere. The results of this model are discussed in the context of analyzing the GIOTTO ion data

  14. Halos of rich clusters of galaxies. I. An infall model for the Coma Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large mass of a cluster of galaxies slows the Hubble expansion in a surrounding volume. The ratio of the matter density near the cluster to the average density at large distances grows as the cosmological density parameter, Ω, decreases. For values of Ω<0.2, the gravitational attraction of the Coma Cluster acting upon an initially homogeneous external medium is sufficient to account for a galaxy population comparable to that of the Coma Supercluster

  15. CoMA, an instrument for the detailed in-situ analysis of collected cometary particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for CoMA, a pulsed time-of-flight SIMS instrument to be flown onboard CRAF to rendezvous with a comet, had been accepted by NASA in October 1986. After several attempts it seems that funding by BMFT for the instrument pre-development phase can be obtained. Apart from that we made first essential progress in producing the primary ion pulses from an indium liquid metal ion source. Those pulses are needed to operate CoMA. (orig.)

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. (den Brok+, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Seth, A.; Balcells, M.; Dominguez, L.; Graham, A. W.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Jogee, S.; Lucey, J.; Phillipps, S.; Puzia, T.; Valentijn, E.; Kleijn, G. V.; Weinzirl, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Coma ACS Survey (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C) provides data in two passbands for 25 fields pointed at the core of the Coma cluster and at the outskirts. The exposure times in the two passbands, F814W and F475W (which are roughly equivalent to the IC and g band) were ~1400 and ~2600s. The

  17. 'Is she alive? Is she dead?' Representations of chronic disorders of consciousness in Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Depictions of coma have come to dominate literary and filmic texts over the last half century, a phenomenon coinciding with advancements in medical technology that have led to remarkable increases in the survival rates of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. Authors of coma fiction are preoccupied with the imagined subjective experience of coma, often creating complex, dream-like worlds from which the protagonist must escape if survival is to be achieved. However, such representations appear to conflict with medical case studies and patient narratives that reveal that most often survivors of coma have no recollection of the coma itself. Providing a close reading of Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma (1998) against the context of medical literature and diagnoses, this article examines how the coma patient is represented, often depicting the realities of a prolonged vegetative state, in contrast with other popular representations of coma. It explores how the author develops a work of 'fantastic' fiction (a genre defined by the structuralist critic Tzvetan Todorov), using the condition of coma as a metaphor for a postmodern existential crisis, while simultaneously employing mimetic techniques that raise important medical, ethical and philosophical questions surrounding the ontological status of the comatose patient. It is argued that coma fiction, even in its misrepresentation of the condition, can help us to engage with and interrogate how we think about chronic disorders of consciousness, thereby providing a valuable insight into our attitudes towards illness and mortality.

  18. Robust control of burst suppression for medical coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Medical coma is an anesthetic-induced state of brain inactivation, manifest in the electroencephalogram by burst suppression. Feedback control can be used to regulate burst suppression, however, previous designs have not been robust. Robust control design is critical under real-world operating conditions, subject to substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter uncertainty and unpredictable external disturbances. We sought to develop a robust closed-loop anesthesia delivery (CLAD) system to control medical coma. Approach. We developed a robust CLAD system to control the burst suppression probability (BSP). We developed a novel BSP tracking algorithm based on realistic models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We also developed a practical method for estimating patient-specific pharmacodynamics parameters. Finally, we synthesized a robust proportional integral controller. Using a factorial design spanning patient age, mass, height, and gender, we tested whether the system performed within clinically acceptable limits. Throughout all experiments we subjected the system to disturbances, simulating treatment of refractory status epilepticus in a real-world intensive care unit environment. Main results. In 5400 simulations, CLAD behavior remained within specifications. Transient behavior after a step in target BSP from 0.2 to 0.8 exhibited a rise time (the median (min, max)) of 1.4 [1.1, 1.9] min; settling time, 7.8 [4.2, 9.0] min; and percent overshoot of 9.6 [2.3, 10.8]%. Under steady state conditions the CLAD system exhibited a median error of 0.1 [-0.5, 0.9]%; inaccuracy of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; oscillation index of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; and maximum instantaneous propofol dose of 4.3 [2.1, 10.5] mg kg-1. The maximum hourly propofol dose was 4.3 [2.1, 10.3] mg kg-1 h-1. Performance fell within clinically acceptable limits for all measures. Significance. A CLAD system designed using robust control theory achieves clinically acceptable

  19. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients. PMID:24281786

  20. Methods emergency coma patients in emergencyfirst aid and the effect of 96 cases%96例急诊昏迷患者急诊急救的方法与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锋

    2015-01-01

    objective: to investigate the method and effect of emergency first aid emergency patients in coma.Methods:96 cases were studied retrospectively, to take emergency measures according to the causes of coma, emergency treatment success rate of assessment method.results: 96 patients after examination, 21 patients with cardiovascular diseases lead to coma, among which 16 cases were cured or improved after treatment.36 patients with cerebral vascular diseases 25 cases got successful treatment of coma.23 patients with the diseases of the endocrine system lead to coma, after the success of first aid in 21 patients.9 cases of patients with coma caused by diseases of the endocrine system.2 patients with traumatic coma, in which 1 people died due to his injuries.another 5 people are the causes of coma caused by other factors, the medical rescue after 4 people were rescued successfully.the six causes of coma after resuscitation success rates were 76.19%, 69.44%, 91.30%, 77.78%, 50% and 80%.conclusion: according to the emergency patients in coma coma due to targeted therapy, can improve the clinical cure rate, reduce the mortality rate.%目的:探讨分析急诊昏迷患者急诊急救的方法与效果。方法对96例患者进行回顾性研究,根据昏迷原因采取针对性的急救措施,评估急救方法的救治成功率。结果96例患者经过检查,有21例患者因心血管系统疾病导致昏迷,其中16例患者经急救治愈或者好转。36例患者因脑血管系统疾病昏迷,25例得到成功救治。23例患者因内分泌系统疾病导致昏迷,经急救成功的患者有21例。9例患者昏迷由内分泌系统疾病引发。2例患者因外伤导致昏迷,其中1人因伤势过重死亡。另有5人昏迷原因有其他因素所致,经过就诊抢救后4人被救治成功。这六种原因导致的昏迷经过急救后成功率分别为76.19%、69.44%、91.30%、77.78%、50%和80%。结论根据急诊昏迷患者昏迷原因采

  1. Stability of auditory event-related potentials in coma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Lulé, Dorothée; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Lopez-Rolon, Alexander; Bender, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS) after brain injury show significant fluctuations in their behavioural abilities over time. As the importance of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the detection of traces of consciousness increases, we investigated the retest reliability of ERPs with repeated tests at four different time points. Twelve healthy controls and 12 inpatients (8 UWS, 4 MCS; 6 traumatic, 6 non-traumatic) were tested twice a day (morning, afternoon) for 2 days with an auditory oddball task. ERPs were recorded with a 256-channel-EEG system, and correlated with behavioural test scores in the Coma Recovery Scale-revised (CRS-R). The number of identifiable P300 responses varied between zero and four in both groups. Reliabilities varied between Krippendorff's α = 0.43 for within-day comparison, and α = 0.25 for between-day comparison in the patient group. Retest reliability was strong for the CRS-R scores for all comparisons (α = 0.83-0.95). The stability of auditory information processing in patients with disorders of consciousness is the basis for other, even more demanding tasks and cognitive potentials. The relatively low ERP-retest reliability suggests that it is necessary to perform repeated tests, especially when probing for consciousness with ERPs. A single negative ERP test result may be mistaken for proof that a UWS patient truly is unresponsive.

  2. [New research and considerations in managing minimally conscious coma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, A

    1998-11-01

    The "Wachkoma", minimally conscious state (synonyms in use: "apallic syndrome", "vegetative state"), is a severe, complex condition arising from brain damage of diverse etiologies, for which definitional consensus does not exist internationally; it gives rise to frequent misdiagnosis and carries substantial insecurities concerning treatment outcomes. In the framework of expanding early rehabilitation, however, recent years have seen a distinct shift away from a defect-oriented, reductionist view towards a relational-medicine based understanding of patients with severe brain damage, seeking to gain a comprehensive perception of the patient's altered physical existence and taking a multidisciplinary--nursing, medical, therapeutic and neuropsychological--perspective which includes the patient's relatives and family. Historically, a transition is under way away from the classical brain-pathology focus toward a neuropsychologically grounded, differentiated perspective. Along with in-depth differential diagnostics and assessment of rehab potentials (early intervention diagnostics), comprehensive intervention measures are initiated as early as possible by an interdisciplinary team. These include "coma stimulation" measures, body language forms of interaction ("dialogue management"), and technical communication devices. By building long-term care assistance in ambulatory and residential service delivery systems ("small social network"), social reintegration of these very severely affected patients is attempted, involving the familial and social resources available. Recurrently raised within the bioethical discourse, demands to consider doctor-assisted dying or food withdrawal are to be rejected from a clinical, medical and social-ethical perspective. PMID:10063504

  3. Knowledge of Glasgow coma scale by air-rescue physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heim Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS by trained Air-rescue physicians in Switzerland. Methods Prospective anonymous observational study with a specially designed questionnaire. General knowledge of the GCS and its use in a clinical case were assessed. Results From 130 questionnaires send out, 103 were returned (response rate of 79.2% and analyzed. Theoretical knowledge of the GCS was consistent for registrars, fellows, consultants and private practitioners active in physician-staffed helicopters. The clinical case was wrongly scored by 38 participants (36.9%. Wrong evaluation of the motor component occurred in 28 questionnaires (27.2%, and 19 errors were made for the verbal score (18.5%. Errors were made most frequently by registrars (47.5%, p = 0.09, followed by fellows (31.6%, p = 0.67 and private practitioners (18.4%, p = 1.00. Consultants made significantly less errors than the rest of the participating physicians (0%, p Conclusion Although the theoretical knowledge of the GCS by out-of-hospital physicians is correct, significant errors were made in scoring a clinical case. Less experienced physicians had a higher rate of errors. Further emphasis on teaching the GCS is mandatory.

  4. Representative experiments on nuclear meltdowns. COMAS, HCTM, CORESA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear meltdown accidents and the possibility of specific countermeasures have formed the focal point of discussions on reactor safety for ten years now, particularly following the events in Tschernobyl. One of these countermeasures is - assuming failure of the reactor pressure vessel - wide-area ex-vessel spreading of the meltdown product in a catchment system with subsequent water flooding. This proposed method corresponds to the current planning basis for the Franco-German Joint Project EPR. Since 1993, a German working group has been carrying out research into the control of nuclear meltdowns: Experiments with nuclear meltdown products, it is hoped, will provide information for the control of nuclear meltdown accidents. An exceptional feature of these investigations is the realisability of largescale experiments with prototypal corium-combinations and representative test conditions. The present article describes the setting-up and the results of the COMAS (Corium on Metal Surfaces)-spreading experiment and of the CORESA (Corium on Refractory and Sacrificial Materials)-test program in the commercial-scale radioactive meltdown system CARLA. (orig.)

  5. Approximately A Thousand Ultra Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, Jin; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 854 ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster using deep R band images, with partial B, i, and Halpha band coverage, obtained with the Subaru telescope. Many of them (332) are Milky Way-sized with very large effective radii of r_e>1.5kpc. This study was motivated by the recent discovery of 47 UDGs by van-Dokkum et al. (2015); our discovery suggests >1,000 UDGs after accounting for the smaller Subaru field. The new UDGs show a distribution concentrated around the cluster center, strongly suggesting that the great majority are (likely longtime) cluster members. They are a passively evolving population, lying along the red sequence in the CM diagram with no Halpha signature. Star formation was, therefore, quenched in the past. They have exponential light profiles, effective radii re ~ 800 pc- 5 kpc, effective surface brightnesses mu_e(R)=25-28 mag arcsec-2, and stellar masses ~1x10^7 - 5x10^8Msun. There is also a population of nucleated UDGs. Some MW-sized UDGs appear closer to...

  6. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: I. Velocity Dispersion Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Karick, A M; Mármol-Queraltó, E; Chiboucas, K; Tully, R B; Mobasher, B; Guzmán, R; Matković, A; Gruel, N

    2011-01-01

    We present the study of a large sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster observed with DEIMOS on the Keck II to determine their internal velocity dispersion. We focus on a subsample of 41 member dwarf elliptical galaxies for which the velocity dispersion can be reliably measured, 26 of which were studied for the first time. The magnitude range of our sample is $-21

  7. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Sohail; Shahzadi, Lubna; Mahmood, Nasir; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar; Rauf, Abdul; Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Yar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. PMID:27207049

  8. 西学东渐——新译“Glasgow coma scale”%Western learning spreading to the East: new translation of "Glasgow coma scale"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹西峰; 李建民; 李兵; 费舟

    2014-01-01

    西方的科学研究成果大多来源于英语的语言文化环境,把西方的科学研究成果介绍到中国,必须重视英语的语言文化环境和汉语的语言文化环境的不同,这样才能使国人准确、方便地应用西方的科学研究成果,西学东渐.格拉斯哥昏迷评分(Glasgow coma scale)被翻译、介绍到国内已有数十年,但汉语版的“Glasgow coma scale”多种多样,容易造成初学者和使用者的迷惑.本文复习有关“Glasgow coma scale”的原始英式英文文献、美式英语英文文献和以往的几个主要的汉语翻译版.结合英式英语、美式英语和汉语的语言文化特点,新译了“Glasgow coma scale”,以方便医护人员使用.

  9. One barbiturate and two solvated thiobarbiturates containing the triply hydrogen-bonded ADA/DAD synthon, plus one ansolvate and three solvates of their coformer 2,4-diaminopyrimidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Egert, Ernst; Bolte, Michael

    2016-09-01

    A path to new synthons for application in crystal engineering is the replacement of a strong hydrogen-bond acceptor, like a C=O group, with a weaker acceptor, like a C=S group, in doubly or triply hydrogen-bonded synthons. For instance, if the C=O group at the 2-position of barbituric acid is changed into a C=S group, 2-thiobarbituric acid is obtained. Each of the compounds comprises two ADA hydrogen-bonding sites (D = donor and A = acceptor). We report the results of cocrystallization experiments of barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid, respectively, with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, which contains a complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding site and is therefore capable of forming an ADA/DAD synthon with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. In addition, pure 2,4-diaminopyrimidine was crystallized in order to study its preferred hydrogen-bonding motifs. The experiments yielded one ansolvate of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (pyrimidine-2,4-diamine, DAPY), C4H6N4, (I), three solvates of DAPY, namely 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1,4-dioxane (2/1), 2C4H6N4·C4H8O2, (II), 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/1), C4H6N4·C4H9NO, (III), and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (1/1), C4H6N4·C5H9NO, (IV), one salt of barbituric acid, viz. 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium barbiturate (barbiturate is 2,4,6-trioxopyrimidin-5-ide), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O3(-), (V), and two solvated salts of 2-thiobarbituric acid, viz. 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 2-thiobarbiturate-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/2) (2-thiobarbiturate is 4,6-dioxo-2-sulfanylidenepyrimidin-5-ide), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O2S(-)·2C3H7NO, (VI), and 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 2-thiobarbiturate-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/2), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O2S(-)·2C4H9NO, (VII). The ADA/DAD synthon was succesfully formed in the salt of barbituric acid, i.e. (V), as well as in the salts of 2-thiobarbituric acid, i.e. (VI) and (VII). In the crystal structures of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, i.e. (I)-(IV), R2(2)(8) N-H...N hydrogen-bond motifs are preferred and, in two

  10. Compressed spectral arrays of patients with fulminant hepatic failure in hepatic coma undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Takayuki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Kim, Ildeok; Inomata, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Ohwada, Susumu; Morishita, Yasuo; Tanaka, Koichi

    2002-08-01

    Assessing the coma status of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is important for determining the reversibility of brain damage and for properly timing liver transplantation. The compressed spectral array (CSA) method is a frequency analysis technique that processes electroencephalogram signals by computer to facilitate on-line interpretation. This method has been used to monitor the consciousness levels of neurointensive care unit patients. In this study, we determined whether CSA could be used to assess the coma status of patients with FHF, and whether CSA provided information that was useful in deciding when to proceed with liver transplantation. CSA recording was carried out in 17 FHF patients with encephalopathy (coma grade III-IV) who underwent living-related liver transplantation between August 1997 and May 1999. Recording was performed with a Neuromonitor OEE-72044 (NIHON KOHDEN, Osaka, Japan) every 24 h before and after transplantation, until the patients regained consciousness. The CSAs of healthy controls were distributed almost equally between 0 and 16 Hz. The CSAs of FHF patients in hepatic coma were classified into three patterns. Eight of the 17 patients showed very prominent slow waves of about 2 Hz (group A), and seven patients showed strongly suppressed rapid waves between 8 and 16 Hz (group B). The remaining two patients showed CSA patterns that were similar to those of healthy controls, even though these patients were comatose (group C). Abnormal CSA patterns were observed in 15 of the 17 patients (88%). Group B patients seemed to have higher coma grades than did group A patients. Sixteen patients underwent liver transplantation, completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy, and subsequently showed CSA patterns similar to those of healthy controls. One patient died without regaining consciousness. These results suggest that CSA is useful in assessing the coma status of FHF patients and in evaluating electrophysiological recovery

  11. Induction of burst suppression or coma using intravenous anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jeong-Won; Moon, Jang Sup; Byun, Jung-Ick; Lim, Jung-Ah; Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2015-05-01

    General anesthetic-induced coma therapy has been recommended for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus (RSE). However, the influence of electroencephalographic (EEG) burst suppression (BS) on outcomes still remains unclear. This study investigated the impact of intravenous anesthetic-induced BS on the prognosis of RSE using a retrospective analysis of all consecutive adult patients who received intravenous anesthetic treatment for RSE at the Seoul National University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2011. Twenty-two of the 111 episodes of RSE were enrolled in this study. Of the 22 RSE patients, 12 (54.5%) were women and 18 (81.4%) exhibited generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Sixteen patients (72.7%) were classified as having acute symptomatic etiology, including three patients with anoxic encephalopathy, and others with remote symptomatic etiology. Only two patients (9.1%) had a favorable Status Epilepticus Severity Score (0-2) at admission. All patients received midazolam (MDZ) as a primary intravenous anesthetic drug for RSE treatment; three (13.6%) received MDZ and propofol, and one (4.5%) received MDZ and pentobarbital. The rates of mortality and poor outcome at discharge were 13.6% (n=3) and 54.5% (n=12), respectively. While BS was achieved in six (27.5%) patients, it was not associated with mortality or poor outcome. Induced BS was associated with prolonged hospital stay in subgroup analysis when excluding anoxic encephalopathy. Our results suggest that induction of BS for treating RSE did not affect mortality or outcome at discharge and may lead to an increased length of hospital stay.

  12. Very deep spectroscopy of the Coma cluster line of sight: exploring new territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, C.; Le Brun, V.; Biviano, A.; Durret, F.; Lamareille, F.; Pelló, R.; Ilbert, O.; Mazure, A.; Trilling, R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Environmental effects are known to have an important influence on cluster galaxies, but studies at very faint magnitudes (R>21) are almost exclusively based on imaging. We present here a very deep spectroscopic survey of galaxies on the line of sight to the Coma cluster. Aims: After a series of papers based on deep multi-band imaging of the Coma cluster, we explore spectroscopically part of the central regions of Coma, in order to confirm and generalize previous results, concerning in particular the galaxy luminosity function, red sequence, stellar populations and the most likely formation scenario for the Coma cluster. Methods: We have obtained reliable VIMOS redshifts for 715 galaxies in the direction of the Coma cluster centre in the unprecedented magnitude range 21 ≤ R ≤ 23, corresponding to the absolute magnitude range -14 ≤ MR ≤ -12. Results: We confirm the substructures previously identified in Coma, and identify three new substructures. We detect a large number of groups behind Coma, in particular a large structure at z 0.5, the SDSS Great Wall, and a large and very young previously unknown structure at z 0.054, which we named the background massive group (BMG). These structures account for the mass maps derived from a recent weak lensing analysis. The orbits of dwarf galaxies are probably anisotropic and radial, and could originate from field galaxies radially falling into the cluster along the numerous cosmological filaments surrounding Coma. Spectral characteristics of Coma dwarf galaxies show that red or absorption line galaxies have larger stellar masses and are older than blue or emission line galaxies. R ≤ 22 galaxies show less prominent absorption lines than R ≥ 22 galaxies. This trend is less clear for field galaxies, which are similar to R ≥ 22 Coma galaxies. This suggests that part of the faint Coma galaxies could have been recently injected from the field following the NGC 4911 group infall. We present a list of five ultra

  13. Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A; Altwegg, K; Balsiger, H; Bar-Nun, A; Berthelier, J-J; Bochsler, P; Briois, C; Calmonte, U; Combi, M; De Keyser, J; van Dishoeck, E F; Fiethe, B; Fuselier, S A; Gasc, S; Gombosi, T I; Hansen, K C; Hässig, M; Jäckel, A; Kopp, E; Korth, A; Le Roy, L; Mall, U; Maggiolo, R; Marty, B; Mousis, O; Owen, T; Rème, H; Rubin, M; Sémon, T; Tzou, C-Y; Waite, J H; Walsh, C; Wurz, P

    2015-10-29

    The composition of the neutral gas comas of most comets is dominated by H2O, CO and CO2, typically comprising as much as 95 per cent of the total gas density. In addition, cometary comas have been found to contain a rich array of other molecules, including sulfuric compounds and complex hydrocarbons. Molecular oxygen (O2), however, despite its detection on other icy bodies such as the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, has remained undetected in cometary comas. Here we report in situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, with local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O and with a mean value of 3.80 ± 0.85 per cent. Our observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance. This suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet's formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations. Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur.

  14. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF OH AND CN RADICALS IN THE COMA OF COMET ENCKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple potential parent species have been proposed to explain CN abundances in comet comae, but the parent has not been definitively identified for all comets. This study examines the spatial distribution of CN radicals in the coma of comet Encke and determines the likelihood that CN is a photodissociative daughter of HCN in the coma. Comet Encke is the shortest orbital period (3.3 years) comet known and also has a low dust-to-gas ratio based on optical observations. Observations of CN were obtained from 2003 October 22 to 24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. To determine the parent of CN, the classical vectorial model was modified by using a cone shape in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. To test the robustness of the modified model, the spatial distribution of OH was also modeled. This also allowed us to obtain CN/OH ratios in the coma. Overall, we find the CN/OH ratio to be 0.009 ± 0.004. The results are consistent with HCN being the photodissociative parent of CN, but we cannot completely rule out other possible parents such as CH3CN and HC3N. We also found that the fan-like feature spans ∼90°, consistent with the results of Woodney et al..

  15. THE DIFFUSE SOFT EXCESS EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These ROSAT data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ-temporally and spatially contiguous-background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge toward Coma, and generated either by nonthermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves.

  16. HI-deficient spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster and Abell 1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of 11 spiral galaxies in each of the clusters Abell 1367 and Coma (Abell 1656) was observed in the 21-cm H I line with the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope. Nine galaxies are detected in Al367 and three in Coma. Comparison of the quantity log M/sub H/L/sub pg/ for each galaxy with the mean value for its Hubble type from the standard samples of nearby spirals compiled by Balkowski and by Roberts indicates that the A1367 and Coma spirals have lower values of log M/sub H/L/sub pg/ than field spirals by a factor of at least 4, with the Coma values probably more extreme. It is argued that little of this effect (perhaps a factor approx. 1.5) can be attributed to the bias toward high luminosities in the sample, and thus that these spirals are deficient in H I by factors of at least 3 to 5 in comparison with the standard samples. For the present limited sample, several mechanisms seem adequate to account qualitatively for stripping of H I from the Coma cluster spirals, but the case of the A1367 spirals is puzzling. 2 figures

  17. Prognostically important EEG coma patterns in diffuse anoxic and traumatic encephalopathies in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, V M

    1988-04-01

    Because of the paucity in the English literature of a detailed and universally accepted EEG grading scale relating to survival after diffuse traumatic and anoxic brain insults, prognostically oriented EEG patterns including recently described abnormalities are presented and discussed. The significance of these patterns may also apply in cases of coma of other etiologies, which can present morphologically similar features. EEG patterns have been classified into five major grades based on an internationally accepted scale. Individual patterns have been more clearly defined on the basis of the morphology of dominant activities, their distribution, persistence, and reactivity to external stimulation. Favorable outcome with survival seems to occur with both grade 1 and the "reactive type" of grade 2 abnormalities, with preservation of normal sleep features, and with frontal monorhythmic delta activity. Prognostically uncertain patterns are "nonreactive" grade 2 abnormalities, diffuse delta activity with grade 3 abnormality, and the "reactive type of alpha pattern coma." The following patterns are suggested to be prognostically malignant if persistent: grade 3 abnormality with small amplitude, diffuse, irregular delta activity; grade 4 ("burst suppression pattern"), in particular when epileptiform discharges are present and with "low-output EEG"; and grade 5 ("isoelectric EEG"). Fatal outcome is also common with the "nonreactive type of alpha pattern coma" and the recently reported "theta pattern coma." These patterns are presented in the illustrations. It is intended that this more detailed subdivision will promote understanding between electroencephalographers using visual EEG assessment in cases of coma. PMID:3074973

  18. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Mortensen, P B; Bendtsen, F

    1991-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids cause reversible coma in animals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the hepatic coma in humans. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in peripheral venous blood were significantly elevated in 15 patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by cirrhosis (362 +/- 83 mumol/L; mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 17 cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy (178 +/- 57 mumol/L) and 11 normal individuals (60 +/- 8 mumol/L). However, no correlation between the depth of coma and the level of short-chain fatty acids was found after repetitive measurements in the coma group. Compared with normal individuals, all short-chain fatty acids, except valerate, were elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, whereas only the concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in 21 nonencephalopathic cirrhotic patients who underwent catheterization were equally distributed in the aorta (187 +/- 56 mumol/L), the hepatic vein (212 +/- 75 mumol/L), the azygos vein (140 +/- 37 mumol/L) and the renal vein (135 +/- 43 mumol/L) compared with peripheral venous blood (178 +/- 57 mumol/L). This study does not support the idea that short-chain fatty acids are of major importance in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:1959851

  19. Non-Doppler Redshift and Dark Matter in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi-Jia

    2013-01-01

    In 1929 Zwicky proposed a tired light theory to interpret the Hubble law (Hubble 1929). The key of the tired light theory is to interpret the observed redshift of galaxy as the non-Doppler effect. But the derivation of the dark matter in the Coma cluster proposed by Zwicky in 1933 was based on the interpretation that redshifts of galaxies were the Doppler effect, and the non-Doppler effect was not considered at all. However, if there is a reasonable non-Doppler effect and the great majority of the observed redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster can be interpreted by the non-Doppler effect, then it's not needed to introduce the dark matter in the Coma cluster to keep the stability of the cluster. In this paper it is shown that the great majority of the redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster are caused by the non-Doppler redshift proposed by Zheng (2013), and a numerical estimation of the redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster is presented.

  20. An analysis of CCD images of the coma of Comet Halley. Final report, October 1989-September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of selected CCD images of the coma of comet P/Halley is presented. The images were taken using specially designed filters that isolate regions of a comet's spectrum such that only sunlight which has been scattered by the dust in the coma is recorded. The modeling analysis objective is to make use of the skills developed in the development of Monte Carlo particle trajectory models for the distributions of gas species in cometary comae and to use those models as a basis for a new dust coma model. This model will include a self-consistant picture of the time-dependent dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma and the three-dimensional time-dependent trajectories of the dust particles under the influence of solar gravity and solar radiation pressure in the outer coma. The model is intended to be used as a tool to analyze selected images from the two sets of CCD images with the hope that it will help the understanding of the effects of a number of important processes on the spatial morphology of the observed dust coma. The processes of importance to the observed dust coma include: (1) the dust particle size distribution function; (2) the terminal velocities of various sized dust particles in the inner coma; (3) the radiation scattering properties of dust particles, which are important both in terms of the observe scattered radiation and the radiation pressure acceleration on dust particles; (4) the fragmentation and/or vaporization of dust particles; and (5) the relative importance of CHON and silicate dust particles as they contribute both to the dusty-gasdynamics in the inner coma (that produce the dust particle terminal velocities) and to the observed spatial morphology on the outer dust coma

  1. Glasgow coma scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplas-Sušić Tonka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS interventions. Methods. A prospective observational study included all poisoning-related intervention cases over 3 years (1999-2001 in the Celje region, Slovenia, covering 125,000 inhabitants. Data were recorded on an EMS form. Results. Psychoactive agents were present in 56.5% out of 244 poisoning-related EMS interventions. Prescription drugs were a cause of intoxication in 93 (39.2% cases alone or in combination with alcohol or illegal drugs. More than one fifth of poisonings were due to the use of illegal drugs in 52 (21.9% cases, 43 (18.1% out of them heroin related. At the time of EMS arrival, more patients who ingested illegal drugs were in coma or comatose than the rest. 24 (45.3% vs. 32 (17.3% of poisoned patients were in coma (p<0.001. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS at the first contact was lower in patients who ingested illegal drugs than in the remaining patients (9.0 vs. 11.6, p=0.001. In 23.2% of the cases, an antidote was administered. In 29 (12.2% naloxone and in 16 (6.7% flumazenil was administered. Mean GCS after intervention was higher in all cases but significantly higher in illegal drug cases, 13.4 vs. 12.2 (p=0.001, with a mean positive change in GCS of 4.5 vs. 0.6 (p<0.001. In illegal drug users, mean change after antidote administration was 8.2 vs. 0.5 without antidote administration (p<0.001. Conclusion. High rate of successful antidote use during the intervention indicated the importance of good EMS protocols and the presence of a skilled doctor in the EMS team.

  2. Glasgow Coma Scale, brain electric activity mapping and Glasgow Outcome Scale after hyperbaric oxygen treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of severe brain injury.Methods: Fifty-five patients were divided into a treatment group (n = 35 receiving HBO therapy ) and a control group (n = 20 receiving dehydrating, cortical steroid and antibiotic therapy) to observe the alteration of clinic GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), prognosis and GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale) before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment.Results: In the treatment group GCS, BEAM and GOS were improved obviously after 3 courses of treatment,GCS increased from 5.1 to 14.6 ( P < 0.01-0.001 ), the BEAM abnormal rate reduced from 94.3% to 38% (P <0.01-0.001 ), the GOS good-mild disability rate was 83.7%, and the middle-severe disability rate was 26.3%compared with the control group. There was a statistic significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01-0.001).Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment could improve obviously GCS, BEAM and GOS of severe brain injury patients, and effectively reduce the mortality and morbidity. It is an effective method to treat severe brain injury. two g

  3. H-alpha observations of spiral galaxies in Cancer, A1367, and Coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used large aperture Hα photometry of 65 spiral galaxies in the Cancer, Coma, and Abell 1367 clusters to compare the ionized-gas contents and star-formation rates in cluster and field spirals. Overall, we do not observe any significant deficiency of Hα emission in the cluster members. Emission strength correlates strongly with integrated galaxy colors, but only weakly with H I content. All three clusters contain several galaxies with unusually strong Hα emission, including several H I-poor objects in Coma and A1367. Thus, spirals which appear ''anemic'' in their morphology or exhibit weak Hα emission are not necessarily H I poor; conversely, H I poor spirals can show strong Hα emission, indicating relatively high current star-formation rates. Gas depletion time scales for some objects in the core of Coma are significantly shorter than the field, indicating rapid stellar and gaseous evolution

  4. Chameleonic contribution to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich radial profile of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constrain the chameleonic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (CSZ) effect in the Coma cluster from measurements of the Coma radial profile presented in the WMAP 7-year results. The CSZ effect arises from the interaction of a scalar (or pseudoscalar) particle with the cosmic microwave background in the magnetic field of galaxy clusters. We combine this radial profile data with SZ measurements towards the center of the Coma cluster in different frequency bands, to find ΔTSZ,RJ(0)=-410±50 μK and ΔTCSZ204GHz(0) > or approx. -50 μK (at 95% confidence) for the thermal SZ and CSZ effects in the cluster, respectively. This leads to an estimated bound on the photon to scalar (or pseudoscalar) coupling strength of geff -10 GeV-1.

  5. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived

  6. Prognosis in prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury assessed by somatosensory evoked potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujue Zheng; Mantao Chen; Jingqi Li; Fei Cao

    2013-01-01

    A total of 43 prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury received the somatosensory evoked potential examination one month after injury in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in China. Somatosensory evoked potentials were graded as normal, abnormal or absent (grades I–III) according to N20 amplitude and central conduction time. The outcome in patients with grade III somatosensory evoked potential was in each case unfavorable. The prognostic accuracy of grade III somatosensory evoked potential for unfavorable and non-awakening outcome was 100% and 80%, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of grade I somatosensory evoked potential for favorable and wakening outcome was 86% and 100%, respectively. These results suggest that somatosensory evoked potential grade is closely correlated with coma severity and degree of recovery. Somatosensory evoked potential is a valuable diagnostic tool to assess prognosis in prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury.

  7. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P., E-mail: David.Kraljic@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  8. Cometary models - excitation of molecules at radio wavelengths and thermodynamics of the coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for molecular excitation under physical conditions of cometary atmospheres are obviously a requisite for interpreting radio spectroscopic observations of comets. A review of such models is presented. The prevailing excitation mechanism for the rotational lines of parent molecules is pumping of the fundamental vibrational bands by the solar infrared radiation field, followed by spontaneous decay; the molecular rotational population is then at fluorescence equilibrium. Another competing mechanism in the inner coma is thermal excitation by collisions. Its evaluation needs the knowledge of the coma kinetic temperature law, which up to now can only be achieved by modeling the coma thermodynamics. A review of cometary thermodynamical models is also given here, and the relations between such models and cometary molecular observations are discussed. 50 references

  9. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.; Merafina, M.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by ΛCDM cosmology. Aims: We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large and rich cluster of galaxies. Methods: We base our work on recent observational data on the Coma cluster, and apply our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius RZG of the local force field as the key parameter. Results: 1) Three masses are defined that characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass MM, the dark-energy effective mass MDE (antigravity affects the structure of the Coma cluster strongly at large radii R ≳ 14 Mpc and should be considered when its total mass is derived.

  10. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Neal A; Mobasher, Bahram; Bridges, Terry J; Hudson, Michael J; Marzke, Ronald O; Smith, Russell J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function (RLF) and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies. Our VLA data reach down to log(L) = 20.23 W/Hz for Coma, and we associate 249 sources with optical counterparts from the SDSS. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between AGN and star-forming galaxies (SFG). The radio-detected SFG are the dominant population only for ~21 ~ 22.48 W/Hz) and low (log(L) <~ 21 W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to log(L) = 19.48. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ~ -14) dw arf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  11. Results from the worldwide coma morphology campaign for comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Knight, Matthew M.; Farnham, Tony L.; Briol, John; Brosch, Noah; Caruso, John; Gao, Xing; Gomez, Edward; Lister, Tim; Hergenrother, Carl; Hoban, Susan; Prouty, Roy; Holloway, Mike; Howes, Nick; Guido, Ernesto; Hui, Man-To; Jones, Joseph H.; Penland, Tyler B.; Thomas, Samuel R.; Wyrosdick, Jim; Kiselev, Nikolai; Ivanova, Aleksandra V.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Eluo, Jean-Baptist Kikwaya; Lau, Betty P. S.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Martin, José Luis; Moskvitin, Alexander S.; Nicolini, Martino; Ottum, Brian D.; Pruzenski, Chris; Vogel, David C.; Kellett, Leo; Rapson, Valerie; Schmid, Joel; Doyle, Brandon; Dimino, Frank; Carlino, Stephanie; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sutaria, Firoza; Schleicher, David G.; Snodgrass, Colin; Tezcan, Cihan T.; Yorukoglu, Onur; Trowbridge, David; Whitmer, Dennis; Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during comet ISON's pre-perihelion leg. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was likely present from at least February through May and did not show variations on diurnal time scales. From these images we constrain the grain velocities to ~10 m s-1, and we find that the grains spent 2-4 weeks in the sunward side prior to merging with the dust tail. We present a rationale for the lack of continuum coma features from September until mid-November 2013, determining that if the feature from the first half of 2013 was present, it was likely too small to be clearly detected. We also analyze the continuum coma morphology observed subsequent to the November 12 outburst, and constrain the first appearance of new features in the continuum to later than November 13.99 UT.

  12. DEEP ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT THE INFALL REGION OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to MUV = –10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (α ≈ –1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of α ≈ –1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than α = –1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at MUV ≈ –14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M* = 108 M☉. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  13. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  14. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  15. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : III. Structural parameters of galaxies using single Sersic fits star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Guzmán, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Graham, Alister W.; Hammer, Derek; Karick, Arna M.; Lucey, John R.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Valentijn, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalogue of structural parameters for 8814 galaxies in the 25 fields of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Coma Treasury Survey. Parameters from Sersic fits to the two-dimensional surface brightness distributions are given for all galaxies from our published Coma photometric catalogue with

  16. HST detection of spiral structure in two Coma Cluster dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, A W; Guzmán, R; Graham, Alister W.; Jerjen, Helmut; Guzman, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of (stellar) spiral-like structure in Hubble Space Telescope images of two dwarf galaxies (GMP 3292 and GMP 3629) belonging to the Coma cluster. GMP 3629 is the faintest such galaxy detected in a cluster environment, and it is the first such galaxy observed in the dense Coma cluster. The large bulge and the faintness of the broad spiral-like pattern in GMP 3629 suggests that its disk may have been largely depleted. >We may therefore have found an example of the ``missing link'' in theories of galaxy evolution which have predicted that dwarf spiral galaxies, particularly in clusters, evolve into dwarf elliptical galaxies.

  17. The Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae in 2013: Magnetic field and activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ana P.; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Aurière, Michel; Petit, Pascal; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2014-08-01

    We have observed the giant star 31 Comae in April and May 2013 with the spectropolarimeter Narval at Pic du Midi Observatory, France. 31 Comae is a single, rapidly rotating giant with rotational period ~6.8 d and vsini ~ 67 km/s. We present measurements and discuss variability of the longitudinal magnetic field (Bl), spectral activity indicators Hα, CaII H&K, Ca II IR triplet and evolutionary status. Our future aim is to perform a Zeeman-Doppler imaging study for the star.

  18. Triple Experiment Spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in the Coma Cluster: H_0

    CERN Document Server

    Battistelli, E S; Lamagna, L; Luzzi, G; Maoli, R; Melchiorri, A; Melchiorri, F; Orlando, A E; Palladino, E; Savini, G; Rephaeli, Y; Shimon, M; Colafrancesco, S; Kreysa, E; Signore, M

    2003-01-01

    The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect was previously measured in the Coma cluster by the OVRO and MITO experiments, and recently also with the WMAP satellite. We assess the consistency of these results and their implications on the feasibility of high frequency SZ work with ground-based telescopes. The unique dataset from the combined measurements at six frequency bands is jointly analyzed to determine the Hubble constant, H_0, towards Coma: H_0 \\simeq (77 \\pm 20) km/(s Mpc), whose error include both y and X-ray data uncertainties.

  19. Near infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and in the cancer cluster. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new near infrared observations of 110 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and 40 galaxies in the Cancer cluster. These observations are part of an on-going investigation of the properties of normal galaxies and of their near-IR emission, which aims at obtaining homogeneous, multifrequency data for a large sample of galaxies in different density environments. The addition of these observations to the sample presented in Gavazzi and Trinchieri raises the number of Coma/A1367 galaxies with near-IR data to 275. Our measurements, together with data published by Bothun et al, give a sample of 45 spirals in the Cancer cluster

  20. Inner coma imaging of Comet Levy (1990c) with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feldman, P. D.; Arpigny, C.; Baum, W. A.; Brandt, J. C.; Light, R. M.; Westphal, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    HST observations of Comet Levy at geocentric and heliocentric distances of about 1 AU show a highly asymmetrical coma in which the sunward-facing hemisphere is brighter than the tailward one by a factor of 2; this is in keeping with dayside volatile sublimation. Radial brightness profiles perpendicular to the sun-comet line are found to be highly symmetric about the nucleus. Detailed image analysis reveals indications of a hemispherical dust arc which propagates through the coma at an average projected velocity of about 0.16 km/sec. It is suggested that periodic occurrences of such dust arcs could account for the temporal variability in IUE continuum photometry.

  1. Coma-type radio halos and cluster x-ray morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is pointed out that there seems to be a characteristic x-ray morphology for clusters with Coma-type radio halos. This correlation may be the first evidence that the conditions conducive to formation of a radio halo influence or are influenced by the thermal gas distribution. It is suggested that heating of the intracluster gas by the cosmic rays that power the radio halo may be the source of the correlation. The anomalous gas temperature of Coma may be the result of this process. Future observations of cluster temperatures and velocity dispersions should provide a test of the cosmic-ray heating hypothesis

  2. Repeatability of the Dust and Gas Morphological Structures in the Coma of Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Samarasinha, N. H.; Ojha, L.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2013-10-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is the most famous comet in history and has been observed for over two millennia, making it one of the most extensively studied comets. The morphology in the coma of comet 1P/Halley originates due to the activity at the nucleus and could be used as a probe of the nuclear rotation and the activity. We will present the results from a study summarizing the evolution of coma morphology of comet 1P/Halley observed from ground between October 1985 and June 1986. The results to be presented include analysis of dust features as well as gas (CN) features in the coma and comparisons will be made between their spatial and temporal evolution. About 80 CN images and 300 continuum images from the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System were analyzed using image enhancement techniques that were not available n the 1980s. This enables us to see coma structure never observed before in comet 1P/Halley. Because of the comet's proximity to Earth, most of our best signal-to-noise images were taken in the March-April interval of 1986. Despite the limited coverage of preceding and following months, there is a sufficient number of images to monitor morphological evolution over many months. The initial synodic periods as a function of time used to phase the images together were extrapolated from the lightcurves of the active coma (Schleicher et al. 1990, AJ, 100, 896-912). We will present the periods of repeatability of individual coma features measured using the position angle at different spatial distances from the nucleus in adjacent cycles. Separate features appear to have slightly different periods of repeatability, perhaps depending on the corresponding source regions on the nucleus and/or projection effects. The periods of repeatability of coma morphologies will be presented as a function of time from the perihelion. These results will ultimately be used in detailed modeling of the coma morphologies of comet 1P/Halley over the 1985-1986 apparition in

  3. Analysis of hydrogen H-alpha observations of the coma of Comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, William H.; Marconi, M. L.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1993-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Particle Trajectory Model of Combi and Smyth (1988) is used here to analyze observations of the H-alpha coma of Comet Halley. The solar excitation mechanism for the H-alpha emissions line is described. The H2O production rates derived for the H-alpha brightness measurements are shown to be very consistent with the H2O production rates determined from other Comet Halley observations of the H, O, and OH comae. Revised H2O production rates determined from 6300 A brightness measurements are presented.

  4. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  5. Evaluation of the incidence and risk of hypoglycemic coma associated with selection of basal insulin in the treatment of diabetes: a Finnish register linkage study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Hoti, Fabian; Erästö, Panu; Saukkonen, Tero; Mäkimattila, Sari; Korhonen, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Long-acting basal insulin analogs have demonstrated positive effects on the balance between effective glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in randomized controlled trials. Evidence of severe hypoglycemic risk with insulin detemir, insulin glargine, or NPH insulin is presented from a nationwide retrospective database study. Research design and methods Data from hospital and secondary healthcare visits due to hypoglycemic coma from 75 682 insulin-naïve type 1 or 2 diabetes patients initiating therapy with NPH insulin, insulin glargine, or insulin detemir in Finland between 2000 and 2009 were analyzed. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox's regression with adjustments for relevant background variables. Results The adjusted risk of hospital/secondary healthcare visits due to the first severe hypoglycemic event was 21.7% (95% CI 9.6–32.1%, p < 0.001) lower for insulin detemir and 9.9% (95% CI 1.5–17.6%, p = 0.022) lower for insulin glargine versus NPH insulin. Risk of hypoglycemic coma recurrence was 36.3% (95% CI 8.9–55.5%, p = 0.014) lower for detemir and 9.5% but not significantly (95% CI −10.2 to 25.7%, p = 0.318) lower for glargine versus NPH insulin. Risk of all hypoglycemic coma events was 30.8% (95% CI 16.2–42.8%, p-value <0.001) lower for detemir and 15.6% (95% CI 5.1–25.0%, p-value 0.005) lower for glargine versus NPH. Insulin detemir had a significantly lower risk for first (13.1% lower [p = 0.034]), recurrent (29.6% lower [p = 0.021]), and all (17.9% lower [p = 0.016]) severe hypoglycemic events than insulin glargine. Conclusions There were considerable differences in risk of hospitalization or secondary healthcare visits due to hypoglycemic coma between basal insulin treatments in real-life clinical practice. PMID:24150837

  6. Evolution of the Dust Coma in Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Before 2009 Perihelion

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, G P; Boehnhardt, H; Vincent, J -B; Licandro, J; Kolokolova, L; Schulz, R; Stüwe, J

    2011-01-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the main target of ESA's Rosetta mission and will be encountered in May 2014. As the spacecraft shall be in orbit the comet nucleus before and after release of the lander {\\it Philae}, it is necessary necessary to know the conditions in the coma. Study the dust environment, including the dust production rate and its variations along its preperihelion orbit. The comet was observed during its approach to the Sun on four epochs between early-June 2008 and mid-January 2009, over a large range of heliocentric distances that will be covered by the mission in 2014. An anomalous enhancement of the coma dust density was measured towards the comet nucleus. The scalelength of this enhancement increased with decreasing heliocentric distance of the comet. This is interpreted as a result of an unusually slow expansion of the dust coma. Assuming a spherical symmetric coma, the average amount of dust as well as its ejection velocity have been derived. The latter increases exponentially with...

  7. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in Coma. Also we find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3x10^5 M_odot. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions (LF) of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70<(V-I)<1.05) in the halo are estimated to be V(max) =27.11+-0.09 mag and I(max)=26.21+-0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max)=26.25+-0.03 mag. Adopting M_I (max) = -8.56+-0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies, 91+-4 Mpc. Combining this and the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, ...

  8. The Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Pre- and Post- Equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Altwegg, Kathrin; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, Andre; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Calmonte, Ursina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combi, Mike; Dekeyser, Johan; Debout, Vincent; Erard, Stephane; Fiethe, Bjorn; Fillacchione, Gianrico; Fink, Uwe; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Hassig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Leroy, Lena; Leyrat, Cedric; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Giovanna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Shou, Yinsi

    2016-04-01

    As the Rosetta spacecraft escorts comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) during its journey in the Solar System, it monitors the evolution of the neutrals' distribution in the coma of 67P. Indeed, while the comet orbits around the Sun, the energy input received by the different regions of the nucleus varies, directly impacting 67P's outgassing pattern. We model the H2O, CO2, and CO coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) pre- and post- equinox using a 3D Direct Monte-Carlo Simulation approach. The use of a kinetic method enables us to model the coma from the nucleus' surface to a few hundreds of kilometers even in the regions where collisions cannot maintain a fluid regime. The activity at the surface of the nucleus is described using a spherical harmonic expansion with 25 terms constrained by ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) observations. The model outputs contain information about numerous macroscopic parameters such as number densities, velocities, and temperatures of each species. Then, the results from the simulations are integrated along the line of sight to be compared with the remote sensing observations from the VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. The model shows a good agreement with the data, giving a clear evidence of our understanding of the physics of the coma of comet 67P.

  9. [Coma and resolution in wide spectral region Czerny-Turner spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan-Xuan; Yang, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ke-Xin; Tan, Qiao-Feng; Jin, Guo-Fan

    2010-06-01

    The Czerny-Turner layout, which is most frequently used in miniature spectrometers, should follow Shafer's coma-free condition and Fastie's flat-field principal to eliminate the central wave's primary coma and maximize its resolution. However, the design process does not take the comas and resolutions at non-central waves into consideration. Based on the theory of primary coma in reflection optical system, the present paper points out that in the crossed beam design, the resolutions at wide 'spectral region present a "V" shape, while in the M design, the resolutions change little over the whole region, and present an approximately straight line shape, so the latter kind of spectrometer maintains a far more consistent resolution than the former one. Accordingly, this paper designs two kinds of spectrometers with spectrum regions from 400 to 600 nm, and carries out theoretical simulation and contrast experiment. The result demonstrates that for the two designs the resolutions at the fringe wavelength are 3.8 times and 1.5 times respectively that at the central wavelength, which accords with the conclusion of the theoretical simulation. PMID:20707178

  10. Neutral and ionized gas distribution in and around the radio galaxy Coma A

    OpenAIRE

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Wills, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    HI absorption has been detected with the WSRT against both lobes of the radio galaxy Coma A. This radio galaxy could be expanding in a particularly gas rich environment, perhaps the result from interactions/mergers between the dominant giant galaxy (associated with the radio galaxy) and less massive galaxies in the same group.

  11. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  12. Relationship between inner coma water emissions and ice deposits in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Filacchione, Gianrico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Erard, Stephane; Leyrat, Cedric; Ciarniello, Mauro; Combi, Michael; Fougere, Nicolas; Taylor, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Data acquired in April 2015 with the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission provided information on the possible correlation between the H2O emission in the inner coma and the exposed water deposits detected in the Hapi region on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface (Migliorini et al. submitted). Further bright spots attributed to exposed water ice have been identified in other regions by OSIRIS at visible wavelengths (Pommerol, et al., 2015) and confirmed in the infrared by VIRTIS-M in the Imothep region (Filacchione et al., 2016). Furthermore, new water ice deposits have been identified in regions located both at the equator and at southern latitudes. These regions might be localised sources of water emissions in the inner coma of 67P/C-G. The present investigation seeks to identify the spatial and temporal correlations between the H2O emissions in the inner coma and the water ice rich deposits on the surface in order to identify the mechanisms operating at the surface-coma interface. It extends the study already carried out for a limited region located in the comet's neck, and identifies how the observed emissions and deposits evolve with the heliocentric distance, as observed by VIRTIS during the Rosetta escort phase mission.

  13. Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Prognostic Value of Simple EEG Parameters in Postanoxic Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Mauguiere, François; Vaugier, Isabelle; Annane, Djillali; Sharshar, Tarek; Lofaso, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively studied early bedside standard EEG characteristics in 61 acute postanoxic coma patients. Five simple EEG features, namely, isoelectric, discontinuous, nonreactive to intense auditory and nociceptive stimuli, dominant delta frequency, and occurrence of paroxysms were classified yes or no. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each of these variables for predicting an unfavorable outcome, defined as death, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, or severe neurological disability, as assessed 1 year after coma onset were computed as well as Synek's score. The outcome was unfavorable in 56 (91.8%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC of nonreactive EEG for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 84%, 80%, 98%, 31%, and 0.82, respectively; and were all very close to the ones of Synek score>3, which were 82%, 80%, 98%, 29%, and 0.81, respectively. Specificities for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 100% for isoelectric, discontinuous, or dominant delta activity EEG. These 3 last features were constantly associated to unfavorable outcome. Absent EEG reactivity strongly predicted an unfavorable outcome in postanoxic coma, and performed as accurate as a Synek score>3. Analyzing characteristics of some simple EEG features may easily help nonneurophysiologist physicians to investigate prognostic issue of postanoxic coma patient. In this study (a) discontinuous, isoelectric, or delta-dominant EEG were constantly associated with unfavorable outcome and (b) nonreactive EEG performed prognostic as accurate as a Synek score>3.

  14. H-ATLAS: The Far-Infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, C; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Eales, S; Bourne, N; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Furlanetto, C; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Maddox, S; Sansom, A; Michalowski, M J; Davis, T

    2016-01-01

    We describe a far infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of $\\sim$150 deg$^2$ observed by $Herschel$ H-ATLAS in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500$\\mu$m. The SDSS spectroscopic survey ($m_{r} \\le 17.8)$ is used to define an area (within the Virial radius) and redshift selected ($4268 < v < 9700$ km s$^{-1}$) sample of 744 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue (CCC). For comparison we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue (CFC). The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13\\%) and 422 of 951 (44\\%) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250$\\mu$m band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We ...

  15. Results from the Worldwide Coma Morphology Campaign for Comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinha, Nalin H

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during the pre-perihelion leg of comet ISON. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was l...

  16. FAST MOTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE COMA I CLOUD: A CASE OF DARK ATTRACTOR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We note that nearby galaxies having high negative peculiar velocities are distributed over the sky very inhomogeneously. A part of this anisotropy is caused by the 'Local Velocity Anomaly', i.e., by the bulk motion of nearby galaxies away from the Local Void. However, half of the fast-flying objects reside within a small region known as the Coma I cloud. According to Makarov and Karachentsev, this complex contains 8 groups, 5 triplets, 10 pairs, and 83 single galaxies with a total mass of 4.7 × 1013 M☉. We use 122 galaxies in the Coma I region with known distances and radial velocities VLG –1 to draw the Hubble relation for them. The Hubble diagram shows a Z-shaped effect of infall with an amplitude of +200 km s–1 on the nearby side and –700 km s–1 on the back side. This phenomenon can be understood as the galaxy infall toward a dark attractor with a mass of ∼2 × 1014 M☉ situated at a distance of 15 Mpc from us. The existence of a large void between the Coma and Virgo clusters also probably affects the Hubble flow around the Coma I.

  17. Observations of the Coma cluster (A 1656) at the frequency of 102.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of observations at 102.5 MHz of the Coma cluster with Lebedev Physical Institute radio telescopes are presented. The brightness distribution map with the resolution of 48'x26' and the brightness strip distribution with the resolution of 10' have been obtained. Total flux and the size of Coma C radio source have been measured as well as fluxes of extended radio halo of the radio galaxies NGC 4869 and NGC 4874 and of ''pseudo-halo'' have been evaluated. The flux S of the radio halo is (26+-4) Jy at 102.5 MHz and its size is approximately 35'x25'. Near Coma C there is one more extended radio source with steep spectrum (Ssub(102.5)=(7+-2) Jy, α approximately 1.1.). The large extension of radio halo can't be explained by the fast diffusion of relativistic particles in the intergalactic medium of the Coma cluster. Therefore the suggestion on reacceleration of relativistic particles from the conter to the periphery of radio halo is implied

  18. High-sensitivity radio observations of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio observations of the Coma cluster of galaxies, performed at 326 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and at 1.4 GHz with the Very Large Array, are presented. Of the 31 radio-emitting galaxies identified, 29 belong to the Coma cluster. Detailed maps are given of the extended low-brightness structures present in the Coma cluster, i.e., the central halo source Coma C and the peripheral extended source 1253 + 275. A very low brightness bridge connecting them is revealed for the first time. CCD images are presented for 11 radio-emitting galaxies, and optical core radii are derived for the ellipticals and cDs. It is found that the probability of forming radio-emitting E galaxies is not related to their radial distance, while S galaxies within 0.5 R(A) of the center have a larger probability of showing radio activity. A statistical analysis of the spectral index distribution of the field radio sources is performed to search for steep-spectrum sources. 59 refs

  19. Modeling Cometary Coma with a Three Dimensional, Anisotropic Multiple Scattering Distributed Processing Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Chris B.

    1997-01-01

    Development of camera and instrument simulations for space exploration requires the development of scientifically accurate models of the objects to be studied. Several planned cometary missions have prompted the development of a three dimensional, multi-spectral, anisotropic multiple scattering model of cometary coma.

  20. Course of fracture-dislocation of the hip during coma: value of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a case of repeated dislocation of a fracture-dislocation of the hip, despite effective traction in a comatose patient, the authors emphasise the value of computed tomography in the initial assessment of traumatic lesions of the hip. They also stress the value of repeating this examination during the course of the coma

  1. Discovery of intergalactic radio emission in the Coma-A1367 supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coma cluster is a rich cluster of galaxies nested in an even larger super cluster of galaxies. The plane of the supercluster seems to be defined by the Coma cluster itself and another galaxy cluster, Abell 1367, which lies ∼ 40 Mpc farther west. The largest structures known are the giant voids and superclusters which are as large as 70h75-1 Mpc (refs 3-5). The Coma cluster of galaxies seems to be located on the rim of a giant void in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies. Here we describe the detection of faint, supercluster-scale radio emission at 326 MHz that extends between the Coma cluster of galaxies and the Abell 1367 cluster and which is apparently not associated with any individual galaxy system in the complex. The radiation's synchrotron origin implies the existence of a large-scale intercluster magnetic field with an estimated strength of 0.3-0.6 μG, which is remarkably strong. The synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons cannot be older than a few times 108 yr, but we speculate that the magnetic field is the fossil of a pre-galactic primaeval field, which was amplified in the course of the formation of intergalactic voids and superclusters. (author)

  2. H-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Sansom, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Davis, T.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a far-infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of ˜150 deg2 observed by Herschel H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm. The SDSS spectroscopic survey (mr ≤ 17.8) is used to define an area (within the virial radius) and redshift selected (4268 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue. For comparison, we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue. The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far-infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13 per cent) and 422 of 951 (44 per cent) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250 μm band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We find no differences between the dust masses and temperatures of cluster and filament galaxies with the exception of early-type galaxy dust temperatures, which are significantly hotter in the cluster than in the filament (X-ray heating?). From a chemical evolution model, we find no evidence for different evolutionary processes (gas loss or infall) between galaxies in the cluster and filament.

  3. 西学东渐——新译“Glasgow coma scale”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹西峰; 李建民; 李兵; 费舟

    2014-01-01

    西方的科学研究成果大多来源于英语的语言文化环境,把西方的科学研究成果介绍到中国,必须重视英语的语言文化环境和汉语的语言文化环境的不同,这样才能使国人准确、方便地应用西方的科学研究成果,西学东渐。格拉斯哥昏迷评分(Glasgow coma scale)被翻译、介绍到国内已有数十年,但汉语版的“Glasgow coma scale”多种多样。容易造成初学者和使用者的迷惑。本文复习有关“Glasgow coma scale”的原始英式英文文献、美式英语英文文献和以往的几个主要的汉语翻译版。结合英式英语、美式英语和汉语的语言文化特点,新译了“Glasgow coma scale”,以方便医护人员使用。

  4. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averag...

  5. Planck intermediate results : X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Boehringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayon, L.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Democles, J.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Doerl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J. -B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rudnick, L.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Tuerler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Thanks to its great sensitivity, Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r approximate to 3 x R-500. We test previously proposed spherically symmetric models for the

  6. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planck Collaboration, [No Value; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rudnick, L.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Thanks to its great sensitivity, Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ≈ 3 × R500. We test previously proposed spherically symmetric models for the pressure dist

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in the column density distribution of comet Halley's CN coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Rita; Schlosser, W.; Meisser, W.; Koczet, P.; Celnik, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Mean radial column density profiles of comet P/Halley's CN coma were derived by combining photographic and photoelectric observations. The shape of the profiles as well as their temporal variations were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of other CN observations of the comet.

  8. Dust in Cometary Comae: Present Understanding of the Structure and Composition of Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Zolensky, M.; Lasue, J.

    2007-01-01

    In situ probing of a very few cometary comae has shown that dust particles present a low albedo and a low density, and that they consist of both rocky material and refractory organics. Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust provide information on the properties of dust particles in the coma of a larger set of comets. The observations of the linear polarization in the coma indicate that the dust particles are irregular, with a size greater (on the average) than about one micron. Besides, they suggest, through numerical and experimental simulations, that both compact grains and fluffy aggregates (with a power law of the size distribution in the -2.6 to -3 range), and both rather transparent silicates and absorbing organics are present in the coma. Recent analysis of the cometary dust samples collected by the Stardust mission provide a unique ground truth and confirm, for comet 81P/Wild 2, the results from remote sensing observations. Future space missions to comets should, in the next decade, lead to a more precise characterization of the structure and composition of cometary dust particles.

  9. U-, B- and r-band luminosity functions of galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; Hoekstra, H; van Dokkum, PG; van der Hulst, T

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep multicolour CCD mosaic of the Coma cluster (Abell 1656), covering 5.2 deg(2) in the B and r bands, and 1.3 deg(2) in the U band. This large, homogeneous data set provides a valuable low-redshift comparison sample for studies of galaxies in distant clusters. In this paper we present

  10. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  11. Communication Opportunities via Special Messaging Technology for Two Post-Coma Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; de Pace, Claudia; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a special messaging technology with two additional post-coma adults who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, but showed multiple disabilities including profound motor and communication impairments. For each participant, the study involved an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  12. [A 57-year-old woman with gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion, and coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, H; Satoh, S; Mori, H; Tsukahara, M; Suda, K; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1995-07-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion and coma. She was well until 55 years of age, when she noted an onset of unsteady gait. At times she experienced transient weakness in her right hand, which was followed some difficulty in articulation. She was admitted to our service for the work up on April 6, 1992. Neurologic examination at that time revealed an alert Japanese lady in no acute distress. She was oriented to all spheres, however, she was somewhat bradyphrenic and had some disturbance in recent memory. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. The visual acuity and visual fields were normal as were the optic fundi. Pupils were round and isocoric reacting promptly to light. Ocular movement was full, however, horizontal nystagmus was noted upon right lateral gaze. The sensation of the face was intact. She showed right facial paresis of the central type. Hearing was intact. She showed slurred speech and some difficulty in swallowing. The tongue was deviated to the right. Her gait was wide based and unsteady; tandem gait was difficult, however, walking on toes and on heels were performed well. No cerebellar ataxia was noted, but she showed some clumsiness in her right hand. Deep reflexes were symmetric and normally reactive; plantar response was extensor bilaterally. Sensation was intact; no meningeal sign was elicited. Routine laboratory work up was unremarkable; the CSF was under a borderline pressure (180 mmH2O) and contained 39 mg/dl of protein and 59 mg/dl of sugar. Cranial CT scan revealed diffuse low density areas involving bilateral cerebral white matter as well as the brain stem; MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in those areas; gadolinium enhancement was negative; cortical sulci were effaced and the anterior part of the left lateral ventricle was compressed without deviation of the midline structure. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy without effect. She was

  13. DARK MATTER SUBHALOS AND THE X-RAY MORPHOLOGY OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure formation models predict that clusters of galaxies contain numerous massive subhalos. The gravity of a subhalo in a cluster compresses the surrounding intracluster gas and enhances its X-ray emission. We present a simple model, which treats subhalos as slow moving and gasless, for computing this effect. Recent weak lensing measurements by Okabe et al. have determined masses of ∼1013 M☉ for three mass concentrations projected within 300 kpc of the center of the Coma Cluster, two of which are centered on the giant elliptical galaxies NGC 4889 and NGC 4874. Adopting a smooth spheroidal β-model for the gas distribution in the unperturbed cluster, we model the effect of these subhalos on the X-ray morphology of the Coma Cluster, comparing our results to Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data. The agreement between the models and the X-ray morphology of the central Coma Cluster is striking. With subhalo parameters from the lensing measurements, the distances of the three subhalos from the Coma Cluster midplane along our line of sight are all tightly constrained. Using the model to fit the subhalo masses for NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 gives 9.1 × 1012 M☉ and 7.6 × 1012 M☉, respectively, in good agreement with the lensing masses. These results lend strong support to the argument that NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 are each associated with a subhalo that resides near the center of the Coma Cluster. In addition to constraining the masses and 3-d location of subhalos, the X-ray data show promise as a means of probing the structure of central subhalos.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DUST IN A COMETARY COMA: APPLICATION TO COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. With a limited amount of available observational data, planning of the mission as well as the interpretation of measurements obtained by instruments on board the spacecraft requires modeling of the dusty/gas environment of the comet. During the mission, the collision regime in the inner coma will change starting from transitional to fully collisionless. As a result, a physically correct model has to be valid at conditions that are far from equilibrium and account for the kinetic nature of the processes occurring in the coma. A study of the multi-species coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is presented in our previous paper, where we describe our kinetic model and discuss the results of its application to cases that correspond to the different stages during the mission. In this work, we focus on numerical modeling of the dust phase in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its interaction with the surrounding gas. The basic phenomena that govern the dynamics and energy balance of the dust grains are outlined. The effect of solar radiation pressure and the nucleus gravity in limiting the maximum liftable mass of the grains is discussed. The distribution of the terminal velocity of the dust grains as a function of subsolar angle is derived in the paper. We have found that in the regions with high gradients of the gas density, spike-like features can form in the dust flow. The obtained results represent the state of the coma in the vicinity of the nucleus for a series of stages throughout the Rosetta mission. The implications of the model results for future measurements by the GIADA instrument are discussed.

  15. ["Shock" therapies in Nazi Germany. The example of Berlin psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, L

    2014-09-01

    The idea that "shock" therapies were introduced by "Nazi-Psychiatry" very early and used radically in a cruel way darkens the image of these therapies until today. A case analysis of patient files of psychiatric hospitals in Berlin is used to recapitulate the introduction of insulin coma, metrazol and electroconvulsive therapy during the National Socialism era. Contrary to the false assumption that these "shock" therapies would have been introduced and preferred by psychiatrists involved with the Nazi regime and "euthanasia", in the case of Berlin these therapies were delayed by them and seldom used.

  16. Etiology and Outcome of Non-Traumatic Coma in Children Admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Khodapanahandeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-traumatic coma is a relatively common condition in children that may cause considerable mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical presentation, etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children.Methods: In a retrospective cross sectional study over a period of 5 years, files of 150 children aged between 1 month and 14 years admitted with non-traumatic coma to pediatric intensive care unit of Rasool Akram hospital were reviewed. Historical, presenting symptoms, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Etiology of coma was determined on the basis of clinical history and relevant investigations. The outcome was recorded as died or neurological condition at discharge as normal, mild or sever disability. Chi-square test was used to test the differences in categorical variables.Findings: There were 63 (42% boys and 87 (58% girls. The mean±SD age of patients was 2.7±2.35 years. Systemic presentations including nausea, vomiting, fever, lethargy and poor feeding were more prominent in children under 2 years. Etiology of coma in 49 patients (32.7% was infectious (meningitis, encephalitis, respiratory and systemic. Other causes were status epilepticus 44 (29.4%, metabolic (diabetic ketoacidosis, inborn errors of metabolism 11 (7.3%, intoxications 10 (6.7%, accidental (drowning, electrical shock, suffocation 9 (6%, shunt dysfunction (secondary to congenital brain malformations 7 (4.6%, others (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, vasculitis, hypertensive encephalopathy 11 (7.3%, unknown 9 (6%. Infection occurred significantly (P=0.002 in children under 2 years of age, whereas accidents and intoxications were more prominent (P=0.004 in those between 2 and 6 years. Overall 25 children (16.6% died. Of those survived 16 became severely disabled. Accidents and infections had higher mortality compared to other groups (P<0.001 and P=0.02 respectively.Conclusion: Our results showed that infection was the

  17. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 10) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin2. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described in

  18. DEEP GALEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER: SOURCE CATALOG AND GALAXY COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a source catalog from a deep 26 ks Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observation of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 A) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 A) wavebands. The observed field is centered ∼0.09 (1.6 Mpc) southwest of the Coma core in a well-studied region of the cluster known as 'Coma-3'. The entire field is located within the apparent virial radius of the Coma cluster, and has optical photometric coverage with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and deep spectroscopic coverage to r ∼ 21. We detect GALEX sources to NUV = 24.5 and FUV = 25.0, which corresponds to a star formation rate of ∼10-3 M sun yr-1 for galaxies at the distance of Coma. We have assembled a catalog of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically confirmed Coma member galaxies that span a large range of galaxy types from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is ∼80% complete to NUV = 23 and FUV = 23.5. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g., object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence the source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here; we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion

  19. Composition of Dust Particles Collected in the Inner Coma of Comet 67P/Churymumo-Gerasimenko by Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchenbach, M.; Kissel, J.; Langevin, Y.; Briois, C.; Koch, A.; Schulz, R.; Silen, J.; Altobelli, N.; Altwegg, K.; Baklouti, D.; Bardyn, A.; Colangeli, L.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Fischer, H.; Fray, N.; Glasmachers, A.; Grün, E.; Haerendel, G.; Henkel, H.; Höfner, H.; Hornung, K.; Jessberger, E.-K.; Lehto, H.; Ligier, N.; Martin, P.; Merouane, S.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Paquette, J.; Raulin, F.; Le Roy, L.; Rynö, J.; Silieström, S.; Steiger, W.; Stenzel, O.; Stephan, T.; Thirkell, L.; Thomas, R.; Torkar, K.; Varmuza, K.; Wanczek, K.-P.; Zaprudin, B.

    2016-08-01

    The dust particle instrument COSIMA - COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser - on board ESA’s ROSETTA mission is collecting and analyzing dust particles in the inner coma of Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

  20. A DOZEN NEW GALAXIES CAUGHT IN THE ACT: GAS STRIPPING AND EXTENDED EMISSION LINE REGIONS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present images of extended Hα clouds associated with 14 member galaxies in the Coma cluster obtained from deep narrowband imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam at the Subaru Telescope. The parent galaxies of the extended Hα clouds are distributed farther than 0.2 Mpc from the peak of the X-ray emission of the cluster. Most of the galaxies are bluer than g - r ∼ 0.5 and they account for 57% of the blue (g - r < 0.5) bright (r < 17.8 mag) galaxies in the central region of the Coma cluster. They reside near the red- and blueshifted edges of the radial velocity distribution of Coma cluster member galaxies. Our findings suggest that most of the parent galaxies were recently captured by the Coma cluster potential and are now infalling toward the cluster center with their disk gas being stripped off and producing the observed Hα clouds.

  1. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  2. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here.

  3. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here. PMID:27264892

  4. [Rare consciousness disturbances in toxicological practice: akinetic mutism, somnambulism, locked-in syndrome, and psychogenic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of xenobiotics can result inrare disorders of consciousness, such as akinetic mutism and somnambulism as well as syndromes mimicking consciousness disturbances, such as locked-in syndrome and psychogenic coma. Akinetic mutism is a condition characterized by a lack of spontaneous movements and little or no vocalization. Somnambulism include performing of complex motor activity in an automatic manner during deep sleep, without any awareness of its execution. The locked-in syndrome is a state with quadriplegia coexisting with cranial nerves palsies and mutism, but with fully preserved consciousness. Psychogenic coma is a condition in which the patient has preserved level of consciousness and awareness, but does not communicate with theenvironment and does not exhibit the external manifestations of consciousness. This paper presents the etiology, clinical characteristics, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic issues for the above syndromes. PMID:24466703

  5. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: the dust coma as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Güttler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger

    2016-04-01

    OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, is imaging the nucleus and the coma of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies performed with OSIRIS. Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range are used to study the unresolved coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. Individual grains are characterized in terms of color, size, distance, light curves, orbits. Images acquired spanning the phase angle range 0-165 deg are used to determine the dust phase function in different colors and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust particles by solving the inverse scattering problem.

  6. Model for the coma of Comet Halley, based on the Astron ultraviolet spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a model of the Comet Halley coma from spectral and photometric data is described. Spectra in the 1500-3500 A range and photometric scans at the 3085 A and 2190 A in the (0-0) band of the OH and CO(+) molecules were obtained by the UV telescope of the satellite Astron on December 3, 13, and 23, 1985. Surface-brightness profiles of the coma in the (0-0) band of OH, NH, and CS molecules are derived. The source and formation of these molecules, the lifetime of their radicals, the radial velocity of their parent molecules, and the water-molecule sublimation rate are computed and examined. The basic characteristics of the comet observed from the UV data are compared to the properties of other comets. It is observed that Comet Halley is similar to other large short-period comets. 29 references

  7. Distribution of dust in the inner coma of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior and characteristics of the inner coma of the Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (IAA) were examined for five nights in May 1983 using a ground-based 2.2 m CCD telescope. A highly variable, asymmetric sunward emission was detected, along with a long filamentary structure. The brightness was highest in the sunward direction, with radial brightnesses diminishing more slowly than predicted with a 1/r model. The slow fall-off is attributed to the emission of conglomerate dust grains which fragment while traveling through the inner coma and increase the effective surface area of the dust. Significant day-to-day variations were observed, and the filamentary features were indicative of a centralized region on a mantled nucleus which rotated. The nucleus is estimated to be no more than 17 km in diameter. 22 references

  8. Dust coma of Halley comet: measurements with the dust counter and mass analyzer (DUSMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper represents a preliminary report on measurements of spatial and temporal distribution of mass and flows of dust particles coming from comet nucleus performed by means of devices constructed on the new principle of detecting comet dust specks. The device has a high time resolution (∼ 4 μs) in the wide range of mass and dust flows. On the base of a preliminary analysis the following conclusions are drawn: dust coma in quiet state (''Vega-2'') as well as at the presence of considerable emissions (''Vega-1'') manifests the presence of important short-term out-bursts having by time a quasi-periodic structure. Integral mass spectra show flows intensity growth with the decrease of measured mass (which contradicts some theoretical models). Flow levels lie approximately in the region previously determined by ground observations. The coma is extremely dynamic both in space and in time which proves the complex structure of regions of dust emission from the nucleus

  9. 30.9 MHz observations of the radio halo in the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffuse radio emission in the central part of the Coma cluster of galaxies has been extensively studied at relatively high radio frequencies, but the information available at low frequencies is quite sparse. A map of the radio halo in the Coma cluster has been made at 30.9 MHz using the University of Maryland's Clark Lake radio telescope. Because a more precise process was used to remove the flux of the superimposed discrete sources than was previously possible, the error estimate for the flux of the halo at this frequency has been significantly reduced. If the radiation is due to synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons, these observations give information about the population of electrons radiating at low energies. Knowing the flux and extent of the halo at a low frequency helps to constrain the possible models of halo formation. 19 refs

  10. Coma-free alignment of high resolution electron microscopes with the aid of optical diffractograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alignment by means of current commutating and defocusing of the objective does not yield the desired rotational symmetry of the imaging pencils. This was found while aligning a transmission electron microscope with a single field condenser objective. A series of optical diffractograms of micrographs taken under the same tilted illumination yet under various azimuths have been arranged in a tableau, wherein strong asymmetry is exhibited. Quantitative evaluation yields the most important asymmetric aberration to be the axial coma, which becomes critical when a resolution better than 5 A0 is obtained. The tableau also allows an assessment of the three-fold astigmatism. A procedure has been developed which aligns the microscope onto the coma-free and dispersion-free pencil axis and does not rely on current communication. The procedure demands equal appearance of astigmatic carbon film images produced under the same tilt yet diametrical azimuth. (Auth.)

  11. THE GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS DOWN TO MR = –10 IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derived the luminosity function (LF) of dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster down to MR = –10 at three fields located at the center, intermediate, and outskirt of the cluster. The LF (–19 R R ∼ –13 and is composed of two distinct components of different slopes; the bright component with –19 R R R R < –10) consists largely of point-spread-function-like compact galaxies. We found that both these compact galaxies and some extended galaxies are present in the center while only compact galaxies are seen in the outskirt. In the faint component, the fraction of blue galaxies is larger in the outskirt than in the center. We suggest that the dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster, which make up the two components in the LF, are heterogeneous with some different origins.

  12. Beyond S\\'ersic + exponential disc morphologies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Head, Jacob T C G; Hudson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] We explore the diversity of internal galaxy structures in the Coma cluster across a wide range of luminosities ($-17$\\,$>$\\,$M_g$\\,$>$\\,$-22$) and cluster-centric radii ($0$\\,$ 10$ kpc). 11\\% of galaxies ($N=52$) feature a break in their outer profiles, indicating `truncated' or `anti-truncated' discs. Beyond the break radius, truncated galaxies are structurally consistent with exponential discs, disfavouring physical truncation as their formation mechanism. Bulge luminosity in anti-truncated galaxies correlates strongly with galaxy luminosity, indicating a bulge-enhancing origin for these systems. Both types of broken disc are found overwhelmingly ($>70\\%$) in `barred' galaxies, despite a low measured bar fraction for Coma ($20\\pm2\\%$). Thus, galaxy bars play an important role in formation of broken disc structures. No strong variation in galaxy structure is detected with projected cluster-centric radius.

  13. Optical identifications of IRAS point sources: the Fornax, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present optical identifications for 66 IRAS point sources in the region of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, 106 IRAS point sources in the region of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) and 59 IRAS point sources in the region of the Coma cluster of galaxies (Abell 1656). Eight other sources in Hydra I do not have optical counterparts and are very probably due to infrared cirrus. Twenty-three (35 per cent) of the Fornax sources are associated with stars and 43 (65 per cent) with galaxies; 48 (42 per cent) of the Hydra I sources are associated with stars and 58 (51 per cent) with galaxies; 18 (31 per cent) of the Coma sources are associated with stars and 41 (69 per cent) with galaxies. The stellar and infrared cirrus surface density is consistent with the galactic latitude of each field. (author)

  14. Observations Of The Egret Blazar W Comae With The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Scalzo, R A

    2004-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a wavefront-sampling atmospheric Cherenkov telescope which uses an array of solar heliostat mirrors as its primary optic. STACEE is designed to detect air showers from astrophysical gamma rays with energies between 50 and 250 GeV. Recent observations of the BL Lac object W Comae (ON+231), made in the spring of 2003 using STACEE, detect no significant gamma ray emission. The implications of this null result for the composition of the relativistic jet in W Comae is discussed, examining both leptonic and hadronic jet models from the literature. The 95% confidence level upper limit on the flux ranges from 1.5–3.5 × 10−10 cm−2 s−1 above 100 GeV for the leptonic models, and from 0.5–1.1 × 10−10 cm−2 s−1 above 150 GeV for the hadronic models.

  15. The origin of complex organic ions in the coma of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Korth, A.; Reme, H.; Mendis, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Giotto-PICCA instrument has obtained heavy-ion mass spectra in the inner coma of Comet Halley; the spectra exhibit a series of distinct mass groups separated by a constant about 15 amu, and extending to at least 120 amu, whose pattern is typical of CHON molecules. It is found that neither coma gas-phase chemistry nor UV photon, solar wind particle, or cosmic irradiation of the nucleus in its current orbit can generate enough heavy molecules to account for the PICCA abundances. It is suggested that these abundances may be supplied by UV and cosmic irradiation of the icy, precometary grains within interstellar molecular clouds and/or the protosolar nebula.

  16. CCD imaging of the inner coma jets of comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James; Hughes, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the inner coma section of a CCD image of comet P/Halley taken at 1807 UT on 13 March 1986 using a C2 filter (wavelength 5000 to 5200A, half maximum) with the 3.8 m Anglo Australian Telescope at Siding Springs, Australia. Atmospheric turbulence leads to a spreading of the image detail and this produces a blander image of the inner coma region with a slower radial decrease of brightness in comparison to the unaffected image. We remove this smearing by utilizing the point spread function of a star on the same CCD image. Jets were then revealed by removing the average background. Analysis of the jet structure enabled us to estimate the lower limit of the parent molecule velocity. This is found to be 0.3 km s(exp -1).

  17. Internal energy flows of coma-affected singular beams in low-numerical-aperture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Monika; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Senthilkumaran, P

    2015-04-01

    The circulating phase gradient component of a singular beam gets modified when focused by a low-numerical-aperature system suffering from coma aberration. The gradient due to this coma aberration splits the higher charge vortex into elementary vortices and distributes them spatially. This splitting depends on the charge and polarity of the incident singular beam as well as the sign and magnitude of the aberration coefficient. The transverse component of the Poynting vector field distribution at the focal plane is decomposed into the curl or solenoidal component and divergence or irrotational component using the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition technique. The solenoidal component that relates to the orbital angular momentum carries the circulating energy, while the irrotational component shows the sources and sinks of the energy. Intriguing results of the study of energy flow around the edge dislocations apart from the point phase defects in the irrotational components are also presented.

  18. The clinic discuss of prognosis and treatment or brainstem infarction combined coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Junying; Wanglei; YinShimin; Zheng Yishan; Shijie Qu; Zhanfen

    2000-01-01

    Objective Discuss the relationship between the position, bound of brainstem infarction and .consciousness clog,determinan the prognosis and curative effect. Background and Methods Total brainstem infarction 14 patients,9 male and 5 female,43 to 80 years old.all patients had been checked by CT or MRI,brainstem foliun scanning 6 cases,checked by MRI 8 canes micbrain infarction 2 cases,pon infarction 5 cases,medulla infasction 7 cases the midbrain infarction were rise rapid,inmediately coma,the mydrasis in defect side,opposite body mucsle tension heighten.then both lower limbs straight,both pathology sign masculine.the two cases are all alive .tocked-in syndrom has appeared in 1 case of pon infarction ,and died of combined illness 1 year later. 1 case defect affect centrum of breath and hearlbeat, coma,breath rhythm malajustment,breath stop.threr were no consciousness clog in the other 3 cases ,vertigo,force head position to trouble side, nystagmus, trouble side face hypalgesia,and all cureed .2 cases of medulla infarction appeared quactriplegia ,swallow hardness,anarthriad and so on, 5 others were hemi Watlenberg syndrom,all wcre cured. Results and Discussion coma or no in brainstem infaciton was related with position.it is reparted that midbrain infarction coma was 7.6 persent of brainstem infarction. consciousness clog is distinctness which defect position in midbrain lateral-back, pon ventro defect, not involved ARAS ,lwas locked-in synxdom. brainstem infarction combined combined with freedom breath clog,in medulla was 16.1percent,midorain was 1 1.6 percent, pons ws 83.96 percent the prognosis was.all right in lightly brainsterm infarction, lf involved in both medulla, ventro pon,the prognosis was bad, and lose quadriplegia. CT brainstern foliun scanning would enhanced scanning lay, and helpful for chech up the pathological chanoes of brainstem.

  19. Familial lysinuric protein intolerance presenting as coma in two adult siblings.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, P. J.; Dale, G; Bates, D.

    1989-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of metabolism which usually presents in infancy with failure to thrive and vomiting. Two patients are described who presented in adult life with hyperammonaemic coma due to LPI. Both had been underweight and had had intermittent gastrointestinal symptoms during childhood. They were of normal intellect and had maintained good health, until presentation in their thirties, by unconscious dietary protein avoidance. The diagnosis of LPI should...

  20. The Large-Grained Dust Coma of 174P/Echeclus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, James M.; Choi, Young-Jun; Weissman, Paul R.; Stansberry, John A.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Roe, Henry G.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2008-01-01

    On 2005 December 30, Y.-J. Choi and P. R. Weissman discovered that the formerly dormant Centaur 2000 EC98 was in strong outburst. Previous observations by P. Rousselot et al. spanning a 3-year period indicated a lack of coma down to the 27 mag arcsec 2 level.We present Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS observations of this newly active Centaur--now known as 174P/Echeclus (2000 EC98)--or 60558 Echeclus--taken in 2006 late February. The images show strong signal at both the 24 and 70 micron bands and reveal an extended coma about 2' in diameter. Analyses yield estimates of the coma signal contribution that are in excess of 90% of the total signal in the 24 micron band. Dust production estimates ranging from 1.7-4 x 10(exp 2) kg/s are on the order of 30 times that seen in other Centaurs. Simultaneous visible-wavelength observations were also obtained with Palomar Observatory's 200-inch telescope, the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) 1.8-m telescope, and Table Mountain Observatory's 0.6-m telescope, revealing a coma morphology nearly identical to the mid-IR observations. The grain size distribution derived from the data yields a log particle mass power-law with slope parameter (alpha) = -0.87 +/- 0.07, and is consistent with steady cometary-activity, such as that observed during the Stardust spacecraft's encounter at 81P/Wild 2, and not with an impact driven event, such as that caused by the Deep Impact experiment.

  1. FORTY-SEVEN MILKY WAY-SIZED, EXTREMELY DIFFUSE GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec–2 and effective radii r eff = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r eff = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L * galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ∼6 × 107 M ☉. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with (g – i) = 0.8 and (b/a) = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ475 = 25.8 mag arcsec–2, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these ''ultra-diffuse galaxies'' may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions

  2. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non Ketotic Coma and Rhabdomyolysis; An Uncommon Clinical Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    C, Philip; J., Jacob; S, Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is usually attributed to trauma. However there is an association of rhabdomyolysis with hyperosmolar states. Recognition of this association will enable better management of the patient and reduce the burden on the care taker by preventing the onset of complications that can prove fatal. It is also important to realise that hyperosmolar coma can be the presenting complaint of a diabetic seeking medical attention for the first time. Key words: Rhabdomyolysis, Diabetes mellitus H...

  3. THE RADIO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 μJy per 4.''4 beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22. For cluster galaxies, these correspond to L 1.4 = 1.7 x 1020 W Hz-1(for a 5σ source) and Mr = -13. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are the dominant population only at radio luminosities between about 1021 and 1022 W Hz-1, an interesting result given star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions for all luminosities lower than about 1023 W Hz-1. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (∼>3x1022 W Hz-1) and low (∼21 W Hz-1) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3 x 1019 W Hz-1. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ∼ -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGNs.

  4. Composition of Dust Particles Collected in the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchenbach, Martin; Kissel, Jochen; Langevin, Yves; Briois, Christelle; Koch, Andreas; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Rynö, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser (COSIMA) is a dust particle composition analyzing instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. COSIMA is collecting cometary particles on metal targets in the inner coma, identifies the collected particle on microscopic images and analyses their composition by secondary ion mass spectrometry. We will report on the high resolution mass spectra containing positive or negative ions of elements, organic molecules and molecular fragments originating from the cometary particle surfaces.

  5. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  6. Evolution of the dust coma in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko before the 2009 perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, G. P.; Patriarchi, P.; Boehnhardt, H.; Vincent, J.-B.; Licandro, J.; Kolokolova, L.; Schulz, R.; Stüwe, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the main target of ESA's Rosetta mission and will be encountered in May 2014. Because the spacecraft will orbit the comet nucleus before and after release of the lander Philae, it is necessary to know the conditions in the coma. Aims: We study the dust environment, including the dust production rate and its variations along the comet's pre-perihelion orbit. Methods: The comet was observed during its approach to the Sun on four epochs between early-June 2008 and mid-January 2009 over a large range of heliocentric distances that will be covered by the mission in 2014. Results: An anomalous enhancement of the coma dust density was measured toward the comet nucleus. The scale length of this enhancement increased with decreasing heliocentric distance of the comet. We interpret this as a result of an unusually slow expansion of the dust coma. Assuming a spherically symmetric coma, we derive the average amount of dust as well as its ejection velocity. The latter increases exponentially with decreasing heliocentric distance (rh), ranging from about 1 m/s at 3 AU to about 25-35 m/s at 1.4 AU. Based on these results we describe the dust environment at those nucleocentric distances at which the spacecraft will presumably be in orbit. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (programs 381.C-0123 and 082.C-0740) and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) of INAF (program TAC_35).

  7. Human brain activity patterns beyond the isoelectric line of extreme deep coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kroeger

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes. Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

  8. Forty-seven Milky Way-sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Abraham, Roberto; Merritt, Allison; Zhang, Jielai; Geha, Marla; Conroy, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radii r eff = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r eff = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L * galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 × 107 M ⊙. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with langg - irang = 0.8 and langb/arang = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ475 = 25.8 mag arcsec-2, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these "ultra-diffuse galaxies" may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

  9. FORTY-SEVEN MILKY WAY-SIZED, EXTREMELY DIFFUSE GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Merritt, Allison; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai [Department of Astronomy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conroy, Charlie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec{sup –2} and effective radii r {sub eff} = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r {sub eff} = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L {sub *} galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ∼6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with (g – i) = 0.8 and (b/a) = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ{sub 475} = 25.8 mag arcsec{sup –2}, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these ''ultra-diffuse galaxies'' may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

  10. Modeling the heterogeneous ice and gas coma of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Rubin, M.; Tenishev, V.

    2013-07-01

    The spectacular images of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 recorded by the Medium Resolution Instrument (MRI) and High Resolution Instrument (HRI) on board of the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) spacecraft, as the Deep Impact extended mission, revealed that its bi-lobed very active nucleus outgasses volatiles heterogeneously. Indeed, CO2 is the primary driver of activity by dragging out chunks of pure ice out of the nucleus from the sub-solar lobe that appear to be the main source of water in Hartley 2's coma by sublimating slowly as they go away from the nucleus. However, water vapor is released by direct sublimation of the nucleus at the waist without any significant amount of either CO2 or icy grains. The coma structure for a comet with such areas of diverse chemistry differs from the usual models where gases are produced in a homogeneous way from the surface. We use the fully kinetic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo model of Tenishev et al. (Tenishev, V.M., Combi, M.R., Davidsson, B. [2008]. Astrophys. J. 685, 659-677; Tenishev, V.M., Combi, M.R., Rubin, M. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 732, 104-120) applied to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 including sublimating icy grains to reproduce the observations made by EPOXI and ground-based measurements. A realistic bi-lobed nucleus with a succession of active areas with different chemistry was included in the model enabling us to study in details the coma of Hartley 2. The different gas production rates from each area were found by fitting the spectra computed using a line-by-line non-LTE radiative transfer model to the HRI observations. The presence of icy grains with long lifetimes, which are pushed anti-sunward by radiation pressure, explains the observed OH asymmetry with enhancement on the night side of the coma.

  11. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    SK Sah; ND Subedi; K. Poudel; Mallik, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT) findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours) cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS) was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A s...

  12. Study of FK Comae Berenices: VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, K.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I. V.; Oláh, K.; Andersen, M. I.; Hackman, T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale lon...

  13. Selections from 2015: Discovery of Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma ClusterPublished January 2015Main takeaway:Using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered 47 ultra-diffuse galaxies in the Coma galaxy cluster. These galaxies are very large, with half-light (effective) radii of 1.54.6 kpc, similar to that of the Milky Ways disk. But their stellar masses are a factor of 1000 lower than the Milky Ways, and theyre accordingly much dimmer.Plot of the effective radius versus the central surface brightness for the ultra-diffuse Coma cluster galaxies (red markers). These galaxies are similar in size to the Milky Ways disk (blue), but significantly dimmer. [Van Dokkum et al. 2015]Why its interesting:These galaxies make up an odd population. Why are their stellar masses so low? The authors posit that these objects may be failed galaxies that lost their gas after having formed their first generation of stars. Adding to the intrigue, the authors find that in order for these galaxies to hold themselves together at their current distance from the cluster core, they must have a whopping dark-matter fraction of 98%.About the discovery:These ultra-diffuse galaxies were actually discovered entirely by accident. Van Dokkum and collaborators observed the Coma cluster in a project to measure properties of the intra-cluster light and look for streams and tidal features. Surprisingly, their images revealed these faint, uncataloged galaxies.CitationPieter G. van Dokkum et al 2015 ApJ 798 L45. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L45

  14. CU Comae a new field double-mode RR Lyrae, the most metal poor discovered to date

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, G; Fabrizio, L D; Bragaglia, A; Merighi, R; Tosi, M P; Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; Ivans, I I; Kinard, A; Marconi, M; Smith, H A; Wilhelm, R; Woodruff, T; Sneden, C

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new double-mode RR Lyrae variable (RRd) in the field of our Galaxy: CU Comae. CU Comae is the sixth such RRd identified to date and is the most metal-poor RRd ever detected. Based on BVI CCD photometry spanning eleven years of observations, we find that CU Comae has periods P0=0.5441641 +/-0.0000049d and P1=0.4057605 +/-0.0000018d. The amplitude of the primary (first-overtone) period of CU Comae is about twice the amplitude of the secondary (fundamental) period. The combination of the fundamental period of pulsation P0 and the period ratio of P1/P0=0.7457 places the variable on the metal-poor side of the Petersen diagram, in the region occupied by M68 and M15 RRd's. A mass of 0.83 solar masses is estimated for CU Comae using an updated theoretical calibration of the Petersen diagram. High resolution spectroscopy (R=30,000) covering the full pulsation cycle of CU Comae was obtained with the 2.7 m telescope of the Mc Donald Observatory, and has been used to build up the radial veloc...

  15. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4GHz = 1.3 x 1020 W Hz-1. The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with Mr r r ∼sun yr-1.

  16. The interaction between the solar wind and the heterogeneous neutral gas coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Martin; Toth, Gabor; Tenishev, Valeriy; Fougere, Nicolas; Huang, Zhenguang

    2016-07-01

    Comets are surrounded by an extended gas and dust coma. Neutral particles are continuously ionized by solar irradiation and then picked-up by the solar wind. This leads to a complex interaction between the neutral gas coma and the solar wind, which changes over the course of the comet's orbit around the Sun. The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft has been in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. Rosetta carries several instruments to investigate the comet's nucleus and surrounding neutral gas coma and plasma. Part of the payload is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) that consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. ROSINA was designed to measure the neutral gas abundance and composition and low energy ions in the coma in situ. ROSINA observations have shown that the coma is very heterogeneous both in total density and composition of the neutral gas. This heterogeneity is driven in large part by the complex shape of the nucleus and the varying illumination conditions associated with the comet's rotation. In this presentation we will show the time-dependent distribution of the major volatiles around the comet constrained by ROSINA observations. Furthermore we will investigate the impact of the highly non-symmetric neutral gas coma on the interaction of the solar wind with the comet.

  17. Etiologia e a morbi-letalidade do coma agudo em crianças Acute coma in children: etiology, morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Löhr Junior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisou-se a etiologia e a morbi-mortalidade de 104 crianças em coma agudo, ou seja, com uma pontuação menor ou igual a 8 da escala de Glasgow, internadas na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital Infantil Pequeno Príncipe(UTI-HIPP no período entre março/98 e janeiro/2001. RESULTADOS: A idade variou de 2 meses a 13 anos, com média de 30,3 ± 27,4 meses e mediana de 20 meses, sendo 57 (54,8% do sexo masculino. O tempo de permanência hospitalar variou de 1 a 114 dias, e 3 casos permaneceram em estado vegetativo persistente. Com relação à etiologia: 31 (29,8% dos casos foram devidos a meningoencefalite, 24 (23,1% estado de mal epiléptico, 19 (18,3% causa tóxico-metabólica, 16 (15,4% hipertensão intracraniana, 7 (6,7% choque/anóxia, 4 (3,8% etiologia indeterminada, 3 (2,9% miscelânea. Com relação à evolução das crianças, 23 (22,1% foram a óbito, 32 (30,8% evoluíram sem seqüelas, 39 (37,5% tiveram alta com seqüelas neurológicas e10 (9,6% não informado. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a análise do presente estudo conclui-se que cerca de um terço dos pacientes em coma agudo falece, um terço apresenta seqüelas neurológicas na alta hospitalar e um terço evoluim sem seqüelas.OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted on the etiology and the morbi-mortality of pediatric patients in acute coma, hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Infantil Pequeno Príncipe (UTI-HIPP. METHOD: One hundred and four control sheets of children hospitalized at the UTI-HIPP and diagnosed as being in acute coma were analyzed. The Glasgow coma scale duly modified for children was used, with a score count equal to or lower than 8 points. The observation period was from March/98 to January/2001. All the supplementary exams as well as the neurological conditions of the patients when discharged were analyzed. RESULTS: The study comprised 104 children whose ages varied from 2 months to 13 years, with 57 (54.8% of them being males

  18. The HI properties of galaxies in the Coma I cloud revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2009-01-01

    Pre-processing within small groups has been proposed to explain several of the properties of galaxies inhabiting rich clusters. The aim of the present work is to see whether pre-processing is acting in the nearby universe, where the structures that are merging to form rich clusters are rather large and massive. We study the HI gas properties of a large sample of late-type galaxies belonging to the Coma I cloud, an association of objects close to the Virgo cluster. Contrary to what previously claimed, late-type galaxies in the Coma I cloud are not deficient in HI gas (HI-def=0.06+-0.44). If the Coma I cloud is representative of infalling groups in nearby clusters, this result suggests that, in the local universe, the evolution of late-type galaxies belonging to loose structures with high velocity dispersions (>= 300 km/s)associated to rich clusters such as Virgo is not significantly perturbed by pre-processing.

  19. THE PLANCK SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH VERSUS THE X-RAY VIEW OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Planck collaboration has recently published precise and resolved measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster of galaxies), thus directly gauging the electron pressure profile in the intracluster plasma. On the other hand, such a quantity may be also derived from combining the density and temperature provided by X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by the plasma. We find a model-independent tension between the SZ and the X-ray pressure, with the SZ one being definitely lower by 15%-20%. We propose that such a challenging tension can be resolved in terms of an additional, non-thermal support to the gravitational equilibrium of the intracluster plasma. This can be straightforwardly included in our Supermodel, so as to fit in detail the Planck SZ profile while being consistent with the X-ray observables. Possible origins of the non-thermal component include cosmic-ray protons, ongoing turbulence, and relativistic electrons; given the existing observational constraints on the first two options, here we focus on the third. For this to be effective, we find that the electron population must include not only an energetic tail accelerated to γ ∼> 103 responsible for the Coma radiohalo, but also many more, lower energy electrons. The electron acceleration is to be started by merging events similar to those that provided the very high central entropy of the thermal intracluster plasma in Coma.

  20. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered both a red and a blue subpopulation of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in the Coma galaxy cluster. We analyzed deep F475W (Sloan g) and F814W (I) Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel as part of the Coma Cluster Treasury Survey and have fitted the light profiles of ∼5000 point-like sources in the vicinity of NGC 4874, one of the two central dominant galaxies of the Coma Cluster. Although almost all of these sources are globular clusters that remain unresolved, we found that 52 objects have effective radii between ∼10 and 66 pc, in the range spanned by dwarf globular transition objects (DGTOs) and UCDs. Of these 52 compact objects, 25 are brighter than MV ∼ -11 mag, a magnitude conventionally thought to separate UCDs and globular clusters. The UCD/DGTO candidates have the same color and luminosity distribution as the most luminous globular clusters within the red and blue subpopulations of the immensely rich NGC 4874 globular cluster system. Unlike standard globular clusters, blue and red UCD/DGTO subpopulations have the same median effective radius. The spatial distribution of UCD/DGTO candidates reveals that they congregate toward NGC 4874 and are not uniformly distributed. We find a relative deficit of UCD/DGTOs compared with globular clusters in the inner 15 kpc around NGC 4874; however, at larger radii UCD/DGTO and globular clusters follow the same spatial distribution.

  1. Catalog of Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Clusters from Subaru Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koda, Jin; Komiyama, Yutaka; Yamanoi, Hitomo

    2016-07-01

    We present a catalog of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster. UDGs are a subset of low surface brightness (SB) galaxies with very large effective radii defined by van Dokkum et al. We surveyed the Subaru data archive for deep Suprime-Cam/Subaru R-band images, and used data covering the 1.°7 × 2.°7 region of the Coma cluster. The data are ∼1 magnitude deeper than the data of van Dokkum et al (2015a) in limiting SB. This paper explains the details of our sample selection procedure. This UDG catalog includes positions, magnitudes, effective radii, mean and central SBs, and colors (when available). Comparisons with previous galaxy catalogs in the literature are performed, and we show that the current catalog is the largest for UDGs. We also discuss that most of the UDGs are members of the Coma cluster, and the major axis of the UDGs tends to align toward the cluster center (radial alignment). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  2. Equilibrium distribution of the elements in the gas in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations governing the equilibrium distribution of the elements for an isothermal plasma in a gravitational potential well are presented, together with a rapidly converging iterative procedure for determining their solution. These results are applied to the case of the intracluster gas in clusters of galaxies and are shown to have important implications (i) for the recent controversy as to whether or not the iron nuclei ''settle out'' in the cluster core, and (ii) for the interpretation of the size and shape of the distribution of the continuum X-ray emission from clusters. We consider a model for the Coma cluster in which the intracluster gas is in equilibrium and is ''partially processed''; that is, the elements with Z>2 have abundances proportional to their cosmic values, but reduced by a factor of approx.20. We find that this model can account for the angular dependence of the continuum X-ray emission from Coma, as determined by recent Einstein observations, as well as or better than the traditional uniform composition model, although the latter is not ruled out. This suggests that the heavy elements in Coma may have settled in the cluster core and that the iron abundance for this cluster may have been overestimated by nearly an order of magnitude

  3. Measurements of the gas temperature and iron abundance distribution in the Coma Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium energy X-ray detectors onboard the EXOSAT Observatory have been used to determine the gas temperature at several positions in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. Evidence is found at greater than 95 percent confidence for a higher temperature in the center of the cluster than in a position approximately 45 arcmin off-center. No difference in iron abundance is observed between the center and off-center regions and the equilibrium model for the distribution of elements in the Coma Cluster of Abramopoulos, Chanan, and Ku can be rejected with greater than 99.5 percent confidence, in favor of a model with more uniform composition. A phenomenological model is presented of the Coma Cluster, which is consistent with the data presented here, as well as the imaging data from the Einstein Observatory and the Tenma X-ray spectrum. The model has a central isothermal region of temperature about 9 keV extending to about 25 arcmin (about 1 Mpc). Beyond this radius the temperature falls as a polytrope with index about 1.6. 36 references

  4. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  5. Negative Ion Chemistry in the Coma of Comet 1P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Negative ions (anions) were identified in the coma of comet 1P/Halley from in-situ measurements performed by the Giotto spacecraft in 1986. These anions were detected with masses in the range 7-110 amu, but with insufficient mass resolution to permit unambiguous identification. We present details of a new chemical-hydrodynamic model for the coma of comet Halley that includes - for the first time - atomic and molecular anions, in addition to a comprehensive hydrocarbon chemistry. Anion number densities arc calculated as a function of radius in the coma, and compared with the Giotto results. Important anion production mechanisms arc found to include radiative electron attachment, polar photodissociation, dissociative electron attachment, and proton transfer. The polyyne anions C4H(-) and C6H(-) arc found to be likely candidates to explain the Giotto anion mass spectrum in the range 49-73 amu. Thc CN(-) anion probably makes a significant contribution to the mass spectrum at 26 amu. Larger carbon-chain anions such as C8H(1) can explain the peak near 100 amu provided there is a source of large carbon-chain-bearing molecules from the cometary nucleus.

  6. Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eCharland-Verville

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Near death experiences (NDEs are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers is still a matter of debate. To date, the most widely used standardized tool to identify and characterize NDEs in research is the Greyson NDE Scale. Using this scale, retrospective and prospective studies have been trying to estimate their incidence in various populations but few studies have tackled to associate the experiences’ intensity and content related to etiology. Methods: This retrospective investigation assessed the most frequently recounted features of self-reported NDEs after a non-life-threatening event (i.e., NDE-like experience or after a pathological coma (i.e., classical NDEs and according to the etiology of the acute brain insult. We also compared our retrospectively acquired data in anoxic coma with historical data from the published literature on prospective post-anoxic studies using the Greyson NDE Scale. Results: From our 190 reports who met the criteria for NDE (i.e., NDE scale total score Conclusions: It appears that real NDEs after coma of different etiologies are similar to NDE-like experiences occurring after non-life threatening events. Subjects reporting NDEs retrospectively tend to have experienced a different content compared to the prospective experiencers

  7. On the nature of faint Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Ulmer, M P; Cuillandre, J C; Durret, F; Mazure, A; Picat, J P; Scheidegger, R

    2008-01-01

    This project is the continuation of our study of faint Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (fLSBs) in one of the densest nearby galaxy regions known, the Coma cluster. Our goal is to improve our understanding of the nature of these objects by comparing the broad band spectral energy distribution with population synthesis models. The data were obtained with the MEGACAM and CFH12K cameras at the CFHT. We used the resulting photometry in 5 broad band filters (u*, B, V, R, and I), that included new u*-band data, to fit spectral models. With these spectral fits we inferred a cluster membership criterium, as well as the ages, dust extinctions, and photometric types of these fLSBs. We show that about half of the Coma cluster fLSBs have a spectral energy distribution well represented in our template library while the other half present a flux deficit at ultraviolet wavelengths. Among the well represented, ~80% are probably part of the Coma cluster based on their spectral energy distribution. They are relatively young (yo...

  8. The globular cluster systems of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies: statistical constraints from HST data

    CERN Document Server

    Amorisco, N C; White, S D M

    2016-01-01

    We use data from the HST Coma Cluster Treasury program to assess the richness of the Globular Cluster Systems (GCSs) of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), and hence to constrain the virial masses of their haloes. For 18 of these the half-light radius exceeds 1.5 kpc. We use a maximum-likelihood method to take account of the high contamination levels. UDG GCSs are poor: for 14 of the largest 18, $N_{GC}<29$ with 90% confidence, $N_{GC}\\leq46$ for the remaining 4. From a stacked analysis of the 18 largest UDGs we estimate $\\langle N_{GC}\\rangle=4.9^{+4.3}_{-3.3}$ (median, 10 and 90% quantiles); the corresponding number for the complementary 36 systems is $\\langle N_{GC}\\rangle=0.8^{+0.9}_{-0.6}$. These results strongly suggest that most Coma UDGs have low-mass haloes. Their GCSs do not display significantly larger richnesses than nearby dwarf galaxies of similar stellar mass.

  9. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF CO PRODUCTION IN COMETARY COMAE: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GAS-PHASE PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the sources of CO in cometary comae is important for understanding comet chemistry and the roles comets have played in the development of the solar system. Among comets sampled to date, the CO abundances vary widely and no direct correlation of CO abundance with other known comet properties has been identified. The picture is complicated further by the discovery of CO production in the comae of some comets, most notably comets Halley and Hale-Bopp. In this study, we investigate the conditions under which CO can be produced in the coma via gas-phase phenomena. We include photochemistry of several parent molecules, as well as two-body chemical reactions that involve the parents and their photodissociative daughter and granddaughter products. We also consider the level of excitation of 'hot' hydrogen (H*) and O(1D) in the network, because the level of excitation of these reactants strongly influences reaction rates. Our results suggest that the dominant gas-phase contributor to CO formation is the photodissociation of H2CO. Even though typical abundances of H2CO are at ∼1% relative to water in the coma, it produces more CO than other processes due to its relatively short photodissociation lifetime. Because other studies have shown H2CO to have a distributed source as well, it suggests that at least some CO formation in the coma is connected to the H2CO distributed source. We take the time to examine the CO2/CO ratio and note that while the CO2/CO ratio in comets Halley, Hale-Bopp, and Hyakutake are noticeably different when only native CO is considered, the CO2/CO ratios show greater similarity when total CO is considered. Although this sample is relatively small, should the relatively similar CO2/COTotal ratio of ∼0.25 indeed be constant for comets with distributed CO sources, it suggests that the extended CO source of these comets is tied directly to the overall C, H, O chemistry of comets, as is likely to happen if hydrogenation of CO occurred on

  11. Responsiveness of a patient in a persistent vegetative state after a coma to weekly injections of autologous activated immune cells: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellerhoff Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An 82-year-old Caucasian woman had remained in a persistent vegetative state after a coma of seven months duration, which occurred after a stroke with hemiplegia, nine years previously. The persistent vegetative state could be reversed in part by weekly injections with activated immune cells. After therapy, our patient responded to commands in addition to regaining spontaneous movements of both arms and the ability to swallow. This is the first report on the treatment with activated immune cells of a patient in a persistent vegetative state after a coma. Case presentation An 82-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a persistent vegetative state subsequent to a coma. She retained respiratory and autonomic functions. As contact was not possible, physiotherapy was passive. Her skin was yellowish, and our patient did not move by herself. Vomiting repeatedly resulted from tube feeding. After a once-weekly treatment with activated immune cells sampled from our patient's blood and activated in vitro, several of her functions gradually returned. Our patient opened her eyes in the requested direction and turned her head toward people entering the room. She 'supported' nursing efforts, as the nurse noted a loss of spastic motions. The strength in both her arms returned, and she spontaneously moved her arm on the side experiencing hemiplegia. After three months, our patient could stick out her tongue upon demand. Finally, the swallow reflexes of our patient started to return. However, tube feeding was continued, and our patient died after aspiration of vomit following a feeding. Conclusion The success of treatment with autologous activated immune cells in this patient may have resulted from the production of neuroactive substances, such as neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by activated immune cells. The deterioration of our patient could be reversed, as demonstrated by the restoration of motor strength in her

  12. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000-5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-SN dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μV ∼ 27 mag arcsec-2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 1012 Msun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of dwarf

  13. 急诊科昏迷病人的病例分析%The emergency cases analysis of coma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉辉; 康岩; 李林芫

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析急诊科昏迷患者的发病原因及处理措施,提高昏迷的诊断及抢救成功率。方法回顾分析326例昏迷病人的急救诊疗。结果猝死27例(48.21%)为深度昏迷的主要原因;心脑血管意外68例(38.42%),糖尿病相关性昏迷39例(22.04%),为中度昏迷的常见原因;酒精中毒30例(32.26%),药物中毒22例(23.66%),为轻度昏迷的常见原因。结论详细询问病人病史、有效的抢救措施是抢救成功的关键。%Aim to analyze the etiology and treatment of coma patients in emergency department , and to improve the diagnosis and treatment rates of coma. Methods 326 cases of coma patients were analyzed by retrospective method.Results sudden death(27cases ,48.21%) was the mainly cause of deep coma.cerebrovascular accident (68 cases ,38.42%)and diabetes-related coma( 39 cases ,22.04%) were the common cause of moderate coma . alcoholism (30 cases ,32.26%)and poisoning( 22 cases ,23.66%) was the common cause of mild coma. Conclusion it is very important to query the patient’s history and effective rescue measures .

  14. Escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica modificada para cães Pediatric Glasgow coma scale modified for dogs

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, M.B.; E.F. Cole; J. Evêncio Neto; A.C.J. Silva; G.A.S. Aleixo; A.L.T. Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Com o objetivo de modificar a escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica para utilização na medicina veterinária, foram utilizados 30 cães adultos com alterações neurológicas passíveis de avaliação da consciência. A escala modificada para cães foi aplicada em três momentos com intervalos de 48 horas entre eles, resultando em 90 eventos diversos. A escala foi aplicada para avaliação da abertura ocular (AO), da melhor resposta associada à vocalização (MRV) e da melhor resposta motora (MRM). Com a aná...

  15. Escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica modificada para cães Pediatric Glasgow coma scale modified for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Andrade

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de modificar a escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica para utilização na medicina veterinária, foram utilizados 30 cães adultos com alterações neurológicas passíveis de avaliação da consciência. A escala modificada para cães foi aplicada em três momentos com intervalos de 48 horas entre eles, resultando em 90 eventos diversos. A escala foi aplicada para avaliação da abertura ocular (AO, da melhor resposta associada à vocalização (MRV e da melhor resposta motora (MRM. Com a análise fatorial para os indicadores AO, MRV e MRM, obtiveram-se valores iniciais de 2,482, 0,302 e 0,215, respectivamente. A variância foi de 82,7%, 10,1% e 7,2%, respectivamente, e cumulativa de 82,7%, 92,8% e 100%, respectivamente. A extração esperada do principal fator, AO, foi de 2,482 com variância de 82,7% e cumulativa de 82,7%. O resultado da avaliação da consciência dos cães foi normal em 10% dos animais, alteração leve em 20%, moderada em 45% e grave em 25%, com escores de Glasgow iguais a 15, entre 13 e 14, entre 9 e 12 e entre 8 e 3, respectivamente. A escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica modificada para cães é ferramenta segura para avaliação da consciência de cães adultos.The pediatric Glasgow coma scale was modified for use in veterinary medicine. Thirty adult dogs with neurological alterations susceptible to evaluation of the conscience were studied. The modified scale for dogs was applied at three moments with intervals of 48 hours, resulting in 90 events. The scale was applied for evaluation of the ocular opening (OO, the best answer associated to vocalization (BAV, and the best motor answer (BMA. With the factorial analysis for the indicators OO, BAV, and BMA the initial values of 2.482, 0.302, and 0.215, respectively, were obtained. The variance was of 82.7%, 10.1%, and 7.2%, respectively, and cumulative of 82.7%, 92.8%, and 100%, respectively. The expected extraction of the main factor, OO, was 2.482 with

  16. 急诊昏迷患者分诊与护理%Triage and nursing care of emergency coma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学勤; 吕荣菊; 陈霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the triage and nursing care of acute coma patients. Methods:The clinical materials of 265 cases with coma in the emergency department of our hospital from January,2013 to June,2014 were analyzed retro-spectively. Results:Among the 142 patients with cerebrovascular diseases,63 cases of severe craniocerebral injury,25 ca-ses of poisoning,15 cases of Hypoglycemic coma,8 cases of diabetic hyperosmolar coma,3 cases of Uremic coma,3 pa-tients with hepatic coma,4 cases of heat stroke coma,2 cases of unidentified cause coma,the triage accuracy was 92%. Conclusion:Solid basic skills,rich medical knowledge and the correct timely identification of emergency triage of coma pa-tients play a decisive role in making clear the causes as soon as possible. Strengthening the accurate and effective emergen-cy treatment and nursing care directly affects the success rate of rescue and rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急诊昏迷患者的分诊与护理。方法选择我院急诊科2013年1月-2014年6月接诊的265例急诊昏迷患者资料进行回顾性分析。结果脑血管病142例,严重颅脑创伤63例,各类中毒25例,低血糖昏迷15例,糖尿病高渗性昏迷8例,尿毒症昏迷3例,肝昏迷3例,中暑昏迷4例,不明原因昏迷2例,分诊正确率92%。结论具备扎实的基本功和丰富的医学知识,正确及时做好对急诊昏迷患者的鉴别分诊,对尽快明确病因起决定作用;及时加强准确有效的急救治疗与护理,直接影响最终的抢救成功率以及患者的康复情况。

  17. Sinais vitais e expressão facial de pacientes em estado de coma Signos vitales y expresión facial de pacientes en estado de coma Vital signs and facial expression of patients in coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Giesbrecht Puggina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar a influência da música e mensagem oral sobre os Sinais Vitais e Expressão Facial dos pacientes em coma fisiológico ou induzido. Realizou-se um Ensaio Clínico Controlado e Randomizado. A amostra consistiu-se de 30 pacientes de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, que foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo Controle (sem estímulos auditivos e Grupo Experimental (com estímulos auditivos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a 3 sessões, em dias consecutivos. Encontraram-se alterações estatisticamente significativas nos sinais vitais (saturação de O2 - sessão 1; saturação de O2 - sessão 3; freqüência respiratória - sessão 3 durante a mensagem e na expressão facial, sessão 1, durante a música e a mensagem. Aparentemente a mensagem foi um estímulo mais forte do que a música em relação à capacidade de produzir respostas fisiológicas sugestivas de audição.El objetivo era verificar la influencia de la música y del mensaje verbal en los Señales Vitales y la Expresión Facial de los pacientes en coma fisiológico o inducido. Un Ensayo Clínico Controlado y Randomizado fue echo. La muestra fue consistida en 30 pacientes de Unidad de terapia Intensiva, que fueran divididos en 2 grupos: Grupo Control (sin estímulos auditivos y Grupo Experimental (con los estímulos auditivos. Los pacientes fueran sometidos a las 3 sesiones, en días consecutivos. Los cambios estadísticamente significativos en las Señales Vitales fueran encuentrados (saturación del oxigeno - sesión 1; saturación del oxigeno - sesión 3; frecuencia respiratoria - sesión 3 durante el mensaje y en la Expresión Facial, sesión 1, durante música y el mensaje. Aparentemente el mensaje era uno estimulo más fuerte de qué la música en lo que refiere a la capacidad de producir respuestas fisiológicas de audición.The objective was to check music and voice message influence on the Vital Signals and Facial Expressions of patients in physiological or

  18. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  19. Ultraviolet OH prompt emission in the innermost coma of 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Forgia, F.; A'Hearn, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Magrin, S.; Bertini, I.; Pajola, M.; Barbieri, C.; Kueppers, M.

    2014-07-01

    The hyperactive Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2, the target of the EPOXI mission, has been visited on 4 November 2010 at a distance of 694 km, when it was at 1.064 au from the Sun. Spectral observations of the ambient coma show that H_2O is enhanced from the central waist, while CO_2 and icy grains seem to be coming out mainly from the two lobes [1,2]. Visible observations in the OH filter of the MRI camera onboard EPOXI have been used to investigate the distribution of the OH daughter species in the coma. These data reveal an evident radial structure in the very inner coma below 35 km from the nucleus (see Figure), appearing to be coming directly from the nucleus, in the region of the central waist. This is in agreement with the water distribution found by [1]. The OH resonance fluorescence emission band at 308.5 nm, caused by the transition A^2Σ-X^2Π (0,0), has been used indeed for years as a tracer of water parent molecules. Nevertheless, even for the active Sun, the OH fluorescence lifetime is about 10^{5} s, suggesting that it is not expected to be observed so close to the nucleus. OH has been found to cause prompt emission (PE) at both IR and UV wavelengths and has been tentatively detected in a few comets [3-6]. We report theoretical computations showing a strong possibility that the innermost OH structure observed in the MRI images of Hartley 2 could possibly be associated with OH ultraviolet PE.

  20. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  1. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  2. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  3. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Rishi; Gaspari, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    We report the detection of thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZ) fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with Planck. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2-d SZ perturbations into 3-d pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at δP/P = 33 ± 12% and 74 ± 19% in the 15' and 40' radius region, respectively. We perform tests to ensure fluctuations are intrinsic to the cluster and not due to noise contamination. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3-d Mach number Ma3d = 0.8 ± 0.3 (15' region), increasing to supersonic values at larger radii (40'), and an injection scale Linj ≈ 500 kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers, in particular tied to internal galaxy groups. The large pressure fluctuations show that Coma is in adiabatic mode (mediated by sound waves), rather than isobaric mode (mediated by buoyancy waves). As predicted by turbulence models, the distribution of SZ fluctuations is log-normal with mild non-Gaussianities (heavy tails). The substantial non-thermal pressure support implies hydrostatic mass bias bM = -15% to -45% from the core to the outskirt region, respectively. While total SZ power probes the thermal energy content, the SZ fluctuations constrain the non-thermal deviations important for precision cosmology. The proposed, novel approach can be exploited by multifrequency observations using ground based interferometers and future space CMB missions.

  4. Biblioteca Aritmética de operaciones en Tiempo Real para Números en Coma Flotante

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Mora, Higinio; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Espí Botella, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    El estándar IEEE754 es ampliamente utilizado en representación numérica de números reales y es actualmente seguida por los fabricantes en muchas de las implementaciones de CPU. Este estándar determina una serie de formatos para la representación de números en coma flotante, sus casos especiales y situaciones de error. Muchos lenguajes especifican que formatos y aritmética de la IEEE implementan, por ejemplo, en los lenguajes C/C++ y Java, el tipo float representa números en simple precisión y...

  5. Diagnostic strategy on coma%昏迷的诊断思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫东

    2009-01-01

    @@ 昏迷(coma)指各种病因导致的高级神经中枢结构与功能活动(意识、感觉和运动)处于严重而广泛抑制状态的病理过程,是一种严重的意识障碍,表现为部分或全部意识持续中断或完全丧失,是大脑功能衰竭的王要表现之一.

  6. Deep Galex Observations of the Coma Cluster: Source Catalog and Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.; Jenkins, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from deep 26 ks GALEX observations of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 Angstroms) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Angstroms) wavebands. The observed field is centered 0.9 deg. (1.6 Mpc) south-west of the Coma core, and has full optical photometric coverage by SDSS and spectroscopic coverage to r-21. The catalog consists of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically-confirmed Coma member galaxies that range from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is 80% complete to NUV=23 and FUV=23.5, and has a limiting depth at NUV=24.5 and FUV=25.0 which corresponds to a star formation rate of 10(exp -3) solar mass yr(sup -1) at the distance of Coma. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as a position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g. object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is also free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here: conversely, we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion limited at NUV approximately 23 and FUV approximately 24. We have measured the total UV galaxy counts using our catalog and report a 50% excess of counts across FUV=22-23.5 and NUV=21.5-23 relative to previous GALEX

  7. Coma in the course of severe poisoning after consumption of red fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata A; Pankowska, Sylwestra; Janiak, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Łazowski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Red fly agaric poisoning is rare. It can be consumed for suicidal purposes or its psychedelic effect. The paper describes the case of a young men, who fell into a coma after ingestion of the red toadstools. Quick identification of the poison, early use of gastric lavage and symptomatic treatment resulted in regression of symptoms and lead to the patient's discharge from the hospital on the third day after intoxication. Authors discussing the poisonous alkaloids contained in the red toadtools: ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscasone and muscarine and theirs properties, responsible for the symptoms of intoxication. PMID:26828668

  8. Behaviour of comet Kohoutek /1973f/. [chemical reactions in coma and tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral identification of CH3CN and HCN provides the first support for the hypothesis first proposed by Wurm (1943), of chemically stable 'parent molecules' for the less stable radicals and ions seen in the coma and the tail. These two molecules were among the earliest discovered in dense interstellar clouds. Circumstantial evidence for the presence of water as the dominant volatile component in the nucleus has been growing for some time. However, a much more volatile species is required to explain the observed behavior of the comet. CO, formaldehyde, or methane would quickly evaporate as the comet approached the sun.

  9. Abundance determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-04-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montrèal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A star members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundance patterns.

  10. Abundances determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2008-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montr\\'eal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A stars members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundances patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundances patterns.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dwarf galaxies in Coma supercluster (Mahajan+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Haines, C. P.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2010-11-01

    We base our work on the photometric and spectroscopic data acquired by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2006ApJS..162...38A, Cat. II/267), which for the first time covers the entire region of the Coma supercluster presented in this paper. Over a smaller area, we also use archival 24um MIR images, from the MIPS instrument aboard Spitzer (Rieke et al., 2004ApJS..154...25R), available over a significant fraction of the two main clusters. (2 data files).

  12. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  13. ComA, a phosphorylated response regulator protein of Bacillus subtilis, binds to the promoter region of srfA.

    OpenAIRE

    Roggiani, M; Dubnau, D

    1993-01-01

    ComA is a response regulator protein of Bacillus subtilis which is required for the transcription of several genes which are involved in late-growth expression and in responses to environmental stress. Among these genes are degQ, gsiA, and srfA. The last is an operon needed for the development of genetic competence, surfactin production, and normal sporulation. We show here that partially purified ComA protein, isolated from an overproducing Escherichia coli strain, is phosphorylated in vitro...

  14. 21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster. II. Evidence for ongoing gas stripping in five cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity 21 cm observations of 73 galaxies in the Coma supercluster are presented. Seventeen new redshifts are reported. Three galaxies in A1367 and two in the Coma Cluster are found with remarkably asymmetrical H I spectra indicating uneven gas distribution in their disks. This unstable configuration is interpreted as being due to ongoing dynamical gas stripping taking place on time scales shorter than those required for differential rotation to redistribute the gas, i.e., a few times 100 million yr. This suggests that spiral galaxies are continuously supplied to the clusters from the surrounding supercluster. 33 refs

  15. COSIMA - Dust Particles in the Inner Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko prior to perihelion passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, H.; Hilchenbach, M.; Fray, N.; Bardyn, A.; Briois, C.; Baklouti, D.; Engrand, C.; Langevin, Y.; Ligier, N.; Le Roy, L.; Merouane, S.; Orthous Daunay, F.-R.; Thirkell, L.; Kissel, J.; Koch, A.; Schulz, R.; Ryno, J.; Silen, J.

    2015-10-01

    COSIMA, the COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser, is one of the three scientific in-situ dust instruments onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. Rosetta has been accompanying the comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko since August 2014 during the journey of the nucleus into the inner solar system. COSIMA has collected several thousands of cometary particles in the inner coma from 10 to hundreds of kilometers off the cometary nucleus. We will discuss the evolution of the inner coma dust particles as observed for the collected, imaged and analyzed cometary particles.

  16. MITO measurements of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in the Coma cluster of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    De Petris, M; Lamagna, L; Melchiorri, F; Orlando, A E; Palladino, E; Rephaeli, Y; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Kreysa, E; Signore, M

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect towards the Coma cluster (A1656) with the MITO experiment, a 2.6-m telescope equipped with a 4-channel 17 arcminute (FWHM) photometer. Measurements at frequency bands 143+/-15, 214+/-15, 272+/-16 and 353+/-13 GHz, were made during 120 drift scans of Coma. We describe the observations and data analysis that involved extraction of the S-Z signal by employing a spatial and spectral de-correlation scheme to remove a dominant atmospheric component. The deduced values of the thermal S-Z effect in the first three bands are DT_{0} = -179+/-38,-33+/-81,170+/-35 microKelvin in the cluster center. The corresponding optical depth, tau=(4.1+/-0.9) 10^{-3}, is consistent (within errors) with both the value from a previous low frequency S-Z measurement, and the value predicted from the X-ray deduced gas parameters.

  17. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A; Lutovinov, Alexander A; Sazonov, Sergey Yu; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Sunyaev, Rashid A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of deep surveys of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), LMC (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a $4\\sigma$ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6$\\times$10$^{-12}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10% and 90% of its full area of 4900 deg$^{2}$, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at $S/N>4\\sigma$, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly by active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, 7 LINERs, 3 XBONGs, 16 blazars and 8 AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and 2 low-mass X-ray binaries and 2 X-ra...

  18. WHICH GALAXIES HOST BARS AND DISKS? A STUDY OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of the bar fraction in the Coma Cluster galaxies based on a sample of ∼190 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS). The unprecedented resolution of the HST-ACS images allows us to explore the presence of bars, detected by visual classification, throughout a luminosity range of 9 mag (-23 ∼r ∼r ∼9∼*/Modot∼11). This result holds when compared with a sample of bright/massive field galaxies. In addition, we find that the bar fraction does not vary significantly when going from the center to the cluster outskirts, implying that cluster environment plays a second-order role in bar formation/evolution. The shape of the bar fraction distribution with respect to both luminosity and mass is well matched by the luminosity distribution of disk galaxies in Coma, indicating that bars are good tracers of cold stellar disks. We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolution scenarios of bars and disks.

  19. Thermal emission from the dust coma of Comet Bowell and a model for the grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the physical characteristics of Comet Bowell is presented based on 10 and 20 microns emissions observed with the NASA 3 m IR telescope during 1981-82. Numerical models are defined for quantifying the number of dust particles at a given radius and at a given angular distance from the nucleus, the contribution of icy grains to the 20 microns flux and the average albedo, and the dust distribution in the coma. Large, dirty ice grains are judged to be responsible for production of OH at a rate of about 10 to the 29th mol/sec during the spring of 1981. The total surface area of the dirty ice grains is projected to be 10 to the 15th sq cm. The coma in 1982 would therefore have consisted of nonvolatile grains, i.e., old dirty ice grains. Further observations of other, similar comets are needed to identify the composition of the emitted grains and the heliocentric distance at which high water production is initiated. 24 references

  20. Distributed coma sources and the CH4/CO ratio in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early analyses of the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data from the Giotto flyby of Comet P/Halley indicated significant abundances of Ch+n (n=1 to 4). The source of these ions was assumed to be frozen CH4 in the nucleus. An abundance of about 2% Ch4 was consistent with this interpretation, resulting in a ratio of CH4/CO that is greater than the predicted limits for interstellar clouds or the solar nebula. However, subsequent analyses of data from the Giotto Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) indicate distributed sources of CO and H2CO in the coma that are most likely associated with organic (CHON) particles, rich in CH-bearing compounds that decay and produce CH+n species. The authors present a model that qualitatively accounts for the measured spatial distribution of CO and H2CO and indicates that most of the CH+n deduced from the Giotto IMS data may originate from organic compounds in the coma dust and not from volatiles released directly from the nucleus. As a consequence, the absence of CH4 in the icy phase of the nucleus is consistent with the observations with an upper limit of about 0.5% to the ratio CH4/CO. This is an important criterion for theories of comet formation

  1. Diffuse radio emission in the Coma cluster and Abell 1367: observations at 430 and 1400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rich clusters of galaxies, Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster) and Abell 1367, have been mapped at both 430 and 1400 MHz with the 305-m telescope at Arecibo. The contribution to the observed radio emission due to known discrete sources has been calculated by convolving interferometrically determined source lists with observed Arecibo beam patterns, and maps of the diffuse radio emission alone have been constructed. Both clusters contain regions of diffuse radio emission, although the source in Coma is larger and much more luminous than the source in Abell 1367. The linear extent of the diffuse emission and its dependence on frequency have been used to study particle propagation rates and modes of diffusion in the intracluster medium. The possible correlations between the diffuse radio emission and x-ray emission in these clusters have been investigated, and it has been found that the observed x-ray luminosities can be accounted for if the intracluster gas is heated through Coulomb interactions with the relativistic electrons responsible for the diffuse radio emission

  2. Investigations on the phenomenology of ex-vessel core melt behaviour (COMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the COMAS (corium on material surfaces) project, representative experimental and analytical investigations on the ex-vessel spreading behaviour of prototypic corium were performed to provide a realistic technical basis for the development of core catchers for future nuclear reactor generations. In various large-scale experiments, melts in the Mg-range with real corium compositions and temperatures around 2000 deg. C were tested using different substratum materials (concrete, ceramics, cast iron). These tests were carried out at Siempelkamp's CARLA melting facility for radioactively contaminated metal scrap supported by laboratory experiments at Siemens, Erlangen. The COMAS results indicate that for a sufficiently high melt release rate a quick and homogeneous coverage of an ex-vessel spreading compartment as realized in the Franco-German EPR project can be expected. Regarding the analytical assessment, it can be concluded that some spreading codes have reached a sufficient level to provide guidelines for the evaluation of spreading concepts. Open questions are mainly related to segregation and immobilization of the melt

  3. Planck Intermediate Results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombo, L P L; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Stivoli, F; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zaroubi, S; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged data. We find that the Arnaud et al. universal pressure profile does not fit Coma, and that their pressure profile for merging systems provides a good fit of the data only at rR_500 than the mean pressure profile predicted by the simulations. The Planck image shows significant local steepening of the y profile in two regions about half a degree to the west and to the south-east of the cluster centre. These features are consistent with the presence of shock fronts at these radii, and indeed the western feature was previously noticed in the ROSAT PSPC mosaic by Markevitch (2000) as well as in the radio. Using Planck y profiles extracted from corresponding sectors we find pressure jumps of 4.5+2.5-0.1 and 4.9+0.7-0.2 ...

  4. The main-sequence rotation-colour relation in the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Skinner, G; Anderson, D R; Christian, D J; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Irwin, J; Joshi, Y; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K D; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Ryans, R; Scholz, A; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Street, R A; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Wheatley, P J

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric survey of rotation rates in the Coma Berenices (Melotte 111) open cluster, using data obtained as part of the SuperWASP exoplanetary transit-search programme. The goal of the Coma survey was to measure precise rotation periods for main-sequence F, G and K dwarfs in this intermediate-age (~600 Myr) cluster, and to determine the extent to which magnetic braking has caused the stellar spin periods to converge. We find a tight, almost linear relationship between rotation period and J-K colour with a root-mean square scatter of only 2 percent. The relation is similar to that seen among F, G and K stars in the Hyades. Such strong convergence can only be explained if angular momentum is not at present being transferred from a reservoir in the deep stellar interiors to the surface layers. We conclude that the coupling timescale for angular momentum transport from a rapidly-spinning radiative core to the outer convective zone must be substantially shorter than the cluster age, a...

  5. Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Merritt, Allison; Zhang, Jielai; Geha, Marla; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3 x 3 degree field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness mu(g,0) ranging from 24 - 26 mag/arcsec^2 and effective radii r_e = 3"-10", as measured from archival Canada France Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r_e = 1.5 - 4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L* galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 x 10^7 Solar masses. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with = 0.8 and = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness mu(g,0) = 25.8 mag/arcsec^2, a Sersic index n=0.6, and an effective radius...

  6. Dry Merger Rate and Post-merger Fraction in the Coma Cluster Core

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Juan P; De Propris, Roberto; Haines, Christopher P; Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, Shardha

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the dry merger activity in the Coma cluster, using a spectroscopically complete sample of 70 red-sequence (RS) galaxies, most of which (~75%) are located within 0.2R200 (~0.5 Mpc) from the cluster center, with data from the Coma Treasury Survey obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The fraction of close galaxy pairs in the sample is the proxy employed for the estimation of the merger activity. We identify 5 pairs and 1 triplet, enclosing a total of 13 galaxies, based on limits on projected separation and line-of-sight velocity difference. Of these systems, none show signs of ongoing interaction, and therefore we do not find any true mergers in our sample. This negative result sets a 1{\\sigma} upper limit of 1.5% per Gyr for the major dry merger rate, consistent with the low rates expected in present-day clusters. Detailed examination of the images of all the RS galaxies in the sample reveals only one with low surface brightness features identifiable as the remnant of a past merger or interacti...

  7. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Teerikorpi, P; Valtonen, M J; Byrd, G G; Merafina, M

    2013-01-01

    {We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology.} {We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large rich cluster of galaxies?} {We use recent observational data on the cluster together with our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius $R_{\\rm ZG}$ of the local force field as the key parameter.} {1) Three masses are defined which characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass $M_{\\rm M}$, the dark-energy effective mass $M_{\\rm DE}$ ($<0$) and the gravitating mass $M_{\\rm G}$ ($= M_{\\rm M} + M_{\\rm DE}$). 2) A new matter density profile is suggested which reproduces well the observational data for the Coma cluster in the radius range from 1.4 Mpc to 14 Mpc and takes into account the dark energy background. 3) Using this profile, we calculate upper limits for the total siz...

  8. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2007-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion)calculated with the Montreal code. A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The F stars have sola...

  9. The "near-death experience" during comas: psychotraumatic suffering or the taming of reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-09-01

    An near death experience (NDE) is the experience of an atypical state of consciousness that is induced by the neuropsychological consequences of a passage near death. Far from being a psychologically traumatic event, these experiences never cause flashbacks and can even eliminate the fear of death. Listening to patients who have shared their near death sensations has encouraged the reevaluation of the medical standards associated with NDEs. Over several decades, the patient has been positioned at the center of management decisions, with his or her will taken into account. Certain patients can be revived following neurological events, but their resuscitation is performed with the possibility of serious neurological sequelae, which might prevent a return to normal life. The patient may also remain unconscious, either transiently or in a more long term coma or persistent vegetative state. Nonetheless, several works have demonstrated the presence of neuronal activity, however little, in patients suffering from prolonged comas. The medical team then does not act as if the patient were not there but, on the contrary, considers the patient to be the subject, although unable to speak directly, to whom one speaks and of whom one speaks between caregivers.

  10. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with ${\\it Planck}$

    CERN Document Server

    Khatri, R

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) ${\\it fluctuations}$ can open up a new powerful window into the astrophysics of the hot diffuse medium in cosmological structures. We report the detection of SZ fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with ${\\it Planck}$. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2-d SZ perturbations into 3-d pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at $\\delta P/P = 33\\pm 12\\%$ and $74\\pm19\\%$ in the $15'$ and $40'$ radius region, respectively. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3-d Mach number ${\\rm Ma_{3d}}= 0.8\\pm0.3$ (15' region) and injection scale $L_{\\rm inj}\\approx 500$ kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers tied to internal galaxy groups. For larger radii (40'), the injection scale is unaltered and the Mach number do...

  11. Ion chemistry in the coma of comet 67P near perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Berthelier, J. J.; Beth, A.; Bieler, A.; Briois, C.; Broiles, T. W.; Burch, J. L.; Calmonte, U.; Cessateur, G.; Combi, M.; De Keyser, J.; Fiethe, B.; Galand, M.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Gunell, H.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Heritier, K. L.; Korth, A.; Roy, L. Le; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mall, U.; Mandt, K. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Rème, H.; Rinaldi, M.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Trattner, K. J.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Vigren, E.; Waite, J. H.; Wurz, P.

    2016-08-01

    The coma and the comet-solar wind interaction of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko changed dramatically from the initial Rosetta spacecraft encounter in August 2014 through perihelion in August 2015. Just before equinox (at 1.6 AU from the Sun), the solar wind signal disappeared and two regions of different cometary ion characteristics were observed. These "outer" and "inner" regions have cometary ion characteristics similar to outside and inside the ion pileup region observed during the Giotto approach to comet 1P/Halley. Rosetta/DFMS ion mass spectrometer observations are used here to investigate the H3O+/H2O+ ratio in the outer and inner regions at 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The H3O+/H2O+ ratio and the H3O+ signal are observed to increase in the transition from the outer to the inner region and the H3O+ signal appears to be weakly correlated with cometary ion energy. These ion composition changes are similar to the ones observed during the 1P/Halley flyby. Modeling is used to determine the importance of neutral composition and transport of neutrals and ions away from the nucleus. This modeling demonstrates that changes in the H3O+/H2O+ ratio appear to be driven largely by transport properties and only weakly by neutral composition in the coma.

  12. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Existence of Large, Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Geha, Marla; Merritt, Allison; Villaume, Alexa; Zhang, Jielai

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a population of low surface brightness objects in the field of the z=0.023 Coma cluster, using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Here we present Keck spectroscopy of one of the largest of these "ultra-diffuse galaxies" (UDGs), confirming that it is a member of the cluster. The galaxy has prominent absorption features, including the Ca II H+K lines and the G-band, and no detected emission lines. Its radial velocity of cz=6280 +- 120 km/s is within the 1 sigma velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The galaxy has an effective radius of 4.3 +- 0.3 kpc and a Sersic index of 0.89 +- 0.06, as measured from Keck imaging. We find no indications of tidal tails or other distortions, at least out to a radius of ~2 r_e. We show that UDGs are located in a previously sparsely populated region of the size - magnitude plane of quiescent stellar systems, as they are ~6 magnitudes fainter than normal early-type galaxies of the same size. It appears that the luminosity distribution of large quiescent galax...

  13. A NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF THE CENTER OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldello, Fabio; Molendi, S. [IASF-Milano, INAF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, W. W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Westergaard, N. J.; Hornstrup, A.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D., E-mail: gasta@lambrate.inaf.it [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of a 55 ks NuSTAR observation of the core of the Coma Cluster. The global spectrum can be explained by thermal gas emission, with a conservative 90% upper limit to non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission of 5.1 × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in a 12' × 12' field of view. The brightness of the thermal component in this central region does not allow more stringent upper limits on the IC component when compared with non-imaging instruments with much larger fields of view where claims of detections have been made. Future mosaic NuSTAR observations of Coma will further address this issue. The temperature map shows a relatively uniform temperature distribution with a gradient from the hot northwest side to the cooler southeast, in agreement with previous measurements. The temperature determination is robust given the flat effective area and low background in the 3-20 keV band, making NuSTAR an ideal instrument to measure high temperatures in the intracluster medium.

  14. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Fundamental Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Mobasher, B

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the fundamental plane, FP, for a sample of 71 dwarf galaxies in the core of Coma cluster in magnitude range $-21 < M_I <-15$. Taking advantage of high resolution DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II for measuring the internal velocity dispersion of galaxies and high resolution imaging of HST/ACS, which allows an accurate surface brightness modeling, we extend the fundamental plane (FP) of galaxies to $\\sim$1 magnitude fainter luminosities than all the previous studies of the FP in Coma cluster. We find that, the scatter about the FP depends on the faint-end luminosity cutoff, such that the scatter increases for fainter galaxies. The residual from the FP correlates with the galaxy colour, with bluer galaxies showing larger residuals from FP. We find $M/L \\propto M^{-0.15\\pm0.22}$ in F814W-band indicating that in faint dwarf ellipticals, the $M/L$ ratio is insensitive to the mass. We find that less massive dwarf ellipticals are bluer than their brighter counterparts, possibly indicating on...

  15. Water Ice and Dust in the Innermost Coma of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, Silvia; Feaga, Lori M; Kelley, Michael S P; Hearn, Michael F A'; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Besse, Sebastien; Merlin, Frederic; Li, Jian-Yang

    2014-01-01

    On November 4th, 2010, the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) successfully encountered comet 103P/Hartley 2, when it was at a heliocentric distance of 1.06 AU. Spatially resolved near-IR spectra of comet Hartley 2 were acquired in the 1.05-4.83 micron wavelength range using the HRI-IR spectrometer. We present spectral maps of the inner ~10 kilometers of the coma collected 7 minutes and 23 minutes after closest approach. The extracted reflectance spectra include well-defined absorption bands near 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 micron consistent in position, bandwidth, and shape with the presence of water ice grains. Using Hapke's radiative transfer model, we characterize the type of mixing (areal vs. intimate), relative abundance, grain size, and spatial distribution of water ice and refractories. Our modeling suggests that the dust, which dominates the innermost coma of Hartley 2 and is at a temperature of 300K, is thermally and physically decoupled from the fine-grained water ice particles, which are on the order ...

  16. DRY MERGER RATE AND POST-MERGER FRACTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Juan P.; Campusano, Luis E.; Haines, Christopher P. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); De Propris, Roberto [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, Vaisalantie 20, Piikkio, FI-21500 (Finland); Weinzirl, Tim [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jogee, Shardha, E-mail: jcordero@das.uchile.cl [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We evaluate the dry merger activity in the Coma cluster, using a spectroscopically complete sample of 70 red-sequence (RS) galaxies, most of which (∼75%) are located within 0.2R{sub 200} (∼0.5 Mpc) from the cluster center, with data from the Coma Treasury Survey obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The fraction of close galaxy pairs in the sample is the proxy employed for the estimation of the merger activity. We identify 5 pairs and 1 triplet, enclosing a total of 13 galaxies, based on limits on projected separation and line-of-sight velocity difference. Of these systems, none show signs of ongoing interaction, and therefore we do not find any true mergers in our sample. This negative result sets a 1σ upper limit of 1.5% per Gyr for the major dry merger rate, consistent with the low rates expected in present-day clusters. Detailed examination of the images of all the RS galaxies in the sample reveals only one with low surface brightness features identifiable as the remnant of a past merger or interaction, implying a post-merger fraction below 2%.

  17. Myxoedema coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Laursen, Adam Hoegsbro; Reiter, Nanna;

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to department of emergency medicine at a tertiary referral hospital due to dizziness and fatigue. Clinical features on admission were non-pitting oedema, dry skin, very sparse hair, a hoarse voice, hypothermia (rectal temperature 28.7°C), macroglossia, sinus...

  18. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G;

    2014-01-01

    of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial muscle......When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K...... to determine how temperature and extracellular [K+], independently and together, affect tetanic force production. Tetanic force decreased by 80% when temperature was reduced from 23°C to 0.5°C, while an increase in extracellular [K+] from 10 mM to 30 mM at 23°C caused a 40% reduction in force. Combining...

  19. A Suzaku Search for Non-thermal Emission at Hard X-ray Energies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wik, Daniel R; Finoguenov, Alexis; Matsushita, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the ICM at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial (Fusco-Femiano et al. 2004; Rossetti & Molendi 2004). We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its non-thermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and non-thermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field (Schuecker et al. 2004). We fail to find statistically significant evidence for non-thermal emission in the spectra, which are better described by only a single or multi-temperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on t...

  20. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  1. Evolution of H2O related species in the neutral coma of 67P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A. M.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Bar-Nun, A.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bochsler, P. A.; Briois, C.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M. R.; De Keyser, J.; van Dishoeck, E.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Jäckel, A.; Kopp, E.; Korth, A.; Le Roy, L.; Mall, U.; Maggiolo, R.; Marty, B.; Mousis, O.; Owen, T. C.; Reme, H.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Tzou, C. Y.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Walsh, C.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ROSINA-DFMS mass spectrometer has been probing the coma of 67Psince the spacecraft arrived at the comet in August 2014.The acquired data set covers a large range of viewing geometries forthe ever changing conditions of 67P along its journey to pericenter. With the high temporal resolutionof ROSINA-DFMS we are able to examine diurnal and seasonal changesof different species in the gaseous coma.Large scale heterogeneities in the coma have been reported since the very first measurements of the neutral inventory at 67P.Many of the minor species are seen to follow one of the major compounds,H2O, CO or CO2.In this paper we will present the latest results on H2O related species.We will discuss the possible trapping/building mechanisms responsible for these species and why it is different from other species such asCO, N2 or CO2. Acknowledgements:Work at the University of Michigan was funded by NASA contract JPL-1266313.Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundationand the European Space Agency PRODEX Program. Work at MPS was funded by the Max-Planck Society and BMWI contract 50QP1302. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the « Investissements d'Avenir » French Government program, managed by the French National Research Agency (ANR). This work was supported by CNES grants at IRAP, LATMOS, LPC2E, UTINAM, CRPG, and by the European Research Council (grant no. 267255 to B. Marty). A. Bar-Nun thanks the Ministry of Science and the Israel Space agency. Work by JHW at Southwest Research Institute was funded by the NASA JPL subcontract NAS703001TONMO710889. EvD and CW are supported by A-ERC grant 291141 CHEMPLAN and an NWO Veni award. We acknowledge herewith the

  2. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion) calculated with the Montréal code. Methods: A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise échelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. Results: The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances of C, O, Na, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The abundances of Mn, Ni, Sr and Ba are strongly correlated with that of iron for A and Am stars. In contrast the ratios [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] appear to be anticorrelated with [Fe/H] as found earlier for field A dwarfs. All Am stars in Coma Berenices are deficient in C and O and overabundant in elements heavier than Fe but not all are deficient in calcium and/or scandium. The F stars have solar abundances for almost all elements except for Mg, Si, V and Ba. The derived abundances patterns, [X/H] versus atomic number, for the slow rotator HD 108642 (A2m) and the moderately fast rotator HD 106887 (A4m) were compared to the predictions of self consistent evolutionary model codes including radiative and different amounts of turbulent diffusion. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance pattern. Conclusions: While part of the discrepancies between derived and predicted abundances may

  3. A spectroscopic survey of dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster: stellar populations, environment and downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Allanson, Steven P.; Bridges, Terry J.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Miller, Neal A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the stellar populations in a sample of 89 faint red galaxies in the Coma cluster, using high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectroscopy from the 6.5-m MMT. Our sample is drawn from two 1° fields, one centred on the cluster core and the other located 1° to the south-west of the cluster centre. The target galaxies are mostly 2-4mag fainter than M* galaxies with these luminosities have been previously studied only using small samples, or at low S/N. For a comparison sample we use published high-S/N data for red-sequence galaxies in the Shapley supercluster. We use state-of-the-art stellar population models (by R. Schiavon) to interpret the absorption-line indices and infer the single-burst-equivalent age and metallicity (Fe/H) for each galaxy, as well as the abundances of the light elements Mg, Ca, C and N. The ages of the Coma dwarfs span a wide range from 10Gyr, with a strong environmental dependence. The oldest galaxies are found only in the core, while most of the galaxies in the outer south-west field have ages ~3Gyr. The galaxies have a metallicity range -1.0 solar ratios predominate in the outskirts. We show that parametrized models with more complex star formation histories perform no better than single-burst models in reproducing the observed line indices. Assuming a star formation history dominated by a single burst, the number of dwarf galaxies on the red sequence in the Coma core has doubled since z ~ 0.7. Assuming instead an abruptly truncated constant star formation rate, the equivalent redshift is z ~ 0.4. These estimates bracket the red-sequence growth time-scales found by direct studies of distant clusters. In the south-west field, the red sequence was established only at z ~ 0.2 for a burst-dominated star formation history (z ~ 0.1 for the truncated case). Our observations confirm previous indications of very recently quenched star formation in this part of the cluster. Our results strongly support the scenario in which much of the

  4. The Nucleus and Coma of Comet 67P/C-G at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths as seen by MIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter, M. D.; Gulkis, S.; Allen, M.; Von Allmen, P.; Beaudin, G.; Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Choukroun, M.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Frerking, M. A.; Hartogh, P.; Ip, W. H.; Janssen, M. A.; Jarchow, C.; Keihm, S. J.; Lee, S.; Lellouch, E.; Leyrat, C.; Rezac, L.; Schloerb, F. P.; Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Microwave Instrument on the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) makes submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength observations of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Broadband continuum measurements at wavelengths of 0.5 and 1.6 mm probe the thermal and dielectric properties of the nucleus subsurface. High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of 8 molecular lines in the submillimeter (H2O, H217O, H218O, CO, NH3, and three lines of CH3OH) constrain the abundance, velocity, and temperature of gases in the coma. These measurements allow MIRO to study the nucleus and coma as a coupled system. Using its two continuum channels, MIRO has mapped the thermal properties of the nucleus subsurface (depths from millimeters to tens of centimeters), and generally finds its properties to be consistent with very porous, dusty material. We see temperature variations due to diurnal and seasonal changes in insolation, and also see evidence for subsurface ice in some regions. This talk will provide an update on our observations of variations over time, variations with temperature, and variations in composition. We also will report on our attempts to detect the continuum thermal emission of dust in the coma. MIRO's spectroscopic observations have shown the abundance and velocity of gas as it comes off the nucleus to vary with time and location. The regions MIRO sees as particularly active are generally consistent with activity reported by other instruments. Moving away from the nucleus, MIRO is sensitive to the three-dimensional structure of the coma. We will present an update on our understanding of that structure, which is influenced by the shape of the nucleus, nucleus rotation, and processes acting within and on the coma. Our ultimate goal is to develop a coupled model of the nucleus and coma, tracing the processes by which solar heating of the surface drives sublimation of subsurface ice and generation of dust, and how gases and dust evolve in the coma. Part of this work was conducted at the Jet

  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  6. The possible formation of a hydrogen coma around comets at large heliocentric distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Nun, A; Prialnik, D

    1988-01-01

    An observational test--the detection of a hydrogen coma around comets at large heliocentric distances--is proposed for determining whether comets were formed by the agglomeration of unaltered, ice-coated, interstellar grains. Laboratory experiments showed that amorphous water ice traps H2, D2, and Ne below 20 K and does not release them completely until the ice is heated to 150 K. Gas/ice ratios as high as 0.63 are obtainable. Thus, if the ice-coated interstellar grains were not heated above approximately 110 K, prior to their agglomeration into cometary nuclei, the inward propagating heat waves should release from the comets a continuous flux of molecular hydrogen. This flux would exceed that of water molecules at approximately 3 AU preperihelion and approximately 4 AU postperihelion.

  7. Experiments about core melt stabilization. The research project 'Corium on material surfaces' (Comas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in controlling core meltdown accidents play a very special role in international programs of reactor safety research. The 'Corium on Material Surfaces' (Comas) research project, which is concentrated on representative studies of the dispersion behavior of prototypical core melts outside the reactor pressure vessel, has contributed important findings about the design requirements for core catchers since 1994. It has been shown that such mixed oxide - metal melts can be made to spread evenly even if the thickness of layers is small. In addition, the results obtained so far allowed conclusions to be drawn about the physico-chemical phenomena accompanying the transport of the melt as a necessary precondition for code verification. (orig.)

  8. [Prolonged coma due to fat embolism syndrome after fracture of the femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gimeno, J I; Ferre, M A; Napal, M T; Pelegrín, F

    2006-03-01

    A 24-year-old male came to the emergency department with a diaphyseal fracture of the femur resulting from a motorcycle accident. Neurological deterioration was progressive, although a computed tomography scan was normal. Endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation was necessary. His condition progressed to sepsis and multiorgan failure before resolving. Magnetic resonance images of the brain suggested a fat embolism. The presence of a patent foramen ovale was investigated. The patient remained in a state of coma vigil for 3 months after the accident. After ruling out other more likely causes of neurological deterioration after trauma with fractures, fat embolism should be suspected. The prognosis for the neurological manifestations of fat embolism syndrome are generally good. Severe cases suggest massive (paradoxical) embolization of the brain and are associated with a patent foramen ovale. Early diagnosis will identify the patient at high surgical risk. A favorable course and outcome have been reported with preoperative closure of the foramen ovale. PMID:16671262

  9. From Voids to Coma: the prevalence of pre-processing in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cybulski, Ryan; Fazio, Giovanni G; Gutermuth, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of pre-processing across the Coma Supercluster, including 3505 galaxies over 500 sq deg, by quantifying the degree to which star-forming (SF) activity is quenched as a function of environment. We characterise environment using the complementary techniques of Voronoi Tessellation, to measure the density field, and the Minimal Spanning Tree, to define continuous structures, and so we measure SF activity as a function of local density and the type of environment (cluster, group, filament, and void), and quantify the degree to which environment contributes to quenching of SF activity. Our sample covers over two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (10^8.5 to 10^11 Msun), and consequently we trace the effects of environment on SF activity for dwarf and massive galaxies, distinguishing so-called "mass quenching" from "environment quenching". Environmentally-driven quenching of SF activity, measured relative to the void galaxies, occurs to progressively greater degrees in filaments, groups, and...

  10. Coma dust environment observed by GIADA during the Perihelion of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundi, A.; Della Corte, V.; Fulle, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S. L.; Sordini, R.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Zakharov, V.; Bussoletti, E.; Crifo, J. F.; Esposito, F.; Green, S.; Gruen, E.; Lamy, P. L.; McDonnell, T.; Mennella, V.; Molina, A.; Moreno, F.; Ortiz, J. L.; Palomba, E.; Perrin, J. M.; Rodrigo, R.; Weissman, P. R.; Zarnecki, J.; Cosi, M.; Giovane, F.; Gustafson, B.; Herranz, M.; Jeronimo, J. M.; Leese, M.; Lopez-Jimenez, A.; Morales, R.

    2015-12-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator) is an in-situ instrument mounted onboard Rosetta monitoring the dust environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. GIADA is composed of 3 sub-systems: 1) the Grain Detection System, based on particle detection through light scattering; 2) the Impact Sensor, giving momentum measurement; 3) the Micro-Balances System, constituted of 5 quartz crystal microbalances, giving cumulative deposited dust. The combination of the measurements performed by these 3 subsystems provides: the number, the mass, the momentum and the speed distribution of dust particles emitted from the comet nucleus. We will present the coma dust environment as observed by GIADA during the perihelion phase of the Rosetta space mission. Despite the large distance from the nucleus, more than 200 km, GIADA was able to detect temporal and spatial variation of dust density distribution. Specific high dust spatial density sectors of the coma have been identified and their evolution during the perihelion phase was studied. Acknowledgements. GIADA was built by a consortium led by the Univ. Napoli "Parthenope" & INAF- Oss. Astr. Capodimonte, IT, in collaboration with the Inst. de Astrofisica de Andalucia, ES, Selex-ES s.p.a. and SENER. GIADA is presently managed & operated by Ist. di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, IT. GIADA was funded and managed by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, IT, with a support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science MEC, ES. GIADA was developped from a PI proposal supported by the University of Kent; sci. & tech. contribution given by CISAS, IT, Lab. d'Astr. Spat., FR, and Institutions from UK, IT, FR, DE and USA. We thank the RSGS/ESAC, RMOC/ESOC & Rosetta Project/ESTEC for their outstanding work. Science support provided by NASA through the US Rosetta Project managed by JPL/California Institute of Technology. GIADA calibrated data will be available through the ESA's PSA web site.

  11. Soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster from a Cosmic Axion Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Stephen; Conlon, Joseph P.; Marsh, M.C. David; Powell, Andrew J.; Witkowski, Lukas T., E-mail: stephen.angus@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.marsh1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: andrew.powell2@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: l.witkowski@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We show that the soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster can be explained by a cosmic background of relativistic axion-like particles (ALPs) converting into photons in the cluster magnetic field. We provide a detailed self-contained review of the cluster soft X-ray excess, the proposed astrophysical explanations and the problems they face, and explain how a 0.1- 1 keV axion background naturally arises at reheating in many string theory models of the early universe. We study the morphology of the soft excess by numerically propagating axions through stochastic, multi-scale magnetic field models that are consistent with observations of Faraday rotation measures from Coma. By comparing to ROSAT observations of the 0.2- 0.4 keV soft excess, we find that the overall excess luminosity is easily reproduced for g{sub aγγ} ∼ 2 × 10{sup -13} Ge {sup -1}. The resulting morphology is highly sensitive to the magnetic field power spectrum. For Gaussian magnetic field models, the observed soft excess morphology prefers magnetic field spectra with most power in coherence lengths on O(3 kpc) scales over those with most power on O(12 kpc) scales. Within this scenario, we bound the mean energy of the axion background to 50 eV∼< ( E{sub a} ) ∼< 250 eV, the axion mass to m{sub a} ∼< 10{sup -12} eV, and derive a lower bound on the axion-photon coupling g{sub aγγ} ∼> √(0.5/Δ N{sub eff}) 1.4 × 10{sup -13} Ge {sup -1}.

  12. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Sazonov, Sergey Yu.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of a deep survey of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), Large Magellanic Cloud (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a 4σ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10 per cent and 90 per cent of its full area of 4900 deg2, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at S/N > 4σ, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, seven low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies, three X-ray bright optically normal galaxies, 16 blazars and eight AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and two low-mass X-ray binaries and two X-ray pulsars), three Galactic cataclysmic variables, one ultraluminous X-ray source (M82 X-1) and one blended source (SWIFT J1105.7+5854). The nature of 25 sources remains unknown, so that the survey's identification is currently complete at 83 per cent. We have constructed AGN number-flux relations (log N-log S) and calculated AGN number densities in the local Universe for the entire survey and for each of the three extragalactic fields.

  13. Soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster from a Cosmic Axion Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster can be explained by a cosmic background of relativistic axion-like particles (ALPs) converting into photons in the cluster magnetic field. We provide a detailed self-contained review of the cluster soft X-ray excess, the proposed astrophysical explanations and the problems they face, and explain how a 0.1- 1 keV axion background naturally arises at reheating in many string theory models of the early universe. We study the morphology of the soft excess by numerically propagating axions through stochastic, multi-scale magnetic field models that are consistent with observations of Faraday rotation measures from Coma. By comparing to ROSAT observations of the 0.2- 0.4 keV soft excess, we find that the overall excess luminosity is easily reproduced for gaγγ ∼ 2 × 10-13 Ge -1. The resulting morphology is highly sensitive to the magnetic field power spectrum. For Gaussian magnetic field models, the observed soft excess morphology prefers magnetic field spectra with most power in coherence lengths on O(3 kpc) scales over those with most power on O(12 kpc) scales. Within this scenario, we bound the mean energy of the axion background to 50 eV∼< ( Ea ) ∼< 250 eV, the axion mass to ma ∼< 10-12 eV, and derive a lower bound on the axion-photon coupling gaγγ ∼> √(0.5/Δ Neff) 1.4 × 10-13 Ge -1

  14. Chemical evolution of the coma of comet P/Stephan-Oterma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of comet P/Stephan-Oterma were made with an Intensified Dissector Scanner spectrograph on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope during the period from July, 1980 to February, 1981. These spectra covered a range of heliocentric distances from 2.3 au pre-perihelion to 1.8 au post-perihelion. A study of the spatial distribution of the gasses in the coma was conducted. Column densities of the observed cometary emissions (CN, C3, CH, and C2) were calculated. It was shown that Stephan-Oterma was very nearly sperically symmetric. A computer code to calculate the time dependent non-equilibrium chemistry taking place within the coma was developed. This code incorporates over 1200 chemical reactions involving 125 species. Models were calculated for pure gas-phase chemistry and for gas-phase chemistry plus grain photolysis. It was shown that: (1) HCN is the parent for CN; (2) C2H2 is a parent for C2; (3) pure gas-phase chemistry cannot adequately reproduce the observed C3 but a single-step process such as grain photolysis can; (4) there must be much more CH4 in this comet than had previously been envisioned for any comet; and (5) at least prior to perihelion, the vaporization rate seems to have been controlled by water vaporization. The model of Haser (1957) is discussed and it is shown that a family of solutions for this model exist which can reproduce the observed CN gas distribution. The implications for solar system formation of the large CH4 abundance are discussed. Present data taking methods are reviewed. Future work is suggested

  15. Coma, metabolic acidosis, and methemoglobinemia in a patient with acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Hussein D; Mithani, Shazma; Boucher, Paul; Dias, Valerian C; Yarema, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of early coma, metabolic acidosis and methemoglobinemia after substantial acetaminophen toxicity in the absence of hepatic failure. A 77-year-old female presented to the emergency department with a decreased level of consciousness. She was found unresponsive by a family member in her bed, and was reported to be acting normally when she was last seen eight hours earlier. Laboratory results on arrival were: pH 7.19, sodium 139 mmol/L, chloride 106 mmol/L, potassium 3.3 mmol/L, CO2 8 mmol/L, and an anion gap of 25. Both venous lactate (10.2 mmol/L) and methemoglobin (9.4 %) were elevated. The patient's acetaminophen concentration was markedly elevated at 7138 µmol/L (1078 µg/ml). Hepatic enzymes and coagulation tests were normal [alanine transaminase (ALT) 8 U/L, international normalized ratio (INR) 1.0]. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was initiated at a dose of 150 mg/kg over 15 minutes, followed by 50 mg/kg over the next four hours, followed by 100 mg/kg over the next 16 hours. Twenty-four hours after admission, the anion gap metabolic acidosis had resolved, and the methemoglobin was 2.1%. Aminotransferases peaked at 44 U/L and INR peaked at 1.9. A urine 5-oxoproline assay performed five days after admission was negative, suggesting no evidence of a 5-oxoprolinase deficiency. We describe the pathophysiology and discuss the literature on acetaminophen-induced coma and metabolic acidosis in the absence of hepatic injury; and propose mechanisms for associated methemoglobinemia. 

  16. Direct Monte Carlo and multifluid modeling of the circumnuclear dust coma. Spherical grain dynamics revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crifo, J.-F.; Loukianov, G. A.; Rodionov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. V.

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the first computations of dust distributions in the vicinity of an active cometary nucleus, using a multidimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method (DSMC). The physical model is simplistic: spherical grains of a broad range of sizes are liberated by H 2O sublimation from a selection of nonrotating sunlit spherical nuclei, and submitted to the nucleus gravity, the gas drag, and the solar radiation pressure. The results are compared to those obtained by the previously described Dust Multi-Fluid Method (DMF) and demonstrate an excellent agreement in the regions where the DMF is usable. Most importantly, the DSMC allows the discovery of hitherto unsuspected dust coma properties in those cases which cannot be treated by the DMF. This leads to a thorough reconsideration of the properties of the near-nucleus dust dynamics. In particular, the results show that (1) none of the three forces considered here can be neglected a priori, in particular not the radiation pressure; (2) hitherto unsuspected new families of grain trajectories exist, for instance trajectories leading from the nightside surface to the dayside coma; (3) a wealth of balistic-like trajectories leading from one point of the surface to another point exist; on the dayside, such trajectories lead to the formation of "mini-volcanoes." The present model and results are discussed carefully. It is shown that (1) the neglected forces (inertia associated with a nucleus rotation, solar tidal force) are, in general, not negligible everywhere, and (2) when allowing for these additional forces, a time-dependent model will, in general, have to be used. The future steps of development of the model are outlined.

  17. Monte Carlo particle-trajectory models for neutral cometary gases. I. Models and equations. II. The spatial morphology of the Lyman-alpha coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical derivations of various methods employed in the Monte Carlo particle-trajectory model (MCPTM) are presented, and the application of the MCPTM to the calculation of the photochemical heating of the inner coma through the partial thermalization of cometary hydrogen atoms produced by the photodissociation of water is discussed. This model is then used to explain the observed morphology of the spatially extended Ly-alpha comas of comets. The rocket and Skylab images of the Ly-alpha coma of Comet Kohoutek are examined. 90 references

  18. Sequence and transcription mapping of Bacillus subtilis competence genes comB and comA, one of which is related to a family of bacterial regulatory determinants.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinrauch, Y; Guillen, N.; Dubnau, D A

    1989-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the comA and comB loci of Bacillus subtilis were determined. The products of these genes are required for the development of competence in B. subtilis and for the expression of late-expressing competence genes. The major 5' termini of both the comA and comB transcripts were determined. The inferred promoters of both comA and comB contained sequences that were similar to those found at the -10 and -35 regions of promoters that are used by sigma A-RNA polyme...

  19. ED disposition of the Glasgow Coma Scale 13 to 15 traumatic brain injury patient: analysis of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI study☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Pancioli, Arthur; McMullan, Jason T.; Yue, John K.; Nishijima, Daniel K.; Gordon, Wayne A.; Valadka, Alex B.; Okonkwo, David O.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Maas, Andrew I.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients are frequently admitted to high levels of care despite limited evidence suggesting benefit. Such decisions may contribute to the significant cost of caring for mTBI patients. Understanding the factors that drive disposition decision making and how disposition is associated with outcomes is necessary for developing an evidence-base supporting disposition decisions. We evaluated factors associated with emergency department triage of mTBI patients to 1 of 3 levels of care: home, inpatient floor, or intensive care unit (ICU). Methods This multicenter, prospective, cohort study included patients with isolated head trauma, a cranial computed tomography as part of routine care, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 to 15. Data analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Of the 304 patients included, 167 (55%) were discharged home, 76 (25%) were admitted to the inpatient floor, and 61 (20%) were admitted to the ICU. In the multivariable model, admission to the ICU, compared with floor admission, varied by study site, odds ratio (OR) 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06–0.57); antiplatelet/anticoagulation therapy, OR 7.46 (95% CI, 1.79–31.13); skull fracture, OR 7.60 (95% CI, 2.44–23.73); and lower GCS, OR 2.36 (95% CI, 1.05–5.30). No difference in outcome was observed between the 3 levels of care. Conclusion Clinical characteristics and local practice patterns contribute to mTBI disposition decisions. Level of care was not associated with outcomes. Intracranial hemorrhage, GCS 13 to 14, skull fracture, and current antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy influenced disposition decisions. PMID:24857248

  20. Diagnosis and emergencv treatment of coma in children%儿童昏迷的诊断与急救处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纪文; 李婧

    2011-01-01

    Coma is one of the most serious type of consciousness disturbances.The causes of coma are complicated and the mortality rate is high.In this review,we discuss the definition,diagnosis and emergency treatment of coma,which is helpful for pediatricians to have a deeper understanding of coma,make correct diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment more quickly.%昏迷是一种严重的意识障碍,病因复杂,病死率高.本文将从定义、诊断及急救处理等方面对昏迷进行论述,从而使临床医师加深对昏迷的认知,有助于及时进行正确的诊断和合理的救治.

  1. Elevated transaminases as a predictor of coma in a patient with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida Shuhei; Shimada Masahiko; Kornek Miroslaw; Kim Seong-Jun; Shimada Katsunosuke; Schuppan Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Liver injury is a frequent complication associated with anorexia nervosa, and steatosis of the liver is thought to be the major underlying pathology. However, acute hepatic failure with transaminase levels over 1000 IU/mL and deep coma are very rare complications and the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Case presentation A 37-year-old Japanese woman showed features of acute liver failure and hepatic coma which were not associated with hypoglycemia or hyper-a...

  2. How to link the relative abundances of gas species in coma of comets to their initial chemical composition ?

    CERN Document Server

    Marboeuf, Ulysse

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of comets is frequently assumed to be directly provided by the observations of the abundances of volatile molecules in the coma. The present work aims to determine the relationship between the chemical composition of the coma, the outgassing profile of volatile molecules and the internal chemical composition, and water ice structure of the nucleus, and physical assumptions on comets. To do this, we have developed a quasi 3D model of a cometary nucleus which takes into account all phase changes and water ice structures (amorphous, crystalline, clathrate, and a mixture of them); we have applied this model to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We find that the outgassing profile of volatile molecules is a strong indicator of the physical and thermal properties (water ice structure, thermal inertia, abundances, distribution, physical differentiation) of the solid nucleus. Day/night variations of the rate of production of species helps to distinguish th...

  3. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard;

    -depressing effects that occur secondary to loss of ion-homeostasis. Using isolated tibial muscle of the chill susceptible locust we investigated the relationship between tetanic force production, temperature and extracellular [K+]. Tetanic force was elicited every 10 minutes using 2s trains of 1ms 12-V pulses...... temperature was reduced from 23°C to 0.5°C. Similarly, elevation of extracellular [K+] from a control value of 10 mM to 30 mM also caused a 50 % reduction of force. When muscles were simultaneously cooled and exposed to elevated K+, force was reduced to around 1 % of the control. These results suggest......Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves...

  4. SUPERMODEL ANALYSIS OF THE HARD X-RAY EXCESS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supermodel (SM) provides an accurate description of the thermal contribution by the hot intracluster plasma which is crucial for the analysis of the hard excess. In this paper, the thermal emissivity in the Coma cluster is derived starting from the intracluster gas temperature and density profiles obtained by the SM analysis of X-ray observables: the XMM-Newton temperature profile and the ROSAT brightness distribution. The SM analysis of the BeppoSAX/Phoswich Detector System (PDS) hard X-ray (HXR) spectrum confirms our previous results, namely, an excess at the confidence level (c.l.) of ∼4.8σ and a nonthermal (NT) flux of (1.30 ± 0.40) x 10-11 erg cm-2 erg cm-1 in the energy range 20-80 keV. A recent joint XMM-Newton/Suzaku analysis reports an upper limit of ∼6 x 10-12 erg cm-2 erg cm-1 in the energy range 20-80 keV for the NT flux with an average gas temperature of 8.45 ± 0.06 keV and an excess of NT radiation at a c.l. above 4σ, without including systematic effects, for an average XMM-Newton temperature of 8.2 keV in the Suzaku/HXD-PIN FOV, in agreement with our earlier PDS analysis. Here we present a further evidence of the compatibility between the Suzaku and BeppoSAX spectra, obtained by our SM analysis of the PDS data, when the smaller size of the HXD-PIN FOV and the two different average temperatures derived by XMM-Newton and by the joint XMM-Newton/Suzaku analysis are taken into account. The consistency of the PDS and HXD-PIN spectra reaffirms the presence of an NT component in the HXR spectrum of the Coma cluster. The SM analysis of the PDS data reports an excess at c.l. above 4σ also for the higher average temperature of 8.45 keV thanks to the PDS FOV being considerably greater than the HXD-PIN FOV.

  5. The Gas Production Rate and Coma Structure of Comet C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Frederick L.; Scherb, Frank; Anderson, Christopher M.; Doane, Nathaniel E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    2002-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison and NASA-Goddard conducted a comprehensive multi-wavelength observing campaign of coma emissions from comet Hale-Bopp, including OH 3080 A, [O I] 6300 A, H2O(+) 6158 A, H Balmer-alpha 6563 A, NH2 6330 A, [C I] 9850 A CN 3879 A, C2 5141 A, C3 4062 A, C I 1657 A, and the UV and optical continua. In this work, we concentrate on the results of the H2O daughter studies. Our wide-field OH 3080 A measured flux agrees with other, similar observations and the expected value calculated from published water production rates using standard H2O and OH photochemistry. However, the total [O I] 6300 A flux determined spectroscopically over a similar field-of-view was a factor of 3 - 4 higher than expected. Narrow-band [O I] images show this excess came from beyond the H2O scale length, suggesting either a previously unknown source of [O I] or an error in the standard OH + upsilon to O((sup I)D) + H branching ratio. The Hale-Bopp OH and [O I] distributions, both of which were imaged to cometocentric distances greater than 1 x 10(exp 6) km, were more spatially extended than those of comet Halley (after correcting for brightness differences), suggesting a higher bulk outflow velocity. Evidence of the driving mechanism for this outflow is found in the H(alpha) line profile, which was narrower than in comet Halley (though likely because of opacity effects, not as narrow as predicted by Monte-Carlo models). This is consistent with greater collisional coupling between the suprathermal H photodissociation products and Hale-Bopp's dense coma. Presumably because of mass loading of the solar wind by ions and ions by the neutrals, the measured acceleration of H2O(+) down the ion tail was much smaller than in comet Halley. Tailward extensions in the azimuthal distributions of OH 3080 A, [O I], and [C I], as well as a Doppler asymmetry in the [O I] line profile, suggest ion-neutral coupling. While the tailward extension in the OH can be explained by increased

  6. Hemometabolismo cerebral: variações na fase aguda do coma traumático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCÃO ANTONIO L. E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as interrelações entre as alterações hemometabólicas cerebrais e sistêmicas em pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE grave submetidos a um protocolo terapêutico padronizado. DESENHO: estudo prospectivo, intervencionista em pacientes com coma traumático. LOCAL: uma UTI geral em hospital universitário. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: vinte e sete pacientes (21M e 6F, idade 14-58 anos, com TCE grave, com três a oito pontos na escala de coma de Glasgow, foram avaliados prospectivamente segundo um protocolo cumulativo padronizado para tratamento da hipertensão intracraniana aguda, o qual incluía medidas rotineiras da pressão intracraniana (PIC e da extração cerebral de oxigênio (ECO2. Foram analisadas as interrelações hemometabólicas envolvendo: pressão arterial média (PAM, PIC, pressão parcial de gás carbônico arterial (PaCO2, ECO2, pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC e extração sistêmica de oxigênio (ESO2. INTERVENÇÕES: apenas as padronizadas no protocolo terapêutico. RESULTADOS: não houve correlação entre a ECO2 e a PPC (r = -0,07; p = 0,41. Houve correlação inversa entre a PaCO2 e a ECO2 (r = -0,24; p = 0,005 e direta entre a ESO2 e a ECO2 (r = 0,24; p = 0,01. A mortalidade geral dos pacientes foi de 25,9% (7/27. CONCLUSÃO: 1 a PPC não se correlaciona com a ECO2 em quaisquer níveis de PIC; 2 a ECO2 está estreitamente relacionada aos diferentes níveis de PaCO2 ; e 3 durante a hiperventilação otimizada existe um acoplamento entre a ECO2 e a ESO2.

  7. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Dust grains in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko – link with surface properties and cometary activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Ivanovski, Stavro; Zakharov, Vladimir; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; rotundi, alessandra; della corte, vincenzo; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; colangeli, luigi; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Érard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cedric; VIRTIS, GIADA

    2016-10-01

    The imaging spectrometer VIRTIS and the dust analyzer GIADA, onboard Rosetta, made an extensive observation of the dust particles in the coma of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From the analysis of GIADA data, two different kind of particles have been revealed, compact and fluffy with different compositions and dynamical properties. Compact particles are characterized by densities of about 103 kg/m3, while fluffy particles have an almost fractal nature, with densities less than 1 kg/m3.In this work we present the initial results of a model linking the dust flux distribution, as obtained from a theoretical thermal nucleus model, with a model describing the dynamics of aspherical grains in the coma. The results are discussed in the context of the latest observations from VIRTIS and GIADA instruments.The 2D nucleus thermal model, when applied to the real shape of the comet, provides the size distribution and physical properties of the emitted grains at different times and location on the surface. The thermal model can simulate grains of various size distribution, composition and physical properties. This information is used as an input for the dust dynamical model that follows the emitted particles in the coma. The main source of heating is the solar illumination. In the dust dynamical model, the grain trajectory of emitted particles remains in a plane perpendicular to the rotational axis and the direction of illumination is taken to be in the same plane (i.e. does not cause transversal forces). The dust particles are assumed to be isothermal convex bodies and temperature changes only induce modest changes in the aerodynamic force (twice higher temperature changes aerodynamic force less than ~30%). This study reviews the theoretical values at which temperature difference starts to play a role on the dynamics. We discuss to what extent the particle's temperature affects the terminal velocities of the dust grains in the 67P coma in dependence on their mass and

  9. Radio-continuum survey of the Coma/A1367 supercluster. IV. 1.4 GHz observations of CGCG galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.4 GHz radio-continuum observations of 148 CGCG galaxies in the Coma supercluster region were obtained with the VLA in C array configuration. Comparison with previous measurements at 0.6 GHz leads to an average spectral index of 0.8. The structures of 29 galaxies in this region determined with high-resolution VLA (A array) observations are presented. 43 references

  10. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopy from inside the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with Alice on Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, P. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Feaga, L. M.; Parker, J. W.; Schindhelm, E.; Steffl, A. J.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made by the Alice farultraviolet spectrograph on Rosetta between January and mid-April 2015. Atomic emissions of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon are interpreted in terms of dissociative electron excitation of H2O, CO2, CO, and O2, whose relative abundances can be derived from the spectra and which are found to be both spatially and temporally variable.

  11. Prediction of recovery from a post-traumatic coma state by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with diffuse axonal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings combined with initial clinical factors indicate the depth of shearing lesions in the brain structure and therefore relate to coma duration in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). A total of 74 adult patients (48 male and 26 female) with DAI were examined with conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging between 2 hours and 20 days after injury. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained and the mean ADC values of each region of interest (ROI) were measured using MRI console software. The involvement of the brainstem, deep gray matter, and corpus callosum was determined for each sequence separately as well as for the combination of all sequences. The correlations between MR imaging findings indicating the presence of apparent brain injury combined with initial clinical factors were determined. Clinical characteristics, such as initial score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), age and number of all lesions, and ADC scores were predictive of the duration of coma. It was possible to predict post-traumatic coma duration in DAI from cerebral MR imaging findings combined with clinical prognostic factors in the acute to subacute stage after head injury. Age, ADC scores, GCS score and number of lesions were highly significant in predicting coma duration. The technique presented here might provide a tool for in vivo detection of DAI to allow the prediction of the coma duration during the early stages in patients with traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  12. Prediction of recovery from a post-traumatic coma state by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with diffuse axonal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.B.; Liu, G.R.; Wu, R.H. [Shantou University Medical College, Department of Radiology, Second Hospital, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Li, L.P. [Shantou University Medical College, Injury Prevention Research Center, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2007-03-15

    To determine whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings combined with initial clinical factors indicate the depth of shearing lesions in the brain structure and therefore relate to coma duration in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). A total of 74 adult patients (48 male and 26 female) with DAI were examined with conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging between 2 hours and 20 days after injury. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained and the mean ADC values of each region of interest (ROI) were measured using MRI console software. The involvement of the brainstem, deep gray matter, and corpus callosum was determined for each sequence separately as well as for the combination of all sequences. The correlations between MR imaging findings indicating the presence of apparent brain injury combined with initial clinical factors were determined. Clinical characteristics, such as initial score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), age and number of all lesions, and ADC scores were predictive of the duration of coma. It was possible to predict post-traumatic coma duration in DAI from cerebral MR imaging findings combined with clinical prognostic factors in the acute to subacute stage after head injury. Age, ADC scores, GCS score and number of lesions were highly significant in predicting coma duration. The technique presented here might provide a tool for in vivo detection of DAI to allow the prediction of the coma duration during the early stages in patients with traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  13. Coma measurement by use of an alternating phase-shifting mask mark with a specific phase width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the coma sensitivity of the alternating phase-shifting mask (Alt-PSM) mark and the mark's structure is studied based on the Hopkins theory of partially coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. It is found that an optimized Alt-PSM mark with its phase width being two-thirds its pitch has a higher sensitivity to coma than Alt-PSM marks with the same pitch and the different phase widths. The pitch of the Alt-PSM mark is also optimized by PROLITH simulation, and the structure of p=1.92λ/NA and pw=2p/3 proves to be with the highest sensitivity. The optimized Alt-PSM mark is used as a measurement mark to retrieve coma aberration from the projection optics in lithographic tools. In comparison with an ordinary Alt-PSM mark with its phase width being a half its pitch, the measurement accuracies of Z7 and Z14 apparently increase

  14. Suzaku observations of a shock front tracing the western edge of the giant radio halo in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuusuke; Simionescu, Aurora; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Werner, Norbert; Ichinohe, Yuto; Allen, Steven W.; Urban, Ondrej; Matsushita, Kyoko

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of new Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the X-ray brightest, nearby, merging system hosting a well-studied, typical giant radio halo. It has been previously shown that, on the western side of the cluster, the radio brightness shows a much steeper gradient compared to other azimuths. XMM-Newton and Planck revealed a shock front along the southern half of the region associated with this steep radio gradient, suggesting that the radio emission is enhanced by particle acceleration associated with the shock passage. Suzaku demonstrates for the first time that this shock front extends northwards, tracing the entire length of the western edge of the Coma radio halo. The shock is detected both in the temperature and X-ray surface brightness distributions and has a Mach number of around M˜ 1.5. The locations of the surface brightness edges align well with the edge of the radio emission, while the obtained temperature profiles seem to suggest shocks located 125-185 kpc further out in radius. In addition, the shock strengths derived from the temperature and density jumps are in agreement when using extraction regions parallel to the radio halo edge, but become inconsistent with each other when derived from radial profiles centered on the Coma Cluster core. It is likely that, beyond mere projection effects, the geometry of the shock is more complex than a front with a single, uniform Mach number and an approximately spherically symmetric shape.

  15. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed

  16. A rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking "myxedema coma" established by microscopic total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yosuke; Fujita, Masanori; Ono, Sachiko; Ogata, Sho; Tachibana, Shoichi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-06-30

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration. A total of 7 rabbits were completely thyroidectomized under a surgical microscope (thyroidectomized group) and the remainder underwent sham operations (control group). The animals in both groups were monitored without thyroid hormone replacement for 15 weeks. Pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein immediately prior to the thyroidectomy and 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. The thyroidectomized rabbits showed a marked reduction of serum thyroxine levels at 4 weeks after the surgical procedure vs. controls (0.50±0.10 vs. 3.32±0.68 μg/dL, pcontrols. Of the 7 rabbits with severe hypothyroidism, 6 died from 4 to 14 weeks after the thyroidectomy possibly owing to heart failure, because histopathologic examinations revealed a myxedema heart. In summary, we have established a rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking MC, which may facilitate pathophysiological and molecular investigations of MC and evaluations of new therapeutic interventions.

  17. The dust coma of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Veeder, G. J.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents 1-20-micron photometry of P/Giacobini-Zinner obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, during 1985 June-September (r = 1.57-1.03 AU). A broad, weak 10-micron silicate emission feature was detected on August 26.6; a similar weak emission feature could have been hidden in the broadband photometry on other dates. The total scattering and emitting cross section of dust in the inner coma was similar to that in other short-period comets, but a factor of 10 (r = 1.56 AU) to 100 (r = 1.03 AU) lower than the amount of dust in Comet Halley. The thermal emission continuum can be fit with models weighted toward either small or large absorbing grains. The dust production rate near perihelion was about 100,000 g/s (small-grain model) to about 1,000,000 g/s (large-grain model). The corresponding dust/gas mass ratio on August 26 was about 0.1-1. A silicate-rich heterogeneous grain model with an excess of large particles is compatible with the observed spectrum of Giacobini-Zinner on August 26. Thus, weak or absent silicate emission does not necessarily imply an absence of silicates in the dust, although the abundance of silicate particles not greater than 1 micron radius must have been lower than in Comet Halley.

  18. Mass concentrations associated with extended X-ray sources in the core of the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.

    1994-01-01

    Using a deep (approx. 20,200 s) ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) image we have examined the central region of the Coma cluster. Two extended regions of enhanced X-ray emission are found, centered at the positions of the brightest elliptical galaxies in the cluster: NGC 4874 and NGC 4889. Spectral analysis of the sources reveals no evidence of any difference between the spectra of these sources and that of the surrounding cluster emission. We assume that the enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness results from gas density enhancements and also that the underlying mass concentrations lie either at the cluster center or 1 core radius out of the center (420 kpc). With these assumptions, we derive total masses of 1.2 x 10(exp 13) - 1.6 x 10(exp 13), and 0.9 x 10(exp 13) - 1.8 x 10(exp 13) Solar mass within 2 min (80 kpc) of NGC 4874 and NGC 4889, respectively, assuming a Hubble constant H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc. Corresponding mass-to-light ratios for the galaxies are 30-40 and 25-50 in solar units, increasing at larger radii and approaching the values derived for the entire cluster at distances of more than approximately 150 kpc from the galaxies.

  19. Glasgow Coma Scale scores, early opioids, and 4-year psychological outcomes among combat amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphine and fentanyl are frequently used for analgesia after trauma, but there is debate over the advantages and disadvantages of these opioids. Among combat amputees, intravenous (IV morphine (vs IV fentanyl after injury was associated with reduced likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The previous results were based on military health diagnoses over 2 yr postinjury. The present study followed psychological diagnoses of patients with amputation for 4 yr using military and Department of Veterans Affairs health data. In-­theater combat casualty records (n = 145 documented Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores and/or morphine, fentanyl, or no opioid treatment within hours of injury. We found that (1 GCS scores were not significantly associated with PTSD; (2 longitudinal modeling using four (yearly time points showed significantly reduced odds of PTSD for patients treated with morphine (vs fentanyl across years (adjusted odds ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.94; (3 reduced PTSD prevalence for morphine (vs IV fentanyl; morphine = 25%, fentanyl = 59%, p < 0.05 was significant, specifically among patients with traumatic brain injury during the first 2 yr postinjury; and (4 PTSD prevalence, but not other disorders (e.g., mood, increased between year 1 (PTSD = 18% and years 2 through 4 postinjury (PTSD range = 30%–32%.

  20. Isotopic abundance in the CN coma of comets: Ten years of measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Arpigny, C.; Cochran, A.; Zucconi, J.-M.; Stüwe, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Over the past 10 years the isotopic ratios of carbon ( 12C/ 13C) and nitrogen ( 14N/ 15N) have been determined for a dozen comets, bright enough to allow obtaining the required measurements from the ground. The ratios were derived from high-resolution spectra of the CN coma measured in the B 2∑ +-X 2∑ + (0, 0) emission band around 387 nm. The observed comets belong to different dynamical classes, including dynamically new as well as long- and short-period comets from the Halley- and Jupiter-family. In some cases the comets could be observed at various heliocentric distances. All values determined for the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were consistent within the error margin irrespective of the type of comet or the heliocentric distance at which it was observed. Our investigations resulted in average ratios of 12C/ 13C=91±21 and nitrogen 14N/ 15N=141±29. Whilst the value for the carbon isotopic ratio is in good agreement with the solar and terrestrial value of 89, the nitrogen isotopic ratio is very different from the telluric value of 272.

  1. Dynamical modelling of luminous and dark matter in 17 Coma early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J; Bender, R; Thomas, D; Gebhardt, K; Magorrian, J; Corsini, E M; Wegner, G

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical models for 17 Coma early-type galaxies are presented. The galaxy sample consists of flattened, rotating as well as non-rotating early-types including cD and S0 galaxies with luminosities between M=-18.79 and M=-22.56. Kinematical long-slit observations cover at least the major and minor axis and extend to 1-4 effective radii. Axisymmetric Schwarzschild models are used to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios and dark halo parameters. In every galaxy models with a dark matter halo match the data better than models without. The statistical significance is over 95 percent for 8 galaxies, around 90 percent for 5 galaxies and for four galaxies it is not significant. For the highly significant cases systematic deviations between observed and modelled kinematics are clearly seen; for the remaining galaxies differences are more statistical in nature. Best-fit models contain 10-50 percent dark matter inside the half-light radius. The central dark matter density is at least one order of magnitude lower than the...

  2. Observations of solar wind ion charge exchange in the Comet Halley coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Reme, H.

    1991-01-01

    Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer/High Energy Range Spectrometer (IMS/HERS) observations of solar wind ions show charge exchange effects and solar wind compositional changes in the coma of Comet Halley. As the comet was approached, the He(2+) to proton density ratio increased from 2.5 percent in the solar wind to about 4 percent about 1 hr before closest approach after which time it decreased to about 1 percent. Abrupt increases in this ratio from 2.5 to 4.5 percent were also observed in the beginning and near the end of the so-called Mystery Region. These abrupt increases in the density ratio were well correlated with enhanced fluxes of keV electrons as measured by the Giotto plasma electron spectrometer. The general increase and then decrease of the He(2+) to proton density ratio is quantitatively consistent with a combination of the addition of protons of Cometary origin to the plasma and loss of plasma through charge exchange of protons and He(2+).

  3. Radial gradients in initial mass function sensitive absorption features in the Coma brightest cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L; Vaughan, Sam P

    2016-01-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph (SWIFT), we trace radial variations of initial mass function (IMF) sensitive absorption features of three galaxies in the Coma cluster. We obtain resolved spectroscopy of the central 5kpc for the two central brightest-cluster galaxies (BCGs) NGC4889, NGC4874, and the BCG in the south-west group NGC4839, as well as unresolved data for NGC4873 as a low-$\\sigma_*$ control. We present radial measurements of the IMF-sensitive features sodium NaI$_{\\rm{SDSS}}$, calcium triplet CaT and iron-hydride FeH0.99, along with the magnesium MgI0.88 and titanium oxide TiO0.89 features. We employ two separate methods for both telluric correction and sky-subtraction around the faint FeH feature to verify our analysis. Within NGC4889 we find strong gradients of NaI$_{\\rm{SDSS}}$ and CaT but a flat FeH profile, which from comparing to stellar population synthesis models, suggests an old, $\\alpha$-enhanced population with a Chabrier, or even bottom-light IMF. The age an...

  4. Rotating dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, M.; Ivanovski, S. L.; Bertini, I.; Gutierrez, P.; Lara, L.; Sierks, H.; Zakharov, V.; Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2015-11-01

    Context. During September and October 2014, the OSIRIS cameras onboard the ESA Rosetta mission detected millions of single particles. Many of these dust particlesappear as long tracks (due to both the dust proper motion and the spacecraft motion during the exposure time) with a clear brightness periodicity. Aims: We interpret the observed periodic features as a rotational and translational motion of aspherical dust grains. Methods: By counting the peaks of each track, we obtained statistics of a rotation frequency. We compared these results with the rotational frequency predicted by a model of aspherical dust grain dynamics in a model gas flow. By testing many possible sets of physical conditions and grain characteristics, we constrained the rotational properties of dust grains. Results: We analyzed on the motion of rotating aspherical dust grains with different cross sections in flow conditions corresponding to the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the OSIRIS observations, we constrain the possible physical parameters of the grains.

  5. Study of FK Comae Berenices: VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Ilyin, I V; Oláh, K; Andersen, M I; Hackman, T

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale longer than a few hours, but shorter variations were also observed. According to the Halpha measurements prominences are often found in the chromosphere that reach to more than a stellar radius and are stable for weeks, and which seem to be often, but not every time connected with dark photospheric spots. The rotational modulation of the Halpha emission seems to typically be anticorrelated with the light curve, but we did not find convincing evidence of a clear connection in the long-term trends of the Halpha emission and th...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sersic + exponential disc morphologies in Coma (Head+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. T. C. G.; Lucey, J. R.; Hudson, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    This study makes use of the data as previously described in Paper I (Head et al., 2014, Cat. J/MNRAS/440/1690). To recap: optical imaging covering a total of 9 deg2 of the Coma Cluster in the i band was acquired using the MegaCam instrument on the 3.6 m CFHT during 2008 March-June (run ID 2008AC24, PI: M. Hudson). Total (co-added) exposure times of 300 s were obtained for each observed field, yielding ~12 x deeper imaging data (from D2texp) compared to SDSS (2.5m telescope, 53s exposures). The MegaCam frames were sky-subtracted during pre-processing using a 64 pixel mesh. A point spread function (psf) full width at half-maximum of between 0.65 and 0.84-arcsec was typical. The pixel scale was ~0.186arcsec/pix. In this work, we fit galaxies with a range of analytical models in order to thoroughly explore the diversity of internal galaxy structures. (1 data file).

  7. Modified Glasgow Coma Scale to predict mortality in febrile unconscious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P; Kishore, M

    2001-04-01

    A prospective hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of the Kasturba Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha to predict the mortality in children admitted with fever and unconsciousness using the Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score. Forty eight children were admitted with fever and unconsciousness; cases of febrile convulsions, epilepsy and cerebral palsy were excluded. MGCS scores were assessed on admission and repeated at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after admission in each case. Diagnosis in each case was confirmed by history, examinations and investigations. All the cases were regularly followed up till death/discharge. The overall mortality was 29.1% (14/48) out of which 85% (12/14) died within the first 24 hours. Mortality was highest in the toddler age group and in patients with pyogenic meningitis. There was a significant association between death and MGCS scores on admission with a post test probability for discharge being only 10% with a score of less than 5 and 99% with a score of more than 10 respectively. MGCS scores on admission can be used to predict mortality in patients hospitalized with fever and unconsciousness. The scale is simple, easy, can be applied at bed side and does not need any investigations. Its application in developing countries with limited investigative and intensive care facilities can help the treating physician decide regarding referral and counseling the parents regarding the probable clinical outcome.

  8. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva; Regina Marcia Cardoso de Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sa...

  9. Modeling of the Inner Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Constrained by VIRTIS and ROSINA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bieler, A. M.; Migliorini, A.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Toth, G.; Huang, Z.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Piccioni, G.; Debout, V.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Fink, U.; Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Tzou, C. Y.; Le Roy, L.; Calmonte, U.; Berthelier, J. J.; Rème, H.; Hässig, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Fiethe, B.; De Keyser, J.

    2015-12-01

    As it orbits around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the Rosetta spacecraft acquires more information about its main target. The numerous observations made at various geometries and at different times enable a good spatial and temporal coverage of the evolution of CG's cometary coma. However, the question regarding the link between the coma measurements and the nucleus activity remains relatively open notably due to gas expansion and strong kinetic effects in the comet's rarefied atmosphere. In this work, we use coma observations made by the ROSINA-DFMS instrument to constrain the activity at the surface of the nucleus. The distribution of the H2O and CO2 outgassing is described with the use of spherical harmonics. The coordinates in the orthogonal system represented by the spherical harmonics are computed using a least squared method, minimizing the sum of the square residuals between an analytical coma model and the DFMS data. Then, the previously deduced activity distributions are used in a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model to compute a full description of the H2O and CO2 coma of comet CG from the nucleus' surface up to several hundreds of kilometers. The DSMC outputs are used to create synthetic images, which can be directly compared with VIRTIS measurements. The good agreement between the VIRTIS observations and the DSMC model, itself constrained with ROSINA data, provides a compelling juxtaposition of the measurements from these two instruments. Acknowledgements Work at UofM was supported by contracts JPL#1266313, JPL#1266314 and NASA grant NNX09AB59G. Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundation and by the ESA PRODEX Program. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the JPL. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. The authors would like to thank ASI, CNES, DLR, NASA for supporting this research. VIRTIS was built

  10. Modeling of the VIRTIS-M Observations of the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bieler, Andre; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Toth, Gabor; Huang, Zhenguang; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Debout, Vincent; Erard, Stephane; Leyrat, Cedric; Fink, Uwe; Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Le Roy, Lena; Calmonte, Ursina; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Reme, Henri; Hassig, Myrtha; Fuselier, Stephen; Fiethe, Bjorn; De Keyser, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The recent images of the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) made by the infrared channel of the VIRTIS-M instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft show the gas distribution as it expands in the coma (Migliorini et al. 2015, DPS abstract).Since VIRTIS is a remote sensing instrument, a proper modeling of these observations requires the computation of the full coma of comet CG, which necessitates the use of a kinetic approach due to the rather low gas densities. Hence, we apply a Direct Simulation Monde Carlo (DSMC) method to solve the Boltzmann equation and describe CG’s coma from the nucleus surface up to a few hundreds of kilometers. The model uses the SHAP5 nucleus shape model from the OSIRIS team. The gas flux distribution takes into account solar illumination, including self-shadowing. The local activity at the surface of the nucleus is given by spherical harmonics expansion reproducing best the ROSINA-DFMS data. The densities from the DSMC model outputs are then integrated along the line-of-sight to create synthetic images that are directly comparable with the VIRTIS-M column density measurements.The good agreement between the observations and the model illustrates our continuously improving understanding of the physics of the coma of comet CG.AcknowledgementsWork at UofM was supported by contracts JPL#1266313, JPL#1266314 and NASA grant NNX09AB59G. Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundation and by the European Space Agency PRODEX Program. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the JPL. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. The authors would like to thank ASI, CNES, DLR, NASA for supporting this research. VIRTIS was built by a consortium formed by Italy, France and Germany, under the scientific responsibility of the IAPS of INAF, which guides also the scientific operations. The consortium includes also the

  11. Potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico no prognóstico do coma superficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Camargo Ribeiro Leite

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O coma é a redução persistente do nível de consciência, arresponsivo a estímulos, devido à baixa atividade cerebral. Para verificar o nível de consciência, um recurso frequentemente utilizado é a Escala de Coma de Glasgow. Outro método que se destaca é o Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico, o qual avalia a atividade elétrica das vias auditivas ascendentes, desde o trajeto periférico até o mesencéfalo. O exame é simples, imune a medicamentos depressores e ambientes eletricamente carregados, sendo o mais adequado dos potenciais para a monitoração dos estados de coma. O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar as características do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico no estado de coma leve (Glasgow 7 - 8 e suas respectivas contribuições. Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo transversal em dois pacientes em coma (Glasgow 7, estado secundário a traumatismo cranioencefálico. Os resultados do exame evidenciaram presença de atividade elétrica em toda extensão da via estudada, em ambos os casos, com indicações de diferentes alterações, quanto à redução na latência entre os intervalos, morfologia e replicação das ondas. Tais diferenças foram contempladas com a evolução de cada caso: caso 1 evoluiu a alta hospitalar e caso 2 evoluiu a óbito. Os resultados confirmaram os achados da literatura, que descreve que a presença do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico normal está associada à boa evolução do caso clínico, enquanto alterações no exame podem sinalizar para um mau prognóstico.

  12. 异烟酸巴比妥酸流动注射法测定水中总氰化物%Measurement of the total cyanide with Isonicotinic/Barbituric bv flow iniection analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭少维; 孟祖君; 姜鑫; 陈杨虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective to establish a method of using flow injection in-line cyanide distillation to determine total cyanide in water and wastewater.This method uses sonicotinic acid and barbituric acid as the color reagent.Samples are first mixed with phosphoric acid,and then introduced into an in-line cyanide distillation unit.Then samples passed over a heater and a UV lamp.Then CN-re-leased from complexes during the heating and irradiation combines with protons to form HCN.The HCN diffuses across a Teflon membrane and is trapped as CN- in a sodium hydroxide solution.The CN- is first converted to cyanogens chloride.Then react with color reagent and form a colored product that is measured at 600 nm.Results Detection range as 2 ~ 200 μg · L-1.Detection limit was 0.15 μg · L-1.The sample recovery was 90% to 105%.RSD was less than 3.0%.Conclusion The method is simple and sensitive compared with standard method.%建立了新的流动注射在线蒸馏测定水和废水中总氰化物的方法.该方法采用异烟酸-巴比妥酸为显色剂,将含氰样品与磷酸混合,进入在线氰消解蒸馏系统,通过加热与紫外辐射,CN-从化合物中释放形成气态的HCN并流过膜组件,其中的CN-被氢氧化钠吸收,将其转换为氯化氰,加入显色剂后可在600 nm波长下比色测定总氰化物浓度.结果表明:方法测量范围为2 ~ 200 μg·L-1,最低检出限为0.15μg·L-1,水样测量的回收率为90% ~ 105%,精密度RSD小于3.0%.方法操作简便,灵敏度高,优于标准方法.

  13. 地震期间急诊救治糖尿病酮症酸中毒伴高渗性昏迷1例%Emergency treatment of 1 case of diabetic ketoacidosis patient with hyperosmolar coma during earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    药永红

    2013-01-01

    To review the emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis associated with hypertonic coma during the earthquake.Emergency physicians in the special period are prone to develop diabetic ketoacidosis with hypertonic coma,the channel set up should be complete during emergency treatment.The diagnosis of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis with hypertonic coma should be orderly after emergency treatment,and the patients should get timely and effective treatment.

  14. Pre- and Post-equinox ROSINA production rates calculated using a realistic empirical coma model derived from AMPS-DSMC simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Altwegg, Kathrin; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, Andre; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Le Roy, Lena; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We have previously used results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) model to create an empirical model of the near comet coma (coma model to significantly further from the comet (~100,000-1,000,000 km). The empirical model characterizes the neutral coma in a comet centered, sun fixed reference frame as a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance from the comet, local time and declination. Furthermore, we have generalized the model beyond application to 67P by replacing the heliocentric distance parameterizations and mapping them to production rates. Using this method, the model become significantly more general and can be applied to any comet. The model is a significant improvement over simpler empirical models, such as the Haser model. For 67P, the DSMC results are, of course, a more accurate representation of the coma at any given time, but the advantage of a mean state, empirical model is the ease and speed of use. One application of the empirical model is to de-trend the spacecraft motion from the ROSINA COPS and DFMS data (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Comet Pressure Sensor, Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer). The ROSINA instrument measures the neutral coma density at a single point and the measured value is influenced by the location of the spacecraft relative to the comet and the comet-sun line. Using the empirical coma model we can correct for the position of the spacecraft and compute a total production rate based on the single point measurement. In this presentation we will present the coma production rate as a function of heliocentric distance both pre- and post-equinox and perihelion.

  15. Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis Analysis of 16 Cases of Hypoglycemic Coma%16例低血糖昏迷患者诊断及误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗淑新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how to reduce the misdiagnosis rate of hypoglycemia coma patients so as to improve the diagnosis of patients with hypoglycemic coma.Methods 16 cases of hypoglycemia coma patients misdiagnosed reasons for data analysis;Results 16 cases of misdiagnosed patients in time after being diagnosed with hypoglycemic coma to glucose after treatment in al, one for coma for a long time in the hospital after hyperbaric oxygen; Dehydration; Brain cels back to normal after treatment and nourishment;Conclusion Coma patients with normal blood glucose monitoring is the key to the rapid diagnosis and differential diagnosis in patients with hypoglycemic coma.%目的 探讨如何降低低血糖昏迷患者的误诊率从而提高低血糖昏迷患者的诊断.方法 对16例低血糖昏迷患者的误诊原因进行资料分析;结果 16例误诊的患者被确诊为低血糖昏迷后及时给予葡萄糖治疗后均恢复,其中一例因昏迷时间较长住院经高压氧;脱水;及营养脑细胞治疗后恢复正常;结论 昏迷患者常规进行血糖监测是快速诊断和鉴别诊断低血糖昏迷患者的关键.

  16. Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.

    1995-08-01

    Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as

  17. The molecular gas content of spiral galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, A.; Gavazzi, G.; Lequeux, J.; Buat, V.; Casoli, F.; Dickey, J.; Donas, J.

    1997-11-01

    We present ^12^CO(J=1-0) line observations of 73 spiral galaxies mostly in the Coma/A1367 supercluster. From these data, combined with data available in the literature, we extract the first complete, optically selected sample (m_pg_reservoir, significantly lower than previous estimates based on samples selected by FIR criteria, thus biased towards CO rich objects. We show that the frequency distributions of the CO deficiency parameter, defined as the difference between the expected and the observed molecular gas content of a galaxy of given luminosity (or linear diameter), computed separately for cluster and isolated galaxies, are not significantly different, indicating that the environment does not affect the molecular gas content of spiral discs. A well defined relationship exists between M_i_(H_2_) and the star formation activity in bright galaxies, while it is weaker at lower luminosities. We interpret this finding as indicating that CO emission traces relatively well the H_2_ mass only in high-mass galaxies, such as the Milky Way. On the other hand, in low-mass spirals the higher far-UV radiation field produced by young O-B stars and the lower metallicity cause the photodissociation of the diffuse molecular gas, weakening the expected relationship between star formation and the CO emission. The conversion factor between the CO line intensity and the amount of molecular hydrogen being ill-determined and variable with the UV flux and abundances, it is difficult to assess the relationship between the star formation and the amount of molecular hydrogen.

  18. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  19. FK Comae Berenices, King of Spin: The COCOA-PUFS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Huenemoerder, D.; Korhonen, H.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.; Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K.

    2016-03-01

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200-3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5-10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å 8 × 104 K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1-3 × 104 K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (˜10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution. COordinated Campaign of Observations and Analysis, Photosphere to Upper Atmosphere, of a Fast-rotating Star.

  20. TRAUMATIC INTRACRANIAL HAEMORRHAGE: A CORRELATION WITH GLASGOW COMA SCALE, HAEMATOMA VOLUME AND PATIENT PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Babu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To describe the role of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS as an initial and simple tool of neurological assessment and also haematoma volume in selection of patient for surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS After an initial GCS assessment, 50 patients with a history of head trauma were referred for a head CT which was done with a GE Bright Speed Elite 16 slice CT scanner. RESULTS 42 patients (84% were males and 8 (16% were females. The mean age was 33.54 years and the maximum numbers of patients affected belonged to the age group of 21 to 30 years. The most common mode of injury in this study was road traffic accident (RTA accounting for 86%. 42% of patients presented with a GCS of

  1. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  2. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  3. Dust and gas jets: Evidence for a diffuse source in Halley's coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairemidi, Jacques; Rousselot, Philippe; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of dust-scattered intensity in Halley's inner coma is measured with the Vega three-channel spectrometer at three selected wavelengths: 377, 482, and 607 nm. The variation along a cometo-centric radius may be described by a p(sup -s) law where p is the distance between nucleus and optical axis and s is an exponent which is equal to 1 except in an intermediate 3000 less than p less than 7000 km region where s = 1.5. The shape of the radial distribution may be explained with a model including solar radiation pressure effect and quantum scattering efficiencies calculated from Mie theory. Monochromatic images inside an angular sector having its apex at the nucleus show evidence of two dust jets which extend to 40,000 Km. The pixel-to-pixel ratio of two images of dust intensity at 377 and 482 nm shows that the scattered intensity presents an excess of blue coloration in a zone located around the jets between 10,000 and 25,000 km. This coloration is interpreted as being due to a population of sub-micronic grains which result of the fragmentation of dust particles transported in the jets. It is suggested that the diffuse source where an additional quantity of CO was detected might be connected with the presence of a dust jet. In the present scheme, grain particles with a size of several micron or 10 micron would be transported inside a dust jet to distances of several 10,000 km where they would suffer fragmentation and produce sub-micronic particles and a release of gas which would be at the origin of the diffuse source.

  4. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Sah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A sixth generation General Electric (GE CT scan was utilized and 5mm and 10mm sections were obtained for infratentorial and supratentorial parts respectively. RESULT The age range of the patients was 1 to 75 years (mean age 35.6± 21.516 years and male: female ratio was 3.1:1. The most common causes of head injury were road traffic accident (RTA (60%, fall injury (20%, physical assault (12% and pedestrian injuries (8%. The distribution of patients in accordance with consciousness level was found to be 54% with mild TBI (GCS score 12 to 14, 28% with moderate TBI (GCS score 11 to 8 and 18% with severe TBI (GCS score less than 7. The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan was accompanied by lower GCS. CONCLUSION The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan were accompanied with lower GCS. Patients having single lesion had more GCS level than mixed level and mid line shift type of injury.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12947 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 4-9

  5. Study of FK Comae Berenices. VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, K.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I. V.; Oláh, K.; Andersen, M. I.; Hackman, T.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. Methods: We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Hα observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Results: Investigating low-resolution Hα spectra, we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale longer than a few hours, but shorter variations are also observed. According to the Hα measurements, prominences are often found in the chromosphere that reach to more than a stellar radius and are stable for weeks, and they seem to be often, but not always connected to dark photospheric spots. The rotational modulation of the Hα emission typically seems to be anticorrelated with the light curve, but we did not find convincing evidence of a clear connection in the long-term trends of the Hα emission and the brightness of the star. In addition, FK Com seems to be in an unusually quiet state in 2009-2010 with very little chromospheric activity and low spot contrast, which might indicate the long-term decrease in activity. Based on the observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain; Kitt Peak National Observatory, USA.Figures 12, 13, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgNew data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A64

  6. The Remarkable Far-Ultraviolet Spectrum of FK Comae Berenices: King of Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Korhonen, Heidi; Ilyin, Ilya V.; Redfield, Seth; Wood, Brian E.

    2006-06-01

    A Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) pointing on the ultrafast rotating yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (HD 117555; vsini~163 km s-1) recorded emission profiles of C III λ977 (T~8×104 K) and O VI λ1031 (T~3×105 K) that are exceptionally broad and asymmetric, but nearly identical in shape, aside from a blueward absorption component in the latter (identified as interstellar O I, rather than, say, a C III outflow feature). The FWHMs exceed 500 km s-1, twice the broadest far-UV line shape of any normal late-type star observed to date, but similar to the Hα profiles of FK Com, and following the trend of other fast spinning early G giants that often display ``superrotational'' broadening of their UV ``hot'' lines. Although the red-asymmetric O VI λ1031 profile is suggestive of an outflow at ~3×105 K, the weaker member of the doublet, λ1037, does not display the differential absorption pattern expected from a warm wind. Furthermore, at times the chromospheric Mg II λ2796 + λ2803 composite profile, from a collection of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) echellegrams obtained two decades earlier, is nearly identical in shape to red-asymmetric O VI λ1031. A contemporaneous optical Doppler map places the photospheric dark spots mainly in the polar regions of the approaching hemisphere. The dominantly redward biased profiles of C III and O VI could be explained if the associated emission zones were leading the starspots in phase and partially rooted in lower latitudes.

  7. Transmissive liquid-crystal device correcting primary coma aberration and astigmatism in laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-03-01

    Laser scanning microscopy allows 3D cross-sectional imaging inside biospecimens. However, certain aberrations produced can degrade the quality of the resulting images. We previously reported a transmissive liquid-crystal device that could compensate for the predominant spherical aberrations during the observations, particularly in deep regions of the samples. The device, inserted between the objective lens and the microscope revolver, improved the image quality of fixed-mouse-brain slices that were observed using two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy, which was originally degraded by spherical aberration. In this study, we developed a transmissive device that corrects primary coma aberration and astigmatism, motivated by the fact that these asymmetric aberrations can also often considerably deteriorate image quality, even near the sample surface. The device's performance was evaluated by observing fluorescent beads using single-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity in the image of the bead under a cover slip tilted in the y-direction was increased by 1.5 times after correction by the device. Furthermore, the y- and z-widths of the imaged bead were reduced to 66% and 65%, respectively. On the other hand, for the imaged bead sucked into a glass capillary in the longitudinal x-direction, correction with the device increased the fluorescence intensity by 2.2 times compared to that of the aberrated image. In addition, the x-, y-, and z-widths of the bead image were reduced to 75%, 53%, and 40%, respectively. Our device successfully corrected several asymmetric aberrations to improve the fluorescent signal and spatial resolution, and might be useful for observing various biospecimens.

  8. FK COMAE BERENICES, KING OF SPIN: THE COCOA-PUFS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Thomas R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Huenemoerder, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Korhonen, H. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K., E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@Colorado.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200–3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5–10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å; 8 × 10{sup 4} K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1–3 × 10{sup 4} K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (∼10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution.

  9. 急诊抢救糖尿病昏迷60例临床分析%Emergency Rescue Diabetic Coma 60 Cases of Clinical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军杰; 齐静; 武巧月

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨糖尿病昏迷的原因以及相关因素,提高抢救成功率。方法将该院2013年9月—2014年9月收治的糖尿病昏迷患者60例为研究对象。研究分析患者的临床资料与与治疗过程。结果分析结果发现,60例糖尿病昏迷患者中由于低血糖昏迷的有23例、糖尿病非酮症高渗昏迷的有6例、糖尿病合并脑出血昏迷的患者有4例、糖尿病酮症酸中毒昏迷的患者有17例、糖尿病合并脑梗塞昏迷的患者有10例,其中为1型糖尿病的患者有29例,2型糖尿病患者31例。研究分析原因的时候发现引发1型糖尿病昏迷的患者主要是因为胰岛素使用不合理,而2型糖尿病患者昏迷的原因主要是由于感染诱发昏迷。针对糖尿病昏迷的患者可以应用补糖或者小剂量的胰岛素持续性静脉滴注、补液和对症治疗等方式进行治疗。结论引发糖尿病患者昏迷的原因主要表现为急性并发症,针对这种情况需要趁早发现,早诊断,患者才能够早治疗,今儿有效降低死亡率。%Objective To study the cause of the diabetic coma and related factors, improve the success rate of rescue. Methods From September 2013 to September 2014 were 60 cases of diabetic coma patients as the research object. Re-search and analysis the clinical data of patients with the treatment process. Results The results of the analysis, found in 60 patients with diabetic coma because of hypoglycemic coma than in 23 cases, diabetes ketosis hypertonic coma in 6 cases, 4 cases of patients with cerebral hemorrhage coma with diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, coma of 17 cases of patients, 10 pa-tients with diabetic cerebral infarction of the coma, including for 29 patients with type 1 diabetes, 31 patients with type 2 diabetes. Research and analysis the reason to find cause of type 1 diabetic coma patients is mainly due to the inappropriate use of insulin, and the cause of type 2 diabetic coma is

  10. 脐血间充质干细胞移植治疗低血糖昏迷1例%Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for treating hypoglycemic coma in one case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 周瑞; 晏小琼; 余勇飞; 阮清源

    2011-01-01

    背景:成体干细胞可以跨系跨胚层分化为所有的组织细胞类型,在特定的条件下,可分化为骨、软骨、脂肪、肌肉和神经细胞等,替代、修复已受损的组织、细胞,达到功能修复的目的.目的:观察脐血间充质干细胞治疗低血糖昏迷并发缺氧缺血性脑病的疗效.方法:对收治的1 例低血糖昏迷并发缺氧缺血性脑病及肺部感染的患者,给予抗自由基、营养神经、促醒、抗感染、康复理疗等综合治疗的同时,从静脉滴注进行脐血间充质干细胞治疗.观察住院期间意识恢复情况、脑电图、日常生活能力评分及随访结果.结果与结论:治疗近1个月后患者运动、认知功能明显恢复,复查脑电图可及a波,日常生活活动能力评分50分,70 d后随访,患者未出现不良反应,表明干细胞治疗近期疗效安全.提示脐血间充质干细胞治疗低血糖昏迷并发缺氧缺血性脑病安全有效.%BACKGROUND: Adult stem cells can differentiate into all kinds of cell type. Under special conditions, adult stem cells can differentiate into osteoblasts, chond rocytes, adipocytes, muscle cells and neural cells to replace and to repair damaged tissues and cells, to achieve functional recovery purposes.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) therapy in hypoglycemic coma combined with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.METHODS: One case of hypoglycemic coma combined with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and pulmonary infection was admitted. This patient received a combined treatment, including anti-free radical, nerve-nurturing, consciousness-regaining,anti-infective therapy, rehabilitation and physiotherapy. At the same time, we also gave him the UCB-MSCs therapy by intravenous infusion. The recovery of consciousness, electroencephalogram, activity of daily living and follow-up results were observed during hospital stay.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: One month later, the

  11. CONSTRAINING THE DUST COMA PROPERTIES OF COMET C/SIDING SPRING (2013 A1) AT LARGE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin H. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A' Hearn, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mutchler, Max J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Space Department, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Delamere, W. Alan, E-mail: jyli@psi.edu, E-mail: nalin@psi.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: farnham@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jpuapl.edu, E-mail: alan@delamere.biz [Delamere Support Service, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    The close encounter of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 October 19 presented an extremely rare opportunity to obtain the first flyby quality data of the nucleus and inner coma of a dynamically new comet. However, the comet's dust tail potentially posed an impact hazard to those spacecraft orbiting Mars. To characterize the comet at large heliocentric distances, study its long-term evolution, and provide critical inputs to hazard modeling, we imaged C/Siding Spring with the Hubble Space Telescope when the comet was at 4.58, 3.77, and 3.28 AU from the Sun. The dust production rate, parameterized by the quantity Afρ, was 2500, 2100, and 1700 cm (5000 km radius aperture) for the three epochs, respectively. The color of the dust coma is (5.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the first two epochs, and (9.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the last epoch, and reddens with increasing cometocentric distance out to ∼3000 km from the nucleus. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dust color are most consistent with the existence of icy grains in the coma. Two jet-like dust features appear in the northwest and south-southeast directions projected in the sky plane. Within each epoch of 1-2 hr, no temporal variations were observed for either feature, but the position angle of the south-southeastern feature varied between the three epochs by ∼30°. The dust feature morphology suggests two possible orientations for the rotational pole of the nucleus, (R.A., decl.) = (295° ± 5°, +43° ± 2°) and (190° ± 10°, +50° ± 5°), or their diametrically opposite orientations.

  12. X-ray observations of a subhalo associated with the NGC 4839 group infalling toward the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We report on Suzaku X-ray observations of the dark subhalo associated with the merging group of NGC 4839 in the Coma cluster. The X-ray image exhibits an elongated tail toward the southwest. The X-ray peak shifts approximately 1' away from the weak-lensing mass center toward the opposite direction of the Coma cluster center. We investigated the temperature, normalization, pressure, and entropy distributions around the subhalo. Excluding the X-ray tail, the temperature beyond the truncation radius is 8-10 keV, which is twice as high as that of the subhalo and the X-ray tail. The pressure is nearly uniform, excluding the southern part of the subhalo at two times of the truncation radius. We computed the gas mass within the truncation radius and the X-ray tail. While the gas fraction within the truncation radius is about five times smaller than that of regular groups, the gas mass in the subhalo and the X-ray tail to weak-lensing mass ratio is consistent with that of regular groups. Assuming an infall velocity of 2000 km s-1, the ram pressure is 1.4 times greater than the gravitational force per unit area. Assuming the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, the total lost mass is approximately 3 × 1011 M⊙. If this gas had originally been within the truncation radius, the gas mass fraction of the subhalo would have been comparable with those of regular groups before infalling to the Coma cluster.

  13. CONSTRAINING THE DUST COMA PROPERTIES OF COMET C/SIDING SPRING (2013 A1) AT LARGE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close encounter of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 October 19 presented an extremely rare opportunity to obtain the first flyby quality data of the nucleus and inner coma of a dynamically new comet. However, the comet's dust tail potentially posed an impact hazard to those spacecraft orbiting Mars. To characterize the comet at large heliocentric distances, study its long-term evolution, and provide critical inputs to hazard modeling, we imaged C/Siding Spring with the Hubble Space Telescope when the comet was at 4.58, 3.77, and 3.28 AU from the Sun. The dust production rate, parameterized by the quantity Afρ, was 2500, 2100, and 1700 cm (5000 km radius aperture) for the three epochs, respectively. The color of the dust coma is (5.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the first two epochs, and (9.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the last epoch, and reddens with increasing cometocentric distance out to ∼3000 km from the nucleus. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dust color are most consistent with the existence of icy grains in the coma. Two jet-like dust features appear in the northwest and south-southeast directions projected in the sky plane. Within each epoch of 1-2 hr, no temporal variations were observed for either feature, but the position angle of the south-southeastern feature varied between the three epochs by ∼30°. The dust feature morphology suggests two possible orientations for the rotational pole of the nucleus, (R.A., decl.) = (295° ± 5°, +43° ± 2°) and (190° ± 10°, +50° ± 5°), or their diametrically opposite orientations

  14. CHARACTERIZING THE DUST COMA OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) AT 4.15 AU FROM THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/ρ (where ρ is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of m s–1. A(θ)fρ, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures <1.''6 in radius. The dust colors are slightly redder than solar, with a slope of 5.0% ± 0.2% per 100 nm, increasing to >10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer coma. The 1.''6 long jet is centered at a position angle of 291°, with an opening angle of ∼45°. The jet morphology remains unchanged over 19 hr of our observations, suggesting that it is near the rotational pole of the nucleus, and implying that the pole points to within 30° of (R.A., decl.) = (330°, 0°). This pole orientation indicates a high obliquity of 50°-80°

  15. CHARACTERIZING THE DUST COMA OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) AT 4.15 AU FROM THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A' Hearn, Michael F.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knight, Matthew M. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Weaver, Harold A. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Space Department, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Lamy, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7236, CNRS and Aix-Marseille Université, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Toth, Imre, E-mail: jyli@psi.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: farnham@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ludmilla@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: knight@lowell.edu, E-mail: Hal.Weaver@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu, E-mail: philippe.lamy@oamp.fr, E-mail: tothi@konkoly.hu [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-12-10

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/ρ (where ρ is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of m s{sup –1}. A(θ)fρ, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures <1.''6 in radius. The dust colors are slightly redder than solar, with a slope of 5.0% ± 0.2% per 100 nm, increasing to >10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer coma. The 1.''6 long jet is centered at a position angle of 291°, with an opening angle of ∼45°. The jet morphology remains unchanged over 19 hr of our observations, suggesting that it is near the rotational pole of the nucleus, and implying that the pole points to within 30° of (R.A., decl.) = (330°, 0°). This pole orientation indicates a high obliquity of 50°-80°.

  16. VIRTIS/Rosetta Observes Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Nucleus and Coma Derived Composition and Physical Properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Erard, S.; Arnold, Gabriele; De Sanctis, M. C.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Tosi, F.; Ciarnello, M.; Raponi, A.; Migliorini, A.; Quirico, E; Rinaldi, G.; Schmitt, B; Carlson, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will describe the major results obtained throughout the nominal mission by the instrument VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer), the dual channel spectrometer onboard Rosetta, on the surface composition and thermal properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and on the 2D distribution of H2O and CO2 in the coma. VIRTIS is a dual channel spectrometer; VIRTIS-M (M for Mapper) is a hyper spectral imager covering a wide spectral range from 0.25...

  17. Search for gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster with six years of Fermi-LAT data

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Bissaldi, E.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, 11 L.; Torres, D. F.; G Tosti; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Zimmer, S.; Blandford, R. D.; Rephaeli, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from {\\gamma}-ray observations of the Coma cluster incorporating 6 years of Fermi-LAT data and the newly released {\\emph{Pass 8}} event-level analysis. Our analysis of the region reveals low-significance residual structures within the virial radius of the cluster that are too faint for a detailed investigation with the current data. Using a likelihood approach that is free of assumptions on the spectral shape we derive upper limits on the {\\gamma}-ray flux that is expected ...

  18. Observations and analysis of O(1D) and NH2 line profiles for the coma of comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Scherb, Frank

    1995-01-01

    A set of high-resolution Fabry-Perot measurements of the coma of comet P/Halley was acquired in the (O I) 6300 A and NH2 6298.62 A emission lines. These high-resolution measurements provide the first optical observations capable of studying directly the photochemical kinetics and dynamic outflow of the coma. The observations were analyzed by a Monte Carlo Particle Trajectory Model. The agreement of the model and observed line profiles was excellent and verified the underlying dynamics, exothermic photodissociative chemistry, and collisional thermalization in the coma. The somewhat wider intrinsic line profile width for the O(1D) emission in 1986 January compared to 1986 May, is, for example, produced by the larger outflow speeds and gas temperatures nearer perihelion in January. The January O(1D) profile, which is wider than the January NH2 profile, is indicative of the photochemical kinetics in the dissociation of the parent molecules H2O and OH in the coma. The absolute calibration of the observations in 1986 January allowed the production rates for H2O and the NH2-parent molecules to be determined. The average daily water production rates derived from the O(1D) emission data for January 16 and 17 are presented. These very large water production rates are consistent with the extrapolated (and 7.6 day time variable) water production rates determined from the analysis of lower spectral resolution observations for O(1D) and H-alpha emissions that covered the time period up to January 13. The large production rates on January 16 and 17 establish that the maximum water production rate for comet Halley accurred pre-perihelion in January. Implications drawn from comparison with 18 cm radio emission data in January suggest that the peak water production rate was even larger. The average production rate for NH3 determined from the NH2 emission data for January 17 was (1.48 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp 28) molecules/s, yielding an NH3/H2O production rate ratio of 0.55%.

  19. A Study on Brown Seaweed Therapy ( Sargassum sp. toward MDA Levels and Histological Improvement on Rat Foot Suffering Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (AR, an autoimun disease, is characterized by the inflammation in the joint area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, that increasing levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and the decreasing levels of anti-oxidants. The treated with extract of brown seaweed (Sargassum sp. intended to find out the MDA levels in serum and the histological of the foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats. Malondialdehyde levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat foot joints was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the brown seaweed extract therapy (Sargassum sp. was significantly (p <0.01 reduce levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the serum of 21,24% and improving histological foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats.

  20. 浅谈脑外科患者昏迷状态的护理%Nursing Process of Coma Patients in Brain Surgery Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲

    2015-01-01

    研究临床上对于由于脑外科问题造成昏迷状态患者的有效护理方法,发现对脑外科患者昏迷状态的护理具有一定的特殊性。采用合理的综合性护理,有助于患者的恢复和预后。%To study the nursing process for coma patients in the department of brain surgery department. We found that there were some specialties in the nursing for coma patients. By comprehensive nursing,we can improve the recovery of coma patients.

  1. A Further Investigation of Apparent Periodicities and the Rotational State of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 from Combined Coma Morphology and Lightcurve Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Matthew M; Samarasinha, Nalin H; Schleicher, David G

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Kitt Peak National Observatory and Lowell Observatory observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained from August through December 2010. The results are then compared with contemporaneous observations made by the EPOXI spacecraft. Each ground-based dataset has previously been investigated individually; the combined dataset has complementary coverage that reduces the time between observing runs and allows us to determine additional apparent periods at intermediate times. We compare CN coma morphology between ground-based datasets, making nine new measurements of apparent periods. The first five are consistent with the roughly linearly increasing apparent period during the apparition found by previous authors. The final four suggest that the change in apparent period slowed or stopped by late November. We also measure an inner coma lightcurve in both CN and R-band ground-based images, finding a single-peaked lightcurve which repeats in phase with the coma morphology. The apparent period ...

  2. Comparison of the Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2 Coma Grains to Other Astromaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Zolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose that Kuiper Belt samples (in this case comet coma grains from the Jupiter family comet Wild 2) are recognizably different from the bulk of materials in outer belt asteroids, because of their different formation positions and times in the early solar system. We believe this despite similarities found between some Wild 2 grains and components of carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. some CAI and chondrules). Kuiper Belt samples must preserve measurable mineralogical and compositional evidence of formation at unique positions and times in the early solar nebula, and these formational differences must have imparted recognizable special characteristics. We hypothesize that these characteristics include: (1) Unique major element compositional ranges of common astromaterial minerals, especially olivine and pyroxene; (2) Unique minor element compositions of major silicate phases, especially olivine and low-Ca pyroxene; (3) Degree and effects of radiation processing -- including amorphous rims, metal coatings, and Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides (GEMS); (4) Presence of abundant presolar silicate grains as recognized by anomalous oxygen in silicates; (5) Oxidation state of the mineral assemblage. We are working our way through all available Wild 2 samples, selecting 1-2 non-consecutive viable TEM grids from each possible extracted Wild 2 grain. We especially prefer TEM grids from grains for which complete mineralogical details have not been published (which is to say the majority of the extracted grains). We are performing a basic mineralogic survey by E-beam techniques, to establish the essential features of the extracted Wild 2 grains. We are making a particular effort to carefully and accurately measure minor elements of olivine and pyroxene, as these minerals are widespread in astromaterials, and comparisons of their compositions will serve to place the Wild 2 silicates in contact with asteroids, meteorites and chondritic interplanetary dust particles

  3. In-hospital mortality and the Glasgow Coma Scale in the first 72 hours after traumatic brain injury Escala de Coma de Glasgow en las primeras 72 horas postrauma encefalocraneano y mortalidad hospitalaria Escala de Coma de Glasgow nas primeiras 72 horas após trauma cranioencefálico e mortalidade hospitalar

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Helena Costanti Settervall; Regina Marcia Cardoso de Sousa; Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2011-01-01

    This study verifies and compares the performance of three different scores obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in the first 72 hours post trauma in predicting in-hospital mortality. The studied scores included those obtained after initial care was provided at the hospital, and the worst and best scores obtained in the scale in the first 72 hours post trauma. The scale’s predictive ability was assessed by the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 277 victims with differ...

  4. Estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem na enfermagem: análise pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow Estrategias de enseñanza y aprendizaje en enfermería: análisis por la Escala de coma de Glasgow Teaching-learning strategies in nursing: analysis using the Glasgow Coma Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Pinto da Silva Morita; Maria Sumie Koizumi

    2009-01-01

    Usando como tema a Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), este estudo objetivou analisar e verificar a retenção do conhecimento frente às estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem e autoaprendizado oferecidas, e verificar o grau de conhecimento adquirido neste processo e a possível associação entre ser ou não aluno que trabalha na enfermagem. Estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa. Participaram 62 alunos regularmente matriculados no primeiro semestre do 4º ano de enfermagem. As estratégias de ensino...

  5. Escala de coma de Glasgow e qualidade de vida pós-trauma cranioencefálico Escala de coma de Glasgow y calidad de vida post-trauma craneoencefálico Glasgow Coma Scale and quality of life after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Helena Costanti Settervall; Regina Marcia Cardoso de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de diferentes escores da Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl) observados nas primeiras 72 horas pós trauma perante a qualidade de vida e mudança percebida do estado de saúde, após um ano do evento traumático. MÉTODOS: Estudo de abordagem quantitativa, observacional, longitudinal, descritivo e correlacional com vítimas de trauma cranioencefálico contuso (TCEC) avaliadas, diariamente durante a internação hospitalar, e após um ano por meio do Medical Outcome Study 36-i...

  6. 以意识障碍就诊的低血糖昏迷36例分析%Consciousness disorder treatmen Hypoglycemic coma in 36 cases analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate hypoglycemic coma in patients with clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis. Methods in our hospital from 2009January to2011in emergency department patients with hypoglycemic coma in December36 cases for investigation, analysis of induced hypoglycemic coma causes, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis. Results 36 cases of patients with hypoglycemic coma after treatment,1 cases died, the remaining 35cases cured and discharged, the cure rate is 97.2%. Conclusion patients with hypoglycemic coma, as soon as possible in order to definitively diagnose, once the diagnosis is clearly a significant treatment effect, so the emergency room patients with coma should be routine detection of blood glucose. And shall regulate the antidiabetic drug use, strengthen the awareness of hypoglycaemia.%目的探讨低血糖昏迷患者的临床表现,治疗方法及预后.方法对我院急诊内科从2009年1月至2011年12月就诊的低血糖昏迷36例患者进行调查,分析引起低血糖昏迷的原因,临床表现,治疗方法及预后.结果36例低血糖昏迷患者经治疗,其中1例死亡,其余35例均好转出院,治愈率97.2%.结论低血糖昏迷患者,应尽快明确诊断为主,一旦诊断明确治疗效果显著,所以对急诊科的昏迷患者应常规检测快速血糖.并应规范降糖药物的使用,加强对低血糖的认识.

  7. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue ... feel during and after the procedure? What is proton therapy and how is it used? Protons are ...

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body ... machine in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  9. Transport and Distribution of Hydroxyl Radicals and Oxygen Atoms from H2O Photodissociation in the Inner Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian-Lin; Su, Cheng-Chin; Ip, Wing-Huen; Wei, Chen-En; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Lo, Ming-Chung; Liao, Ying; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    With a combination of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) calculation and test particle computation, the ballistic transport process of the hydroxyl radicals and oxygen atoms produced by photodissociation of water molecules in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is modelled. We discuss the key elements and essential features of such simulations which results can be compared with the remote-sensing and in situ measurements of cometary gas coma from the Rosetta mission at different orbital phases of this comet.

  10. Redshift studies of large-scale structure. II. A faint sample in the direction of the Coma/A1367 supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 26 new redshifts are reported for 16th magnitude galaxies in the direction of the Coma void and Coma/A1367 superclusters. No galaxies are found to lie in the void. The supercluster is shown to be distinctly separate from a near-background population. A large void is found with V = about 13,000-19,000km/s, and a massive supercluster is found with V = about 19,000-23,000 km/s. 9 references

  11. X-Ray observations of a subhalo associated with the NGC 4839 group infalling toward the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Kosuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We report $Suzaku$ X-ray observations of the dark subhalo associated with the merging group of NGC 4839 in the Coma cluster. The X-ray image exhibits an elongated tail toward the southwest. The X-ray peak shifts approximately $1'$ away from the weak-lensing mass center toward the opposite direction of the Coma cluster center. We investigated the temperature, normalization, pressure, and entropy distributions around the subhalo. Excluding the X-ray tail, the temperature beyond the truncation radius is 8-10$~\\rm keV$, which is two times higher than that of the subhalo and the X-ray tail. The pressure is nearly uniform excluding southern part of the subhalo at two times of the truncation radius. We computed the gas mass within the truncation radius and the X-ray tail. While the gas fraction within the truncation radius is about 5 times smaller than that of regular groups, the gas mass in the subhalo and the X-ray tail to weak-lensing mass ratio is consistent with that of regular groups. Assuming the infall veloc...

  12. Comet 81p/Wild 2: The Updated Stardust Coma Dust Fluence Measurement for Smaller (Sub 10-Micrometre) Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. C.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Horz, Friedrich; Cole, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Micrometre and smaller scale dust within cometary comae can be observed by telescopic remote sensing spectroscopy [1] and the particle size and abundance can be measured by in situ spacecraft impact detectors [2]. Initial interpretation of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft [3] appears to show that very fine dust contributes not only a small fraction of the solid mass, but is also relatively sparse [4], with a low negative power function describing grain size distribution, contrasting with an apparent abundance indicated by the on-board Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) [5] operational during the encounter. For particles above 10 m diameter there is good correspondence between results from the DFMI and the particle size inferred from experimental calibration [6] of measured aerogel track and aluminium foil crater dimensions (as seen in Figure 4 of [4]). However, divergence between data-sets becomes apparent at smaller sizes, especially submicrometre, where the returned sample data are based upon location and measurement of tiny craters found by electron microscopy of Al foils. Here effects of detection efficiency tail-off at each search magnification can be seen in the down-scale flattening of each scale component, but are reliably compensated by sensible extrapolation between segments. There is also no evidence of malfunction in the operation of DFMI during passage through the coma (S. Green, personal comm.), so can the two data sets be reconciled?

  13. Suzaku observations of a shock front tracing the western edge of the giant radio halo in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Y; Takahashi, T; Werner, N; Ichinohe, Y; Allen, S W; Urban, O; Matsushita, K

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of new Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the X-ray brightest, nearby, merging system hosting a well studied, typical giant radio halo. It has been previously shown that, on the western side of the cluster, the radio brightness shows a much steeper gradient compared to other azimuths. XMM-Newton and Planck revealed a shock front along the southern half of the region associated with this steep radio gradient, suggesting that the radio emission is enhanced by particle acceleration associated with the shock passage. Suzaku demonstrates for the first time that this shock front extends northwards, tracing the entire length of the western edge of the Coma radio halo. The shock is detected both in the temperature and X-ray surface brightness distributions and has a Mach number of around $\\mathcal{M}\\sim1.5$. The locations of the surface brightness edges align well with the edge of the radio emission, while the obtained temperature profiles seem to suggest shocks located 125-185 kpc furth...

  14. Characterizing the Dust Coma of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 4.15 AU from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian-Yang; Knight, Matthew M; Farnham, Tony L; Weaver, Harold A; A'Hearn, Michael F; Mutchler, Max J; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Lamy, Philippe; Toth, Imre

    2013-01-01

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/{\\rho} (where {\\rho} is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of meters s$^{-1}$. A({\\theta})f{\\rho}, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures 10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer co...

  15. Rosetta-Alice Observations of the Evolution of the CO Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko During Perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Feaga, Lori M.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew J.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.

    2015-11-01

    Alice is a lightweight, low-power far-ultraviolet (700 - 2050 Å) spectrograph onboard Rosetta designed for in situ imaging spectroscopy of the cometary coma during the rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We initially reported on spectra obtained following orbit insertion in August 2014 that showed multiplets of atomic hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon concentrated above the limb of the comet. From the relative intensities of these multiplets, we identified photoelectron impact dissociative excitation of H2O and CO2 as the source of the observed atomic emissions. Variations in the relative intensities were interpreted in terms of variations in the molecular abundances. Emission from CO via resonance fluorescence in the Fourth Positive Band system was observed only sporadically. Beginning in July 2015, as the comet approached perihelion on 13 August 2015, the CO emission bands became a strong persistent feature of the observed spectrum, in addition to the atomic multiplets. The CO emissions exhibit a very strong sunward/anti-sunward asymmetry as well as a brightness variation with rotational phase of the comet. CO column densities are derived using the fluorescence model of Lupu et al. (ApJ 670, 1473, 2007) and compared with the predictions of DSMC models and with concurrent measurements of H2O and CO2 column densities. The long term evolution of the CO coma through the comet’s perihelion passage will be presented.

  16. 65 kpc of ionized gas trailing behind NGC 4848 during its first crossing of the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, Matteo; Boselli, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    In a 5 hour H{\\alpha} exposure of the N-W region of the Coma cluster with the 2.1m telescope at SPM (Mx) we discovered a 65 kpc cometary emission of ionized gas trailing behind the SBab galaxy NGC 4848. The tail points in the opposite direction of the cluster center, in the same direction where stripped HI has been detected in previous observations. The galaxy shows bright HII regions in an inner ring-like pattern, where the star formation takes place at the prodigious rate of 8.6 Msun/yr. From the morphology of the galaxy and of the trailing material, we infer that the galaxy is suffering from ram pressure due to its high velocity motion through the cluster IGM. We estimate that 4 x 10^9 Msun of gas is swept out from the galaxy forming the tail. Given the ambient conditions in the Coma cluster ({\\rho}0 = 6.3 x 10^-27 g/cm^3; {\\sigma}vel = 940 km/s) simulations predict that the ram pressure mechanism is able to remove such an amount of gas in less than 200 Myr. This, combined with the geometry of the interact...

  17. Stellar Occultations in the Coma of Comet 67/P Chuyumov-Gerasimenko Observed by the OSIRIS Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl, Richard; Kueppers, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of an analysis on a large part of the existing Image data from the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft, in which stars of sufficient brightness (down to a limiting magnitude of 6) have been observed through the coma of Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko ("C-G"). Over the course of the Rosetta main mission the Coma of the comet underwent large changes in density and structure, owed to the changing insolation along the orbit of C-G. We report on the changes of the stellar signals in the wavelength ranges, covered by the filters of the OSIRIS Narrow-Angle (NAC) and Wide-Angle (WAC) cameras.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.

  18. Microswitch- and VOCA-assisted programs for two post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music intervals, and (b) a voice output communication aid (VOCA) with two channels, activated via different hand-closure movements, which allowed the man to call his mother and a research assistant who provided stimulation events. Study II assessed a program that included (a) a pressure microswitch, activated via head movements, which allowed a man direct access to video-clips and music, and (b) a VOCA device, activated via prolonged eyelid closure, which allowed the man to call the caregiver (i.e., a research assistant) who provided attention and sung to him. Each of the two participants had significant increases in both microswitch- and VOCA-related responses during the intervention phases of the studies. Moreover, purposeful choice seemed to occur between the two VOCA responses in Study I. Implications of the findings for improving the situation of post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities are discussed. PMID:19660902

  19. The Role of Therapy Education of Islamic Meaning to Overcome Today’s Global Human Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Aminah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern community are exposed to current issues related to the very complex personality. Islam offers a therapeutic meaning to overcome the global human crisis through the holy Qu’ran. This study aims to provide a qualitative analysis of logotherapy alternative to global human who experience critical conditions such as the door of death (sakaratul maut, acute illnesses, HIV Aids, kidney illness, stroke, coma, depression / stress, due to the hazards, and other refractory disease. The study showed that the therapy of Islamic meaning based on the holy Qur’an is broader and more comprehensive than the meaning therapy by Viktor E. Frankl.

  20. Modelling of the sublimation of icy grains in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Shi, X.; Sierks, H.; Rose, M.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.

    2015-10-01

    The ESA (European Space Agency) Rosetta spacecraft was launched on 2 March 2004, to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. Since March 2014, images of the nucleus and the coma (gas and dust) of the comet have been acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) camera system [1] using both, the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). The orbiter will be maintained in the vicinity of the comet until perihelion (Rh=1.3 AU) or even until Rh=1.8 AU post-perihelion (December 2015). Nineteen months of uninterrupted, close-up observations of the gas and dust coma will be obtained and will help to characterize the evolution of comet gas and dust activity during its approach to the Sun. Indeed, for the first time, we will follow the development of a comet's coma from a close distance. Also the study of the dust-gas interaction in the coma will highlight the sublimation of icy grains. Even if the sublimation of icy grains is known, it is not yet integrated in a complete dust-gas model. We are using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to study the gas flow close to the nucleus. The code called PI-DSMC (www.pidsmc. com) can simulate millions of molecules for multiple species.When the gas flow is simulated, we inject the dust particle with a zero velocity and we take into account the 3 forces acting on the grains in a cometary environment (drag force, gravity and radiative pressure). We used the DLL (Dynamic Link Library) model to integrate the sublimation of icy grains in the gas flowand allow studying the effect of the additional gas on the dust particle trajectories. For a quantitative analysis of the sublimation of icy, outflowing grains we will consider an ensemble of grains of various radii with different compositions [2] The evolution of the grains, once they are ejected into the coma, depends on their initial size, their composition and the heliocentric distance (because the temperature of

  1. 急诊抢救糖尿病昏迷64例临床分析%Emergency Rescuediabetic Coma:Clinical Analysis of 64 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智慧

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探索糖尿病昏迷发生规律以及诊断治疗相关因素,从而提高抢救成功率。方法对该院自2012年2月—2014年2月期间住院并接受治疗的64例糖尿病昏迷患者进行相应的回顾性研究。结果该研究的64例糖尿病昏迷患者中低血糖昏迷患者为26例、糖尿病酮症酸中毒昏迷18例、糖尿病非酮症性高渗昏迷7例,糖尿病合并脑出血昏迷5例、糖尿病合并脑梗塞昏迷8例,其中1型糖尿病患者18例,其余均为2型糖尿病。1型糖尿病引起的昏迷多是由于胰岛素使用不合理引发,2型糖尿病则是由于感染诱发昏迷,可通过补糖或应用小剂量胰岛素持续性静滴、补液以及对症治疗。结论糖尿病所诱发的各种昏迷均为其急性并发症,只要做到早发现、早诊断和早治疗才能够最终实现降低死亡率的目的。%Objective to study the diabetic coma occurrence regularity and related factors, the diagnosis and treatment so as to im-prove the success rate of rescue. Methods in our hospital from February 2012-February 2014 during hospitalization and treatment of 64 patients with diabetic coma retrospective study accordingly. Results the study of 64 patients with diabetic coma of 26 pa-tients with hypoglycemic coma in 18 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis, coma, diabetes, non ketosis hypertonic coma, 7 cases of cerebral hemorrhage diabetic coma in 5 cases, diabetic coma 8 cases of cerebral infarction, including 18 patients with type 1 diabetes, the rest are type 2 diabetes. Type I diabetes caused by coma is caused by the inappropriate use of insulin, type 2 diabetes is due to infection induced coma, can be applied by carbohydrate supplement or small doses of insulin continuous static drops, rehydration and symptomatic treatment. Conclusion diabetes are induced by a variety of coma of their acute complications, as long as do early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment can achieve the purpose

  2. GIADA on-board Rosetta: comet 67P/C-G dust coma characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundi, Alessandra; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Fulle, Marco; Sordini, Roberto; Ivanovski, Stavro; Accolla, Mario; Ferrari, Marco; Lucarelli, Francesca; Zakharov, Vladimir; Mazzotta Epifani, Elena; López-Moreno, José J.; Rodríguez, Julio; Colangeli, Luigi; Palumbo, Pasquale; Bussoletti, Ezio; Crifo, Jean-Francois; Esposito, Francesca; Green, Simon F.; Grün, Eberhard; Lamy, Philippe L.

    2015-04-01

    21ESA-ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n., Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spagna GIADA consists of three subsystems: 1) the Grain Detection System (GDS) to detect dust grains as they pass through a laser curtain, 2) the Impact Sensor (IS) to measure grain momentum derived from the impact on a plate connected to five piezoelectric sensors, and 3) the MicroBalances System (MBS); five quartz crystal microbalances in roughly orthogonal directions providing the cumulative dust flux of grains smaller than 10 microns. GDS provides data on grain speed and its optical cross section. The IS grain momentum measurement, when combined with the GDS detection time, provides a direct measurement of grain speed and mass. These combined measurements characterize single grain dust dynamics in the coma of 67P/CG. No prior in situ dust dynamical measurements at these close distances from the nucleus and starting from such high heliocentric distances are available up to date. We present here the results obtained by GIADA, which began operating in continuous mode on 18 July 2014 when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 3.7 AU. The first grain detection occurred when the spacecraft was 814 km from the nucleus on 1 August 2014. From August the 1st up to December the 11th, GIADA detected more than 800 grains, for which the 3D spatial distribution was determined. About 700 out of 800 are GDS only detections: "dust clouds", i.e. slow dust grains (≈ 0.5 m/s) crossing the laser curtain very close in time (e.g. 129 grains in 11 s), probably fluffy grains. IS only detections are about 70, i.e. ≈ 1/10 of the GDS only. This ratio is quite different from what we got for the early detections (August - September) when the ration was ≈ 3, suggesting the presence of different types of particle (bigger, brighter, less dense).The combined GDS+IS detections, i.e. measured by both the GDS and IS detectors, are about 70 and allowed us to extract the

  3. Rotation and magnetic activity of the Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Kopf, M.; Weber, M.; Küker, M.; Reegen, P.; Rice, J. B.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Rowe, J. F.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The single rapidly-rotating G0 giant 31 Comae has been a puzzle because of the absence of photometric variability despite its strong chromospheric and coronal emissions. As a Hertzsprung-gap giant, it is expected to be at the stage of rearranging its moment of inertia, hence likely also its dynamo action, which could possibly be linked with its missing photospheric activity. Aims: Our aim is to detect photospheric activity, obtain the rotation period, and use it for a first Doppler image of the star's surface. Its morphology could be related to the evolutionary status. Methods: We carried out high-precision, white-light photometry with the MOST satellite, ground-based Strömgren photometry with automated telescopes, and high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy with the new STELLA robotic facility. Results: The MOST data reveal, for the first time, light variations with a full amplitude of 5 mmag and an average photometric period of 6.80 ± 0.06 days. Radial-velocity variations with a full amplitude of 270 m s-1 and a period of 6.76 ± 0.02 days were detected from our STELLA spectra, which we also interpret as due to stellar rotation. The two-year constancy of the average radial velocity of +0.10 ± 0.33 km s-1 confirms the star's single status, as well as the membership in the cluster Melotte 111. A spectrum synthesis gives Teff = 5660 ± 42 K, log g = 3.51 ± 0.09, and [Fe/H] = -0.15 ± 0.03, which together with the revised Hipparcos distance, suggests a mass of 2.6 ± 0.1 M_⊙ and an age of ≈540 Myr. The surface lithium abundance is measured to be nearly primordial. A detection of a strong He i absorption line indicates nonradiative heating processes in the atmosphere. Our Doppler images show a large, asymmetric polar spot, cooler than Teff by ≈1600 K, and several small low-to-mid latitude features that are warmer by ≈300-400 K and are possibly of chromospheric origin. We computed the convective turnover time for 31 Com as a function of depth

  4. The distribution of gas and ions in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko between 3 AU before and after its perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Lara, Luisa; La Forgia, Fiorangela; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Knollenberg, Jörg; Lazzarin, Monica; Li, Zhong-Yi; Osiris team

    2016-10-01

    Rosetta explored a regime not accessible before: the inner coma of a low-activity comet at a large range of heliocentric distances. The Wide Angle Camera (WAC) of the OSIRIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft is equipped with several narrowband filters that are centered on the emission lines and bands of various molecules and ions. These filters center on fragment species that are relatively bright and that have been used for numerous comet studies from the ground (e.g. A'Hearn et al. 1995). Surprisingly, we found that outside 2 AU pre-perihelion, the emission in the filters was dominated by emission from dissociative electron impact excitation (Bodewits et al. 2016). Closer to perihelion, higher gas densities reduced electron temperatures in the inner coma and photo-processes drove much if not most of the emission from the comet. Our observations allowed us to study changes in the physical environment of the inner coma, and Rosetta's excursions as far as 1000 km from the surface allowed us to study different regions of the coma.In this contribution, we will summarize the results of our OSIRIS observations from approximately 3 AU before to 3 AU after perihelion.

  5. Post-Coma Persons with Motor and Communication/Consciousness Impairments Choose among Environmental Stimuli and Request Stimulus Repetitions via Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether a program based on microswitch and computer technology would enable three post-coma participants (adults) with motor and communication/consciousness impairments to choose among environmental stimuli and request their repetition whenever they so desired. Within each session, 16 stimuli (12 preferred and 4 non-preferred)…

  6. CoMA: A high resolution Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) for in situ analysis of cometary matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zscheeg, Harry; Kissel, J.; Natour, G.

    1992-01-01

    A lot of clues concerning the origin of the solar system can be found by sending an exploring spacecraft to a rendezvous with a comet. The space experiment CoMA, which will measure the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of cometary dust grains is described. It will be flown on NASA's Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission.

  7. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  8. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  9. A Technology-Assisted Learning Setup as Assessment Supplement for Three Persons with a Diagnosis of Post-Coma Vegetative State and Pervasive Motor Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Bosco, Andrea; Megna, Gianfranco; De Tommaso, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Post-coma persons in an apparent condition of vegetative state and pervasive motor impairment pose serious problems in terms of assessment and intervention options. A technology-based learning assessment procedure might serve for them as a diagnostic supplement with possible implications for rehabilitation intervention. The learning assessment…

  10. Post-Coma Persons with Extensive Multiple Disabilities Use Microswitch Technology to Access Selected Stimulus Events or Operate a Radio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco; Iliceto, Carla; Damiani, Sabino; Ricci, Irene; Spica, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    The present two studies extended research evidence on the use of microswitch technology by post-coma persons with multiple disabilities. Specifically, Study I examined whether three adults with a diagnosis of minimally conscious state and multiple disabilities could use microswitches as tools to access brief, selected stimulus events. Study II…

  11. An Integrated Modeling Study for Coordinated Observations of H, O, OH, and H2O(+) Emissions in the Coma and Ion Tail of the Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    This project has two overall objectives. One objective is to advance our general understanding of both the comet neutral atmosphere and the cometary plasma in the atmosphere and ion tall. The other objective is to obtain specific key information about comet Hale-Bopp that is generally important for Hale-Bopp studies. The primary emphasis in this project is to analyze, in a self-consistent manner, excellent quality high resolution image and line profile observations obtained by the University of Wisconsin for H, O, OH, and H2O+ emissions from the inner coma, outer coma, and ion tail of Hale-Bopp. The information on the spatial and velocity distributions of H2O neutral and ionized photo-products in the inner coma, outer coma, and in the H2O+ ion tail is of substantial and direct importance in the development of an integrated understanding of the complex structure and dynamics of the neutral and plasma species in the atmosphere of Hale-Bopp in particular and comets in general. The H2O production rate of Hale-Bopp is determined and, together with the other information related to the structure and dynamics of the neutral and plasma atmospheres obtained in this study, provide critical information important for a wide variety of research conducted by other groups.

  12. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, Mark den; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijsbert; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  13. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies : scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  14. Elevated transaminases as a predictor of coma in a patient with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Shuhei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver injury is a frequent complication associated with anorexia nervosa, and steatosis of the liver is thought to be the major underlying pathology. However, acute hepatic failure with transaminase levels over 1000 IU/mL and deep coma are very rare complications and the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Case presentation A 37-year-old Japanese woman showed features of acute liver failure and hepatic coma which were not associated with hypoglycemia or hyper-ammonemia. Our patient's consciousness was significantly improved with the recovery of liver function and normalization of transaminase levels after administration of nutritional support. Conclusions Our case report demonstrates that transaminase levels had an inverse relationship with the consciousness of our patient, although the pathogenesis of coma remains largely unknown. This indicates that transaminase levels can be one of the key predictors of impending coma in patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, frequent monitoring of transaminase levels combined with rigorous treatment of the underlying nutritional deficiency and psychiatric disorder are necessary to prevent this severe complication.

  15. Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Showing Multiple Disabilities Learn to Manage a Radio-Listening Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Colonna, Fabio; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed microswitch-based technology to enable three post-coma adults, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state but presented motor and communication disabilities, to operate a radio device. The material involved a modified radio device, a microprocessor-based electronic control unit, a personal microswitch, and an amplified…

  16. Constraints on Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields, and Dark Matter from Gamma-ray Observations of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies with VERITAS and FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Perkins, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of radio halos and relics in galaxy clusters indicate efficient electron acceleration. Protons should likewise be accelerated and, on account of weak energy losses, can accumulate, suggesting that clusters may also be sources of very high energy (VHE; E greater than100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. We report here on VHE gamma-ray observations of the Coma galaxy cluster with the VERITAS array of imaging Cerenkov telescopes, with complementing Fermi Large Area Telescope observations at GeV energies. No significant gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster was detected. Integral flux upper limits at the 99 confidence level were measured to be on the order of (2-5) x 10(sup -8) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (VERITAS,greater than 220 GeV) and approximately 2 x 10(sup -6) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (Fermi, 1-3 GeV), respectively. We use the gamma-ray upper limits to constrain cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields in Coma. Using an analytical approach, the CR-to-thermal pressure ratio is constrained to be less than 16% from VERITAS data and less than 1.7% from Fermi data (averaged within the virial radius). These upper limits are starting to constrain the CR physics in self-consistent cosmological cluster simulations and cap the maximum CR acceleration efficiency at structure formation shocks to be 50. Alternatively, this may argue for non-negligible CR transport processes such as CR streaming and diffusion into the outer cluster regions. Assuming that the radio-emitting electrons of the Coma halo result from hadronic CR interactions, the observations imply a lower limit on the central magnetic field in Coma of approximately (2-5.5)microG, depending on the radial magnetic field profile and on the gamma-ray spectral index. Since these values are below those inferred by Faraday rotation measurements in Coma (for most of the parameter space), this renders the hadronic model a very plausible explanation of the Coma radio halo. Finally, since galaxy clusters are dark

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON COSMIC RAYS, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND DARK MATTER FROM GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES WITH VERITAS AND FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of radio halos and relics in galaxy clusters indicate efficient electron acceleration. Protons should likewise be accelerated and, on account of weak energy losses, can accumulate, suggesting that clusters may also be sources of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. We report here on VHE gamma-ray observations of the Coma galaxy cluster with the VERITAS array of imaging Cerenkov telescopes, with complementing Fermi Large Area Telescope observations at GeV energies. No significant gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster was detected. Integral flux upper limits at the 99% confidence level were measured to be on the order of (2-5) × 10–8 photons m –2 s –1 (VERITAS, >220 GeV) and ∼2 × 10–6 photons m –2 s –1 (Fermi, 1-3 GeV), respectively. We use the gamma-ray upper limits to constrain cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields in Coma. Using an analytical approach, the CR-to-thermal pressure ratio is constrained to be <16% from VERITAS data and <1.7% from Fermi data (averaged within the virial radius). These upper limits are starting to constrain the CR physics in self-consistent cosmological cluster simulations and cap the maximum CR acceleration efficiency at structure formation shocks to be <50%. Alternatively, this may argue for non-negligible CR transport processes such as CR streaming and diffusion into the outer cluster regions. Assuming that the radio-emitting electrons of the Coma halo result from hadronic CR interactions, the observations imply a lower limit on the central magnetic field in Coma of ∼(2-5.5) μG, depending on the radial magnetic field profile and on the gamma-ray spectral index. Since these values are below those inferred by Faraday rotation measurements in Coma (for most of the parameter space), this renders the hadronic model a very plausible explanation of the Coma radio halo. Finally, since galaxy clusters are dark matter (DM) dominated, the VERITAS upper limits have been used to place

  18. A study of the variation of physical conditions in the cometary coma based on a 3D multi-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.; Huang, Z.; Jia, X.; Bieler, A. M.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. One example is Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has been successfully adopted to simulate the coma under various complex conditions. However, for bright comets with large production rates, the time step in DSMC model has to be tiny to accommodate the small mean free path and the high collision frequency. In addition a truly time-variable 3D DSMC model would still be computationally difficult or even impossible under most circumstances. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on BATS-R-US in the University of Michigan's SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework), which can serve as a useful alternative to DSMC methods to compute both the inner and the outer coma and to treat time-variable phenomena. This model treats H2O, OH, H2, O, H and CO2 as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature. But collisional interactions can also couple all fluids together. Collisional interactions tend to decrease the velocity differences and are also able to re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species. To compute the momentum and energy transfer caused by such interactions self-consistently, collisions between fluids, whose efficiency is proportional to the densities, are included as well as heating from various chemical reactions. By applying the model to comets with different production rates (i.e. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 1P/Halley, etc.), we are able to study how the heating efficiency varies with cometocentric distances and production rates. The preliminary results and comparison are presented and discussed. This work has been partially supported by grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, and US Rosetta contracts JPL #1266313, JPL #1266314 and JPL #1286489.

  19. A new 3D multi-fluid model: a study of kinetic effects and variations of physical conditions in the cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Yinsi; Combi, Michael R.; Toth, Gabor; Huang, Zhenguang; Jia, Xianzhe; Fougere, Nicolas; Tenishev, Valeriy; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Bieler, Andre

    2016-10-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on BATS-R-US in the University of Michigan's SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework), which is capable of computing both the inner and the outer coma and simulating time-variable phenomena. It treats H2O, OH, H2, O, and H as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature, with collisions coupling all fluids together. The self-consistent collisional interactions decrease the velocity differences, re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species, and account for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions. Recognizing that the fluid approach has limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low density environment, we applied our multi-fluid coma model to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (CG) at various heliocentric distances and demonstrated that it is able to yield comparable results as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid under these conditions. Therefore, our model may be a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. In addition, by running the model with several combinations of production rates and heliocentric distances, we can characterize the cometary H2O expansion speeds and demonstrate the nonlinear effect of production rates or photochemical heating. Our results are also compared to previous modeling work (e.g., Bockelee-Morvan & Crovisier 1987) and remote observations (e.g., Tseng et al. 2007), which serve as further validation of our model. This work has been partially supported by grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, and US Rosetta

  20. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  1. NARROW DUST JETS IN A DIFFUSE GAS COMA: A NATURAL PRODUCT OF SMALL ACTIVE REGIONS ON COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M.; Rubin, M.; Fougere, N.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: mcombi@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    Comets often display narrow dust jets but more diffuse gas comae when their eccentric orbits bring them into the inner solar system and sunlight sublimates the ice on the nucleus. Comets are also understood to have one or more active areas covering only a fraction of the total surface active with sublimating volatile ices. Calculations of the gas and dust distribution from a small active area on a comet's nucleus show that as the gas moves out radially into the vacuum of space it expands tangentially, filling much of the hemisphere centered on the active region. The dust dragged by the gas remains more concentrated over the active area. This explains some puzzling appearances of comets having collimated dust jets but more diffuse gaseous atmospheres. Our test case is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta mission target comet, whose activity is dominated by a single area covering only 4% of its surface.

  2. Clinical Presentation Of The Abuse Of Insulin: Hypoglycaemic Coma And Aspiration Pneumonia In Non-Professional Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Ivica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of medications that improve the physical performance of an individual represents a very serious worldwide health problem. The abuse of these medications is increasing. Herein, we describe a patient, at the age of 20, who was hospitalized due to loss of consciousness and difficulty breathing. At admission, the patient was unconsciousness, tahi-dyspnoic, and had a pale complexion and an athletic build. In gas analyses, extremely low saturation was observed, followed by acidosis, heavy hypoxia with normocapnia, higher lactates, hypocalcaemia and severe hypoglycaemia. The patient was treated with a hypertonic solution of glucose and intubated, with the aspiration of sanious content from the respiratory tract. After treatment, the patient woke from coma but was very confused. In the first 6 hours of hospitalization, severe hypoglycaemia occurred several times, despite the continuous administration of glucose. Due to the growth of inflammatory syndrome since the first day of hospitalization, the patient was kept in the hospital for treatment along with the administration of antibiotic treatment. On the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient stated that for the last year, he had been taking testosterone at a dose of 1 g a week, as well as tamoxifen pills and 15 i.j. of fast-acting human insulin (Actrapid® daily for their combined anabolic effect. Hypoglycaemic coma, caused by the abuse of insulin, represents a severe complication in patients, which can be followed by confusion, a slowed thinking process, the weakening of cognitive functions and even death. It is necessary to invest great efforts into the prevention of the purchase of these medications via the Internet or on the black market for purposes of abuse in order to prevent such serious and life-threatening complications.

  3. Typology of dust particles collected by the COSIMA mass spectrometer in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Y.; Hilchenbach, M.; Ligier, N.; Merouane, S.; Hornung, K.; Engrand, C.; Schulz, R.; Kissel, J.; Rynö, J.; Eng, P.

    2016-06-01

    The COSIMA mass spectrometer on board the ROSETTA orbiter has collected dust in the near coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 11, 2014. The collected dust particles are identified by taking images with a microscope (COSISCOPE) under grazing incidence illumination before and after exposure of the target to cometary dust. More than 10,000 dust particles >14 μm in size collected from August 11, 2014 to April 3, 2015 have been detected on three distinct target assemblies, including ˜500 dust particles with sizes ranging from 50 to more than 500 μm, that can be resolved by COSISCOPE (pixel size 14 μm). During this period, the heliocentric distance decreased from 3.5 AU to less than 2 AU. The collection efficiency on targets covered with "metal black" has been very high, due to the low relative velocity of incoming dust. Therefore, the COSISCOPE observations provide the first optical characterization of an unbiased sample of particles collected in the inner coma of a comet. The typology of particles >100 μm in size is dominated by clusters with a wide range of structure and strength, most originating from the disruption of large aggregates (>1 mm in size) shortly before collection. A generic relationship between these clusters and IDPs/Antarctic meteorites is likely in the framework of accretion models. About 15% of particles larger than 100 μm are compact particles with two likely contributions, one being linked to clusters and another leaving the cometary nucleus as single compact particles.

  4. KINEMATICS AND EXCITATION OF THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED IONIZED GAS FILAMENTS IN THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of deep imaging and spectroscopic observations of very extended ionized gas (EIG) around four member galaxies of the Coma Cluster of galaxies: RB 199, IC 4040, GMP 2923, and GMP 3071. The EIGs were serendipitously found in an Hα narrowband imaging survey of the central region of the Coma Cluster. The relative radial velocities of the EIGs with respect to the systemic velocities of the parent galaxies from which they emanate increase almost monotonically with the distance from the nucleus of the respective galaxies, reaching ∼ – 400 to – 800 km s–1 at around 40-80 kpc from the galaxies. The one-sided morphologies and the velocity fields of the EIGs are consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of ram pressure stripping. We found a very low velocity filament (vrel ∼ –1300 km s–1) at the southeastern edge of the disk of IC 4040. Some bright compact knots in the EIGs of RB 199 and IC 4040 exhibit blue continuum and strong Hα emission. The equivalent widths of the Hα emission exceed 200 Å and are greater than 1000 Å for some knots. The emission-line intensity ratios of the knots are basically consistent with those of sub-solar abundance H II regions. These facts indicate that intensive star formation occurs in the knots. Some filaments, including the low-velocity filament of the IC 4040 EIG, exhibit shock-like emission-line spectra, suggesting that shock heating plays an important role in ionization and excitation of the EIGs.

  5. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from the Coma Cluster with Six Years of Fermi-LAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Rephaeli, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from γ-ray observations of the Coma cluster incorporating six years of Fermi-LAT data and the newly released “Pass 8” event-level analysis. Our analysis of the region reveals low-significance residual structures within the virial radius of the cluster that are too faint for a detailed investigation with the current data. Using a likelihood approach that is free of assumptions on the spectral shape we derive upper limits on the γ-ray flux that is expected from energetic particle interactions in the cluster. We also consider a benchmark spatial and spectral template motivated by models in which the observed radio halo is mostly emission by secondary electrons. In this case, the median expected and observed upper limits for the flux above 100 {MeV} are 1.7 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 and 5.2 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 respectively (the latter corresponds to residual emission at the level of 1.8σ). These bounds are comparable to or higher than predicted levels of hadronic gamma-ray emission in cosmic-ray (CR) models with or without reacceleration of secondary electrons, although direct comparisons are sensitive to assumptions regarding the origin and propagation mode of CRs and magnetic field properties. The minimal expected γ-ray flux from radio and star-forming galaxies within the Coma cluster is roughly an order of magnitude below the median sensitivity of our analysis.

  6. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. At this time, you will have a physical exam , talk about your medical history , and maybe have imaging tests . Your doctor or nurse will discuss external beam radiation therapy, its benefits and side effects, and ways you can care ...

  7. Clinical Analysis of 115 Cases Emergency Coma%115例急诊昏迷患者的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖树华; 李尚林; 李普庆; 李纯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze and summarize our department in 2011-2012 coma treatment as the main symptom diagnosis and treatment of patients in order to improve the emergency coma patients with early identification, diagnosis and timely given symptomatic treatment, to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods clinical diagnosis of the 115 cases of coma patients of Beijing Fengtai Hospital emergency department from January 2011 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results cardiac arrest in 20 cases, accounting for 17.4%, cerebral hemorrhage, 15 cases (13.0%), a large area of ??cerebral infarction, 18 cases, accounting for 15.7% of acute severe alcoholism, 18 cases, accounting for 15.7%, other causes of coma 44 cases, 38.3%. 115 patients ultimately successful rescue of 90 cases, the success rate of 78.3 percent, failed to rescue the death of 25 cases, the mortality rate of 21.7%. Conclusion coma is a common symptoms of clinical emergency department, moderate to severe coma lead to high mortality, emergency physicians must always be vigilant and the doctors need be able to quickly and accurately identify the cause of coma, fast to make a dif erential diagnosis, and to give timely and ef ective treatment, except for dif erent causes coma cause of treatment, it should also protect brain cel function, improve brain recovery success rate and reduce mortality in severe coma.%目的分析总结2011~2012年我科以昏迷为主要症状就诊患者的诊治情况,以期提高对急诊昏迷患者的早期识别,诊断并及时给予对症处理,避免漏诊误诊。方法对北京丰台医院急诊科2011年1月~2012年12月115例昏迷患者临床诊疗情况进行分析。结果心跳骤停20例,占17.4%,脑出血,15例,占13.0%,大面积脑梗塞,18例,占15.7%,急性重度酒精中毒,18例,占15.7%,其他原因导致昏迷44例,38.3%。115例患者最终抢救成功者90例,成功率78.3%,抢救失败死亡的25例,死亡率21.7%。结论昏迷是临床急诊

  8. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65 was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.Restricciones en la aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test y los cuestionamientos sobre la relación entre conciencia y amnesia post-traumática motivaron este estudio que visa identificar, a través de la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, el periodo más adecuado para la aplicación de la prueba de amnesia, y observar la relación entre los resultados de esos dos indicadores. El estudio prospectivo y longitudinal fue realizado en un centro de referencia para traumas en São Paulo - Brasil. El número fue de 73 victimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, internadas en esta institución en el periodo de 03/01 a 03/05/2001. Con relación a la aplicabilidad, la prueba puede ser aplicada en los pacientes con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow > 12, pero el término de la amnesia post-traumática fue observado en los pacientes con puntuación > 14 en la escala. Correlación significativa (rs = 0,65 fue observada entre esas

  9. Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    Reviewed are the goals and activities of the therapy services in the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program. Specific sections detail activities for speech therapy (such as diagnostic assessment, habilitation, consultation, and reporting procedures), occupational therapy (including identification and assessment, and services to children,…

  10. Current emergency therapy. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlich, R.F.; Spyker, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 50 selections. Some of the titles are: Ethanol; Hydrocarbons; Lead; Rubella and Congenital Rubella; Tachycardias; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Acute Otitis Media; and Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Coma in Adults.

  11. COMAS烘丝机整体改造与应用%Rebuilding of COMAS Cut Tobacco Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟民; 刘剑敏; 舒梦; 徐荣华

    2011-01-01

    浙江中烟工业有限责任公司下设两个生产基地,分别配备COMAS逆流式烘丝机和HAUNI顺流式烘丝机.为了克服烘丝机设备和叶丝干燥工艺差异、统一制丝生产工艺、实现不同产地产品的同质化,在对比分析了两种烘丝机工作原理和控制方式的基础上,对COMAS烘丝机进行了整体改造.内容包括:热风流向变为顺流式;风机增加变频调速功能,调节热风流量,减少能源消耗;采用HAUNI方式的热风温度与筒壁温度控制方式;在出料端安装负压传感器保持烘丝机进出风量平衡.改造后的COMAS烘丝机的热风流向、控制方式趋近于HAUNI顺流式烘丝机,各项工艺和物理指标均达到或优于改造前水平,烘丝冷却后含水率控制稳定,含水率偏差控制在0.18%以内,有效控制了干头干尾烟丝量,且减少了蒸汽消耗.%COMAS counter current cut tobacco dryer and HAUNI cocurrent cut tobacco dryer were separately used in two manufacturing facilities of China Tobacco Zhejiang Industrial Limited Corporation.In order to unify processing technology and quality of products, the working principles and control systems of the two dryers were compared and COMAS dryer was rebuilt as following; changing hot-air direction from counter current into cocurrent; adding a frequency conversion speed regulator to hot-air fan motor to adjust air volume and reduce energy consumption; the temperatures of hot-air and cylinder wall being controlled in the same way as that in HAUNI dryer; installing negative pressure sensor at output end to balance the input and output air flow.The rebuilt COMAS dryer showed better performance.The moisture content in dried cut tobacco after cooling was stable, and its deviation was under 0.18%.In addition, the amount of over-dried cut tobacco during start and finish of drying operation was effectively controlled and steam consumption was also reduced.

  12. Analysis of the Plasma-Coma of Comet P/Halley by Image Processing Techniques of Bochum's Photoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    1996-10-01

    Photographic and photoelectric observations of comet P/Halley's ion gas coma from CO+ at 4250A were part of the Bochum Halley Monitoring Program, conducted from 1986 February 17, to April 17 at the European Southern Observatory on La Silla (Chile). In this spectral range it is possible to watch the continuous formation, motion and expansion of plasma structures. To observe the morphology of these structures 32 CO$^+$ photos (glass plates) from P/Halley's comet have been analysed. They have a field of view of 28 degrees 6 X 28 degrees 6 and were obtained from 1986 March 29, to April 17 with exposure times between 20 and 120 minutes. All photos were digitized with a PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) microdensitometer at the Astronomisches Institut der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat in Munster (one pixel = 25 microns X 25 microns approximately 46 arcsec 88 X 46 arcsec 88). After digitization the data were reduced to relative intensities, and the part with proper calibrations were also converted to absolute intensities, expressed in terms of column densities using the image data systems MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) and IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). With the help of the Stellingwerf-Theta-Minimum-Method (Stellingwerf, 1978) a period of (2.22 +/- 0.09) days results from analysis of structures in the plasma-coma by subtracting subsequent images. The idea behind subtracting subsequent images is that rotation effects are only 10% phenomena on gas distribution. Difference images are than used to supress the static component of the gas cloud. The CO+ column density data (in molecules cm^-2) were compared with the data of CN column density from Schulz (1990) in all common days. The results show that the relations between CO+ and CN in average column density values (N_CO^+ /N_CN) are 11.6 for a circular slit with average diameter (Phi) of 6 arcminute 1 which corresponds to a distance from the

  13. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI

    OpenAIRE

    Mańko, Grzegorz; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; Kłosiński, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected ...

  14. Measurements of the Near-Nucleus Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alice Far-Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Rosetta

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Paul D; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Feaga, Lori M; Parker, Joel Wm; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew J; Stern, S Alan; Weaver, Harold A; Sierks, Holger; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The Alice far-ultraviolet spectrograph onboard Rosetta is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko and to determine their spatial distribution and evolution with time and heliocentric distance. Methods. Following orbit insertion in August 2014, Alice made observations of the inner coma above the limbs of the nucleus of the comet from cometocentric distances varying between 10 and 80 km. Depending on the position and orientation of the slit relative to the nucleus, emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen were initially detected. These emissions are spatially localized close to the nucleus and spatially variable with a strong enhancement above the comet's neck at northern latitudes. Weaker emission from atomic carbon and CO were subsequently detected. Results. Analysis of the relative line intensities suggests photoelectron impact dissociation of H2O vapor as the source of the observed H I and O I emissions. The electr...

  15. PIA, PUMA, CoMA, CIDA, COSIMA: steps on the way to the in-situ analysis of cometary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    In the early 1980ies a mission to intercept Halley's comet was announced. The Heidelberg dust group had started to develop a mass spectrometer for ions formed after the impact of a dust particle on a solid target. The design as a reflectron allowed a mass resolution of unity for atomic ions in the range 1 - 140 Da. Flown on 3 missions, as PIA on GIOTTO and as PUMA on VeGa 1+2, it was the first ever to return mass spectra of cometary dust particles. Due to the high impact speeds of 68 and 80 km/s, respectively, mostly atomic ions were registered and consequently neither detailed mineral composition nor the organic chemistry could be identified. It was, however, possible to show the intimate mixture of the organic and mineral components of each of the dust particles only a few microns in size. We found hints for a `light carbon' component, could identify chemical classes in the inorganic component, and signals pointing to the existence of very small <100 nm sized dust in Halley's atmosphere. After this initial opportunity a new mission, CRAF, came up, attempting a rendezvous with a comet nucleus. For this mission, the instrument CoMA, a time-of-flight secondaryion- mass-spectrometer was developed, for which we achieved a mass resolution of m/Δm ≈ 8000 @ m=120, using a pulsed 115In liquid metal ion source. Unfortunately the project was cancelled, before results could be obtained. Shortly after, an enlarged version of the PIA instrument was introduced into the STARDUST S/C to comet Wild-2. For the first time we measured also negative ions from dust impacts, and could identify quinone derivatives, a biologically important chemical compound class, in interstellar dust grains. The spectra of cometary grains were too complex for a detailed analysis due to the relatively low impact speed of 6.2 km/s. A twin instrument was flown on the CONTOUR spacecraft, which unfortunately exploded after launch. The last of the current steps is COSIMA, a modified CoMA instrument, for

  16. Investigating the correlations between water coma emissions and active regions in comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Érard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cedric; Combi, Michael R.; Fougere, Nicolas; Rinaldi, Giovanna; VIRTIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Vibrational emission lines of H2O and CO2 at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were identified by the VIRTIS spectrometer (Bockelée-Morvan et al., 2015; Migliorini et al., 2016; Fink et al., 2016) and mapped from the surface up to about 10 km altitude with a spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters per pixel (Migliorini et al., 2016).Data acquired in April 2015 with the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission, provided information on the possible correlation between the H2O emission in the inner coma and the exposed water deposits detected in the Hapi region on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface (Migliorini et al., 2106; De Sanctis et al., 2015). Further bright spots attributed to exposed water ice have been identified in other regions by OSIRIS at visible wavelengths (Pommerol, et al., 2015) and confirmed in the infrared by VIRTIS-M in the Imothep region (Filacchione et al., 2016). The small dimensions of these icy spots - approximately 100x100 m (Filacchione et al., 2016) – and the relatively small amount of water ice (about 5%) make uncertain the correlation with the strong emissions in the coma.However, VIRTIS data show that the distribution of jet-like emissions seems to follow the distribution of cliffs and exposed areas identified in the North hemisphere with OSIRIS camera (Vincent et al., 2015). These areas are mainly concentrated in correspondence of comet's rough terrains, while a lack of active regions is observed in the comet's neck. Nevertheless, strong H2O emission is observed above the neck with VIRTIS. This might be a consequence of gas jets that are originated in the surrounding of the neck but converging towards the neck itself. This gaseous activity is the main driver of the dust upwelling (Migliorini et al, 2016; Rinaldi et al., in preparation)In this paper, we investigate the relationship between H2O vapour observed with VIRTIS within 5 km from the 67P/C-G nucleus and the exposed regions identified by OSIRIS on the

  17. Water and carbon dioxide distribution in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma from VIRTIS-M infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, A.; Piccioni, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Crovisier, J.; Taylor, F. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Grassi, D.; Rinaldi, G.; Tozzi, G. P.; Fink, U.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Studying the coma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is one of the primary scientific goals of the VIRTIS experiment on the ESA Rosetta mission. Aims: The distribution and variability of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the comet's coma are needed to estimate their production rate, abundances in the nucleus, and the spatial distribution of the active regions. Methods: Infrared emission lines from vibrational bands of water and carbon dioxide at 2.67 and 4.27 μm, respectively, were observed by the VIRTIS-M imaging channel and mapped from close to the nucleus up to ~10 km altitude with a resolution of ~40 m/px. A dataset consisting of 74 observations in the 1-5 μm spectral range acquired from 8 to 14 April 2015 when 67P was at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU is analysed in this work. A statistical correlation between the gas distribution and the surface's active regions was performed. Results: The maximum H2O emission is observed within 3 km from the nucleus and is mainly concentrated above two active regions, Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi, while the CO2 distribution appears more uniform with significant emissions coming from both the "head" and southern latitude regions. In the equatorial region, the column densities of both species decrease with altitude, although CO2 decreases more rapidly than H2O. The calculated CO2/H2O column density ratios above Aten-Babi and Seth-Hapi are 2.4 ± 0.6% and 3.0 ± 0.7%, respectively. A value equal to 3.9 ± 1.0% is observed at equatorial latitudes in the region encompassing Imothep. Conclusions: VIRTIS-M has mapped the distribution of water vapour and carbon dioxide around the nucleus of 67P with unprecedented spatial resolution. The different water and carbon dioxide outgassing above the surface, seen in the VIRTIS-M data, might be indicative of a different thermal history of the northern and southern hemispheres of 67P.

  18. Probing the origin of giant radio haloes through radio and γ-ray data: the case of the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, G.; Blasi, P.; Reimer, O.; Rudnick, L.; Bonafede, A.; Brown, S.

    2012-10-01

    We combine for the first time all available information about the spectral shape and morphology of the radio halo of the Coma cluster with the recent γ-ray upper limits obtained by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and with the magnetic field strength derived from Faraday rotation measures. We explore the possibility that the radio emission is due to synchrotron emission of secondary electrons. First, we investigate the case of pure secondary models that are merely based on the mechanism of continuous injection of secondary electrons via proton-proton collisions in the intracluster medium. We use the observed spatial distribution of the halo's radio brightness to constrain the amount of cosmic ray protons and their spatial distribution in the cluster that are required by the model. Under the canonical assumption that the spectrum of cosmic rays is a power law in momentum and that the spectrum of secondaries is stationary, we find that the combination of the steep spectrum of cosmic ray protons necessary to explain the spectrum of the halo and the very broad spatial distribution (and large energy density) of cosmic rays result in a γ-ray emission in excess of present limits, unless the cluster magnetic field is relatively large. However, this large magnetic field required to not violate present γ-ray limits appears inconsistent with that derived from recent Faraday rotation measures. Secondly, we investigate more complex models in which the cosmic rays confined diffusively in the Coma cluster and their secondary electrons are all reaccelerated by magnetohydrodynamics turbulence. We show that under these conditions it is possible to explain the radio spectrum and morphology of the radio halo and to predict γ-ray fluxes in agreement with the Fermi-LAT upper limits without tension with present constraints on the cluster magnetic field. Reacceleration of secondary particles also requires a very broad cosmic ray spatial profile, much flatter than that of the

  19. Coma blisters after poisoning caused by central nervous system depressants: case report including histopathological findings Bolhas do coma pós-intoxicação por depressores do sistema nervoso central: relato de caso incluindo achados histopatológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Migliari Branco; Eduardo Mello De Capitani; Maria Letícia Cintra; Stephen Hyslop; Adriana Camargo Carvalho; Fabio Bucaretchi

    2012-01-01

    Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis is a cutaneous manifestation associated with states of impaired consciousness, most frequently reported after overdoses of central nervous system depressants, particularly phenobarbital. The case of a 45-year-old woman who developed "coma blisters" at six distinct anatomic sites after confirmed (laboratory) phenobarbital poisoning, associated with other central nervous system depressants (clonazepam, promethazine, oxcarbazepine and quetiapine...

  20. Figura de los facilitadores en los Cursos Online Masivos y Abiertos (COMA / MOOC): nuevo rol profesional para los entornos educativos en abierto = The figure of the facilitators in the Mass and Open Online Courses (COMA /MOOC): new professional role for o

    OpenAIRE

    Marauri Martínez de Rituerto, Pedro María

    2014-01-01

    Estamos asistiendo a la aparición de nuevos roles profesionales en los Cursos Online Masivos y Abiertos (COMA), que intentan mitigar, de alguna manera, la ausencia de atención tutorial personalizada existente en los cursos en línea a distancia tradicio