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Sample records for barbiturate coma therapy

  1. Refractory hypokalemia during barbiturate coma therapy used for treating refractory intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    WAN HASSAN, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin; Najid, Nazuha Mohd; Muslim, Halimatun Sa’adiah; Izaini Ghani, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) is a choice treatment for refractory intracranial hypertension after all surgical or medical managements have failed to control the intracranial pressure (ICP). It helps to reduce cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and ICP. However, this therapy can also cause many complications. One of the underreported, but life-threatening complications is refractory hypokalemia, which can lead to subsequent rebound hyperkalemia after sudden ce...

  2. Eclamptic coma. New algorithm of intensive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    I.Kh. Khapiy; Yu.S. Podolskiy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to increase effectiveness of treatment of patients in eclamptic coma. Current algorithm of intensive therapy corresponds to coma states methodology treatment of metabolic genesis accepted in neurological and neurosurgical practice. The main principal of intensive therapy tactics has been to restore volemic figures and perfusion-metabolic balance of brains. Decrease of mean arterial pressure (5-10% from the initial one) which defines the central perfusion pressure h...

  3. Decrease in white blood cell counts after thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension: A common complication

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Yi Ng; Ki Jinn Chin; Tong Kiat Kwek

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leucopenia has been reported after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. However, the incidence and characterisitics are not well described. Aims: We performed a retrospective review to describe the incidence and characteristics of leucopenia after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy. Setting and Design: Our centre is a national referral centre for neurotrauma and surgery in a tertiary medical institution. Materials and Met...

  4. Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as breathing and circulation remain relatively intact. Spontaneous movements may occur, and the eyes may open ... Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Coma/Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery Association, ...

  5. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  6. Interactions of Enolizable Barbiturate Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Alexander; Schreiter, Katja; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Spange, Stefan

    2016-04-11

    The specific barbituric acid dyes 1-n-butyl-5-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl) barbituric acid and 1-n-butyl-5-{4-[(1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-(3 H)-ylidene)methyl]phenyl}barbituric acid were used to study complex formation with nucleobase derivatives and related model compounds. The enol form of both compounds shows a strong bathochromic shift of the UV/Vis absorption band compared to the rarely coloured keto form. The keto-enol equilibria of the five studied dyes are strongly dependent on the properties of the environment as shown by solvatochromic studies in ionic liquids and a set of organic solvents. Enol form development of the barbituric acid dyes is also associated with alteration of the hydrogen bonding pattern from the ADA to the DDA type (A=hydrogen bond acceptor site, D=donor site). Receptor-induced altering of ADA towards DDA hydrogen bonding patterns of the chromophores are utilised to study supramolecular complex formation. As complementary receptors 9-ethyladenine, 1-n-butylcytosine, 1-n-butylthymine, 9-ethylguanidine and 2,6-diacetamidopiridine were used. The UV/Vis spectroscopic response of acid-base reaction compared to supramolecular complex formation is evaluated by (1) H NMR titration experiments and X-ray crystal structure analyses. An increased acidity of the barbituric acid derivative promotes genuine salt formation. In contrast, supramolecular complex formation is preferred for the weaker acidic barbituric acid. PMID:26945529

  7. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou J; Ju W; Yuan X; Zhu X; Wang D; He X

    2014-01-01

    Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC) is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58...

  8. Myxoedema coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Laursen, Adam Hoegsbro; Reiter, Nanna;

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to department of emergency medicine at a tertiary referral hospital due to dizziness and fatigue. Clinical features on admission were non-pitting oedema, dry skin, very sparse hair, a hoarse voice, hypothermia (rectal temperature 28.7°C), macroglossia, sinus bradyca...... patient with myxoedema coma with severe hypothermia and cardiac involvement with development of multiorgan dysfunction all linked to the severe depletion of triiodothyronine....

  9. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment

  10. Primary study on median nerve stimulation therapy in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by head traumas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of median nerve stimulation in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas and the possible mechanism of its hastening awakening from coma. Methods: 30 unconscious patients with severe brain traumas were randomly assigned to the treated group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). The patients in the control group were treated routinely. Besides routine therapy the patients in the treated group were treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. As the treated group were treated with initial stimulation, SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after 30 minutes' median nerve electrical stimulation under the same condition. The changes of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of lesion spot of brain were compared and analysed with visual method and semi-quantitative method in BFCK% mathematical model. A week after stimulation authors assess the therapeutic effect in the two groups with GCS scores. Results: The patients in the treated group's rCBF of the lesion spot increased significantly after stimulation. A week later the patients in the treated group had improved by average of 4.8 on the GCS in contrast to 2.0 on the GCS in the control group which showed that the GCS scores of the two groups had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The median nerve electrical stimulation can improve the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas. The increase of rCBF of lesion spot of brain can be one of mechanisms of its hastening awakening from coma

  11. Myxedema coma leading to respiratory depression in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kathryn; Aubert, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    A 10-year-old, intact male, cocker spaniel was presented with hypothermia, without shivering, and progressive stupor leading to coma. Myxedema coma, potentially precipitated by diuretic therapy, was tentatively diagnosed and treatment initiated, but progressive respiratory depression led to the decision to euthanize. Postmortem findings supported the diagnosis of myxedema coma.

  12. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Feng; Ying-jun Zhong; Liang Wang; Tian-qi Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In additio...

  13. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats:mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Feng; Ying-jun Zhong; Liang Wang; Tian-qi Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually in-creased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our ifndings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the pre-frontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  14. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our findings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the prefrontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  15. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  16. Colorimetric barbiturate sensing with hybrid spin crossover assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael C; Liew, Erica; Hooley, Richard J

    2014-05-21

    Spin crossover complexes based on either iron(II) or iron(III) give a colorimetric response upon self-assembly with barbituric acids. They can be used as visible sensors for these narcotics, selectively detecting barbiturates in the presence of other biologically-relevant hydrogen bonding species. PMID:24715100

  17. What Is a Coma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is a Coma? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is ...

  18. Stupor and Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immediately given intravenously. Giving glucose often results in instant recovery if the coma is caused by a ... the bladder to drain urine. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Sidebar ...

  19. Polyarticular heterotopic ossification complicating drug induced coma

    OpenAIRE

    G.D. Sebastiani; S. Antonelli

    2011-01-01

    The Authors describe a case of generalised heterotopic ossification (HO) complicating the course of a 31 years old male patient, with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a of long staying in an intensive care unit, where he had been placed on artificial coma. The clinical features, as well as radiological findings and therapy, are discussed.

  20. Polyarticular heterotopic ossification complicating drug induced coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Sebastiani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe a case of generalised heterotopic ossification (HO complicating the course of a 31 years old male patient, with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a of long staying in an intensive care unit, where he had been placed on artificial coma. The clinical features, as well as radiological findings and therapy, are discussed.

  1. Electrochemical study of iodide in the presence of barbituric acid. Application to the catalytic determination of barbituric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical oxidation of iodide has been studied in the presence of barbituric acid using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate that barbituric acid participating in halogenation reaction convert to iodo derivative of parent compound. Moreover the results are indication of the suitability of iodide as mediator for determination of barbituric acid in aqueous solutions. The quasicatalytic peak current is linearly dependent on the barbituric acid concentration. The calibration graph is parabolic, with two linear sections of 6.0 x 10-5 - 1.0 x 10-3 M and 1.0 x 10-3 - 1.0 x 10-2 M. The relative standard deviation for 10 determinations of 2.0 x 10-4 M barbituric acid is 2.1 % and the detection limit of the method is 3.97 x 10-5 M

  2. Electronic structure and biological activity: Barbiturates vs. thiobarbiturates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor; Kovač, Branka

    2010-06-01

    The electronic structure of the derivatives of thiobarbituric acid: 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid ( I) and 1,3-dibutyl-2-thiobarbituric acid ( II) has been investigated by HeI and HeII UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and quantum chemical calculations. We discuss their electronic structures and compare them with barbituric acid. We also relate the difference in electronic structure between barbituric and thiobarbituric acids to difference in biological activity of their derivatives.

  3. Simultaneous detection of morphine and barbiturates in urine by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a radioimmunoassay for the simultaneous detection of morphine and barbiturates. Morphine and barbiturate antibodies, obtained from goats, were mixed with 125I-labeled antigens. By adjusting concentrations of the morphine and barbiturate antibodies and radiolabeled antigens, closely superimposed standard curves for the two drugs would be obtained. As a consequence, similar response curves were obtained for urine specimens containing morphine or barbiturates. Although concentrations as low as 25 μg/liter could be measured, to ensure against false positive reactions the test should be performed at the 100 μg/liter concentration. Unknown samples positive by the dual assay were confirmed by separately testing the specimens with the individual radioimmunoassay specific for morphine or barbiturate. Equivalency tests of urines positive for morphine, positive for barbiturates, or negative for both demonstrated complete correlation between the single and dual assays. The mixed reagent retained its sensitivity and specificity for at least three months when stored at 4 or 250C. The dual radioimmunoassay is a rapid, simple procedure that can be adapted to automated processes and that is suitable for large- and small-scale screening

  4. Hyperammonemic Coma in an Adult due to Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Daniel L.; Galbreath, David A.; Patel, Bhavesh M; Ingall, Timothy J.; Amer Khatib; Johnson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report an unusual cause of coma in an adult. Design. Case report. Setting. University teaching hospital. Patient. A previously healthy 53-year-old man initially presented with altered mental status and progressed to coma. He was found to be substantially hyperammonemic and did not improve with lactulose therapy and continuous venovenous hemodialysis. Results. Biochemical testing revealed previously undiagnosed ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and the patient responded to a...

  5. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Alonso Cortizo Hernández; Maribel Misas Menéndez; Zenia Lisset Hernández Millán; Diosdania Alfonso Falcón; Tania Pérez Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management. It has been defined as acute alteration of wakefulness state, in which patients have a primitive response (or no response at all) to nociceptive stimulus without waking up and could reach the total absence of all reflex. This document includes a review and update of the main clinical aspects, concepts, aetiology and therapy for this condition. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  6. Capturing the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1, as seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft on June 21, 2005. It was taken using the clear filter of the spacecraft's medium resolution imager camera. The spacecraft was 11,564,081.7 kilometers (7,185,920 miles) away from the comet. Twelve images were combined together, and a logarithmic stretch was applied to enhance the coma of the comet.

  7. Neuroimaging after coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tshibanda, Luaba; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boly, Mélanie; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain...

  8. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  9. ROLE OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE IN PEDIATRIC NON - TRAUMATIC COMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute non - traumatic coma is a common problem in pediatric practice accounting for 10 - 15% of all hospital admission and is associated with significant morality. Assessment of the severity of coma is essential to comment on the likelihood of survival in comatose children. OBJECTIVES: To assess outcome in pediatric non - traumatic coma with role of Glasgo w Coma Scale and Modified Glasgow Coma Scale. METHODS: 30 cases of non - traumatic coma between 2 months to 12 years , coma severity were assessed by using Glasgow Coma Scale and Modified Glasgow Coma Scale. A score of less than 8 and more than 8 were used for analysis of outcome. RESULTS: Out of 30 Cases , 5 cases expired (16.66% , 2 cases were discharged against medical advice (6.67% , 23 cases improved and discharged , among these , 3 cases were discharged with complication (76.67%. Overall mortality was (16.66 % (5/30 , males outnumbered females in frequency with ratio of 1.41:1. CNS infection accounted for almost about 75% . CONCLUSION: Children with GCS and MGCS scores of less than 8 have poor prognosis and very high probability of death. Those with GSC score of more than 8 have good prognosis. Identification of these cases at the outset can help prepare of outcome to the family.

  10. Effect of arousal methods for 175 cases of prolonged coma and its factors after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江基尧; 包映晖; 殷玉华; 潘耀华; 梁玉敏; 罗其中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of arousal methods for prolonged coma of 175 patients with severe traumatic brain injury and related factors.Methods: There were 175 cases with persistent coma longer than 1 month after severe traumatic brain injury. Coma lasted 1-12 months. Arousal procedures included hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy and arousal drugs. Results: In the 175 prolonged coma patients 110 got recovery of consciousness; in 118 cases with coma of 1-3 months, 86 cases recovered consciousness (72.9%); in 42 cases with coma of 4-6 months, 20 cases recovered consciousness (47.6);and in 15 cases with coma of longer than 6 months, only 4 cases recovered consciousness (26.7%). The recovery of consciousness depended on patient's primary brain stem damagme, cerebral hernia, GCS score, and age .Conclusions: Application of appropriate arousal procedures improves recovery of consciousness in patients with prolonged coma.

  11. Gamma irradiation study on barbituric acid and its phosphorus trimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus tri barbiturate was synthesized from barbituric acid and structure was substantiated on the basis of microanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. The reactant and product were irradiated by gamma-rays and the ultraviolet measurements taken before and after irradiation were discussed. The effect of dose rate on UV absorption was found to be insignificant. The PH values were also measured before and after irradiation and the variation was correlated with the UV shifts at various concentrations of the aqueous solution of the compound. The results suggested, that the possible radiolysis decomposition site in the product is the carbon-phosphorus bond. The thermal analysis results were also studied

  12. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  13. How to encounter the child in coma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Aelami; Sepideh Bagheri; Seyed Morteza Rasti Sani

    2014-01-01

    Non-traumatic coma is a medical emergency and should be evaluated as soon as possible. Pediatric coma is more serious because of patient’s capacity of pathological stressor tolerance is limited especially in neonates. Several etiologies could be listed for loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma in childhood. According to the epidemiological studies, causes of coma are different all around the world. Glasgow Coma Scale has been used for coma scaling. In this review, we focused on some highlight ...

  14. Coma scales: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Bordini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS, the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness, as well as other scales that have had less impact and are rarely used outside their country of origin. DISCUSSION: Of the five main scales, the GCS is by far the most widely used. It is easy to apply and very suitable for cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, it has shortcomings, such as the fact that the speech component in intubated patients cannot be tested. While the Jouvet scale is quite sensitive, particularly for levels of consciousness closer to normal levels, it is difficult to use. The Moscow scale has good predictive value but is little used by the medical community. The FOUR score is easy to apply and provides more neurological details than the Glasgow scale.

  15. Coma in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonovska Joveva, Elena; Arsovska, Anita; Karakolevska Ilova, Marija; Petrovski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Coma is a state of unconscions which lasts more then six hours , when the pacient can not wake up , does notrespont normal to the painful stimuli, light, sound , does not have normal cyc;e of sleep - wakefulness and not initiate volunatary movment. Glazgov coma score estimated degree og disturbance of conscionsness. Score of 3-8 indicates comatous condition.

  16. Identifying Barbiturate Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with [3H]Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital, a Photoreactive Barbiturate

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Chiara, David C.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    At concentrations that produce anesthesia, many barbituric acid derivatives act as positive allosteric modulators of inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibitors of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research on [3H]R-mTFD-MPAB ([3H]R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyldiazirinylphenyl)barbituric acid), a photoreactive barbiturate that is a potent and stereoselective anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has identified a second class of intersubunit binding si...

  17. Comparative Actions of Barbiturates Studied by Pollen Grain Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordan, Herbert A.; Mumford, Pauline M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple experimental system whereby the comparative actions of long, medium, and short-acting barbiturates can be demonstrated in a relatively short period of time under optical microscopy using pollen grains as the biological test or assay system. (Author/HM)

  18. Neuroimaging after coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  19. Neuroimaging after coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshibanda, Luaba [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Noirhomme, Quentin [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium); Moonen, Gustave [University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging after coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibanda, Luaba; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boly, Mélanie; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both "activation" and "resting state" conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. PMID:19862509

  1. How to encounter the child in coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Aelami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic coma is a medical emergency and should be evaluated as soon as possible. Pediatric coma is more serious because of patient’s capacity of pathological stressor tolerance is limited especially in neonates. Several etiologies could be listed for loss of consciousness (LOC and coma in childhood. According to the epidemiological studies, causes of coma are different all around the world. Glasgow Coma Scale has been used for coma scaling. In this review, we focused on some highlight causes of coma in pediatric medicine.

  2. Barbituric and thiobarbituric acids: a conformational and spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, Felice; Buemi, Giuseppe; Gandolfo, Concetta; Contino, Annalinda

    2003-01-01

    A conformational study on Barbituric (BA) and Thiobarbituric (TBA) acids was performed at ab initio MP2/6-31G** level on the neutral, protonated, mono- and di-anionic forms. Acid-base equilibria were studied by comparing the electronic transitions evaluated for the most stable conformations and the experimental spectra at different pH values. The electronic transitions were obtained through the ZINDO approach.

  3. Two polymorphs and the diethylammonium salt of the barbiturate eldoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbrich, Thomas; Rossi, Denise; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2012-02-01

    Polymorph (Ia) of eldoral [5-ethyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)barbituric acid or 5-ethyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione], C(11)H(17)N(3)O(3), displays a hydrogen-bonded layer structure parallel to (100). The piperidine N atom and the barbiturate carbonyl group in the 2-position are utilized in N-H···N and N-H···O=C hydrogen bonds, respectively. The structure of polymorph (Ib) contains pseudosymmetry elements. The two independent molecules of (Ib) are connected via N-H···O=C(4/6-position) and N-H···N(piperidine) hydrogen bonds to give a chain structure in the [100] direction. The hydrogen-bonded layers, parallel to (010), formed in the salt diethylammonium 5-ethyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)barbiturate [or diethylammonium 5-ethyl-2,4,6-trioxo-5-(piperidin-1-yl)-1,3-diazinan-1-ide], C(4)H(12)N(+)·C(11)H(16)N(3)O(3)(-), (II), closely resemble the corresponding hydrogen-bonded structure in polymorph (Ia). Like many other 5,5-disubstituted derivatives of barbituric acid, polymorphs (Ia) and (Ib) contain the R(2)(2)(8) N-H···O=C hydrogen-bond motif. However, the overall hydrogen-bonded chain and layer structures of (Ia) and (Ib) are unique because of the involvement of the hydrogen-bond acceptor function in the piperidine group. PMID:22307256

  4. Application of thermoresponsive HPLC to forensic toxicology: determination of barbiturates in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Sanae; Watanabe, Kanako; Hirano, Seishiro; Yamagishi, Itaru; Gonmori, Kunio; Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the assays of five barbiturates in human urine using a new thermoresponsive polymer separation column, which is composed of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer. According to elevating the column temperature from 10 ℃ to 50 ℃, five barbiturates, such as metharbital, primidone, phenobarbital, mephobarbital and pentobarbital, became well separated by this method. Five barbiturates showed good linearity in the range of 0.2-10...

  5. PPL catalyzed four-component PASE synthesis of 5-monosubstituted barbiturates: Structure and pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, Manisha; Bora, Pranjal P; Verma, Alakesh K; Baruah, Reshita; Boruah, Hari Prasanna Deka; Bez, Ghanashyam

    2015-12-15

    Enzymatic four-component reactions are very rare although three-component enzymatic promiscuous reactions are widely reported. Herein, we report an efficient PASE protocol for the synthesis of potentially lipophilic zwitterionic 5-monosubstituted barbiturates by four component reaction of mixture of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, aldehyde and barbituric acid in ethanol at room temperature. Seven different lipases were screened for their promiscuous activity towards the synthesis of 5-monosubstituted barbiturates and the lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) found to give optimum efficiency. The zwitterionic 5-monosubstituted barbiturates with pyrazolyl ring showed promising pharmacological activity upon screening for antibacterial and apoptotic properties. PMID:26546212

  6. UCDs in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Marzke, Ronald O; Phillipps, Steven; Price, James; Peng, Eric W; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2010-01-01

    As part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we have undertaken a Keck/LRIS spectroscopic campaign to determine membership for faint dwarf galaxies. In the process, we discovered a population of Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the core region of the Coma cluster. At the distance of Coma, UCDs are expected to have angular sizes 0.01 < R_e < 0.2 arcsec. With ACS imaging, we can resolve all but the smallest ones with careful fitting. Candidate UCDs were chosen based on magnitude, color, and degree of resolution. We spectroscopically confirm 27 objects as bona fide UCD members of the Coma cluster, a 60% success rate for objects targeted with M_R < -12. We attribute the high success rate in part to the high resolution of HST data and to an apparent large population of UCDs in Coma. We find that the UCDs tend to be strongly clustered around giant galaxies, at least in the core region of the cluster, and have a distribution and colors that are similar to globular clusters. These findings sugg...

  7. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with ... tests that help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means ...

  8. Imaging in the diagnosis of coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging has become one of the main methods to diagnose and monitor coma. CT is the technique of choice in the exploration of traumatic coma or spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, but MRI is better than CT to explore comas of ischaemic, infective, tumoral or toxic origin, as it provides earlier and more precise images

  9. Benzothiazole incorporated barbituric acid derivatives: synthesis and anticonvulsant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahsan, Waquar

    2009-08-01

    A series of 1-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted phenyl)hexahydro-2,4,6-pyrimidinetriones 4a-t were synthesized starting from substituted anilines. These compounds contained two active anticonvulsant pharmacophores, benzothiazole and barbituric acid. Structures of the compounds were confirmed on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds were evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. Three compounds 4c, 4d, and 4s showed promising anticonvulsant activities in Maximal Electroshock Seizure test (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole test (scPTZ). They also displayed a wide safety profile when tested for the minimal motor impairment test. PMID:19565603

  10. The synthesis of barbituric acid and some of its derivatives isotopically labelled with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Barbituric acid is the parent compound of a large class of barbiturates that have central nervous system depressant properties, although barbituric acid itself is not pharmacologically active. In recent years, barbituric acid derivatives have been studied as antitumor, anticancer and anti-osteoporosis agents. The aim of this paper is to present the synthesis of barbituric acid-15N, 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid-15N (Veronal-15N) and 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid- 15N (Phenobarbitone-15N) . As isotopically labelled material we used urea-15N2, 99 at.% 15N produced at National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All compounds were fully characterized by Mass Spectrometry analyses, by FT-IR Spectroscopy and RX Diffraction, and the isotopic label was determined by MS on the molecular compounds. (author)

  11. 13C hyperpolarization of a barbituric acid derivative via parahydrogen induced polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Meike; Koch, Achim; Kindervater, Petra; Bargon, Joachim; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Münnemann, Kerstin

    2010-05-01

    Significant 13C NMR signal enhancement by a factor of 5000 of a barbituric acid derivative (5-methyl-5-propenyl-barbituric acid) via parahydrogen induced polarization is presented. This hyperpolarization is achieved by hydrogenating 5-methyl-5-propargyl-barbituric acid with 98% enriched para-H 2 under elevated temperature and pressure and transferring the initially created 1H hyperpolarization with an INEPT-derived pulse sequence to 13C. The polarization can be selectively transferred to different carbons in the barbituric acid derivative by applying different pulse delays in the INEPT pulse sequence. These results demonstrate the potential of using hyperpolarized barbituric acid derivatives as " active" contrast agents in MRI and visualizing their pharmacokinetics in vivo.

  12. (13)C hyperpolarization of a barbituric acid derivative via parahydrogen induced polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Meike; Koch, Achim; Kindervater, Petra; Bargon, Joachim; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Münnemann, Kerstin

    2010-05-01

    Significant (13)C NMR signal enhancement by a factor of 5000 of a barbituric acid derivative (5-methyl-5-propenyl-barbituric acid) via parahydrogen induced polarization is presented. This hyperpolarization is achieved by hydrogenating 5-methyl-5-propargyl-barbituric acid with 98% enriched para-H(2) under elevated temperature and pressure and transferring the initially created (1)H hyperpolarization with an INEPT-derived pulse sequence to (13)C. The polarization can be selectively transferred to different carbons in the barbituric acid derivative by applying different pulse delays in the INEPT pulse sequence. These results demonstrate the potential of using hyperpolarized barbituric acid derivatives as "active" contrast agents in MRI and visualizing their pharmacokinetics in vivo. PMID:20207180

  13. Synthesis of cyclic bis- and trismelamine derivatives and their complexation properties with barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Sakuno, Yuichi; Takezawa, Yoko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Unno, Masafumi; Yano, Yumihiko

    2007-03-21

    Cyclic bis- and trismelamine derivatives were prepared from cyanuric chloride by stepwise substitutions with appropriate amines. The complexation abilities of these melamine derivatives with barbituric acid derivatives were evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy and (1)H NMR. The structure was also confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Both the acyclic and the cyclic bismelamine derivatives formed a 1 : 1 complex via six hydrogen bonds with barbituric acid derivatives. van't Hoff analyses on the complexation of the bismelamines with the barbituric acid derivative revealed that the complexation of the cyclic bismelamine was entropically favored and enthalpically less favored process than those of the acyclic bismelamine. X-Ray crystallographic analysis and (1)H NMR studies revealed that the cyclic trismelamine bound one barbituric acid derivative into the cavity via six hydrogen bonds by two melamine moieties and another barbituric acid via three hydrogen bonds by the residual melamine moiety. PMID:17340006

  14. Determination of the rate constants of the reactions CO2+OH- -> HCO3- and barbituric acid -> barbiturate anion -> H- using the pulse radiolyse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the reactions of CO2 + OH --> HCO3- (i) and barbituric acid -> barbiturate anion + H+ (ii) have been remeasured using as a new approach the pulse radiolysis technique with optical and conductivity detection. The rate constants obtained in the present study, ksub(j) (210C) = 6900 +- 700 M-1 s-1 and ksub(II) (190C) = 22 +- 2 s-1 agree within experimental errors with values obtained earlier by other methods. (orig.)

  15. The Physicochemical and Pharmacokinetic Relationships of Barbiturates - From the Past to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Britton J; Clark, Gerald F; Grundmann, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of different barbiturates have been studied extensively and the relationship of their duration of action to their clinical use has been known for decades. While these particular compounds have largely been displaced by agents with better therapeutic indices, barbiturate use remains relatively common and important in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Their mechanism of action is to bind to inhibitory GABAA receptors in the CNS causing and potentiating the opening of neuronal chloride ion channels thus having a sedative and CNS depressant effect. All psychotropic barbiturates feature di-substitution at the C5 position of the barbituric acid prototype. This is also the primary factor by which physiologically active barbiturates differ from one another and a major mediator of lipophilicity and duration of action. However, in this review, inconsistencies in certain commonly held notions about the structure-activity relationship of barbiturates were found. Commonly accepted chemistry for the structure-activity relationship of barbiturates holds that substitution of larger alkyl groups, alicyclic, and aromatic groups, as well as branching and unsaturation, lead in general to more lipophilic compounds with a shorter biological half-life. This rationale may have limitations in the case of barbiturates as proposed in this review. There is poor correlation between nine clinically used barbiturates' octanol:water partition coefficients (log(P) values) and their respective half-lives. However, a strong correlation between pKa values and half-life was found. The current clinical relevance of these findings is discussed as well as their pertinence to future design and use of barbiturates. PMID:25824249

  16. Spectrophotometric kinetic and determination of quinones and barbiturates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medien, H. A. A.; Zahran, A. A.

    2001-10-01

    The kinetics of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid with some quinones, namely 1,4-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and p-chloranil in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture have been investigated spectrophotometrically at 30-50°C. The reaction follows overall second-order kinetics, first order each in reactant. From the dependence of the rate constants on temperature, activation parameters have been calculated. A plot of Δ H# versus Δ S# for the reaction gave a good straight line with an isokinetic temperature of 387.66 K. The rate of reaction increases with increasing dielectric constant of the medium. Based on this reaction, a spectrophotometric determination method of quinones is described. Beer's law was obeyed within the concentration range 2.7-61.5 μg ml -1 quinone. The method was applied for determination of barbituric, thiobarbituric and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acids with 1,4-naphthoquinone within a concentration range of 3.2-39.5 μg ml -1 barbiturate. The reaction mechanism and reactivity have been discussed.

  17. Efficacy evaluation of cerebral perfusion pressure in complex treatment of eclamptic coma

    OpenAIRE

    Podolsky Yu.S.; Hapy I.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study influence of cerebral perfusion pressure on the effectiveness of treatment of maternity patient in eclamptic coma. Fluctuation of average arterial pressure defines dynamics of the cerebral perfusion pressure. Active hypotensive therapy leads to reduction of cerebral blood flow, breaking perfusion balance of brain. The principal objective of treatment in eclamptic coma is to restore volemic indices by using stabizol, decrease of average arterial pressure (1...

  18. Decerebrate posturing in alcoholic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, A J; Grant, P T

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of alcoholic coma are presented where extensor responses to noxious stimuli are demonstrated. Decerebrate posturing normally indicates severe structural or functional depression of midbrain function but can be caused by depressant drugs. Blood alcohol measurements are a vital test in the comatose patient as the clinical picture may be caused, or temporarily significantly worsened, by severe alcohol intoxication. The preservation of pupillary light reflexes in the presence of deep co...

  19. Coma and disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers' attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed l...

  20. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  1. High Plasma Erythropoietin Levels are Associated With Prolonged Coma Duration and Increased Mortality in Children With Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Estela; Opoka, Robert O.; Idro, Richard; Schmidt, Robert; Park, Gregory S.; Bangirana, Paul; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; HODGES, JAMES S.; Widness, John A.; John, Chandy C.

    2014-01-01

    In children aged >18 months with cerebral malaria, elevated erythropoietin levels were associated with increased mortality, prolonged coma duration, and a lack of neuroprotection. Caution is warranted in the use of systemic erythropoietin as adjunctive therapy in cerebral malaria.

  2. Cyanoacetamide based Barbiturates, Thiobarbiturates and their Biological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various cyanoacetamide based Knoevenagel adducts were coupled with barbituric acid / thiobarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate via a one pot three component reaction in 2-butanol availing the desired compound in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds (2-15) were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis and were screened for antibacterial, antiurease, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and chymotrypsin inhibition studies. In case of antibacterial studies 2 was found appreciably active against the six selected strains whereas the rest of the compounds were moderately active. The urease inhibition studies revealed compound 5 and 12 as potent whereas the rest were found inactive where thiourea was used as control. Antioxidant activity results exhibited with 2 as the most active and rest of compounds showed good activity. In case of chymotrypsin inhibition studies all the synthesized compounds were found inactive with the exception of 6 which was moderately active. (author)

  3. Diffuse radio emission in the Coma cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Coma cluster is peculiar in the radio domain owing to the presence of cluster-wide diffuse sources: the radio halo Coma C, the relic source 1253+275, and the bridge between them. Diffuse radio sources in clusters are a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. We summarize here the properties of the diffuse radio sources in Coma and their relation to other cluster properties.

  4. Neurophysiological assessment of alpha pattern coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Obeso, J A; Iragui, M I; Marti-Masso, J. F.; Maravi, E; Teijeira, J M; Carrera, N; Teijeria, J

    1980-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials, blink reflexes, and H wave reflexes, were recorded on several days from three patients with alpha pattern coma. Coma was secondary to cardiac arrest in two cases and to brainstem infarction in one. Results are compatible with damage to the brainstem reticular formation with sparing of thalamo-cortical circuits as the main physiopathological characteristic of alpha pattern coma. This condition should not be regarded as a discrete entity when establishing the pr...

  5. Thermodynamic Proton – Ligand Satability Constants in Dioxane – Water Media, Pka , Δg0, Δ H0 And Δ S0 , Values for 1, 3 – Disubstituted Barbituric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic protonation constants of dimethyl barbituric acid [DMBA], Diphenyl barbituric acid [DPBA], di-o-tolyl barbitiuric acid[D-O-TBA], di-m-tolyl barbituric acid [D-m-TBA], di-p-tolyl, barbituric acid [D-p-TBA], di-o-xylyl barbituric acid [D-o-XBA], di-m-xylyl barbituric acid [ D-m-XBA], di-p-xylyl barbituric acid [D-p-XBA], di-α napthyl barbituric acid [D-α-NBA] and di-p-anisyl barbituric acid [D-p-ABA] have been determined in different mole fraction of deoxane [ 0.175 – 0.350 ] at 2...

  6. New method for spectrophotometric determination of quinones and barbituric acid through their reaction. A kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medien, H. A. A.

    1996-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of p-benzoquinone, p-chloranil and 1.4-naphthoquinone. The method is based on the reaction between quinones and barbituric acid, by which a color is developed with maximum absorption between 485 and 555 nm in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture. The absorption of the product obeys Beer's law within the concentration range 0.025-05 mM of orginal quinone. The kinetics of the reaction between p-benzoquinone and barbituric acid was studied in a range of methyl alcohol-water mixtures. The reaction follows overall second order kinetics, first order in each of the reactants. The rate increases with increasing dielectric constant. The method was applied for determination of barbituric acid with p-benzoquinone in the concentration range of 0.025-0.345 mM. Other barbiturates do not interfere.

  7. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric ...

  8. Synthesis of 5-,6-, and 7-membered heterocycles from barbituric acid derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Guyader, David

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A new procedure has been developed for the synthesis of barbituric acid derivatives. The reactions were performed under solvent free conditions without any catalyst. Employing this synthetic route, a large number of chalconoids and 5-,6-, and 7-membered heterocycles have been successfully synthesized in a very short time. The chalconoids have been synthesized from a barbituric derivative and substituted benzaldehydes. The effect of different substituents on the yield of the re...

  9. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-01-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment fo...

  10. Simultaneous detection of morphine and barbiturates in urine by radioimmunoassay. [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usategui-Gomez, M.; Heveran, J.E.; Cleeland, R.; McGhee, B.; Telischak, Z.; Awdziej, T.; Grunberg, E.

    1975-09-01

    This report describes a radioimmunoassay for the simultaneous detection of morphine and barbiturates. Morphine and barbiturate antibodies, obtained from goats, were mixed with /sup 125/I-labeled antigens. By adjusting concentrations of the morphine and barbiturate antibodies and radiolabeled antigens, closely superimposed standard curves for the two drugs would be obtained. As a consequence, similar response curves were obtained for urine specimens containing morphine or barbiturates. Although concentrations as low as 25 ..mu..g/liter could be measured, to ensure against false positive reactions the test should be performed at the 100 ..mu..g/liter concentration. Unknown samples positive by the dual assay were confirmed by separately testing the specimens with the individual radioimmunoassay specific for morphine or barbiturate. Equivalency tests of urines positive for morphine, positive for barbiturates, or negative for both demonstrated complete correlation between the single and dual assays. The mixed reagent retained its sensitivity and specificity for at least three months when stored at 4 or 25/sup 0/C. The dual radioimmunoassay is a rapid, simple procedure that can be adapted to automated processes and that is suitable for large- and small-scale screening. (auth)

  11. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core

  12. How typical is the Coma cluster?

    CERN Document Server

    Pimbblet, K A; Davies, R L

    2013-01-01

    Coma is frequently used as the archetype z~0 galaxy cluster to compare higher redshift work against. It is not clear, however, how representative the Coma cluster is for galaxy clusters of its mass or X-ray luminosity, and significantly: recent works have suggested that the galaxy population of Coma may be in some ways anomolous. In this work, we present a comparison of Coma to an X-ray selected control sample of clusters. We show that although Coma is typical against the control sample in terms of its internal kinematics (substructure and velocity dispersion profile), it has a significantly high (~3sigma) X-ray temperature set against clusters of comparable mass. By de-redshifting our control sample cluster galaxies star-formation rates using a fit to the galaxy main sequence evolution at z 99 per cent. One way to alleviate this discrepency and bring Coma in-line with the control sample would be to have the distance to Coma to be slightly lower, perhaps through a non-negligible peculiar velocity with respec...

  13. Is the Coma cluster binary dominated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is investigated whether the model of an expanding cluster dominated by a massive binary galaxy, first suggested by Valtonen and Byrd (1979), is consistent with optical data on the surface density and velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The evolution of this model is simulated for a wide variety of initial conditions. It is found that galaxy counts in the model can be made to agree with observation, but that the observed velocity dispersion profile cannot be reproduced. A number of other arguments suggest that the central galaxies in Coma cannot be as massive as required by the model. This model is not a viable representation of the Coma cluster. 25 refs

  14. Comparison of intramuscular glucagon and intravenous dextrose in the treatment of hypoglycaemic coma in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, A W; Collier, A.; Hepburn, D A; Steedman, D. J.; Clarke, B F; Robertson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia remains a serious and much feared complication of insulin therapy. In this study, patients attending an accident and emergency department in hypoglycaemic coma were randomized to treatment with either intravenous dextrose (25g) or intramuscular glucagon (1mg), administered into the right thigh. Restoration of normal conscious level was slower after glucagon than dextrose (9.0 vs 3.0 min, P less than 0.01), although the average duration of hypoglycaemic coma was 120 min. Two pati...

  15. Anorexia nervosa presenting as reversible hypoglycaemic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Zalin, A. M.; Lant, A F

    1984-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic coma was the presenting feature in two patients with anorexia nervosa, both of whom rapidly regained consciousness following intravenous administration of glucose. This uncommon complication of malnutrition does not appear to have been reported previously in anorexia nervosa.

  16. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds**

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J.; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N—H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N—H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor.

  17. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N—H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N—H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. PMID:25959544

  18. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-06-15

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N-H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N-H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. PMID:25959544

  19. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying-ying; YANG Qing-lin; PANG Ying; LV Xiang-ping

    2005-01-01

    Background Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment. Coma patients after CPR had been studied prospectively at the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital since 2002. In this study, we focused on the topic of how to evaluate the severity of coma after CPR .Methods From April 2002 to November 2004, patients in coma 24 hours after CPR were monitored, the evaluation methods included Glasgow coma score (GCS),brain stem reflection, and spinal reflection. Laboratory evaluation included electroencephalography (EEG),brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), short latency somatosensory evoked potential (SLSEP), and transcranial Doppler (TCD) .Results Twenty-four of 35 patients(68.57%)were in deep coma. The GCS was 3 except for 2 patients;EEG was evaluated not less than grade Ⅳ except for 4 patients, BAEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 3 patients, and SLSEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 1 patient.Twenty-four patients died within 1 month and 11 of them(45.83%)were determined as brain death. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was evaluated as grade Ⅰ. Eleven of the 35 patients survived and their consciousness changed from deep coma to coma vigil. EEG was evaluated as gradeⅠin 5 patients, BAEP and SLSEP were evaluated as grade Ⅰ in 3 patients, and GOS was all evaluated as grade Ⅱ among the 11 patients.Two patients(18.18%)regained consciousness in 35 and 90 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and GOS was evaluated as grade Ⅳ and Ⅲ, respectively.Conclusion Combined or continuous evaluation of clinical examinations and laboratory tests can accurately and objectively determine brain function after CPR.

  20. Chemical and Hydrodynamical Models of Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Multi-fluid modelling of the outflowing gases which sublimate from cometary nuclei as they approach the Sun is necessary for understanding the important physical and chemical processes occurring in this complex plasma. Coma chemistry models can be employed to interpret observational data and to ultimately determine chemical composition and structure of the nuclear ices and dust. We describe a combined chemical and hydrodynamical model [1] in which differential equations for the chemical abundances and the energy balance are solved as a function of distance from the cometary nucleus. The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of 1P/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [2]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions and calculate the impact of these anions on the coma physics and chemistry af the coma.

  1. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  2. Psycho-pharmacotherapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the issue of prolonged barbiturate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Robert E; Kranz, Gottfried; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Kasper, Siegfried

    2009-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 32-year-old man who had been treated for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder and had received 800 mg methylphenobarbital (MPB). After switching to a barbiturate-free schedule, his condition continued to be unstable for more than 21 MPB half-lives (approx. 30 days) and did not stabilize until MPB-metabolites dropped below their urinary detection limit. Considering that this article provides findings from a single patient, the authors use this experience to discuss and emphasize the importance of clinical control of barbiturates in psychiatry. PMID:19630487

  3. Acupuncture Treatment for 15 Cases of Post-traumatic Coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jing; Wu Bin; Zhang Yongling; Wang Xinzhong

    2005-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of acupuncture combined with point-injection therapy on post-traumatic coma, 30 such cases were randomly divided into the following two groups. The patients in the control group were simply treated with the basic neural medical treatment; while patients in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture and point-injection therapy in addition to the above treatment. Comparisons were made between the two groups in the therapeutic effects by GCS evaluations as well as in the changes of main symptoms. The results showed that the GCS value in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group, but with no statistical significance (P>0.05). However, the main symptoms of the patients in treatment group, such as aphasia, hemiplegia, and injuries of cranial nerves (including injuries of the facial, oculomotor and abducent nerves) were obviously improved, showing significant differences as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion can be made that acupuncture combined with point-injection has the consciousness-inducing effect for post-traumatic coma, and shows good effects for the cranial nerve injuries and aphasia.

  4. Peritoneal dialysis in an infant with type 1 diabetes and hyperosmolar coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, G; Werner, B; Cervoni, M; Lubrano, R; Costantino, F; Demiraj, V; Pozzilli, P

    2001-02-01

    Hyperosmolar coma which is characterized by severe hyperglycemia in absence of chetosis is very rare in pediatric age with only 11 cases reported in the literature. The outcome of the condition is usually poor with mental retardation being the most common event. Here a case of hyperosmolar coma is described in a female of three months of age who was treated with peritoneal dialysis 11 hours after admittance to hospital. This female patient has been receiving insulin from three months of age and today at the age of 10 years she leads a normal life despite being on insulin therapy. A very low level of C-peptide (<0.3 ng/ml) clearly confirms she is affected by Type 1 diabetes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of hyperosmolar coma in a neonate with Type 1 diabetes who survived this condition without late neurological consequences. PMID:11263466

  5. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  6. Synthesis and steriostructure of 5-(5-R-2- furfur lidene)- barbituric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterocyclic compounds 5-(5-R-2-furfur lidene)- barbituric acid were obtained and their physical and chemical properties were studied. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. This study proved by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy data that these compounds exist in S-cis form. (author)

  7. 1 H and 13 C NMR studies on the enoling of 5-benzyl barbituric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows that the derivatives of the 5-benzyl barbituric acids hydroxylated at the ortho position of the aromatic ring only exist in the enol form. and that the alkylation of this hydroxyl gives products which exist mainly in the ketone form of the DMSO

  8. An NMR study of merocyanine-type dyes derived from barbituric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Flores, Patricio; Guerrero, Juan; Villarroel, Luis

    2004-06-01

    The 13C NMR of two solvatochromic dyes derived from a barbituric acid acceptor and dimethylaminophenyl donor fragments, compound 1 and the related merocyanine 2, were recorded in various solvents. The observed chemical-shift variations were used to interpret their structural differences and solvatochromic behavior in solution.

  9. A convenient method for the preparation of barbituric and thiobarbituric acid transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Korashy, Sabry A.; Ahmed, Ahmed S.

    2008-12-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of barbiturate transition metal complexes: (i) Cr 3+, Mn 2+, Fe 3+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ ions with barbituric acid (H 2L) and (ii) Cr 3+ and Mo 5+ with 2-thiobarbituric acid (H 2L') was reported and this has enabled seven complexes to be formulated as: [Cr(HL) 2(OH)(H 2O)]·H 2O, [Mn(HL) 2(H 2O) 2], [Fe 2(L)(OH) 3(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O, [Zn(HL) 2], [Cd(HL) 2], [Cr(HL')(OH) 2(H 2O)]·H 2O and [Mo(HL') 2]Cl. These new barbiturate complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic measurements, spectral methods (mid infrared, 1H NMR, mass, X-ray powder diffraction and UV/vis spectra) and simultaneous thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. The molar conductance measurements proved that, all complexes of barbituric and 2-thiobarbituric acids are non-electrolytes except for [Mo(HL') 2]Cl. The electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to infer the structures. The IR spectra of the ligands and their complexes are used to identify the mode of coordination. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: E*, Δ H*, Δ S* and Δ G* are estimated according to the DTG curves. The two ligands and their complexes have been studied for their possible biological antifungal activity.

  10. Spiro-annulation of barbituric acid derivatives and its analogs by ring-closing metathesis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Deb, Ashoke Chandra; Kumar, Ramanatham Vinod

    2005-02-15

    Barbituric acid 1 and related beta-dicarbonyl compounds were dialkenylated under the phase-transfer catalyst [e.g., benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEAC)] conditions to generate the diallylated products. These diallylated products were subjected to the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction to deliver the corresponding spiro-annulated derivatives. PMID:15686908

  11. Selective cell adhesion inhibitors: Barbituric acid based alpha4beta7--MAdCAM inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Geraldine C; Brewer, Matthias; Bennett, Robert; Kuhn, Cyrille; Bazin, Marc; Larosa, Greg; Skerker, Paul; Cochran, Nancy; Gallant, Debra; Baxter, Deborah; Picarella, Dominic; Jaffee, Bruce; Luly, Jay R; Briskin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    A novel series of barbituric acid derivatives were identified as selective inhibitors of alpha4beta7 MAdCAM (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) interactions via a high throughput screening exercise. These inhibitors were optimized to submicromolar potencies in whole cell adhesion assays, retaining their selectivity over alpha4beta1 VCAM. PMID:18331794

  12. Complementary hydrogen bonding of a carboxylato-barbiturate with urea and acetamide: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, Md. A.; Seshaditya, A.; Záliš, Stanislav; Mishra, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2011), s. 532-539. ISSN 1386-1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : barbiturate derivative * binding study * 1H-NMR titration Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2011

  13. Photochemical processes in the inner coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for the inner-coma chemistry of comets are reviewed. The physics relevant to the coma's chemistry is summarized, and the interaction of solar radiation with the coma is described, along with photolytic and chemical processes. The formation and destruction of several observed species are traced through a chemical reaction network, and model results are compared with observations. The species considered include CN, C2, C3, NH2, CH, CO, CO(+), OH, H2O, HCO, C2H4, and C2H3. The models most consistent with observations are shown to indicate that only trace amounts (2% in all) of molecules bearing CN, C2, C3, and NH2 can be present in the nucleus of a comet

  14. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del coma

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Pérez Ramos; Diosdania Alfonso Falcón; Zenia Lisset Hernández Millán; Maribel Misas Menéndez; Julio Alonso Cortizo Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management. It has been defined as acute alteration of wakefulness state, in which patients have a primitive response (or no response at all) to nociceptive stimulus without waking up and could reach the total absence of all reflex. This document includes a review and update of the main clinical aspects, concepts, aetiology and therapy for this condition. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de pr...

  15. The magnetic field in the Coma cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Feretti, L.; D. Dallacasa; Giovannini, G.; Tagliani, A.

    1995-01-01

    The polarization data of the radio galaxy NGC4869, belonging to the Coma cluster and located in its central region, allow us to obtain information on the structure of magnetic field associated with the cluster itself. A magnetic field of $\\sim$ 8.5 $\\mu$G, tangled on scales of the order of less than 1 kpc, is required to explain the observed fluctuations of the rotation measure. This magnetic field is more than one order of magnitude stronger than the equipartition value obtained for Coma C. ...

  16. A green four-component synthesis of zwitterionic alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates and their photophysical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, Manisha; Bora, Pranjal P; Bez, Ghanashyam; Askari, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    A novel series of unsymmetrically substituted alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates incorporating highly biologically active pyrazolone and barbiturate moieties was synthesized by four-component reactions of a mixture of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, aldehydes and barbituric acid/thiobarbituric acid in ethanol without using a catalyst. The photophysical properties of the newly designed alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates were studied, and good quantum yield of some products indicated a definitive scope in the field of biochemical applications. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that the newly synthesized compounds exist in zwitterionic form. The zwitterionic nature of the new chimera makes them interesting candidates for drug delivery as zwitterionic drugs are known to have highly water soluble properties, specific protein absorption, slow recognition by immune system, slow blood clearance from body and can constantly diffuse and deposit throughout the physiological pH. PMID:25005075

  17. Barred Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Weinzirl, Tim; Balcells, Marc; Carter, David; Brok, Mark den; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hoyos, Carlos; Peletier, Reynier F; Huxor, Avon P; Peng, Erik; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2010-01-01

    We use ACS data from the HST Treasury survey of the Coma cluster (z~0.02) to study the properties of barred galaxies in the Coma core, the densest environment in the nearby Universe. This study provides a complementary data point for studies of barred galaxies as a function of redshift and environment. From ~470 cluster members brighter than M_I = -11 mag, we select a sample of 46 disk galaxies (S0--Im) based on visual classification. The sample is dominated by S0s for which we find an optical bar fraction of 47+/-11% through ellipse fitting and visual inspection. Among the bars in the core of the Coma cluster, we do not find any very large (a_bar > 2 kpc) bars. Comparison to other studies reveals that while the optical bar fraction for S0s shows only a modest variation across low-to-intermediate density environments (field to intermediate-density clusters), it can be higher by up to a factor of ~2 in the very high-density environment of the rich Coma cluster core.

  18. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cottaar, Michiel [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fleming, Scott W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21211 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  19. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  20. On the enigma of FK Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, F.; Basri, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stellar chromospheric and coronal activity appears ubiquitous among late type stars to the left of the TR-wind boundary line (Linksy and Haisch 1979). The level of activity as measured by the X-ray surface flux is linearly proportional to the stellar angular velocity, with the exception of slowly rotating dwarfs (Walter 1981, 1982; Walter and Bowyer 1981). The peculiar rapidly rotating G giant FK Comae (Merrill 1948) appears to fit into this pattern. Line widths indicate V sin i = 120 + or - 20 km s(-1) (Bopp and Stencel 1981). FK Comae has strong Ca II H and K and H alpha emission, strong transition region UV lines (Bopp and Stencel 1981), and an X-ray surface flux in good agreement with its rapid rotation (Walter 1981). Yet, FK Comae is an enigmatic star. It is a rapid rotator, but it is not clear why it is a rapid rotator. There is no direct evidence for duplicity; indeed, the upper limit of 20 km s(-1) on the K velocity puts tight constraints on any binary configuration, especially if sin i approx 1, as indicated by the large V sin i. Bopp and Stencel (1981) have suggested that FK Comae is an example of a coalesced W UMa system (Webbink 1976), wherein the orbital angular momentum has become rotational angular momentum of the coalesced star.

  1. Nucleobase-Based Barbiturates: Their Protective Effect against DNA Damage Induced by Bleomycin-Iron, Antioxidant, and Lymphocyte Transformation Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dhorajiya, Bhaveshkumar D.; Dholakiya, Bharatkumar Z.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Badria, Farid A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of nucleobase-based barbiturates have been synthesized by combination of nucleic acid bases and heterocyclic amines and barbituric acid derivatives through green and efficient multicomponent route and one pot reaction. This approach was accomplished efficiently using aqueous medium to give the corresponding products in high yield. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, and UV spectroscopy) and elemental analysis. Represe...

  2. Solid-phase extraction and GC/MS confirmation of barbiturates from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocci, R; Dixit, V; Dixit, V M

    1992-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive procedure has been developed for isolating and identifying barbiturates in human urine. With a new disposable bonded silica gel solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and hexobarbital as an internal standard (IS), amobarbital, butabarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and methaqualone were selectively isolated from endogenous urine components. Capillary gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the extracts generated a full mass spectrum for the detection, identification, and quantitation of barbiturates. Linear quantitative response curves for the drugs have been generated over a concentration range of 20-500 ng/mL. Overall extraction efficiencies for drugs averaged greater than 90%, and the quantitative response curves exhibited correlation coefficients of 0.996 to 0.999. PMID:1353548

  3. Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

  4. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  5. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric acid), an aromatic aldehyde and urea or thiourea in the presence of nanoporous silica SBA-Pr-SO3H under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of spiro compounds were tested against Jack bean urease using Berthelot alkaline phenol-hypochlorite method. Five of 13 compounds were inhibitor and two of them were enzyme activators. Analysis of the docking results showed that, in most of the spiro molecules, one of the carbonyl groups is coordinated with both nickel atoms, while the other one is involved in the formation of hydrogen bonds with important active-site residues. The effect of inserting two methyl groups on N atoms of barbiturate ring, S substituted, ortho, meta and para substituted compounds were investigated too. PMID:26664377

  6. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly impro...

  7. A Rapid Murine Coma and Behavior Scale for Quantitative Assessment of Murine Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Ryan W.; Mark S Wainwright; KIM, KWANG-YOUN; Kidambi, Trilokesh; Gómez, Noé D.; Taylor, Terrie; Haldar, Kasturi

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM) models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal m...

  8. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  9. Modified Newtonian dynamics and the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Lih Sin; White, Simon D. M.

    1988-01-01

    The consistency of Milgrom's theory of modified Newtonian dynamics is checked against optical and X-ray data for the Coma cluster of galaxies. It is found that viable models for the cluster containing no dark matter can be constructed. They require an extensive gaseous atmosphere through which galaxies move on near-radial orbits. The gas temperature is predicted to have a shallow minimum near the cluster center; this structure may conflict with the best X-ray spectra of the cluster.

  10. A National Traumatic Coma Data Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Kunitz, Selma C.; Gross, Cynthia

    1980-01-01

    A number of university hospital centers are participating in the pilot of a national computerized clinical data bank for traumatic coma. Patient data including history, symptoms, treatment, and outcome are collected prospectively during the patient care and follow up process according to common definitions. The data bank was implemented to demonstrate its usefulness for clinical research and patient management. To achieve these goals, a clinical data bank requires research methodology and com...

  11. Hyperammonaemic coma in ureterosigmoid urinary diversion.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, R M; Talbot, S.; Raman, G. V.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a patient with ureterosigmoid anastomosis, who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, agitation and aggressive behaviour, culminating in coma. Investigations revealed profound hyperammonaemia, which responded to treatment with sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate. No definite cause was found for the abnormality, apart from possible urinary tract infection. The patient remains well on a protein restricted diet with mildly elevated levels of plasma ammonia.

  12. Tracking the recovery of consciousness from coma

    OpenAIRE

    Laureys, Steven; Boly, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Predicting the chances of recovery of consciousness and communication in patients who survive their coma but transit in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge for their medical caregivers. Very few studies have examined the slow neuronal changes underlying functional recovery of consciousness from severe chronic brain damage. A case study in this issue of the JCI reports an extraordinary recovery of functional verbal communication and motor function in...

  13. New Red Jewels in Coma Berenices

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Ryan C; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F; Cargile, Phillip A; Hearty, Frederick R; Cottaar, Michiel; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Fleming, Scott W; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Jackson, Kelly M; Johnson, Jennifer A; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David L; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Schneider, Donald P; Siverd, Robert J; Stassun, Keivan G; Weaver, Benjamin A; Wilson, John C

    2014-01-01

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared $H$-band to explore the membership of the nearby ($86.7 \\pm 0.9$ pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly-populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using $R\\sim2000$ spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of $v\\sin i$ for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as ide...

  14. FK Comae, King of Spin: the Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of O VI and C III, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint Fe XXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we also are proposing}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE O VI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in Ne X by Chandra HETGS, are caused by a massive coronal outflow {perhaps implicated in magnetic braking}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are mapped onto specific locations in the global

  15. Identifying barbiturate binding sites in a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with [3H]allyl m-trifluoromethyldiazirine mephobarbital, a photoreactive barbiturate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Chiara, David C; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Bruzik, Karol S; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2014-05-01

    At concentrations that produce anesthesia, many barbituric acid derivatives act as positive allosteric modulators of inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibitors of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research on [(3)H]R-mTFD-MPAB ([(3)H]R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyldiazirinylphenyl)barbituric acid), a photoreactive barbiturate that is a potent and stereoselective anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has identified a second class of intersubunit binding sites for general anesthetics in the α1β3γ2 GABAAR transmembrane domain. We now characterize mTFD-MPAB interactions with the Torpedo (muscle-type) nAChR. For nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, S- and R-mTFD-MPAB inhibited ACh-induced currents with IC50 values of 5 and 10 µM, respectively. Racemic mTFD-MPAB enhanced the equilibrium binding of [(3)H]ACh to nAChR-rich membranes (EC50 = 9 µM) and inhibited binding of the ion channel blocker [(3)H]tenocyclidine in the nAChR desensitized and resting states with IC50 values of 2 and 170 µM, respectively. Photoaffinity labeling identified two binding sites for [(3)H]R-mTFD-MPAB in the nAChR transmembrane domain: 1) a site within the ion channel, identified by photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state of amino acids within the M2 helices of each nAChR subunit; and 2) a site at the γ-α subunit interface, identified by photolabeling of γMet299 within the γM3 helix at similar efficiency in the resting and desensitized states. These results establish that mTFD-MPAB is a potent nAChR inhibitor that binds in the ion channel preferentially in the desensitized state and binds with lower affinity to a site at the γ-α subunit interface where etomidate analogs bind that act as positive and negative nAChR modulators. PMID:24563544

  16. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, ; Ronald O.; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects ...

  17. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma cluster, a success rate >60% for targeted objects brighter than MR = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster population, we find strong support for a star cluster origin for the majority of the Coma UCDs. However, a few UCDs appear to have stellar population or structural properties which differentiate them from the old star cluster populations found in the Coma cluster, perhaps indicating that UCDs may form through multiple formation channels.

  18. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OUTSKIRTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot (∼8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to ∼2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r500 reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r500, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters

  19. THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COMA CLUSTER OUTSKIRTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W. [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Walker, S. A. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mantz, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Matsushita, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Takei, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 Japan (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We present results from a large mosaic of Suzaku observations of the Coma Cluster, the nearest and X-ray brightest hot ({approx}8 keV), dynamically active, non-cool core system, focusing on the thermodynamic properties of the intracluster medium on large scales. For azimuths not aligned with an infalling subcluster toward the southwest, our measured temperature and X-ray brightness profiles exhibit broadly consistent radial trends, with the temperature decreasing from about 8.5 keV at the cluster center to about 2 keV at a radius of 2 Mpc, which is the edge of our detection limit. The southwest merger significantly boosts the surface brightness, allowing us to detect X-ray emission out to {approx}2.2 Mpc along this direction. Apart from the southwestern infalling subcluster, the surface brightness profiles show multiple edges around radii of 30-40 arcmin. The azimuthally averaged temperature profile, as well as the deprojected density and pressure profiles, all show a sharp drop consistent with an outwardly-propagating shock front located at 40 arcmin, corresponding to the outermost edge of the giant radio halo observed at 352 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The shock front may be powering this radio emission. A clear entropy excess inside of r{sub 500} reflects the violent merging events linked with these morphological features. Beyond r{sub 500}, the entropy profiles of the Coma Cluster along the relatively relaxed directions are consistent with the power-law behavior expected from simple models of gravitational large-scale structure formation. The pressure is also in agreement at these radii with the expected values measured from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data from the Planck satellite. However, due to the large uncertainties associated with the Coma Cluster measurements, we cannot yet exclude an entropy flattening in this system consistent with that seen in more relaxed cool core clusters.

  20. Determination of the rate constants of the reactions CO/sub 2/+OH/sup -/ -> HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and barbituric acid -> barbiturate anion -> H/sup -/ using the pulse radiolyse technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, M.N.; von Sonntag, C.

    1982-09-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of CO/sub 2/ + OH /sup -/-> HCO/sub 3//sup -/ (i) and barbituric acid -> barbiturate anion + H/sup +/ (ii) have been remeasured using as a new approach the pulse radiolysis technique with optical and conductivity detection. The rate constants obtained in the present study, ksub(j) (21/sup 0/C) = 6900 +- 700 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and ksub(II) (19/sup 0/C) = 22 +- 2 s/sup -1/ agree within experimental errors with values obtained earlier by other methods.

  1. Pyrole-substituted barbituric derivatives as pharmaceutically significant compounds and intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrrole- and indolecarbaldehydes are condensed with 5-unsubstituted barbituric acids targeting 16 new heterocyclic structures with a prospective pharmacological profile. So 1H-2-pyrrolecarbaldehyde, diethyl 5-formyl-3-methyl-1H-2,4-pyrroledicarboxylate, ethyl 5-formy 1-2,4-dimethyl-l.fl'-3-pyrrolecarboxylate, ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-2-pyrrolecarboxylate, ethyl 4-formyl-2,5-dimethyl-1H-3-pyrrolecarboxylate and l-acetyl-1H-3-indolecarbaldehyde have been condensed in a molar ratio with hexahydro-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione (barbituric acid) and its 1,3-dimethyl-, 1,3-diphenyl- and 1,3-dicyclohexyl- derivatives. The synthesis takes place in ethanol (or in ethanol/water in the cases of unsubstituted barbituric acid) within several hours at 200 - 600 C in the absence of any catalyst with yields in the range of 70-95%. An insufficient carbonyl activity of N-unsubstituted indole-3-carbaldehyde has been observed and overcome by a preliminary N-acethylation avoiding the inactive vinylene-carboxamide form. In addition to their pharmaceutical significance based on the interaction of two heterocyclic pharmacophores, the condensation products could also be useful as versatile intermediates for further synthesis of new heterocyclic systems. The synthesis of 5-[(4-acetyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-2-pyrrolyl)(l-acetyl-1H-3-indolyl)methyl] hexahydr= o-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione (60% in enol-form according to 1H-NMR) by refluxing of [(1-acetyl-1H-3-indolyl) methylene]hexahydro-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione] and 3-acethyl-2,4-dimethylpyrrole for 6 h in CH3CN illustrates their capability to add C-nucleophiles to the double bound bridging 3 heterocyclic units together. The new 17 products are TLC pure and their structures are proved by 1H-NMR/IR-spectra which interpretation is displayed. (authors)

  2. Spectrophotometric reaction rate method for determination of barbituric acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Movahedinia, H.

    2003-11-01

    A new kinetic-spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of barbituric acid. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolorization of methyl orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.9×10 -7 M and calibration rang is 1×10 -6-6.0×10 -4 M barbituric acid. The linearity range of the calibration graph is depends on bromate concentration. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determination of 5.6×10 -6 M barbituric acid was 1.8%. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied.

  3. Modified Newtonian dynamics and the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consistency of Milgrom's theory of modified Newtonian dynamics is checked against optical and X-ray data for the Coma cluster of galaxies. It is found that viable models for the cluster containing no dark matter can be constructed. They require an extensive gaseous atmosphere through which galaxies move on near-radial orbits. The gas temperature is predicted to have a shallow minimum near the cluster center; this structure may conflict with the best X-ray spectra of the cluster. 18 references

  4. Synthesis, characterization, thermal behaviour and single crystal X-ray analysis of two new insensitive high energy density materials [8-hydroxyquinolinium 5-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)barbiturate (I) and 8-hydroxyquinolinium 5-(5-chloro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-1,3-dimethyl barbiturate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickkam, V.; Devi, P. Poornima; Kalaivani, D.

    2014-12-01

    Barbiturates I and II have been synthesized as maroon red and red orange coloured solids by mixing the ethanolic solutions of 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene ( TNCB), pyrimidine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione [barbituric acid ( BA)] and 8-hydroxyquinoline and 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitrobenzene ( DCDNB), 1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione(1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid) and 8-hydroxyquinoline respectively. The structures of these two barbiturates have been predicted from the spectral studies (UV-VIS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass) and elemental analysis. Qualitative tests have been carried out to infer the presence of nitrogen and nitro groups and also chlorine atom in barbiturate II. Slow evaporation of ethanol-dimethylsulphoxide/ethanol solutions of barbiturate I/barbiturate II at 293 K yielded good for X-Ray diffraction crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the crystals further confirm the putative structures of the barbiturates. The asymmetric unit of the barbiturate I comprises of 8-hydroxyquinolinium cation, 5-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) barbiturate anion and a molecule of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), which is used as a recrystallizing solvent. It crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group (centrosymmetric). Barbiturate II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group P212121 (non-centrosymmetric). Barbiturates I and II are stable towards an impact sensitivity test, when a weight of 2 kg mass hammer is dropped from a height of 160 cm of the instrument. TGA/ DTA analyses at four different heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 K/min) imply that they undergo exothermic decomposition (˜85%) in three different stages between 273 and 873 K. Activation energies for these decomposition processes have been calculated by employing Kissinger and Ozawa plots. Impact sensitivity test and activation energies have revealed that the titled barbiturates are insensitive high energy density materials ( IHEDMS).

  5. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany J. Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.

  6. Hydrogen bonding in barbituric and 2-thiobarbituric acids: a theoretical and FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondo, Fabio; Pieretti, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo; Bencivenni, Luigi

    2001-09-01

    The effects of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the molecular properties of barbituric acid (BA) and thiobarbituric acid are discussed on the basis of density functional theory calculations. B3LYP methods were applied to monomers and cyclic dimers. Trimer and hexamer of BA were studied as examples where several CO and NH groups are involved in hydrogen bonding. The theoretical IR spectra of monomers and all oligomers here considered are compared with the FT-IR spectra measured in Ar and nitrogen matrices at different concentrations.

  7. A greener, efficient approach to Michael addition of barbituric acid to nitroalkene in aqueous diethylamine medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Najjar, Hany J; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Weber, Manuel; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a-t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a-k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. PMID:24445342

  8. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hany J. AL-Najjar; Assem Barakat; Al-Majid, Abdullah M.; Mabkhot, Yahia N.; Manuel Weber; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Hoong-Kun Fun

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The str...

  9. Simultaneous effect of organic modifier and physicochemical parameters of barbiturates on their retention on a narrow-bore PGC column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Esther; Cserháti, Tibor; Miksik, Ivan; Echardt, Adam; Deyl, Zdenek

    2004-02-01

    The retention time of 22 barbituric acid derivatives was measured on a narrow-bore porous graphitized carbon (PGC) column using water-dioxane mixtures as mobile phases. The capacity factor (k), theoretical plate number (N), and asymmetry factor (AF) were calculated for each solute in each mobile phase. The relationships between chromatographic characteristics and physicochemical parameters of solutes were elucidated by stepwise regression analysis (SRA). SRA indicated that the binding of barbiturates to the PGC surface is of mixed character electrostatic and apolar interactive forces are equally involved. Sterical correspondence between the surface of the stationary phase and the solutes also exert a significant influence on the retention behavior. PMID:14698263

  10. An X-ray Temperature Map of Coma

    OpenAIRE

    Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. Patrick

    1997-01-01

    We present an X-ray temperature map of the Coma cluster of galaxies obtained with the ROSAT PSPC. As expected from the X-ray surface brightness distribution the intracluster gas of Coma is not isothermal. The temperature structure resembles a bow shock of hot gas produced by the passage of the subcluster around NGC 4839 through the main cluster, confirming hydrodynamical simulations.

  11. Gabapentin-induced coma: A MR-spectrometry analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdennour, Lamine; Sanchez-Peña, Paola; Galanaud, Damien; Navarro, Vincent; Weiss, Nicolas; Puybasset, Louis

    2007-01-01

    As for the majority of antiepileptic drugs, encephalopathy, manifested by transient somnolence, mood and motor disorders, is a possible side-effect. To our knowledge, there is little information about gabapentin-induced coma. We report a third case of gabapentin-induced coma where magnetic resonance-spectrometry was performed in diagnosis assessment.

  12. Myxedema coma with cardiac tamponade and severe cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Majid-Moosa, Abdulla; Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Mora, Adan

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of hypothyroidism. We present a rare case of previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting in cardiogenic shock from pericardial tamponade and depressed myocardial contractility in myxedema coma. Here, we focus on cardiovascular complications associated with the condition.

  13. Memory disorder related to coma duration after head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkki, J; Poropudas, K; Servo, A

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of memory and intelligence test performances to coma duration was studied in 51 head injured patients who had not been operated on for intracranial haematoma. Memory defect was related to coma duration, and was not secondary to impaired perceptual or conceptual analysis of the material to be remembered.

  14. Structure of the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is based primarily upon a sample of 1722 galaxies in the Coma cluster observed by Abell. Abell's observations of the inner part of the Coma cluster (within 75 arc-min) are compared with those of several other observers, and a catalog of observations from several observers was prepared. The distribution of galaxies is tested for irregularities, finding marginal evidence that there are some clumps of galaxies in certain regions and magnitude ranges. However, it is found that axially symmetric bumps in the radial density distribution of galaxies are not significant. The projected spatial distribution of galaxies is then fitted in order to determine the core radius. The value of the core radius is found to be larger than that found by most previous authors, and it increases with increasing galaxy magnitude. This finding implies that a degree of mass segregation exists in the cluster. Finally, the spatial luminosity density at the center of the cluster is determined. The impact of the inclusion of non-members on the analysis is discussed along with different methods of determining membership in the cluster and correcting for the effects of nonmembers upon the observations

  15. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP compound leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilation may improve survival. The aim of the study was to correlate between the clinical score described by Peradenya Organophosphorus Poisoning (POP scale, glasgow coma scale (GCS and serum Pseudocholinesterase level at presentation, ventilator requirement and the outcome. This sectional study conducted at tertiary care centre, Nagpur from October 2011 to September 2013. 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the study. Majority of patients were in younger age group with male preponderance. Agriculture is the most common occupation found in the patients in the study. Mortality was found in 17.5% patients and mortality was found to be higher in patients with severe grade of Paradeniya poisoning scale (score > or = 7 and severe grade of Glasgow coma scale (score < or = 8. Patients with normal cholinesterase levels showed significantly higher chances of survival as compared to those with less than 10% of the normal cholinesterase levels. Patients with severe grade of POP scale and GCS needed ventilatory support more frequently than patients with mild to moderate grade. Thus GCS, POP scale and Pseudocholinesterase levels can very well be used in assessing prognosis and mortality of patients of OP poisoning.

  16. The Spinning Corona of FK Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of OVI and CIII, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint FeXXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we are carrying out}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE OVI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in NeX by Chandra HETGS, are caused by persistent coronal flows {outflows, perhaps implicated in magnetic braking; or inflows, like "coronal rain" on the Sun}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are

  17. Bactericidal evaluation of N-halamine-functionalized silica nanoparticles based on barbituric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Alideertu; Xue, Min; Lan, Shi; Wang, Qin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yanling; Gao, Ge; Liu, Fengqi; Harnoode, Chokto

    2014-01-01

    Novel N-halamine-functionalized silica nanoparticles (NHFS NPs) were facilely fabricated from the 5-allylbarbituric acid (ABBA) by a seeded copolymerization using colloidal silica nanoparticles as support and ABBA-based N-halamine copolymers as shell. The NHFS NPs with spherical morphology and legible core-shell structure have the average diameter of 538.5 nm and the average shell thickness of 19.8 nm. The NHFS NPs possessed improved antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria compared with their bulk powder counterparts. The structural effect of N-halamine on bactericidal activity was clarified through the comparison between barbituric acid-based NHFS NPs and hydantoin-structural NHFS NPs. Effects of colloidal silica support and comonomer methyl methacrylate on particles morphology and the corresponding antimicrobial activity were comparatively investigated as well. Antibacterial tests revealed that N-halamine nanomaterials originated from barbituric acid derivative displayed powerful antibacterial performance and long-term stability. PMID:24144511

  18. Structure-energy relationship in barbituric acid: a calorimetric, computational, and crystallographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Notario, Rafael; Foces-Foces, Concepción; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2008-08-14

    This paper reports the value of the standard (p(o) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K for barbituric acid. The enthalpies of combustion and sublimation were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry and transference (transpiration) method in a saturated N2 stream and a gas-phase enthalpy of formation value of -(534.3 +/- 1.7) kJ x mol(-1) was determined at T = 298.15 K. G3-calculated enthalpies of formation are in very good agreement with the experimental value. The behavior of the sample as a function of the temperature was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, and a new polymorph of barbituric acid at high temperature was found. In the solid state, two anhydrous forms are known displaying two out of the six hydrogen-bonding patterns observed in the alkyl/alkenyl derivatives retrieved from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database. The stability of these motifs has been analyzed by theoretical calculations. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to establish to which polymorphic form corresponds to the commercial sample used in this study and to characterize the new form at high temperature. PMID:18646743

  19. E.E.G. and multiple unit activity during ketamine and barbiturate anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamásy, V; Korányi, L; Tekeres, M

    1975-12-01

    Cortical e.e.g. and multiple unit activity (m.u.a.) of the mesencephalic reticular formation, the anterior hypothalamic area, the basal nuclear group of the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus were studied before and following i.p. injection of different doses of ketamine hydrochloride and a barbiturate in cats with chronically implanted electrodes. Barbiturate administration resulted in a rapid decrease in m.u.a. in the mesencephalic reticular formation which was accompanied by a significant decrease of activity in the limbic structures. No m.u.a. response was observed to visual, acoutic or somatosensory stimulation or to pain. The m.u.a. of the mesencephalic reticular formation and limbic structures increased gradually following ketamine injection. Intermittent or continuous hypersynchronous activity was characteristic in the cortical e.e.g. During the hypersynchronous activity the responsiveness of m.u.a. in the mesencephalic reticular formation, to visual and acoustic stimuli, was blocked. Somatosensory and painful stimulation, however, resulted in a significant increase in the activity both of the mesencephalic reticular formation and of the limbic neuronal pools. PMID:1218162

  20. Temperature- and moisture-dependent phase changes in crystal forms of barbituric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dihydrate of barbituric acid (BAc) and its dehydration product, form II were investigated by means of moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, solution calorimetry, IR- and Raman-spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. The dihydrate desolvates already at and below 50% relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg. C whereas form II is stable up to 80% RH, where it transforms back to the dihydrate. The thermal dehydration of barbituric acid dihydrate (BAc-H2) is a single step, nucleation controlled process. The peritectic reaction of the hydrate was measured at 77 deg. C and a transformation enthalpy of ΔtrsHH2-II = 17.3 kJ mol-1 was calculated for the interconversion between the hydrate and form II. An almost identical value of 17.0 kJ mol-1 was obtained from solution calorimetry in water as solvent (ΔsolHH2 = 41.5, ΔsolHII = 24.5 kJ mol-1). Additionally a high-temperature form (HT-form) of BAc, which is enantiotropically related to form II and unstable at ambient conditions has been characterized. Furthermore, we observed that grinding of BAc with potassium bromide (KBr) induces a tautomeric change. Therefore, IR-spectra recorded with KBr-discs usually display a mixture of tautomers, whereas the IR-spectra of the pure trioxo-form of BAc are obtained if alternative preparation techniques are used

  1. Radio observations of the peripheral region of the Coma cluster near Coma A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLA and WSRT observations are reported for the extended radio source 1253+275 on the periphery of the Coma cluster and for two active Coma radio galaxies within 20 arcmin of 1253+275. The data are presented in contour maps and characterized in detail. Source 1253+275 is shown to be a relic radio galaxy with physical conditions similar to those seen in the external regions (30-50 kpc from the cores) of the two active sources (NGC 4789 and NGC 4827). It is suggested that these regions survived for long periods (400 Myr) after the last acceleration of the radiating electrons because transverse expansion was inhibited by the local intergalactic medium, which has a density comparable to that in other rich clusters of galaxies. 7 references

  2. Anharmonic IR and Raman spectra and electronic and vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities of barbituric, 2-thiobarbituric and 2-selenobarbituric acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Infrared, Raman and electronic absorption spectra, electronic and vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities, of barbituric, 2-thiobarbituric and 2-selenobarbituric acids were studied in gas using ab initio and density functional theory levels. The vibrational spectra were computed using harmonic and anharmonic methods. Anharmonic contributions improve the agreement between calculated and available experimental wavenumbers, especially in the highest-energy spectral region (wavenumbers >1700 cm-1). Vibrational and electronic transitions potentially useful to identify the investigated compounds were explored. The electronic and vibrational hyperpolarizabilities for the IDRI nonlinear optical (NLO) process at the λ value of 790 nm were computed. Supported by spectroscopic results, electronic and vibrational polarizabilities and second-order hyperpolarizabilities increase progressively in the order barbituric acid acid acid. The seleno-derivative is predicted to be ca. three/four times more hyperpolarizable than the barbituric acid. The Se → O or Se → S substitutions can be practical strategies to enhances the NLO properties of barbituric and thiobarbituric acid-based materials.

  3. The synthesis and evaluation of near-infrared probes with barbituric acid acceptors for in vivo detection of amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixiang; Fu, Hualong; Feng, Liang; Cui, Mengchao; Dai, Jiapei; Liu, Boli

    2015-07-25

    A new array of near-infrared probes containing barbituric acid acceptors has been developed as Aβ imaging agents. These probes displayed long-emission wavelengths and large Stokes shifts, as well as high affinities for Aβ aggregates. In vivo and ex vivo studies demonstrated that BBTOM-3 could intensely label Aβ plaques in the brains of transgenic mice. PMID:26103205

  4. Behaviour of Some Activated Nitriles Toward Barbituric Acid, Thiobarbituric Acid and 3-Methyl-1-Phenylpyrazol-5-one

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Habashy; M. H. Nassar; Mahmoud, M. R.; H. M. F. Madkour

    2000-01-01

    The effect of some active methylene containing heterocyclic compounds, namely barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid and 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one on a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamonitrile and ethyl a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (1a,b) was investigated. The structure of the new products was substantiated by their IR,1H-NMR and mass spectra.

  5. Simultaneous effect of organic modifier and physicochemical parameters of barbiturates on their retention on a narrow-bore PGC column

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forgács, E.; Cserháti, T.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Deyl, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 800, č. 1-2 (2004), s. 259-262. ISSN 1570-0232 Grant ostatní: CZ - HU(CZ) Cooperation programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : barbiturates * porous graphitized carbon Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  6. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by an introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperatu...

  7. Probing Turbulence in the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Schücker, P; Miniati, F; Böhringer, H; Briel, U G

    2004-01-01

    Spatially-resolved gas pressure maps of the Coma galaxy cluster are obtained from a mosaic of XMM-Newton observations in the scale range between a resolution of 20 kpc and an extent of 2.8 Mpc. A Fourier analysis of the data reveals the presence of a scale-invariant pressure fluctuation spectrum in the range between 40 and 90 kpc and is found to be well described by a projected Kolmogorov/Oboukhov-type turbulence spectrum. Deprojection and integration of the spectrum yields the lower limit of $\\sim 10$ percent of the total intracluster medium pressure in turbulent form. The results also provide observational constraints on the viscosity of the gas.

  8. Probing turbulence in the Coma galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuecker, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Miniati, F.; Böhringer, H.; Briel, U. G.

    2004-11-01

    Spatially-resolved gas pressure maps of the Coma galaxy cluster are obtained from a mosaic of XMM-Newton observations in the scale range between a resolution of 20 kpc and an extent of 2.8 Mpc. A Fourier analysis of the data reveals the presence of a scale-invariant pressure fluctuation spectrum in the range between 40 and 90 kpc and is found to be well described by a projected Kolmogorov/Oboukhov-type turbulence spectrum. Deprojection and integration of the spectrum yields the lower limit of ˜ 10 percent of the total intracluster medium pressure in turbulent form. The results also provide observational constraints on the viscosity of the gas. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  9. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackman, T.; Mantere, M.J.; Jetsu, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Context.FK Comae Berenices is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the "flip-flop" phenomenon was discovered. Since then, flip-flops in the spot activity have been reported in many other stars...... of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. Methods. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995......-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. Results. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is ¿f

  10. SOCCER: Comet Coma Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Uesugi, K. T.; Tsou, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. Sample Of Comet Coma Earth Return (SOCCER), a joint effort between NASA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, has two primary science objectives: (1) the imaging of the comet nucleus and (2) the return to Earth of samples of volatile species and intact dust. This effort makes use of the unique strengths and capabilities of both countries in realizing this important quest for the return of samples from a comet. This paper presents an overview of SOCCER's science payloads, engineering flight system, and its mission operations.

  11. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Marzke, Ronald O; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects brighter than M_R = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster p...

  12. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  13. Brain Connectivity in Pathological and Pharmacological Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network (“intrinsic” system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or “extrinsic system.” Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain

  14. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a "vegetative state" or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these "primary" sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal "global neuronal workspace" in DOC patients including the midline default mode network ("intrinsic" system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or "extrinsic system." Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" brain networks. PMID:21191476

  15. Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris and concomitant fatal botulism of one : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. Clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. The occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids. This report relates to 3 adult captive cohabiting tigers that simultaneously developed signs of abdominal discomfort, progressive ataxia, recumbency and comatose sleep resembling stage 2 anaesthesia, alternating with periods of distracted wakefulness and ataxic movements. These signs occurred 4 days after being fed the carcass of a horse that had ostensibly died of colic and not been euthanased. The male tiger that was the dominant animal in the feeding hierarchy was worst affected and had to be given intravenous fluids. The female that was lowest in hierarchy was unaffected. After 48-72 hours of treatment at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital the females could eat and made an uneventful recovery. The male tiger showed partial recovery but died during the night a few hours after drinking water on his return to the owner. Necropsy revealed severe oesophageal dilation and impaction with decaying grass; some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. Colon content tested negative for common pesticides but, together with liver, tested positive for barbiturate. Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay

  16. Multifrequency study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral characteristics of normal spiral galaxies are examined, focusing on the relationships between emission mechanisms in the radio continuum, the 21-cm H line, FIR, NIR, and optical bands. Also, the relationship between these mechanisms and the environmental properties of the galaxy is discussed. The study uses a sample from the Coma supercluster, focusing on the three-dimensional structure of the Coma supercluster, the dependence of average radio continuum and FIR luminosities on star formation, and the H I characteristics of galaxies in the Coma superlcuster. 36 refs

  17. Estimation of very low concentrations of Ruthenium by spectrophotometric method using barbituric acid as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrophotometric method employing numerous chromogenic reagents like thiourea, 1,10-phenanthroline, thiocyanate and tropolone is reported in the literature for the estimation of very low concentrations of Ru. A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium in the concentration range 1.5 to 6.5 ppm in the present work. This method is based on the reaction of ruthenium with barbituric acid to produce ruthenium(ll)tris-violurate, (Ru(H2Va)3)-1 complex which gives a stable deep-red coloured solution. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 491 nm due to the inverted t2g → Π(L-L ligand) electron - transfer transition. The molar absorptivity of the coloured species is 9,851 dm3 mol-1 cm-1

  18. Two polymorphs of 5-cyclohexyl-5-ethylbarbituric acid and their packing relationships with other barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbrich, Thomas; Meischberger, Isabella; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2015-03-01

    Polymorph (Ia) (m.p. 474 K) of the title compound, C(12)H(18)N(2)O(3), displays an N-H...O=C hydrogen-bonded layer structure which contains R(6)(6)(28) rings connecting six molecules, as well as R2(2)(8) rings linking two molecules. The 3-connected hydrogen-bonded net resulting from these interactions has the hcb topology. Form (Ib) (m.p. 471 K) displays N-H...O=C hydrogen-bonded looped chains in which neighbouring molecules are linked to one another by two different R(2)(2)(8) rings. Polymorph (Ia) is isostructural with the previously reported form II of 5-(2-bromoallyl)-5-isopropylbarbituric acid (noctal) and polymorph (Ib) is isostructural with the known crystal structures of four other barbiturates. PMID:25734851

  19. Design and synthesis of novel Y-shaped barbituric acid derivatives as PPARγ activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vaibhav A; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Bhagat, Shweta; Gohlke, Holger; Petersen, Rasmus K; Kristiansen, Karsten; Chakraborti, Asit K; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2016-01-27

    Novel Y-shaped barbituric acid (BA) derivatives have been designed using rational methods including molecular docking. Fourteen novel compounds were synthesized using hydroxyl group protection-deprotection strategies for PPARγ activation. Competitive binding analysis of the synthesized molecules using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method was carried out, and the IC50 values were determined. The symmetrically substituted derivatives have shown greater binding affinity than unsymmetrically substituted derivatives. Nitrobenzyl and cyanophenyl substituted derivatives have shown reasonable binding affinities (10.1 and 6.5 μM, respectively), while mono and diacetate derivatives were found inactive. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the designed compounds have interaction profiles similar to partial agonists. The most significant finding of our study is that BA derivatives with symmetrically substituted weakly polar side chains result in the desired moderate level of PPARγ binding affinities. PMID:26708109

  20. Synthesis and dynamics studies of barbituric acid derivatives as urease inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Lotfy, Gehad; Arshad, Fiza; Yousuf, Sammer; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Ashraf, Sajda; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Background Discovery of potent inhibitors of urease (jack bean) enzyme is the first step in the development of drugs against diseases caused by ureolytic enzyme. Results Thirty-two derivatives of barbituric acid as zwitterionic adducts of diethyl ammonium salts were synthesized. All synthesized compounds (4a–z and 5a–s) were screened for their in vitro inhibition potential against urease enzyme (jack bean urease). The compounds 4i (IC50 = 17.6 ± 0.23 µM) and 5l (IC50 = 17.2 ± 0.44 µM) were fo...

  1. Parahydrogen induced polarization of barbituric acid derivatives: 1H hyperpolarization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Meike; Bargon, Joachim; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Koch, Achim

    2008-08-01

    Homogeneous hydrogenation of barbituric acid derivatives with parahydrogen yields a substantial increase of the (1)H NMR signals of the reaction products. These physiologically relevant compounds were hydrogenated at both ambient and elevated temperatures and pressures using a standard cationic rhodium catalyst. The resulting nonthermal nuclear spin polarization (hyperpolarization) is limited by the spin-lattice relaxation time T(1) of the corresponding nuclei in the products, being shorter than the time constant of the hydrogenation. The signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR spectra could be further increased upon signal averaging the antiphase PHIP signals of 25 successive scans following 30 degrees pulse experiments and a delay of 10 s. PMID:18470863

  2. Synthesis, activity evaluation, and docking analysis of barbituric acid aryl hydrazone derivatives as RSK2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mengzhu; Xu, Minghao; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin; Li, Honglin; Xu, Yufang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zhenjiang

    2013-08-01

    The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs), especially RSK2, have attracted attention for the development of new anticancer agents. Through structural optimization of the hit compound 1 from our previous study, a series of barbituric acid aryl hydrazone analogues were designed and synthesized as potential RSK2 inhibitors. The most potent one, compound 9, showed a higher activity against RSK2 with an IC50 value of 1.95 μM. To analyze and elucidate their structure-activity relationship, the homology model of RSK2 N-terminal kinase domain was built and molecular docking simulations were performed, which provide helpful clues to design new inhibitors with desired activities. PMID:22545939

  3. Temperature- and moisture-dependent phase changes in crystal forms of barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencirci, Neslihan; Gstrein, Elisabeth; Langes, Christoph [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Griesser, Ulrich J. [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: ulrich.griesser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-03-10

    The dihydrate of barbituric acid (BAc) and its dehydration product, form II were investigated by means of moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, solution calorimetry, IR- and Raman-spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. The dihydrate desolvates already at and below 50% relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg. C whereas form II is stable up to 80% RH, where it transforms back to the dihydrate. The thermal dehydration of barbituric acid dihydrate (BAc-H2) is a single step, nucleation controlled process. The peritectic reaction of the hydrate was measured at 77 deg. C and a transformation enthalpy of {delta}{sub trs}H{sub H2-II} = 17.3 kJ mol{sup -1} was calculated for the interconversion between the hydrate and form II. An almost identical value of 17.0 kJ mol{sup -1} was obtained from solution calorimetry in water as solvent ({delta}{sub sol}H{sub H2} = 41.5, {delta}{sub sol}H{sub II} = 24.5 kJ mol{sup -1}). Additionally a high-temperature form (HT-form) of BAc, which is enantiotropically related to form II and unstable at ambient conditions has been characterized. Furthermore, we observed that grinding of BAc with potassium bromide (KBr) induces a tautomeric change. Therefore, IR-spectra recorded with KBr-discs usually display a mixture of tautomers, whereas the IR-spectra of the pure trioxo-form of BAc are obtained if alternative preparation techniques are used.

  4. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression. The actions of alcohol, pentobarbital, bicuculline, and the ampakine CX717, alone and in combination, were measured via 1) ventral root recordings from newborn rat brain stem-spinal cord preparations and 2) plethysmographic recordings from unrestrained newborn and adult rats. We found that ethanol caused a modest suppression of respiratory drive in vitro (50 mM) and in vivo (2 g/kg ip). Pentobarbital induced an ∼50% reduction in respiratory frequency in vitro (50 μM) and in vivo (28 mg/kg for pups and 56 mg/kg for adult rats ip). However, severe life-threatening apnea was induced by the combination of the agents in vitro and in vivo via activation of GABA(A) receptors, which was exacerbated by hypoxic (8% O(2)) conditions. Administration of the ampakine CX717 alleviated a significant component of the respiratory depression in vitro (50-150 μM) and in vivo (30 mg/kg ip). Bicuculline also alleviated ethanol-/pentobarbital-induced respiratory depression but caused seizure activity, whereas CX717 did not. These data demonstrated that ethanol and pentobarbital together caused severe respiratory depression, including lethal apnea, via synergistic actions that blunt chemoreceptive responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and suppress central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The ampakine CX717 markedly reduced the severity of respiratory depression. PMID:22837171

  5. [Intracranial hypertension in severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, P L; Bedock, B; Jay, S; Martin, A; Marc, J M

    1994-11-19

    We observed two cases of severe diabetic ketoacidosis with coma and shock. In one case, coma was present at admission and in the second occurred within 15 hours. In both cases, intracranial hypertension was confirmed with an extradural captor. These findings are in agreement with observations of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis with coma. Clinical data suggest that brain oedema may occur after a latency period but that clinical expression is much more rare, perhaps favoured by treatment (excessive rehydratation, alkalinization, too sharp drop in blood glucose level). In our cases, despite major fluid infusion, shock persisted requiring norepinephrine. This shock could have been the expression of the severe ketoacidosis or have resulted from an underlying infection. In case of sudden onset coma, a regularly encountered manifestation of brain oedema, respiratory assistance and mannitol infusion must be instituted rapidly. With this type of management, it should be possible to improve the severe prognosis of brain oedema in diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:7899292

  6. Practical procedure for coma-free alignment using caustic figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical procedure for coma-free alignment using a single defocused transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image is presented. Caustic figures observed in the defocused TEM image of a focused probe are utilized. Coma-free alignment can be carried out by coinciding a bright-field spot with the center of a caustic curve as observed in an underfocus TEM image. With this method, beam tilt misalignment is reduced to the sub-mrad order (e.g. 0.3 mrad for 300 kV FEG-TEM). This can be done without intentional beam tilting, an amorphous specimen, high-resolution TEM images, or fast Fourier transform for diffractogram or cross-correlation, which are used in previous methods. Residual coma aberration is detected using the multiple Bragg images of a known crystal. Similarity between the present coma-free alignment and well-known STEM alignment using shadow image is discussed

  7. Improvement of Multi-Particle Tracking Code COMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>COMA is a multi-particle tracking code for cyclotrons. It was developed by TRIUMF in 1975[1]. The code simulates particle acceleration by performing successive transformations on the particle co-ordinates

  8. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. PMID:25810464

  9. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  10. Thermodynamic Proton – Ligand Satability Constants in Dioxane – Water Media, Pka , Δg0, Δ H0 And Δ S0 , Values for 1, 3 – Disubstituted Barbituric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic protonation constants of dimethyl barbituric acid [DMBA], Diphenyl barbituric acid [DPBA], di-o-tolyl barbitiuric acid[D-O-TBA], di-m-tolyl barbituric acid [D-m-TBA], di-p-tolyl, barbituric acid [D-p-TBA], di-o-xylyl barbituric acid [D-o-XBA], di-m-xylyl barbituric acid [ D-m-XBA], di-p-xylyl barbituric acid [D-p-XBA], di-α napthyl barbituric acid [D-α-NBA] and di-p-anisyl barbituric acid [D-p-ABA] have been determined in different mole fraction of deoxane [ 0.175 – 0.350 ] at 20, 30, and 40 0.100C. The thermodynamic protonation constant [ ] values do not vary linearly with reciprocal of dielectric constant of medium, but a plot of pkTa versus the mole fraction of dioxane is linear at all given temperatures. The mean ionic radii are for barbiturates ions, being in the region of 2.12 – 2.72 A0, slightly increases with dioxane percentages. The values of ΔG0, Δ H0 and Δ S0 have been evaluated. The effect of temperature as well as medium effect are briefly discussed.

  11. 21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity, 21 cm line observations of 130 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 Supercluster region are presented and used to study the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the direction of the Coma Supercluster and the H I content in spiral galaxies as a function of the local galaxy density. Groups of galaxies are found to form a quasi-continuous structure that connects the Local Supercluster to the Coma Supercluster. This structure is composed of real filaments only in the vicinity of the Coma Cluster. Spiral galaxies in the surveyed groups and multiple systems have H I content not dissimilar from that of isolated galaxies. Galaxies within about 1 Abell radius from the Coma Cluster contain about three times less hydrogen on average than isolated galaxies. There is a strong tendency for galaxies that are more severely H I-depleted to be redder and of earlier Hubble type. In the Coma Cluster a considerable fraction of late-type, blue galaxies have large deficiency parameters. 51 references

  12. Influence of physico-chemical parameters of some barbituric acid derivatives on their retention on an amide embedded RP silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Prodan, Miklos; Forgács, Esther

    2002-03-01

    Retention parameters of 45 different barbituric acid derivatives were determined on an amide embedded RP silica column (Discovery RP-AmideC16) using non-buffered water-acetonitrile eluent systems. Linear correlation were calculated between the logarithm of the capacity factor and the acetonitrile concentration in the eluent. To determine the retention behavior of barbituric acid derivatives, stepwise regression analysis (SRA) and principal component analysis (PCA) followed by two-dimensional nonlinear and modified nonlinear mapping was used. It can be concluded, the retention of barbituric acid derivatives are governed mainly by the steric parameters of the substituents. Principal component analysis indicated that the barbituric acid derivatives have mixed retention on this amide embedded RP silica column in water-acetonitrile eluent. PMID:11836055

  13. Cometary Matter Analyser (COMA/CRAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, K.; Igenbergs, E.; Klein, J. W.; Krueger, F. R.; Kuczera, H.; Morfill, G.; Palme, H.; Roessler, K.; Weishaupt, U.; Zerrull, R.; Schmidt, R.; Strazulla, G.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, B.; Hanner, M.; Johnson, R.; Utterback, N.; Zinner, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project was part of an international program under which the chemical composition of cometary dust particles was to be measured 'in situ' during a rendezvous and flyby mission of a Mariner Mark 2 space probe and a comet (depending on the time of launch). Two necessary tasks, preliminary hardware development and interface definition, have been completed within the projects submitted for approval. As a result a model close to the flight configuration has been created, which was to be made available to the flight hardware contractor and his purposes. The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission was abandoned after joint resolution adopted by NASA and the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in 1992. Since an instrument like CoMA is an important contribution both to future cometary rendezvous missions, such as ROSETTA, as well as for accompanying laboratory activities, this project was terminated in a 'qualified conclusion'. In the process, components suitable for the laboratory developed from the preliminary units were produced and put into operation.

  14. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    CERN Document Server

    Hackman, Thomas; Mantere, Maarit J; Jetsu, Lauri; Korhonen, Heidi; Granzer, Thomas; Kajatkari, Perttu; Lehtinen, Jyri; Strassmeier, K G

    2012-01-01

    FK Comae is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the flip-flop phenomenon was discovered. Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is \\Delta \\phi 0.031. The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity j...

  15. Tracking the recovery of consciousness from coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, Steven; Boly, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Predicting the chances of recovery of consciousness and communication in patients who survive their coma but transit in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge for their medical caregivers. Very few studies have examined the slow neuronal changes underlying functional recovery of consciousness from severe chronic brain damage. A case study in this issue of the JCI reports an extraordinary recovery of functional verbal communication and motor function in a patient who remained in MCS for 19 years (see the related article beginning on page 2005). Diffusion tensor MRI showed increased fractional anisotropy (assumed to reflect myelinated fiber density) in posteromedial cortices, encompassing cuneus and precuneus. These same areas showed increased glucose metabolism as studied by PET scanning, likely reflecting the neuronal regrowth paralleling the patient’s clinical recovery. This case shows that old dogmas need to be oppugned, as recovery with meaningful reduction in disability continued in this case for nearly 2 decades after extremely severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:16823480

  16. The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies in Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, John

    1995-07-01

    The cores of galaxies are astrophysically unique. They canhost high energy nuclei, star formation and perhaps even blackholes. HST observations have established that the cores ofellipticals are related to their global properties, and so canbe used as diagnostics of the physical processes occurring atthe time of formation. HST images of galaxy cores havedistinguished two different types of core luminosity profiles:`soft' and `hard' types. It is suggested that luminous, slowlyrotating galaxies have `soft' cores and the less luminousdisky galaxies have `hard' cores. This can be interpreted interms of a formation scenario based on a merger hierarchy inwhich the low luminosity systems experience highly dissipativemergers, but as the luminous systems are assembled the mergersbecome increasingly stellar. In this picture, the type of corea galaxy generates is intimately related to its evolutionaryhistory, i.e. the degree of interaction/merging experiencedand the availability of cold gas. In turn, this should notonly depend on luminosity but also on the galaxy's localenvironment. Here we propose to test the gaseous/stellarmerger picture by imaging a set of Coma cluster ellipticalsfrom a wide range of cluster radii. In the gas poorenvironment of the cluster core there may be insufficent coldgas for the low luminosity galaxies to form `hard' cores.Similarly, at the cluster turnround radius even luminousgalaxies may have experienced a dissipative core formation andpossess

  17. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pérez Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Coma Management. It has been defined as acute alteration of wakefulness state, in which patients have a primitive response (or no response at all to nociceptive stimulus without waking up and could reach the total absence of all reflex. This document includes a review and update of the main clinical aspects, concepts, aetiology and therapy for this condition. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del paciente en coma. Definido como la alteración aguda del estado de vigilia en la cual los pacientes responden primitivamente o no responden a los estímulos nociceptivos, sin despertarse, que puede llegar a la ausencia de todos los reflejos. El documento revisa y actualiza los aspectos clínicos fundamentales, conceptos, etiología y el tratamiento terapéutico. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

  18. Photochemical synthesis and anticancer activity of barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid, thiosemicarbazide, and isoniazid linked to 2-phenyl indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi, S Vijaya; Rajitha, G; Rajitha, B; Rao, Asha Jyothi

    2016-04-01

    2-Phenyl-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde-based barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid, thiosemicarbazide, isoniazid, and malononitrile derivatives were synthesized under photochemical conditions. The antitumor activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated on three different human cancer cell lines representing prostate cancer cell line DU145, Dwivedi (DWD) cancer cell lines, and breast cancer cell line MCF7. All the screened compounds possessed moderate anticancer activity, and out of all the screened compounds, 5-{1[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)2-oxo-ethyl]-2-phenyl-1H-indole-3-ylmethylene}-2-thioxo-dihydro-pyrimidine-4,6-dione (2b) and 5-{1[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)2-oxo-ethyl]-2-phenyl-1H-indole-3-ylmethylene}-2-thioxo-dihydro-pyrimidine-4,6-dione (2d) exhibited marked antitumor activity against used cell lines. Additionally, barbituric acid derivatives were selective to inhibit cell line DWD and breast cancer cell lines. PMID:27118996

  19. Nucleobase-based barbiturates: their protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin-iron, antioxidant, and lymphocyte transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhorajiya, Bhaveshkumar D; Dholakiya, Bharatkumar Z; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Badria, Farid A

    2014-01-01

    A number of nucleobase-based barbiturates have been synthesized by combination of nucleic acid bases and heterocyclic amines and barbituric acid derivatives through green and efficient multicomponent route and one pot reaction. This approach was accomplished efficiently using aqueous medium to give the corresponding products in high yield. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMBC, and UV spectroscopy) and elemental analysis. Representative of all synthesized compounds was tested and evaluated for antioxidant, bleomycin-dependent DNA damage, and Lymphocyte Transformation studies. Compounds TBC > TBA > TBG showed highest lymphocyte transformation assay, TBC > TBA > BG showed inhibitory antioxidant activity using ABTS methods, and TBC > BPA > BAMT > TBA > 1, 3 -TBA manifested the best protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin. PMID:24900997

  20. [The use of enzymatic hydrolysis for isolation of barbituric acid derivatives from blood (as exemplified by phenobarbital and barbamyl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvina, N A; Kolupaeva, A S; Strelova, O Iu; Zabolotskaia, I V; Gorbacheva, T V

    2010-01-01

    Modern isolation techniques by direct extraction with organic solvents or after protein precipitation by various sedimenting or salting-out agents are characterized by low efficiency and do not permit to liberate derivatives of barbituric acid from their complexes with blood proteins. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis makes it possible to break bonds between barbiturates and protein and thereby improve the efficiency of isolation. We performed enzymatic hydrolysis of the model phenobarbital-blood and barbamyl-blood complexes with the use of trypsin, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and papain. The degree of phenobarbital extraction with trypsin and barbamyl was estimated at 62.1 +/- 1.2% and 75.1 +/- 1.6% respectively; in other words, it was 32.7 +/- 1.0% and 51.1 +/- 1.0% higher than that achieved by traditional methods. Certain validation characteristics of the new method are presented. PMID:21265178

  1. Behaviour of Some Activated Nitriles Toward Barbituric Acid, Thiobarbituric Acid and 3-Methyl-1-Phenylpyrazol-5-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Habashy

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some active methylene containing heterocyclic compounds, namely barbituric acid, thiobarbituric acid and 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one on a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamonitrile and ethyl a-cyano-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (1a,b was investigated. The structure of the new products was substantiated by their IR,1H-NMR and mass spectra.

  2. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J Naftalin; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide...

  3. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan); Lombriser, Lucas; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C., E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: david.bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bob.nichol@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |f{sub R0}| < 6 × 10{sup −5}, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.

  4. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |fR0| < 6 × 10−5, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales

  5. Predicting Early Awakening from Coma after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DianaGoodman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction – Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, family members and healthcare providers base early supportive management decisions, at least in part, on expected prognosis. In the comatose patient with ICH, this short-term prognosis is most overtly characterized by regaining of consciousness. Methods – A retrospective consecutive cohort of 51 patients admitted to a neuroICU with ICH and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8 was identified. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association of baseline characteristics and treatment parameters associated with awakening. Results – Awakening from coma was observed in 53% of ICH patients: 83% with an initial GCS score of 7-8, 43% with an initial score of 5-6, and 20% with an initial score of 3-4. Awakening from coma in the cohort of 27 patients who regained consciousness occurred in 59% of patients by day 2, 89% by day 7, and 96% by day 9. In multivariable analysis, only higher admission GCS score was associated with a greater likelihood of awakening from coma (OR 4.9 [95%CI 1.9–13] per 2-point category, p=0.001. DNR status during the first 24 hours was not associated with awakening but was at later time points. Conclusion – GCS score is the predominant initial predictor of early awakening in patients who present in coma after ICH. Patients who regained consciousness typically did so within the first 9 days of hospital admission.

  6. Coma hiperosmolar associado ao transplante de fígado Hyperosmolar coma associated with liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto; Cláudio Moura Lacerda

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico diferencial dos pacientes inconscientes sempre inclui o coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não-cetótico. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 22 anos, tipo sangüíneo O+, branca, natural e procedente do Recife - PE com queixa de icterícia e astenia há um mês. Ao exame físico, havia icterícia 3+/4+, desnutrição leve (IMC 17,5) e asterixis. Os exames laboratoriais sugeriram hepatite fulminante. Após 12 horas da inclusão na lista de espera pelo transplante, recebeu e...

  7. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VIII. Barred Disk Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Hammer, Derek; Brok, Mark den; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Peletier, Reynier F; Peng, Eric; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2012-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We use high resolution (~0.1") F814W ACS images from the HST ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z~0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), and in dwarf galaxies in the Coma core. Our study helps constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. (1) We characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M_V 10^9.5 M_sun) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. Measuring the S0 bar fraction must be handled carefully, as the results depend on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50%+/-11%, 65%+/-11%, and 60%+/-11% for three methods of bar detection: strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (Coma core, A901/902, Virgo). We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 ...

  8. Extragalactic Gamma Ray Excess from Coma Supercluster Direction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pantea Davoudifar; S. Jalil Fatemi

    2011-09-01

    The origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray is not accurately known, especially because our suggestions are related to many models that need to be considered either to compute the galactic diffuse gamma ray intensity or to consider the contribution of other extragalactic structures while surveying a specific portion of the sky. More precise analysis of EGRET data however, makes it possible to estimate the diffuse gamma ray in Coma supercluster (i.e., Coma\\A1367 supercluster) direction with a value of ( > 30MeV) ≃ 1.9 × 10-6 cm-2 s-1, which is considered to be an upper limit for the diffuse gamma ray due to Coma supercluster. The related total intensity (on average) is calculated to be ∼ 5% of the actual diffuse extragalactic background. The calculated intensity makes it possible to estimate the origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray.

  9. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  10. Dynamic analysis of constellation of Coma Berenices galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preceding note, the equations of the simplest dynamical model accounting for most of available data on Coma Cluster have been established. One finds typically: the optical core radius 30', the X-ray core radius 18'; the total radius of Coma is found to be approximately 3 deg, while the X-ray emission is restricted to within a radius 75'. The galaxy central mass density ranges around: 10-27 g/cm-3 and the central electron density is 2x10-3 cm-3. The mean dynamical mass of Coma is 8x1014M of the sun (H0=50km/s/Mpc). 2/3 of the total mass is due to galaxies up to msub(ν)=19.4 and the remaining 1/3 is due to the X-ray emitting plasma. This total mass depends on the temperature gradient, which can be more or less steep

  11. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-IR magnitudes have been obtained for 136 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and near-IR colors (J-H) and (H-K) for 90 and 87 objects, respectively. The near-IR colors are contained in a small range and do not depend on morphological types, galaxy inclination, or environment. Optical-to-IR colors depend strongly on a galaxy's morphological type and inclination. There is a dependence of the relative excess of radio, and to a lesser degree, of far-IR emission on recent star formation activity. The magnitude-line width relation for galaxies in Coma and A1367 obtained with these data has a larger spread than previously found with smaller samples. The data suggest a distance modulus to Coma of about 35, regardless of the choice of primary calibrators. 43 refs

  12. Evaluation of the protein metabolism during hepatic coma evidenced by 15N tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients in coma hepaticum as well as in pigs with experimental hepatic coma the protein metabolism was studied under conditions of parenteral application of an amino acid diet using 15N-glycine as tracer

  13. Hydrosectoral Disorders of Patients in Birth in Eclamptic Coma

    OpenAIRE

    I.H. Hapy; Y.S. Podolsky

    2009-01-01

    Research objective is to detect hydrosectoral disorders of patients in birth in eclamptic coma. It has been shown that hyper-hydration of isotonic character in patients in eclamptic coma has been revealed. Total liquid volume has been in 31,26 % higher than the normal one and it has occured due to extracellular fluid expansion. The expansion has been due to hyper-hydration in the interstitial sector in all cases, its volume has been in 97,4% higher than the normal one. The volume of blood cir...

  14. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  15. Spectroscopic Investigations of Fragment Species in the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Cochran, Anita L.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The content of the gaseous coma of a comet is dominated by fragment species produced by photolysis of the parent molecules issuing directly from the icy nucleus of the comet. Spectroscopy of these species provides complementary information on the physical state of the coma to that obtained from observations of the parent species. Extraction of physical parameters requires detailed molecular and atomic data together with reliable high-resolution spectra and absolute fluxes of the primary source of excitation, the Sun. The large database of observations, dating back more than a century, provides a means to assess the chemical and evolutionary diversity of comets.

  16. Doppler shifts in the coma of Comet P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative radial velocities across 70-100 arcsecs of the coma of Comet P/Halley were measured on four days in 1985-1986 on coude CCD spectrograms in order to search for detectable Doppler shifts. The measurements show a trend of positive velocity with respect to projected distance from the nucleus. The shifts are most clearly observed at r = 1.1 AU, where the relative velocity at 10000 km amounted to 3-4 km/s. The Doppler shifts represent an integration through the whole coma. It is suggested that a proper model of the comet is needed to convert the shifts into true outflow velocities. 14 refs

  17. Complete recovery after severe myxoedema coma complicated by status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjølner, Jesper; Opstrup, Ulla Kampmann; Søndergaard, Esben;

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening myxoedema presenting with hypothermia, hypotension, bradycardia, pericardial effusion and deep coma. The condition was complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The optimal treatment strategy has been debated over the years and the literature is briefly...... reviewed. Treatment with l-thyroxine (LT4) monotherapy without initial loading dose and with no l-triiodothyronine (LT3) treatment was successful with full recovery after hospitalisation for more than a month. Myxoedema coma is a rare, reversible condition with a high mortality and should be considered as...

  18. HCO+ in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Bergin, E. A.; Dickens, J. E.; Devries, C. H.; Senay, M. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Maps of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in the millimeter-wave emission of the ion HCO+ revealed a local minimum near the nucleus position, with a maximum about 100,000 km in the antisolar direction. These observed features of the HCO+ emission require a low abundance of HCO+ due to enhanced destruction in the inner coma of the comet, within a region of low electron temperature (Te). To set constraints on the formation of HCO+ in the coma, as well as the location and magnitude of the transition to higher Te, the data are compared with the results of ion-molecule chemistry models.

  19. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso Hyponatremic coma induced by oxcarbazepine: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda; Saul Cavalcanti de Medeiros Quinino; José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.We report a rare case of severe hyponatremia with coma induced by the use of oxcarbazepine after one month of treatment, in pos-operatory of neurosurgery...

  20. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  1. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Bilgin; Arzu Guclu-Gunduz; Hakan Oruckaptan; Nezire Kose; Bülent Celik

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27)received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

  2. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  3. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care u

  4. Astigmatism and coma-free prism dye ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of two prism ring lasers for cw operation have been experimentally studied. With improved compensation for aberrations due to astigmatism and coma, cw ring lasers operated in the traveling-wave mode provide high output efficiency, stable narrow bandwidth in multimode and single-mode operation, and a broad tuning range

  5. VLA HI imaging of the brightest spiral galaxies in Coma

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo-Alfaro, H; Van Gorkom, J H; Balkowski, C

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained 21cm images of 19 spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster, using the VLA in its C and D configurations. The sample selection was based on morphology, brightness, and optical diameters of galaxies within one Abell radius (1.2 degrees). The HI detected, yet deficient galaxies show a strong correlation in their HI properties with projected distance from the cluster center. The most strongly HI deficient (HI Def > 0.4) galaxies are located inside a radius of 30 arcmin (aprox 0.6 Mpc) from the center of Coma, roughly the extent of the central X-ray emission. These central galaxies show clear asymmetries in their HI distribution and/or shifts between the optical and 21cm positions. Seven so called blue disk galaxies in Coma were observed in HI and six were detected. We did a more sensitive search for HI from 11 of the 15 known post starburst galaxies in Coma. None were detected with typical HI mass limits between 3 and 7x10^7 solar masses. Our results present and enhance a picture already familiar for ...

  6. Color gradients in the coma of P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some important information relevant to the understanding of the gas/dust dynamics near the surface of a comet nucleus concerns knowledge of the grain composition and scattering properties as well as the particle size distribution of dust in the coma. Ground based measurements of light scattered from the dust comae can provide some information about the physical grain properties, in particular about the mean optically dominant grain size. Optical spectra of continua of nine comets presented by Jewitt and Meech, 1986, show that all of the scattered light is reddened with respect to the Sun. There is significant scatter in the amount of reddening seen for different comets. In the near IF regions, the reddening decreases until near 2 to 3 micrometers where the reflectivity is nearly neutral. It is of particular interest to see if there are any observable changes in the grain size distribution during outburst. Although no coma colar changes were observed during the Nov. 1985 outbursts, a color gradient within the coma has been observed in Halley. Radial color gradients in J, H, and K images of Halley as reported by Campins have not been observed by the author

  7. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  8. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. A New Vision of the Coma Cluster: Conference Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Colless, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    Comment: 10 pages, no figures, to be published in the proceedings of the Rencontres Astrophysiques meeting, "A New Vision of an Old Cluster: Untangling Coma Berenices", eds Durret F., et al., held at Marseilles, 17-20 June 1997, (revised: 970915 - typos fixed)

  10. [Studies on the structure-activity relationship of allyl substituted oxopyrimidines searching for the novel antagonist or agonist of barbiturates to the sleep mechanism based on the uridine receptor theory--barbituric acid to uridine (part I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ikuo

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-six allyl substituted oxopyrimidine analogues such as barbituric acid (BA), barbiturates, uracil, thymine, and related derivatives including 13 new compounds were synthesized and their pharmacologic effects ([hypnotic activity, anticonvulsant activity against pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, and LD(50)]) and interactions with the barbiturates were evaluated in mice and rats. The results are briefly and parially summarized as follows. BA prolonged pentobarbital (PB)-induced sleep and had some central depressant effects. N,5,5-triallyl-BA exhibited some hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities, although the other 5,N-allyl-compounds did not show any activity except for allobarbital (AlloB). N-allyl-BA, 5-allyl-BA, N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA also prolonged PB-induced sleep. Interestingly, N,5,5-triallyl-BA was the most potent in the interaction with AlloB, phenobarbital (PheB), amobarbital (AB), PB, and thiopental (TP) but not barbital (B). N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA prolonged AlloB-, PB-, and AB-induced sleep but not B-, PheB-, and TP-induced sleep. N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-B prolonged only PB- and TP-induced sleep. 5,5-diallyl-BA prolonged PheB- and TP-induced sleep. N,5-diallyl-BA prolonged only TP-induced sleep. In contrast, BA and N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-AB tended to antagonize AlloB, AB, and B. N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA also slightly antagonized B, PheB, and TP. 5,5-diallyl-BA antagonized only AB. The prolonging effects of BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA on PB-induced sleep were dose dependent. These results indicate that the position and number of allyl groups substituted on the structure of BA play an important role in their depressant activities. This review deals with the structure-activity relationship of allyl-substituted oxopyrimidines as part of our search for antagonists and agonists of barbiturates as well as their mechanisms of action. PMID:15635282

  11. Analysis on care outcome of patients with polytrauma and coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xing-ji; KONG Ling-wen; DU Ding-yuan; SU Hong-jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To make further improvement of outcome of patients with polytrauma and coma. Methods:The data of 3 361 patients (2 378 males and 983 females,aged from 5-95 years,38.2 years on average) with severe polytrauma and coma admitted to Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Level I Trauma Center), Chongqing,China, from November 1978 to December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively in this study.Results:The overall survival rate and mortality were 93.2 % (3 133/3 361 ) and 6.8 % ( 228/3 361 ),respectively.The mortalities in patients with coma duration < 1 hour and combined with neural dysfunction and in patients with coma duration ≥ 1 hour and combined with or without neural dysfunction were significantly higher than that of those with coma duration < 1 hour but without neural dysfunction[39.5 % (136/344) vs 3.0 % ( 92/3 017 ),P < 0.01 ].There existed significant differences in GCS,ISS,and revised trauma score (RTS) between the death group and the survival group (P <0.01). RTS was in good correspondence with patient's pathophysiological status and outcome in patients with multiple trauma and coma for different groups of systolic blood pressure (SBP).The mortality in patients with SBP < 90 mm Hg was significantly higher than that of those with SBP ≥ 90 mm Hg [33.3 %(68/204) vs 5.1%(160/3 157),P <0.01].The mortality in polytrauma patients combined with serious head injury (AIS≥3) was 8.2%,among which,76.5% died from lung complications.The morbidity rate of lung complications and mortality rate increased in patients with head injury complicated with chest or abdomen injury (23.9 %,61.1%vs 27.3%,50.0%).The mortality reached up to 61.9% in patients complicated with severe head,chest and abdomen injuries simultaneously. Conclusions:It plays a key role to establish a fast and effective trauma care system and prompt and definite surgical procedures and to strengthen the management of complications for improving the survival rate of patients with severe

  12. Barbiturate-like actions of the propanediol dicarbamates felbamate and meprobamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J M; Donevan, S D; Rogawski, M A

    1997-03-01

    Felbamate and meprobamate are structurally related propanediol dicarbamates that possess distinct pharmacological profiles. Felbamate is a minimally sedative, broad-spectrum anticonvulsant, whereas meprobamate is a strong sedative-anxiolytic agent. Previously, we reported that felbamate potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor Cl- currents and inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor currents. Here we further characterized the interaction of the two dicarbamates with GABA(A) receptors to determine the basis for their pharmacological differences. In whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from cultured rat hippocampal neurons, meprobamate enhanced GABA-evoked responses in a concentration-dependent manner and, at high concentrations (>1 mM), exhibited a separate channel-blocking effect that limited the magnitude of GABA(A) receptor potentiation. At equivalent concentrations, meprobamate produced substantially greater potentiation than did felbamate. Furthermore, meprobamate (but not felbamate), in the absence of GABA, directly activated Cl- currents that could be attenuated by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. The mean deactivation time constant of whole-cell currents evoked by 10 mM meprobamate (110 ms) or 1 and 3 microM GABA (180 ms) were faster than the deactivation time constant of 10 mM meprobamate (490 ms) or 3 mM felbamate (470 ms) in the presence of GABA. Meprobamate and felbamate prolonged the mean burst duration of GABA-activated unitary currents in excised outside-out membrane patches. In addition, at high (supratherapeutic) concentrations, meprobamate blocked NMDA-activated currents. We conclude that felbamate and meprobamate have barbiturate-like modulatory actions on GABA(A) receptors, but meprobamate has greater activity and, unlike felbamate, is able to directly activate the receptor. PMID:9067327

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel barbituric acid derivatives in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenjia; Wyman, Arlene R; Alaamery, Manal A; Argueta, Shannon A; Ivey, F Douglas; Meyers, John A; Lerner, Adam; Burdo, Tricia H; Connolly, Timothy; Hoffman, Charles S; Chiles, Thomas C

    2016-09-01

    We have used a high throughput small molecule screen, using a fission yeast-based assay, to identify novel phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors. One of the most effective hit compounds was BC12, a barbituric acid-based molecule that exhibits unusually potent immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory actions on T lymphocyte function, including inhibition of T cell proliferation and IL-2 cytokine production. BC12 treatment confers a >95% inhibition of IL-2 secretion in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat T cells. The effect of BC12 on IL-2 secretion is not due to decreased cell viability; rather, BC12 blocks up-regulation of IL-2 transcription in activated T cells. BC12 also inhibits IL-2 secretion in human peripheral T lymphocytes stimulated in response to CD3/CD28 co-ligation or the combination of PMA and ionomycin, as well as the proliferation of primary murine T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin. A BC12 analog that lacks PDE7 inhibitory activity (BC12-4) displays similar biological activity, suggesting that BC12 does not act via PDE7 inhibition. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition of IL-2 production by BC12, we performed microarray analyses using unstimulated and stimulated Jurkat T cells in the presence or absence of BC12 or BC12-4. Our studies show these compounds affect the transcriptional response to stimulation and act via one or more shared targets to produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-stress effects. These results demonstrate potent immunomodulatory activity for BC12 and BC12-4 in T lymphocytes and suggest a potential clinical use as an immunotherapeutic to treat T lymphocyte-mediated diseases. PMID:27302770

  14. Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.

  15. Barbiturates inhibit ATP-K+ channels and voltage-activated currents in CRI-G1 insulin-secreting cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowski, R. Z.; Ashford, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. Patch-clamp recording techniques were used to examine the effects of barbiturates upon the ATP-K+ channel, and voltage-activated channels present in the plasma membrane of CRI-G1 insulin-secreting cells. 2. Thiopentone inhibited ATP-K+ channel activity when applied to cell-attached patches or the intracellular or extracellular surface of cell-free patches. Secobarbitone and pentobarbitone were also effective inhibitors of ATP-K+ channels in cell-free patches, whereas phenobarbitone was ine...

  16. Synthesis of New Azo Dyes and Copper(II) Complexes Derived from Barbituric Acid and 4-Aminobenzoylhydrazone

    OpenAIRE

    GUP, Bülent KIRKAN and Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    Four new azo dyes, L1, L2, L3, and L4, were prepared by linking benzaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (3) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyede p--aminobenzoylhydrazone (4) to barbituric acid and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid through diazo-coupling reactions. Reactions of the azo-dyes with copper chloride and bidentate ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline, produced mixed-ligand dinuclear complexes with general stoichiometry [Cu2L(phen)2]Cl2 (7, 8, 9, and 10). The structures of both azo dyes and their compl...

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Changes Induced by Solvent and Substituent in Electronic Absorption Spectra of New Azo Disperse Dyes Containig Barbiturate Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Hamidian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4-amino hippuric acid and coupled with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. Then, the products were reacted with aromatic aldehyde, sodium acetate, and acetic anhydride, and oxazolone derivatives were formed. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromic behavior of azo disperse dyes was evaluated in various solvents. The effects of substituents of aromatic aldehyde, barbiturate, and thiobarbiturate ring on the color of dyes were investigated.

  18. Stereoselective capture of N-acyliminium ions generated from α-hydroxy-N-acylcarbamides: direct synthesis of uracils from barbituric acids enabled by SmI2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2014-01-17

    Lewis acid promoted cleavage of α-amino alcohols derived from barbituric acids via chemoselective Sm(II)-mediated electron transfer affords a wide range of C6-substituted 5,6-dihydrouracils. The reaction involves the first generation of N-acyliminium ions directly from the versatile barbituric acids and proceeds with excellent stereoselectivity. The products are shown to be active in generic transition metal catalyzed reactions, thus providing a modular and highly practical sequence to the biologically significant uracil derivatives. PMID:24359321

  19. Synthesis of barbituric acid containing nucleotides and their implications for the origin of primitive informational polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungi, Chaitanya V; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Chugh, Jeetender; Rajamani, Sudha

    2016-07-27

    Given that all processes in modern biology are encoded and orchestrated by polymers, the origin of informational molecules had to be a crucial and significant step in the origin of life on Earth. An important molecule in this context is RNA that is thought to have allowed the transition from chemistry to biology. However, the RNA molecule is comprised of intramolecular bonds which are prone to hydrolysis, especially so under the harsh conditions of the early Earth. Furthermore, the formation of nucleotides with extant bases and their subsequent polymerization have both been problematic, to say the least. Alternate heterocycles, in contrast, have resulted in nucleosides in higher yields, suggesting a viable and prebiotically relevant solution to the longstanding "nucleoside problem". In the present study, we have synthesized a nucleotide using ribose 5'-monophosphate (rMP) and barbituric acid (BA), as the base analog, using dry-heating conditions that are thought to be prevalent in several regimes of the early Earth. Polymerization of the resultant monomers, i.e. BA-nucleotides, was also observed when dehydration-rehydration cycles were carried out at low pH and high temperature. The resulting RNA-like oligomers have intact bases unlike in reactions that were carried out with canonical nucleotides, which resulted in abasic sites under acidic conditions due to cleavage of the N-glycosidic linkages. Furthermore, the incorporation of BA directly into preformed sugar-phosphate backbones was also observed when rMP oligomers were subjected to heating with BA. The results from our aforementioned experiments provide preliminary evidence that BA could have been a putative precursor of modern nucleobases, which could have been incorporated into primitive informational polymers that predated the molecules of an RNA world. Moreover, they also highlight that the prebiotic soup, which would have been replete with alternate heterocycles, could have allowed the sampling of other

  20. Responsiveness of a patient in a persistent vegetative state after a coma to weekly injections of autologous activated immune cells: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fellerhoff Barbara; Laumbacher Barbara; Wank Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction An 82-year-old Caucasian woman had remained in a persistent vegetative state after a coma of seven months duration, which occurred after a stroke with hemiplegia, nine years previously. The persistent vegetative state could be reversed in part by weekly injections with activated immune cells. After therapy, our patient responded to commands in addition to regaining spontaneous movements of both arms and the ability to swallow. This is the first report on the treatment wi...

  1. Coma of modified Gregorian and Cassegrainian mirror systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The equivalence of the classical Newtonian, Cassegrainian, and Gregorian mirror systems with respect to the first two Seidel aberrations is rederived by means of a simple congruence. The effects of arbitrary small modifications of the two mirror systems are then studied and general formulas are derived for the effects of such modifications on the spherical aberration and coma. Spherical aberration is corrected to the third order if the amount of glass removed from one surface is replaced at the corresponding zone of the other surface. Modifications in which one surface is made spherical while the other is adjusted to eliminate spherical aberration result in large increases of coma for systems having the usual amplifying ratios.

  2. The radio halo and active galaxies in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cambridge Low-Frequency Synthesis Telescope has been used to map the Coma cluster at 151 MHz. Two new extended sources are found, associated with the cluster galaxies NGC4839 and NGC4849. The central halo radio source is shown not to have a simple symmetrical structure but to be distorted, with separate centres of brightening near the radio galaxies NGC4874 and IC4040. The structure cannot be accounted for by cluster-wide acceleration processes but implies a close connection with current radio galaxies and, in particular, models requiring diffusion of electrons out of radio sources seem to be favoured. The other large source, near Coma A, is detected and higher resolution data at 1407 MHz are used to clarify its structure. (author)

  3. COMAS: representative spreading experiments with view to core melt mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the COMAS (corium on material surfaces) project representative experimental and analytical investigations on the ex-vessel spreading behaviour of prototypic corium were performed to provide a realistic technical basis for the development of core catchers for future nuclear reactor generations. In various large-scale experiments melts in the Mg-range with real corium compositions and temperatures around 2000 C were tested using different substratum materials (concrete, ceramics, cast iron). The COMAS results indicate that for a sufficiently high melt release rate a quick and homogeneous coverage of an ex-vessel spreading compartment as realized in the Franco-German EPR project can be expected. Regarding the analytical assessment it can be concluded that some spreading codes have reached a sufficient level to provide guidelines for the evaluation of spreading concepts. Open questions are mainly related to segregation and immobilization of the melt. (orig.)

  4. Ammonia abundance in the coma of Halley's Comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to recent work by Allen et al. (1987) which suggests that the value of the ratio of the abundance of the atomic masses 19 to 18 observed in situ in the inner coma of Comet Halley is incompatible with a pure H2O nucleus and requires an NH3 abundance of 1-2 percent. The present authors discuss possible ways of explaining the radial profile of r = 19/18, which deemphasizes the presence of NH3. It is shown that the observed value of the 19/18 mass ratio in the inner coma does not necessarily imply the existence of a significant abundance of NH3. An elevated UV flux, for which there is circumstantial evidence, could produce the same effect. 21 references

  5. Distribution of dark matter in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations on positional and kinematical data for the distribution of dark matter in the Coma cluster are shown to cast doubt on any assumption of a constant M/L ratio. Attention is given to the possible forms of a smooth, spherical background potential (BP) for which positive phase space distribution functions that agree with available positions and radial velocities. Virial theorem, as applied to clusters of galaxies, assumes that galaxies and dark matter have similar distributions. The theorem can be used, together with complete velocity profiles calculated from velocity dispersion data, to constrain the distribution of dark matter. The constant M/L ratio then could be valid for the Coma cluster, provided subclustering or asymmetries in the galaxy distribution are negligible. 28 references

  6. Myxedema Coma: A New Look into an Old Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Kaushik Pandit; Pradip Roychowdhury; Pradip Mukhopadhyay; Sujoy Ghosh; Raiz Ahmad Misgar; Vivek Mathew; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema crisis is a severe life threatening form of decompensated hypothyroidism which is associated with a high mortality rate. Infections and discontinuation of thyroid supplements are the major precipitating factors while hypothermia may not play a major role in tropical countries. Low intracellular T3 leads to cardiogenic shock, respiratory depression, hypothermia and coma. Patients are identified on the basis of a low index of suspicion with a careful history and examination focused on ...

  7. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Putten, van, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care units. Continuous EEG was measured during the first 3 days. EEGs were classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, burst-suppression with identical bursts), intermediate, or favorable (continu...

  8. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Holanda Maurus Marques de Almeida; Quinino Saul Cavalcanti de Medeiros; Silva José Alberto Gonçalves da

    2003-01-01

    Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.

  9. Model of the constellation of Coma Berenices galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new theoretical results and observations show that the usual isothermal hypothesis must be rejected for the dynamical analysis of Coma. Equations are established of the simplest model which allows one, in the dynamical analysis, to make use of the correlations observed between galaxy velocity dispersion and either masses or radial distances and of the data on intergalactic X-ray emission. Furthermore, the model must allow other data to fit in: galaxy density profiles and luminosity function

  10. Dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies. I. The Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and dynamics of the Coma cluster are analyzed using self-consistent equilibrium dynamical models. Observational material for Coma is culled from a variety of sources. Projected surface, density, and velocity-dispersion profiles are derived extending out to a radius of 30 from the cluster center, which are essentially free from field contamination. Segregation of galaxies by luminosity and morphology are discussed and a quantitative estimate of the latter is made. The method of constructing self-consistent dynamical models is discussed. Four different forms of the distribution function are analyzed allowing for different possible dependences of f on energy and angular momentum. Properties of typical models that might resemble actual clusters are presented, and the importance of having velocity-dispersion information is empha sized. The effect of a central massive object such as a cD galaxy on the core structure is illustrated. A comparison of these models with Coma reveals that only models with a distribution function in which the ratio of tangential to radial velocity dispersions is everywhere constant give acceptable fits. In particular, it is possible to rule out models that have isotropic motions in the core and predominantly radial motions in the halo. For H0 = 50, the best-fitting models give a total projected mass inside 30 of 2.9 x 1015 M/sub sun/ , a core radius of 340--400 kpc (8.5'--10'), an upper limit to any central massive object of approx.1013 M/sub sun/ , and a mass-to-blue-light ratio of M/L = 181. From cosmological considerations the cluster ''edge'' is determined to lie at rapprox.50--60. The possible distribution of ''dark matter'' in Coma is discussed and it is argued that this distribution cannot be significantly different from that of the galaxies. The dynamics of morphological segregation are examined quantitatively, and are explained at least qualitatively

  11. Brain function in coma, vegetative state, and related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Laureys, Steven; Owen, Adrian M.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2004-01-01

    We review the nosological criteria and functional neuroanatomical basis for brain death, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, and the locked-in state. Functional neuroimaging is providing new insights into cerebral activity in patients with severe brain damage. Measurements of cerebral metabolism and brain activations in response to sensory stimuli with PET, fMRI, and electrophysiological methods can provide information on the presence, degree, and location of any residual brain...

  12. Model of comet comae. II. Effects of solar photodissociative ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements to our computer model of coma plotochemistry are described. These include an expansion of the chemical reactions network and new rate constants that have been measured only recently. Photolytic reactions of additional molecules are incorporated, and photolytic branching ratios are treated in far greater detail than in our previous work. A total of 25 photodissociative ionization (PDI) reactions are now considered (as compared to only 3 PDI reactions previously). Solar PDI of the mother molecule CO2 is shown to compete effectively with photoionization of CO in the production of observed CO+. The CO+ density peak predicted by our improved model, for COP2 or CO mother molecules, is deep in the inner coma, in better agreement with observation than our old CO2 model. However, neither CO2 nor CO mother molecule calculations reproduce the CO+/H2O+ ratio observed in comet Kohoutek. PDI products of CO2, CO, CH4, and NH3 mother molecules fuel a complex chemistry scheme, producing inner coma abundances of CN, C2, and C3 much greater than previously calculated

  13. Cometary coma chemical composition (C4) mission. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.; Clark, B. C.; Niemann, H. B.; Alexander, M.; Knocke, P. C.; O'Hara, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary missions are of enormous fundamental importance for many different space science disciplines, including exobiology. Comets are presumed relics of the earliest, most primitive material in the solar nebula and are related to the planetesimals. They undoubtedly provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system (contributing to atmospheres and oceans) and may have been key to the origin of life. A Discovery class, comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, was selected for further study by NASA earlier this year. The C4 Mission is a highly focused and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission, concentrating exclusively on measurements which will lead to an understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. The scientific goals of the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission are to rendezvous with a short-period comet and (1) to determine the elemental, chemical, and isotopic composition of the nucleus and (2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. Further, it is a goal to obtain preliminary data on the development of the coma (dust and gas composition) as a function of time and orbital position.

  14. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  15. Application of Early Nutrition Support in Neurosurgical Coma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoqin

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy of early parenteral and enteral nutrition (PN + EN) support in neurosurgical coma patients. Eighty cases of neurosurgical coma patients were randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group received early PN + EN support, and the control group received only total enteral nutritional (TEN) support. The levels of hemoglobin (HGB), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in two groups on days 1, 10, and 20 were observed. The incidences of pneumonia, stress ulcer, abnormal liver function, abdominal distension, and diarrhea between two groups were also compared. Results found that, on day 10, compared with the control group, the levels of HGB, PA, and RBP in the intervention group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On day 20, ALB in the intervention group significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the incidences of pneumonia, abdominal distension, and diarrhea in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with only TEN support, early PN + EN support can obviously improve the nutritional status of neurosurgical coma patients and reduce the occurrence of complications. PMID:27011537

  16. An N-ethylated barbituric acid end-capped bithiophene as an electron-acceptor material in fullerene-free organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul; Collis, Gavin E; Rochford, Luke A; Arantes, Junior Ferreira; Kemppinen, Peter; Jones, Tim S; Winzenberg, Kevin N

    2015-04-11

    A new evaporable electron acceptor material for organic photovoltaics based on N-ethyl barbituric acid bithiophene (EBB) has been demonstrated. Bilayer devices fabricated with this non-fullerene acceptor and boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) donor produce power conversion efficiencies as high as 2.6% with an extremely large open-circuit voltage approaching 1.4 V. PMID:25761144

  17. Determination of the retention behavior of barbituric acid derivatives in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography by using quantitative structure-retention relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Schubert, Gábor; Prodan, Miklos; Forgács, Esther

    2002-04-25

    Retention parameters of 45 barbituric acid derivatives were determined on an amide embedded RP silica column using non-buffered water-dioxan eluent systems. Linear correlations were calculated between the logarithm of the capacity factor and the dioxan concentration in the eluent. Six different retention parameters of each barbituric acid derivative were correlated with different conventional and quantum chemical structural descriptors using quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR). The different parameters were: intercept (log k0) and slope (b) values of the linear, the combined retention parameter (log k0/b), asymmetry factor (AF5) and theoretical plate values (N(USP) and N(JP), according to the United States and Japanese Pharmacopoeia calculations). Stepwise regression analysis (SRA) and principal component analysis (PCA) followed by two-dimensional nonlinear mapping were used to determine the retention behavior of barbituric acid derivatives. SRA and PCA led to similar results. The results indicated that the retention of barbituric acid derivatives are mainly governed by the polaric and steric parameters of the substituents. PMID:12013230

  18. Evidence against the Bm1P1 protein as a positive transcription factor for barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G C; Sung, C C; Liu, C H; Lin, C H

    1998-04-01

    The Bm1P1 protein was previously proposed to act as a positive transcription factor involved in barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in Bacillus megaterium. We now report that the bm1P1 gene encodes a protein of 217 amino acids, rather than the 98 amino acids as reported previously. In vitro gel shift assays indicate that the Bm1P1 protein did not interact with probes comprising the regulatory regions of the P450BM-1 gene. Moreover, disruption of the bm1P1 gene did not markedly affect barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. A multicopy plasmid harboring only the P450BM-1 promoter region could increase expression of the chromosome-encoded P450BM-1. The level of expression is comparable with that shown by a multicopy plasmid harboring the P450BM-1 promoter region along with the bm1P1 gene. These results strongly suggest that the Bm1P1 protein is unlikely to act as a positive regulator for barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. Finally, deletion of the Barbie box did not markedly diminish the effect of pentobarbital on expression of a reporter gene transcriptionally fused to the P450BM-1 promoter. This suggests that the Barbie box is unlikely to be a key element in barbiturate-mediated induction of P450BM-1. PMID:9525898

  19. Reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely hospitalized elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, B.; Olsen, L.; Poulsen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    Undisclosed use of illicit drugs and prescription controlled substances is frequent in some settings. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely...... hospitalized medical patients....

  20. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trentham, Neil [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hammer, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn (Australia); Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Balcells, Marc [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Peng, Eric W., E-mail: marinova@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to

  1. Coma hiponatrêmico induzido pela oxcarbazepina: relato de caso Hyponatremic coma induced by oxcarbazepine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso raro de hiponatremia grave, com evolução para o estado de coma desencadeado pelo uso de oxcarbazepina, após um mês de tratamento em pós-operatório de neurocirurgia. Chamamos a atenção para a importância deste quadro pouco freqüente, bem como enfatizamos o diagnóstico diferencial e a particularidade quanto ao uso desta droga.We report a rare case of severe hyponatremia with coma induced by the use of oxcarbazepine after one month of treatment, in pos-operatory of neurosurgery. We discuss the importance of this condition and its differential diagnosis.

  2. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use high-resolution (∼0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z ∼ 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (MV ∼* > 109.5 M☉) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% ± 11%, 65% ± 11%, and 60% ± 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of ±11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n ∼ 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc–3) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low-density environments for two reasons. First, S0s in rich clusters are

  3. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  4. Coma Associated with Microscopy-Diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lampah, Daniel A.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Hardianto, Setiawan O.; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Sugiarto, Paulus; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coma complicates Plasmodium falciparum infection but is uncommonly associated with P. vivax. Most series of vivax coma have been retrospective and have not utilized molecular methods to exclude mixed infections with P. falciparum. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients hospitalized in Timika, Indonesia, with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤10 and P. vivax monoinfection on initial microscopy over a four year period. Hematological, biochemical, serological, radiological and cerebrosp...

  5. A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Siddharth; Dutta, Manoj Kumar; Namdeo, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma or hypothyroid crisis is an endocrine emergency and needs ICU management. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is another medical emergency which needs high degree of clinical suspicion else mortality can be high. There is a paradox in co existence of myxedema coma and NMS. While one is hypometabolic state another is hypermetabolic state and both can be precipitated by antipsychotics use. Hypothermia and flaccidity commonly expected in myxedema coma may mask fever and rigidity o...

  6. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  7. MMN and Novelty P3 in Coma and Other Altered States of Consciousness: A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    International audience In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how pass...

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Li, Shilin; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Jinying; Lin, Lin; Ye, Xia; Chen, Zhizhi; Xu, Qinyuan; Chen, Tao; Yang, Jincheng; Qiu, Neng; Wang, Guangcheng; Peng, Aihua; Ding, Yi; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    Forty-four barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their effects on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring the expression of adiponectin in vitro. Four compounds (3a, 3o, 3s, 4t) were found to increase the expression of adiponectin and lower the leptin level in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at respective concentration of 10 μM. Among them, 3s showed the most efficacious. Oral administration of 3s effectively reduced body weight, liver weight, and visceral fat and regulated serum levels of biochemical markers in the high-fat/diet-induced Wistar rats. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections by Oil Red O and H&E staining confirmed 3s as a potent, orally active molecule for reducing fat deposition against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21429633

  9. Synthesis, X-Ray Crystal Structures, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies of a Series of Barbiturate Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of barbiturates derivatives synthesized and screened for different set of bioassays are described. The molecular structures of compounds 5a, 5d, and 5f were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of bioassay show that compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, and 4g are potent antioxidants in comparison to the tested standards, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and N-acetylcysteine. Compounds 4a–4e (IC50=101.8±0.8–124.4±4.4 μM and 4g (IC50=104.1±1.9 μM were more potent antioxidants than the standard (BHT, IC50=128.8±2.1 μM. The enzyme inhibition potential of these compounds was also evaluated, in vitro, against thymidine phosphorylase, α-glucosidase, and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Compounds 4c, 4h, 4o, 4p, 4q, 5f, and 5m were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors and showed more activity than the standard drug acarbose, whereas compounds 4v, and 5h were found to be potent thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors, more active than the standard drug, 7-deazaxanthine. All barbiturates derivatives (4a–4x, 4z, and 5a–5m were found to be noncytotoxic against human prostate (PC-3, Henrietta Lacks cervical (HeLa and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast (MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and 3T3 normal fibroblast cell line, except 4y which was cytotoxic against all the cell lines.

  10. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p < 0.001). There were no unique complications associated with the RMNS treatment. The current study, although with some limitations, showed that RMNS may serve as an easy, effective, and noninvasive technique to promote the recovery of traumatic coma in the early phase. PMID:25664378

  11. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kinoshita, Y.; Yokota, J.I.; Yoshioka, T.; Sugimoto, T.

    1987-07-01

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint.

  12. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint. (orig.)

  13. EXTINCTION IN THE COMA OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 2007 October 29, the outbursting comet 17P/Holmes passed within 0.''79 of a background star. We recorded the event using optical, narrowband photometry and detect a 3%-4% dip in stellar brightness bracketing the time of closest approach to the comet nucleus. The detected dimming implies an optical depth τ ≈ 0.04 at 1.''5 from the nucleus and an optical depth toward the nucleus center τn d = 0.006 ± 0.002 at α = 16° phase angle. Our measurements place the most stringent constraints on the extinction optical depth of any cometary coma.

  14. Evolution of near UV Halley's spectrum in the inner coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, Phillippe; Clairemidi, Jacques; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    A direct way to observe the photodissociation of water vapor in a cometary coma is to detect the OH prompt emission. This emission is shifted of delta lambda = 4 nm with respect to the OH 309 nm fluorescence band. The extended data set obtained with the three-channel spectrometer on-board Vega 2 reveals at short distance of the nucleus (i.e., less than 600 km) an excess of emission on the right wing of the OH band which may be interpreted as being mainly due to prompt emission.

  15. Myxedema coma in a 74 year old man: case report and narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Idania Teresa Mora López; Maritza Cardosa Samón; Mireyi Meriño Martínez; Rowley Anderson

    2013-01-01

    The follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones, as regulated by the thyrotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary, also called thyroid stimulating hormone. Myxedema coma is defined as profound hypothyroidism characterized by impairment of consciousness ranging from lethargy to stupor and coma, associated with hypothermia, hypoglycemia, seizures, hypotension, and manifestations of uncompensated hypothyroidism. The condition can be prevented if diagnos...

  16. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster; 2, Photometry and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Secker, J; Plummer, J D; Secker, Jeff; Harris, William E.; Plummer, Julia D.

    1997-01-01

    We study the dwarf galaxy population in the central ~700 arcmin^2 of the Coma cluster, the majority of which are early-type dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies. Analysis of the statistically-decontaminated dE galaxy sequence in the color-magnitude diagram reveals a highly significant trend of color with magnitude (\\Delta (B-R)/\\Delta R = -0.056\\pm0.002 mag), in the sense that fainter dEs are bluer and thus presumably more metal-poor. The mean color of the faintest dEs in our sample is (B-R)~1.15 mag, consistent with a color measurement of the diffuse intracluster light in the Coma core. This intracluster light could then have originated from the tidal disruption of faint dEs in the cluster core. The total galaxy luminosity function (LF) is well modeled as the sum of a log-normal distribution for the giant galaxies, and a Schechter function for the dE galaxies with a faint-end slope \\alpha = -1.41\\pm0.05. This value of \\alpha is consistent with those measured for the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The spatial distribut...

  17. X-ray archaeology in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies. These maps, made with the ROSAT satellite, have much higher SNR than any previous X-ray image of a galaxy cluster, and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than might have been anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases, there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies, the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected to the limit of our field, about 1 deg from the cluster center, and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show clearly that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was, in fact, formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  18. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, ; Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters, and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGC...

  19. Antibacterial Barbituric Acid Analogues Inspired from Natural 3-Acyltetramic Acids; Synthesis, Tautomerism and Structure and Physicochemical Property-Antibacterial Activity Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chul Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors for drug design as well as less lipophilic character, with physicochemical properties and ionic states that are similar to current antibiotic agents for oral and injectable use. Unfortunately, the reduction of plasma protein affinity by the barbituric core is not sufficient to achieve activity in vivo. Further optimization to reduce plasma protein affinity and/or elevate antibiotic potency is therefore required, but we believe that these systems offer unusual opportunities for antibiotic drug discovery.

  20. Antibacterial barbituric acid analogues inspired from natural 3-acyltetramic acids; synthesis, tautomerism and structure and physicochemical property-antibacterial activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong-Chul; Moloney, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors for drug design as well as less lipophilic character, with physicochemical properties and ionic states that are similar to current antibiotic agents for oral and injectable use. Unfortunately, the reduction of plasma protein affinity by the barbituric core is not sufficient to achieve activity in vivo. Further optimization to reduce plasma protein affinity and/or elevate antibiotic potency is therefore required, but we believe that these systems offer unusual opportunities for antibiotic drug discovery. PMID:25710842

  1. Knoevenagel condensation of α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid under non-catalytic and solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An efficient route for the synthesis of 5-(arylpropenylidine)-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione 3 from an appropriate α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes 1 and barbituric acid 2 under both non-catalytic and solvent-free microwave irradiation conditions was described. In this way, a range of biologically important compounds 3 was obtained in good to excellent yields (86-98 %) in a very short reaction time (30-80 s).

  2. Simultaneous Effect of Organic Modifier and Physicochemical Parameters of Barbiturates on their Retention on a Narrow-Bore PGC Column. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cserháti, Tibor; Szőgyi, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The retention time of 23 barbituric acid derivatives was determined on an narrow-bore porous graphitized carbon (PGC) column employing water-dioxane mixtures as mobile phases. The retention fac-tor (k), theoretical plate number (N), and asymmetry factor (AF) were computed for each analyte in each mobile phase. Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) calculations using stepwise regression analysis (SRA) demonstrated the binding of analytes to the surface of PGC stationary phase is...

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Changes Induced by Solvent and Substituent in Electronic Absorption Spectra of New Azo Disperse Dyes Containig Barbiturate Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Hamidian; Najmeh Zahedian; Dadkhoda Ghazanfari; Samieh Fozooni

    2013-01-01

    Six azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4-amino hippuric acid and coupled with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. Then, the products were reacted with aromatic aldehyde, sodium acetate, and acetic anhydride, and oxazolone derivatives were formed. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromic behavior of azo disperse dyes was evaluated in various solvents. The effects of substitu...

  4. Intrahepatic cholestasis and cutaneous bullae associated with glibenclamide therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Wongpaitoon, V.; Mills, P R; Russell, R I; Patrick, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis and cutaneous bullae associated with glibenclamide therapy are described in a 61-year-old diabetic patient who presented wit hypoglycaemic coma. These features have not previously been reported as side effects of glibenclamide therapy, but intrahepatic cholestasis may occur with chlorpropamide, a similar sulphonylurea agent. The mechanism of this cholestasis is not clear at present.

  5. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  6. Estudio clínico del proceso conductual de la emergencia del coma grave por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Romero López, Modesto Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar el proceso de la emergencia del coma en pacientes en coma grave por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV). Método: Se han evaluado a 32 pacientes ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos por un coma de origen cerebrovascular. Se ha realizado un seguimiento diario por neuropsicólogos e intensivistas y monitorizado el despertar del coma mediante 8 escalas de evalua ... ción clínica de los niveles de coma. Se han analizado las variables: edad, género, residencia, índice prem...

  7. Phase synchronization in electroencephalographic recordings prognosticates outcome in paediatric coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nenadovic

    Full Text Available Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the paediatric population. Due to the lifetime impact of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000-2010 analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, <8 admitted to the paediatric critical care unit (PCCU following brain injury from TBI, cardiac arrest or stroke. Phase synchrony of the EEGs was evaluated using the Hilbert transform and the variability of the phase synchrony calculated. Outcome was evaluated using the 6 point Paediatric Performance Category Score (PCPC based on chart review at the time of hospital discharge. Outcome was dichotomized to good outcome (PCPC score 1 to 3 and poor outcome (PCPC score 4 to 6. Children who had a poor outcome following brain injury secondary to cardiac arrest, TBI or stroke, had a higher magnitude of synchrony (R index, a lower spatial complexity of the synchrony patterns and a lower temporal variability of the synchrony index values at 15 Hz when compared to those patients with a good outcome.

  8. PULSATING VARIABLE STARS IN THE COMA BERENICES DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present B, V, I time-series photometry of the Coma Berenices dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a faint Milky Way (MW) satellite, recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have obtained V, B - V and V, V - I color-magnitude diagrams that reach V ∼ 23.0-23.2 mag showing the galaxy turnoff at V ∼ 21.7 mag, and have performed the first study of the variable star population of this new MW companion. Two RR Lyrae stars (a fundamental-mode, RRab, and a first overtone, RRc, pulsator) and a short period variable with period P = 0.12468 days were identified in the galaxy. The RRab star has a rather long period of P ab = 0.66971 days and is about 0.2 mag brighter than the RRc variable and other nonvariable stars on the galaxy horizontal branch (HB). In the period-amplitude diagram, the RRab variable falls closer to the loci of Oosterhoff type-II systems and evolved fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic globular cluster M3. The average apparent magnitude of the galaxy HB, (V HB) = 18.64 ± 0.04 mag, leads to a distance modulus for the Coma dSph μ0 = 18.13 ± 0.08 mag, corresponding to a distance d = 42+2-1 kpc, by adopting a reddening E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.015 mag and a metallicity [Fe/H] =-2.53 ± 0.05 dex.

  9. Binary model for the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of galaxies in the Coma cluster and find that the cluster is probably dominated by a central binary of galaxies NGC 4874--NGC4889. We estimate their total mass to be about 3 x 1014 M/sub sun/ by two independent methods (assuming in Hubble constant of 100 km s-1 Mpc-1). This binary is efficient in dynamically ejecting smaller galaxies, some of of which are seen in projection against the inner 30 radius of the cluster and which, if erroneously considered as bound members, cause a serious overestimate of the mass of the entire cluster. Taking account of the ejected galaxies, we estimate the total cluster mass to be 4--9 x 1014 M/sub sun/, with a corresponding mass-to-light ratio for a typical galaxy in the range of 20--120 solar units. The origin of the secondary maximum observed in the radial surface density profile is studied. We consider it to be a remnant of a shell of galaxies which formed around the central binary. This shell expanded, then collapsed into the binary, and is now reexpanding. This is supported by the coincidence of the minimum in the cluster eccentricity and radical velocity dispersion at the same radial distance as the secondary maximum. Numerical simulations of a cluster model with a massive central binary and a spherical shell of test particles are performed, and they reproduce the observed shape, galaxy density, and radial velocity distributions in the Coma cluster fairly well. Consequences of extending the model to other clusters are discussed

  10. Spatial structure in the color of the dust coma of Comet P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant spatial variations are noted in the color of the dust in Comet Halley's dust coma, out to 156,000 km from the optocenter, in the present March 1-6, 1986 narrowband CCD images. In particular, the envelope of intermediate-mass particles formed around the nucleus by solar radiation pressure is redder than the rest of the dust coma, and a strong jet noted in the March 1 images is redder than both the dust envelope and the remainder of the dust coma. A wavelength-dependence model of the Comet Halley dust's color is developed on the basis of Mie theory. 28 refs

  11. Optical characterization and blu-ray recording properties of metal(II) azo barbituric acid complex films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth thin films of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with azo barbituric acid were prepared by the spin-coating method. Absorption spectra of the thin films on K9 glass substrates in 300-700 nm wavelength region were measured. Optical constants (complex refractive index N = n + ik) of the thin films prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates in 275-695 nm wavelength region were investigated on rotating analyzer-polarizer type of scanning ellipsometer, and dielectric constant ε (ε = ε1 + iε2) as well as absorption coefficient α of thin films were calculated at 405 nm. In addition, static optical recording properties of the cobalt(II) complex thin film with an Ag reflective layer was carried out using a 406.7 nm blue-violet laser and a high numerical aperture (NA) of 0.90. Clear recording marks with high reflectivity contrast (>60%) at proper laser power and pulse width were obtained, and the size of recording mark was as small as 250 nm. The results indicate that these metal(II) complexes are promising organic recording medium for the blu-ray optical storage system

  12. Hydrogen-bonded complexes resulting from the interaction of alkylated barbituric acid and 2,6-diamidopyridine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideratou, Z.; Tsiourvas, D.; Paleos, C. M.; Peppas, E.; Anastassopoulou, J.; Theophanides, T.

    1999-06-01

    In the present study a hydrophilic or a lipophilic alkylated barbituric acid derivative was allowed to interact in the melt and in solution with a complementary series of alkylated diamidopyridine derivatives, both hydrophilic or lipophilic. The interaction between the molecules was mainly studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Phase transitions of reaction mixtures were studied with polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the molecular recognition of the interacting components is only effective between the molecularly compatible ones. Specifically, employing Methods I and II, (see text) the short chain derivatives form 1 : 1 complexes whereas the long-chain derivatives are only partially complexed. Derivatives of dissimilar lipophilicity do not form complexes employing the same methods. However, comparing the two methods, complexation is more effective employing Method II. The induction of molecular recognition in the presence of an apolar solvent is enhanced in solution, Method III. The equilibrium which was established in solution is shifted to different directions during the evaporation step (Method II), leading either to the formation of complexes or to self-association.

  13. Optical characterization and blu-ray recording properties of metal(II) azo barbituric acid complex films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.Y. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: xyli@siom.ac.cn; Wu, Y.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Lab of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Haerbin 150080 (China)], E-mail: yqwu@siom.ac.cn; Gu, D.D.; Gan, F.X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2009-02-25

    Smooth thin films of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with azo barbituric acid were prepared by the spin-coating method. Absorption spectra of the thin films on K9 glass substrates in 300-700 nm wavelength region were measured. Optical constants (complex refractive index N = n + ik) of the thin films prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates in 275-695 nm wavelength region were investigated on rotating analyzer-polarizer type of scanning ellipsometer, and dielectric constant {epsilon} ({epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2}) as well as absorption coefficient {alpha} of thin films were calculated at 405 nm. In addition, static optical recording properties of the cobalt(II) complex thin film with an Ag reflective layer was carried out using a 406.7 nm blue-violet laser and a high numerical aperture (NA) of 0.90. Clear recording marks with high reflectivity contrast (>60%) at proper laser power and pulse width were obtained, and the size of recording mark was as small as 250 nm. The results indicate that these metal(II) complexes are promising organic recording medium for the blu-ray optical storage system.

  14. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - VII. Structure and Assembly of Massive Galaxies in the Center of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Weinzirl, Tim; Neistein, Eyal; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kormendy, John; Marinova, Irina; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Brok, Mark den; Hammer, Derek; Peletier, Reynier F; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Trentham, Neil; Erwin, Peter; Puzia, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We constrain the assembly history of galaxies in the central 0.6 Mpc of the rich Coma cluster at z~0.02 based on the structure of 69 massive (M*>1e9 M_sun) galaxies using images from the HST Treasury Survey of Coma. Our findings are: (1) We make no a priori assumptions on the shape of the profile for outer and central structures, which can include disk-dominated components, bars, and classical bulges/ellipticals. After excluding the 2 cDs, we find that most (56%) of the galactic stellar mass resides in classical bulges/Es while (44%) resides in cold disk-dominated structures. This suggests that most of the stellar mass in Coma galaxies may have been assembled and shaped through the redistribution of stars during major mergers, and possibly minor mergers, but that gas-rich dissipative processes that build disk-dominated structures remain important even in the center of a rich cluster like Coma. (2) We see strong evidence of a morphology-density relation. In the central 0.6 Mpc of the Coma cluster, there are 2 ...

  15. Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, M. J.; Brouwer, M.C.; Ende, A; van de Beek, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In bacterial meningitis, a decreased level of consciousness is predictive for unfavorable outcome, but the clinical features and outcome in patients presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale are unknown. Methods: We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Net...

  16. Comparison of improvement process of addict and general coma patients hospitalized in Taleghani hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Mostafa; Soleimani, Pezhman; Kohi, Farzaneh; Kahrizi, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Substance and other relative compounds prevents of physiological Adernocorticotropin secretion from pituitary gland and lead to mental exciting and arousal. Present study investigated impact of addiction on improvement process of coma in addiction and general patients. Methods: 170 coma patients hospitalized in Taleghani hospital in 1390 were investigated, that 10 persons of them were addict, therefore 10 addict patients and 10 general patients with GCS 5/6 were selected...

  17. Solar wind effects on the outer ion coma of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple two-dimensional model is developed to examine the composition of the cometary ion coma in the region outside the ionopause which is strongly affected by the solar wind. Two-dimensional ion distributions are obtained assuming a cylindrically symmetric ion coma which accounts for the dynamic effects of the mass-loaded solar wind flow around the cometary ionosphere. The results of this model are discussed in the context of analyzing the GIOTTO ion data

  18. Halos of rich clusters of galaxies. I. An infall model for the Coma Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large mass of a cluster of galaxies slows the Hubble expansion in a surrounding volume. The ratio of the matter density near the cluster to the average density at large distances grows as the cosmological density parameter, Ω, decreases. For values of Ω<0.2, the gravitational attraction of the Coma Cluster acting upon an initially homogeneous external medium is sufficient to account for a galaxy population comparable to that of the Coma Supercluster

  19. CoMA, an instrument for the detailed in-situ analysis of collected cometary particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for CoMA, a pulsed time-of-flight SIMS instrument to be flown onboard CRAF to rendezvous with a comet, had been accepted by NASA in October 1986. After several attempts it seems that funding by BMFT for the instrument pre-development phase can be obtained. Apart from that we made first essential progress in producing the primary ion pulses from an indium liquid metal ion source. Those pulses are needed to operate CoMA. (orig.)

  20. Robust control of burst suppression for medical coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Medical coma is an anesthetic-induced state of brain inactivation, manifest in the electroencephalogram by burst suppression. Feedback control can be used to regulate burst suppression, however, previous designs have not been robust. Robust control design is critical under real-world operating conditions, subject to substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter uncertainty and unpredictable external disturbances. We sought to develop a robust closed-loop anesthesia delivery (CLAD) system to control medical coma. Approach. We developed a robust CLAD system to control the burst suppression probability (BSP). We developed a novel BSP tracking algorithm based on realistic models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We also developed a practical method for estimating patient-specific pharmacodynamics parameters. Finally, we synthesized a robust proportional integral controller. Using a factorial design spanning patient age, mass, height, and gender, we tested whether the system performed within clinically acceptable limits. Throughout all experiments we subjected the system to disturbances, simulating treatment of refractory status epilepticus in a real-world intensive care unit environment. Main results. In 5400 simulations, CLAD behavior remained within specifications. Transient behavior after a step in target BSP from 0.2 to 0.8 exhibited a rise time (the median (min, max)) of 1.4 [1.1, 1.9] min; settling time, 7.8 [4.2, 9.0] min; and percent overshoot of 9.6 [2.3, 10.8]%. Under steady state conditions the CLAD system exhibited a median error of 0.1 [-0.5, 0.9]%; inaccuracy of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; oscillation index of 1.8 [0.9, 3.4]%; and maximum instantaneous propofol dose of 4.3 [2.1, 10.5] mg kg-1. The maximum hourly propofol dose was 4.3 [2.1, 10.3] mg kg-1 h-1. Performance fell within clinically acceptable limits for all measures. Significance. A CLAD system designed using robust control theory achieves clinically acceptable

  1. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients. PMID:24281786

  2. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy for nonrenal lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyanson, S; Passo, M H; Aldo-Benson, M A; Benson, M D

    1980-01-01

    High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy has previously been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of renal lupus erythematosus. The present report presents 2 patients with life-threatening, nonrenal lupus erythematosus. One patient had coma and seizures, while the other had sever thrombocytopenia and anaemia. Both had failed to respond to oral corticosteroid therapy in high doses but had dramatic clinical responses with intravenous methylprednisolone given in 'pulses.' Possible me...

  3. Methods emergency coma patients in emergencyfirst aid and the effect of 96 cases%96例急诊昏迷患者急诊急救的方法与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锋

    2015-01-01

    objective: to investigate the method and effect of emergency first aid emergency patients in coma.Methods:96 cases were studied retrospectively, to take emergency measures according to the causes of coma, emergency treatment success rate of assessment method.results: 96 patients after examination, 21 patients with cardiovascular diseases lead to coma, among which 16 cases were cured or improved after treatment.36 patients with cerebral vascular diseases 25 cases got successful treatment of coma.23 patients with the diseases of the endocrine system lead to coma, after the success of first aid in 21 patients.9 cases of patients with coma caused by diseases of the endocrine system.2 patients with traumatic coma, in which 1 people died due to his injuries.another 5 people are the causes of coma caused by other factors, the medical rescue after 4 people were rescued successfully.the six causes of coma after resuscitation success rates were 76.19%, 69.44%, 91.30%, 77.78%, 50% and 80%.conclusion: according to the emergency patients in coma coma due to targeted therapy, can improve the clinical cure rate, reduce the mortality rate.%目的:探讨分析急诊昏迷患者急诊急救的方法与效果。方法对96例患者进行回顾性研究,根据昏迷原因采取针对性的急救措施,评估急救方法的救治成功率。结果96例患者经过检查,有21例患者因心血管系统疾病导致昏迷,其中16例患者经急救治愈或者好转。36例患者因脑血管系统疾病昏迷,25例得到成功救治。23例患者因内分泌系统疾病导致昏迷,经急救成功的患者有21例。9例患者昏迷由内分泌系统疾病引发。2例患者因外伤导致昏迷,其中1人因伤势过重死亡。另有5人昏迷原因有其他因素所致,经过就诊抢救后4人被救治成功。这六种原因导致的昏迷经过急救后成功率分别为76.19%、69.44%、91.30%、77.78%、50%和80%。结论根据急诊昏迷患者昏迷原因采

  4. Approximately A Thousand Ultra Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, Jin; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 854 ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster using deep R band images, with partial B, i, and Halpha band coverage, obtained with the Subaru telescope. Many of them (332) are Milky Way-sized with very large effective radii of r_e>1.5kpc. This study was motivated by the recent discovery of 47 UDGs by van-Dokkum et al. (2015); our discovery suggests >1,000 UDGs after accounting for the smaller Subaru field. The new UDGs show a distribution concentrated around the cluster center, strongly suggesting that the great majority are (likely longtime) cluster members. They are a passively evolving population, lying along the red sequence in the CM diagram with no Halpha signature. Star formation was, therefore, quenched in the past. They have exponential light profiles, effective radii re ~ 800 pc- 5 kpc, effective surface brightnesses mu_e(R)=25-28 mag arcsec-2, and stellar masses ~1x10^7 - 5x10^8Msun. There is also a population of nucleated UDGs. Some MW-sized UDGs appear closer to...

  5. Representative experiments on nuclear meltdowns. COMAS, HCTM, CORESA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear meltdown accidents and the possibility of specific countermeasures have formed the focal point of discussions on reactor safety for ten years now, particularly following the events in Tschernobyl. One of these countermeasures is - assuming failure of the reactor pressure vessel - wide-area ex-vessel spreading of the meltdown product in a catchment system with subsequent water flooding. This proposed method corresponds to the current planning basis for the Franco-German Joint Project EPR. Since 1993, a German working group has been carrying out research into the control of nuclear meltdowns: Experiments with nuclear meltdown products, it is hoped, will provide information for the control of nuclear meltdown accidents. An exceptional feature of these investigations is the realisability of largescale experiments with prototypal corium-combinations and representative test conditions. The present article describes the setting-up and the results of the COMAS (Corium on Metal Surfaces)-spreading experiment and of the CORESA (Corium on Refractory and Sacrificial Materials)-test program in the commercial-scale radioactive meltdown system CARLA. (orig.)

  6. Age and Metallicities of Cluster Galaxies: A1185 and Coma

    CERN Document Server

    Rakos, K; Odell, A

    2006-01-01

    We present age and metallicities determinations based on narrow band continuum colors for the galaxies in the rich clusters A1185 and Coma. Using a new technique to extract luminosity-weighted age and [Fe/H] values for non-star-forming galaxies, we find that both clusters have two separate populations based on these parameters. One population is old ($\\tau >$ 11 Gyrs) with a distinct mass-metallicity relation. The second population is slightly younger ($\\tau \\approx$ 9 Gyrs) with lower metallicities and lower stellar masses. We find detectable correlations between age and galaxy mass in both populations such that older galaxies are more massive and have higher mean metallicities, confirming previous work with line indices for the same type of galaxies in other clusters (Kelson et al 2006, Thomas et al 2005). Our results imply shorter durations for higher mass galaxies, in contradiction to the predictions of classic galactic wind models. Since we also find a clear mass-metallicity relation for these galaxies, ...

  7. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: I. Velocity Dispersion Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Karick, A M; Mármol-Queraltó, E; Chiboucas, K; Tully, R B; Mobasher, B; Guzmán, R; Matković, A; Gruel, N

    2011-01-01

    We present the study of a large sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster observed with DEIMOS on the Keck II to determine their internal velocity dispersion. We focus on a subsample of 41 member dwarf elliptical galaxies for which the velocity dispersion can be reliably measured, 26 of which were studied for the first time. The magnitude range of our sample is $-21

  8. Knowledge of Glasgow coma scale by air-rescue physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heim Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS by trained Air-rescue physicians in Switzerland. Methods Prospective anonymous observational study with a specially designed questionnaire. General knowledge of the GCS and its use in a clinical case were assessed. Results From 130 questionnaires send out, 103 were returned (response rate of 79.2% and analyzed. Theoretical knowledge of the GCS was consistent for registrars, fellows, consultants and private practitioners active in physician-staffed helicopters. The clinical case was wrongly scored by 38 participants (36.9%. Wrong evaluation of the motor component occurred in 28 questionnaires (27.2%, and 19 errors were made for the verbal score (18.5%. Errors were made most frequently by registrars (47.5%, p = 0.09, followed by fellows (31.6%, p = 0.67 and private practitioners (18.4%, p = 1.00. Consultants made significantly less errors than the rest of the participating physicians (0%, p Conclusion Although the theoretical knowledge of the GCS by out-of-hospital physicians is correct, significant errors were made in scoring a clinical case. Less experienced physicians had a higher rate of errors. Further emphasis on teaching the GCS is mandatory.

  9. Interaction between metals and nucleic acids. Part 3. Synthesis and structural studies of copper(II) complexes with Schiff base ligands derived from barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, I.; Gaudemer, A.; Chiaroni, A.; Riche, C.

    1986-02-17

    Schiff bases have been prepared from 5-formylbarbituric acid and 5-formyl-1,3-dimethyl-barbituric acid and various di- or tri-amines. The structure of the corresponding copper(II) complexes have been established by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of one of the complexes, Cu(DiMeBardpt), was determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical study shows that these complexes are reduced at slightly more negative potentials than the corresponding complexes obtained from uracil, which suggests that these new ligands are better electron-donors.

  10. 西学东渐——新译“Glasgow coma scale”%Western learning spreading to the East: new translation of "Glasgow coma scale"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹西峰; 李建民; 李兵; 费舟

    2014-01-01

    西方的科学研究成果大多来源于英语的语言文化环境,把西方的科学研究成果介绍到中国,必须重视英语的语言文化环境和汉语的语言文化环境的不同,这样才能使国人准确、方便地应用西方的科学研究成果,西学东渐.格拉斯哥昏迷评分(Glasgow coma scale)被翻译、介绍到国内已有数十年,但汉语版的“Glasgow coma scale”多种多样,容易造成初学者和使用者的迷惑.本文复习有关“Glasgow coma scale”的原始英式英文文献、美式英语英文文献和以往的几个主要的汉语翻译版.结合英式英语、美式英语和汉语的语言文化特点,新译了“Glasgow coma scale”,以方便医护人员使用.

  11. Evaluation Of Diabetic Coma İn Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty, Department Of Internal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    KAHRAMAN, H.; TANYERİ, F.; ÖZER, B.; Kaya, N.; TEKDEN, N.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma (NHHC) are the two most common acute complications of diabetes mellitus and make up a significant percentage of the nonsurgical emergencies seen in any general hospital. These syndromes have devastating outcomes if not treated promptly. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and biochemical characteristics of our patients with diabetic coma. In (his study, patients with diabetic coma admitted to the clinics of ...

  12. Assessment of refractive astigmatism and simulated therapeutic refractive surgery strategies in coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wen; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to raise the awareness of the influence of coma-like higher-order aberrations (HOAs) on power and orientation of refractive astigmatism (RA) and to explore how to account for that influence in the planning of topography-guided refractive surgery in eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics. Methods Eleven eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics and with low lenticular astigmatism (LA) were selected for astigmatism analysis and f...

  13. Compressed spectral arrays of patients with fulminant hepatic failure in hepatic coma undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Takayuki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Kim, Ildeok; Inomata, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Ohwada, Susumu; Morishita, Yasuo; Tanaka, Koichi

    2002-08-01

    Assessing the coma status of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is important for determining the reversibility of brain damage and for properly timing liver transplantation. The compressed spectral array (CSA) method is a frequency analysis technique that processes electroencephalogram signals by computer to facilitate on-line interpretation. This method has been used to monitor the consciousness levels of neurointensive care unit patients. In this study, we determined whether CSA could be used to assess the coma status of patients with FHF, and whether CSA provided information that was useful in deciding when to proceed with liver transplantation. CSA recording was carried out in 17 FHF patients with encephalopathy (coma grade III-IV) who underwent living-related liver transplantation between August 1997 and May 1999. Recording was performed with a Neuromonitor OEE-72044 (NIHON KOHDEN, Osaka, Japan) every 24 h before and after transplantation, until the patients regained consciousness. The CSAs of healthy controls were distributed almost equally between 0 and 16 Hz. The CSAs of FHF patients in hepatic coma were classified into three patterns. Eight of the 17 patients showed very prominent slow waves of about 2 Hz (group A), and seven patients showed strongly suppressed rapid waves between 8 and 16 Hz (group B). The remaining two patients showed CSA patterns that were similar to those of healthy controls, even though these patients were comatose (group C). Abnormal CSA patterns were observed in 15 of the 17 patients (88%). Group B patients seemed to have higher coma grades than did group A patients. Sixteen patients underwent liver transplantation, completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy, and subsequently showed CSA patterns similar to those of healthy controls. One patient died without regaining consciousness. These results suggest that CSA is useful in assessing the coma status of FHF patients and in evaluating electrophysiological recovery

  14. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard;

    Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves a...... disruption of neuro-muscular performance. It has also been shown that ion homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) is disrupted during chill coma. Neuro-muscular failure associated with chill coma is therefore likely to be caused by direct effects of reduced temperature as well as indirect, force-depressing...

  15. Very deep spectroscopy of the Coma cluster line of sight: exploring new territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, C.; Le Brun, V.; Biviano, A.; Durret, F.; Lamareille, F.; Pelló, R.; Ilbert, O.; Mazure, A.; Trilling, R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Environmental effects are known to have an important influence on cluster galaxies, but studies at very faint magnitudes (R>21) are almost exclusively based on imaging. We present here a very deep spectroscopic survey of galaxies on the line of sight to the Coma cluster. Aims: After a series of papers based on deep multi-band imaging of the Coma cluster, we explore spectroscopically part of the central regions of Coma, in order to confirm and generalize previous results, concerning in particular the galaxy luminosity function, red sequence, stellar populations and the most likely formation scenario for the Coma cluster. Methods: We have obtained reliable VIMOS redshifts for 715 galaxies in the direction of the Coma cluster centre in the unprecedented magnitude range 21 ≤ R ≤ 23, corresponding to the absolute magnitude range -14 ≤ MR ≤ -12. Results: We confirm the substructures previously identified in Coma, and identify three new substructures. We detect a large number of groups behind Coma, in particular a large structure at z 0.5, the SDSS Great Wall, and a large and very young previously unknown structure at z 0.054, which we named the background massive group (BMG). These structures account for the mass maps derived from a recent weak lensing analysis. The orbits of dwarf galaxies are probably anisotropic and radial, and could originate from field galaxies radially falling into the cluster along the numerous cosmological filaments surrounding Coma. Spectral characteristics of Coma dwarf galaxies show that red or absorption line galaxies have larger stellar masses and are older than blue or emission line galaxies. R ≤ 22 galaxies show less prominent absorption lines than R ≥ 22 galaxies. This trend is less clear for field galaxies, which are similar to R ≥ 22 Coma galaxies. This suggests that part of the faint Coma galaxies could have been recently injected from the field following the NGC 4911 group infall. We present a list of five ultra

  16. 3D-QSAR Studies on Barbituric Acid Derivatives as Urease Inhibitors and the Effect of Charges on the Quality of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Ashraf, Sajda; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Barakat, Assem

    2016-01-01

    Urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5) has been determined as a virulence factor in pathogenic microorganisms that are accountable for the development of different diseases in humans and animals. In continuance of our earlier study on the helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by barbituric acid derivatives, 3D-QSAR (three dimensional quantitative structural activity relationship) advance studies were performed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Different partial charges were calculated to examine their consequences on the predictive ability of the developed models. The finest developed model for CoMFA and CoMSIA were achieved by using MMFF94 charges. The developed CoMFA model gives significant results with cross-validation (q²) value of 0.597 and correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.897. Moreover, five different fields i.e., steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic, H-bond acceptor and H-bond donors were used to produce a CoMSIA model, with q² and r² of 0.602 and 0.98, respectively. The generated models were further validated by using an external test set. Both models display good predictive power with r²pred ≥ 0.8. The analysis of obtained CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps provided detailed insight for the promising modification of the barbituric acid derivatives with an enhanced biological activity. PMID:27144563

  17. 3D-QSAR Studies on Barbituric Acid Derivatives as Urease Inhibitors and the Effect of Charges on the Quality of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ul-Haq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5 has been determined as a virulence factor in pathogenic microorganisms that are accountable for the development of different diseases in humans and animals. In continuance of our earlier study on the helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by barbituric acid derivatives, 3D-QSAR (three dimensional quantitative structural activity relationship advance studies were performed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA methods. Different partial charges were calculated to examine their consequences on the predictive ability of the developed models. The finest developed model for CoMFA and CoMSIA were achieved by using MMFF94 charges. The developed CoMFA model gives significant results with cross-validation (q2 value of 0.597 and correlation coefficients (r2 of 0.897. Moreover, five different fields i.e., steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic, H-bond acceptor and H-bond donors were used to produce a CoMSIA model, with q2 and r2 of 0.602 and 0.98, respectively. The generated models were further validated by using an external test set. Both models display good predictive power with r2pred ≥ 0.8. The analysis of obtained CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps provided detailed insight for the promising modification of the barbituric acid derivatives with an enhanced biological activity.

  18. Physicochemical studies of the reaction of (99m)Tc with 5,5'-diethyl barbituric acid, adenine, d-glucose and thiobarbituric acid at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, M S; El-Shahat, M F; Elkholany, A S

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of (99m)Tc pertechnetate with 5,5'-diethyl barbituric acid, adenine, d-glucose and thiobarbituric acid at different temperatures was studied. The solvent effect on the electronic absorption spectra of the reactions was recorded. The reaction mixtures have been analyzed at different times using TLC and a radiodetctor to show the peaks at the plates. (99m)Tc pertechnetate is obtained from the Mo generators. It is difficult to separate the complexes in the solid state. The percentage of (99m)Tc involved in the complexes can be determined. Characterization of the (99m)Tc complexes as well as the determination of the extent of radiolabeling was done by thin layer chromatography using 0.9% NaCl solution as a solvent. The Rf value of (99m)TcO4(-) is (≈1). The solvatochromism for the reaction of (99m)Tc with d-glucose was mainly affected by solute permanent dipole-solvent permanent dipole interaction, the dipolar interaction for the reaction of (99m)Tc with of 5,5'-diethyl barbituric acid and for the reaction of (99m)Tc with adenine and thiobarbituric was solute-solvent hydrogen bonding. PMID:24632174

  19. Design and synthesis of new barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid derivatives as potent urease inhibitors: Structure activity relationship and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Shahzad, Sohail; Bajda, Marek; Yar, Muhammad; Ahmed, Faiz; Hussain, Nazar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Khan, Ajmal; Jończyk, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    In this study 36 new compounds were synthesized by condensing barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and respective anilines (bearing different substituents) in the presence of triethyl orthoformate in good yields. In vitro urease inhibition studies against jack bean urease revealed that barbituric acid derived compounds (1-9 and 19-27) were found to exhibit low to moderate activity however thiobarbituric acid derived compounds (10-18 and 28-36) showed significant inhibition activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds (15), (12), (10), (36), (16) and (35) showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 8.53 ± 0.027, 8.93 ± 0.027, 12.96 ± 0.13, 15 ± 0.098, 18.9 ± 0.027 and 19.7 ± 0.63 μM, respectively, even better than the reference compound thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.011). The compound (11) exhibited comparable activity to the standard with IC50 value 21.83 ± 0.19 μM. In silico molecular docking studies for most active compounds (10), (12), (15), (16), (35) and (36) and two inactive compounds (3) and (6) were performed to predict the binding patterns. PMID:26081763

  20. Particle reacceleration in Coma cluster radio properties and hard X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, G; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G

    2000-01-01

    The radio spectral index map of the Coma halo shows a progressive steepening of the spectral index with increasing radius. Such a steepening cannot be simply justified by models involving continuous injection of fresh particles in the Coma halo or by models involving diffusion of fresh electrons from the central regions. We propose a {\\it two phase} model in which the relativistic electrons injected in the Coma cluster by some processes (starbursts, AGNs, shocks, turbulence) during a {\\it first phase} in the past are systematically reaccelerated during a {\\it second phase} for a relatively long time ($\\sim$ 1 Gyr) up to the present time. We show that for reacceleration time scales of $\\sim 0.1$ Gyr this hypothesis can well account for the radio properties of Coma C. For the same range of parameters which explain Coma C we have calculated the expected fluxes from the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons finding that the hard X-ray tail discovered by BeppoSAX may be accounted for by the stronger reacce...

  1. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF OH AND CN RADICALS IN THE COMA OF COMET ENCKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple potential parent species have been proposed to explain CN abundances in comet comae, but the parent has not been definitively identified for all comets. This study examines the spatial distribution of CN radicals in the coma of comet Encke and determines the likelihood that CN is a photodissociative daughter of HCN in the coma. Comet Encke is the shortest orbital period (3.3 years) comet known and also has a low dust-to-gas ratio based on optical observations. Observations of CN were obtained from 2003 October 22 to 24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. To determine the parent of CN, the classical vectorial model was modified by using a cone shape in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. To test the robustness of the modified model, the spatial distribution of OH was also modeled. This also allowed us to obtain CN/OH ratios in the coma. Overall, we find the CN/OH ratio to be 0.009 ± 0.004. The results are consistent with HCN being the photodissociative parent of CN, but we cannot completely rule out other possible parents such as CH3CN and HC3N. We also found that the fan-like feature spans ∼90°, consistent with the results of Woodney et al..

  2. THE DIFFUSE SOFT EXCESS EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These ROSAT data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ-temporally and spatially contiguous-background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge toward Coma, and generated either by nonthermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves.

  3. HI-deficient spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster and Abell 1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of 11 spiral galaxies in each of the clusters Abell 1367 and Coma (Abell 1656) was observed in the 21-cm H I line with the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope. Nine galaxies are detected in Al367 and three in Coma. Comparison of the quantity log M/sub H/L/sub pg/ for each galaxy with the mean value for its Hubble type from the standard samples of nearby spirals compiled by Balkowski and by Roberts indicates that the A1367 and Coma spirals have lower values of log M/sub H/L/sub pg/ than field spirals by a factor of at least 4, with the Coma values probably more extreme. It is argued that little of this effect (perhaps a factor approx. 1.5) can be attributed to the bias toward high luminosities in the sample, and thus that these spirals are deficient in H I by factors of at least 3 to 5 in comparison with the standard samples. For the present limited sample, several mechanisms seem adequate to account qualitatively for stripping of H I from the Coma cluster spirals, but the case of the A1367 spirals is puzzling. 2 figures

  4. Prognostically important EEG coma patterns in diffuse anoxic and traumatic encephalopathies in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, V M

    1988-04-01

    Because of the paucity in the English literature of a detailed and universally accepted EEG grading scale relating to survival after diffuse traumatic and anoxic brain insults, prognostically oriented EEG patterns including recently described abnormalities are presented and discussed. The significance of these patterns may also apply in cases of coma of other etiologies, which can present morphologically similar features. EEG patterns have been classified into five major grades based on an internationally accepted scale. Individual patterns have been more clearly defined on the basis of the morphology of dominant activities, their distribution, persistence, and reactivity to external stimulation. Favorable outcome with survival seems to occur with both grade 1 and the "reactive type" of grade 2 abnormalities, with preservation of normal sleep features, and with frontal monorhythmic delta activity. Prognostically uncertain patterns are "nonreactive" grade 2 abnormalities, diffuse delta activity with grade 3 abnormality, and the "reactive type of alpha pattern coma." The following patterns are suggested to be prognostically malignant if persistent: grade 3 abnormality with small amplitude, diffuse, irregular delta activity; grade 4 ("burst suppression pattern"), in particular when epileptiform discharges are present and with "low-output EEG"; and grade 5 ("isoelectric EEG"). Fatal outcome is also common with the "nonreactive type of alpha pattern coma" and the recently reported "theta pattern coma." These patterns are presented in the illustrations. It is intended that this more detailed subdivision will promote understanding between electroencephalographers using visual EEG assessment in cases of coma. PMID:3074973

  5. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Mortensen, P B; Bendtsen, F

    1991-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids cause reversible coma in animals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the hepatic coma in humans. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in peripheral venous blood were significantly elevated in 15 patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by cirrhosis (362 +/- 83 mumol/L; mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 17 cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy (178 +/- 57 mumol/L) and 11 normal individuals (60 +/- 8 mumol/L). However, no correlation between the depth of coma and the level of short-chain fatty acids was found after repetitive measurements in the coma group. Compared with normal individuals, all short-chain fatty acids, except valerate, were elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, whereas only the concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in 21 nonencephalopathic cirrhotic patients who underwent catheterization were equally distributed in the aorta (187 +/- 56 mumol/L), the hepatic vein (212 +/- 75 mumol/L), the azygos vein (140 +/- 37 mumol/L) and the renal vein (135 +/- 43 mumol/L) compared with peripheral venous blood (178 +/- 57 mumol/L). This study does not support the idea that short-chain fatty acids are of major importance in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:1959851

  6. Non-Doppler Redshift and Dark Matter in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi-Jia

    2013-01-01

    In 1929 Zwicky proposed a tired light theory to interpret the Hubble law (Hubble 1929). The key of the tired light theory is to interpret the observed redshift of galaxy as the non-Doppler effect. But the derivation of the dark matter in the Coma cluster proposed by Zwicky in 1933 was based on the interpretation that redshifts of galaxies were the Doppler effect, and the non-Doppler effect was not considered at all. However, if there is a reasonable non-Doppler effect and the great majority of the observed redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster can be interpreted by the non-Doppler effect, then it's not needed to introduce the dark matter in the Coma cluster to keep the stability of the cluster. In this paper it is shown that the great majority of the redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster are caused by the non-Doppler redshift proposed by Zheng (2013), and a numerical estimation of the redshifts of galaxies in the Coma cluster is presented.

  7. 1-Benzyl-2-methyl-3-indolylmethylene barbituric acid derivatives: Anti-cancer agents that target nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Ketkar, Amit; Sekhar, Konjeti R; Freeman, Michael L; Eoff, Robert L; Balusu, Ramesh; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, we have designed and synthesized a series of 1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-indolylmethylene barbituric acid analogs (7a-7h) and 1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-indolylmethylene thiobarbituric acid analogs (7 i-7 l) as nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) inhibitors and have evaluated them for their anti-cancer activity against a panel of 60 different human cancer cell lines. Among these analogs 7 i, 7 j, and 7 k demonstrated potent growth inhibitory effects in various cancer cell types with GI50 values <2 μM. Compound 7 k exhibited growth inhibitory effects on a sub-panel of six leukemia cell lines with GI50 values in the range 0.22-0.35 μM. Analog 7 i also exhibited GI50 values <0.35 μM against three of the leukemia cell lines in the sub-panel. Analogs 7 i, 7 j, 7 k and 7 l were also evaluated against the mutant NPM1 expressing OCI-AML3 cell line and compounds 7 k and 7 l were found to cause dose-dependent apoptosis (AP50 = 1.75 μM and 3.3 μM, respectively). Compound 7k also exhibited potent growth inhibition against a wide variety of solid tumor cell lines: that is, A498 renal cancer (GI50 = 0.19 μM), HOP-92 and NCI-H522 lung cancer (GI50 = 0.25 μM), COLO 205 and HCT-116 colon cancer (GI50 = 0.20 and 0.26 μM, respectively), CNS cancer SF-539 (GI50 = 0.22 μM), melanoma MDA-MB-435 (GI50 = 0.22 μM), and breast cancer HS 578T (GI50 = 0.22 μM) cell lines. Molecular docking studies suggest that compounds 7 k and 7 l exert their anti-leukemic activity by binding to a pocket in the central channel of the NPM1 pentameric structure. These results indicate that the small molecule inhibitors 7 i, 7 j, 7 k, and 7 l could be potentially developed into anti-NPM1 drugs for the treatment of a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. PMID:26602084

  8. An analysis of CCD images of the coma of Comet Halley. Final report, October 1989-September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of selected CCD images of the coma of comet P/Halley is presented. The images were taken using specially designed filters that isolate regions of a comet's spectrum such that only sunlight which has been scattered by the dust in the coma is recorded. The modeling analysis objective is to make use of the skills developed in the development of Monte Carlo particle trajectory models for the distributions of gas species in cometary comae and to use those models as a basis for a new dust coma model. This model will include a self-consistant picture of the time-dependent dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma and the three-dimensional time-dependent trajectories of the dust particles under the influence of solar gravity and solar radiation pressure in the outer coma. The model is intended to be used as a tool to analyze selected images from the two sets of CCD images with the hope that it will help the understanding of the effects of a number of important processes on the spatial morphology of the observed dust coma. The processes of importance to the observed dust coma include: (1) the dust particle size distribution function; (2) the terminal velocities of various sized dust particles in the inner coma; (3) the radiation scattering properties of dust particles, which are important both in terms of the observe scattered radiation and the radiation pressure acceleration on dust particles; (4) the fragmentation and/or vaporization of dust particles; and (5) the relative importance of CHON and silicate dust particles as they contribute both to the dusty-gasdynamics in the inner coma (that produce the dust particle terminal velocities) and to the observed spatial morphology on the outer dust coma

  9. Glasgow Coma Scale, brain electric activity mapping and Glasgow Outcome Scale after hyperbaric oxygen treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of severe brain injury.Methods: Fifty-five patients were divided into a treatment group (n = 35 receiving HBO therapy ) and a control group (n = 20 receiving dehydrating, cortical steroid and antibiotic therapy) to observe the alteration of clinic GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), prognosis and GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale) before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment.Results: In the treatment group GCS, BEAM and GOS were improved obviously after 3 courses of treatment,GCS increased from 5.1 to 14.6 ( P < 0.01-0.001 ), the BEAM abnormal rate reduced from 94.3% to 38% (P <0.01-0.001 ), the GOS good-mild disability rate was 83.7%, and the middle-severe disability rate was 26.3%compared with the control group. There was a statistic significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01-0.001).Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment could improve obviously GCS, BEAM and GOS of severe brain injury patients, and effectively reduce the mortality and morbidity. It is an effective method to treat severe brain injury. two g

  10. Glasgow coma scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplas-Sušić Tonka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS interventions. Methods. A prospective observational study included all poisoning-related intervention cases over 3 years (1999-2001 in the Celje region, Slovenia, covering 125,000 inhabitants. Data were recorded on an EMS form. Results. Psychoactive agents were present in 56.5% out of 244 poisoning-related EMS interventions. Prescription drugs were a cause of intoxication in 93 (39.2% cases alone or in combination with alcohol or illegal drugs. More than one fifth of poisonings were due to the use of illegal drugs in 52 (21.9% cases, 43 (18.1% out of them heroin related. At the time of EMS arrival, more patients who ingested illegal drugs were in coma or comatose than the rest. 24 (45.3% vs. 32 (17.3% of poisoned patients were in coma (p<0.001. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS at the first contact was lower in patients who ingested illegal drugs than in the remaining patients (9.0 vs. 11.6, p=0.001. In 23.2% of the cases, an antidote was administered. In 29 (12.2% naloxone and in 16 (6.7% flumazenil was administered. Mean GCS after intervention was higher in all cases but significantly higher in illegal drug cases, 13.4 vs. 12.2 (p=0.001, with a mean positive change in GCS of 4.5 vs. 0.6 (p<0.001. In illegal drug users, mean change after antidote administration was 8.2 vs. 0.5 without antidote administration (p<0.001. Conclusion. High rate of successful antidote use during the intervention indicated the importance of good EMS protocols and the presence of a skilled doctor in the EMS team.

  11. Very deep spectroscopy of the Coma cluster line of sight: exploring new territories

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Biviano, A; Durret, F; Lamareille, F; Pellò, R; Ilbert, O; Mazure, A; Trilling, R; Ulmer, M P

    2009-01-01

    Environmental effects have an important influence on cluster galaxies, but studies at very faint magnitudes (R>21) are almost exclusively based on imaging. We present here a very deep spectroscopic survey of galaxies on the line of sight to Coma, based on redshifts obtained with VLT/VIMOS for 715 galaxies in the unprecedented magnitude range 2122 galaxies. This trend is less clear for field galaxies, suggesting that part of the faint Coma galaxies could have been recently injected from the field following the NGC 4911 group infall. We present a list of five Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxy candidates. We also globally confirm spectroscopically our previous results on the galaxy lumin osity functions and find that dwarf galaxies follow a red sequence similar to that drawn by bright galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are very abundant in Coma, and are partly field galaxies that have fallen onto the cluster along filaments.

  12. H-alpha observations of spiral galaxies in Cancer, A1367, and Coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used large aperture Hα photometry of 65 spiral galaxies in the Cancer, Coma, and Abell 1367 clusters to compare the ionized-gas contents and star-formation rates in cluster and field spirals. Overall, we do not observe any significant deficiency of Hα emission in the cluster members. Emission strength correlates strongly with integrated galaxy colors, but only weakly with H I content. All three clusters contain several galaxies with unusually strong Hα emission, including several H I-poor objects in Coma and A1367. Thus, spirals which appear ''anemic'' in their morphology or exhibit weak Hα emission are not necessarily H I poor; conversely, H I poor spirals can show strong Hα emission, indicating relatively high current star-formation rates. Gas depletion time scales for some objects in the core of Coma are significantly shorter than the field, indicating rapid stellar and gaseous evolution

  13. Chameleonic contribution to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich radial profile of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constrain the chameleonic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (CSZ) effect in the Coma cluster from measurements of the Coma radial profile presented in the WMAP 7-year results. The CSZ effect arises from the interaction of a scalar (or pseudoscalar) particle with the cosmic microwave background in the magnetic field of galaxy clusters. We combine this radial profile data with SZ measurements towards the center of the Coma cluster in different frequency bands, to find ΔTSZ,RJ(0)=-410±50 μK and ΔTCSZ204GHz(0) > or approx. -50 μK (at 95% confidence) for the thermal SZ and CSZ effects in the cluster, respectively. This leads to an estimated bound on the photon to scalar (or pseudoscalar) coupling strength of geff -10 GeV-1.

  14. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived

  15. Prognosis in prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury assessed by somatosensory evoked potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujue Zheng; Mantao Chen; Jingqi Li; Fei Cao

    2013-01-01

    A total of 43 prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury received the somatosensory evoked potential examination one month after injury in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in China. Somatosensory evoked potentials were graded as normal, abnormal or absent (grades I–III) according to N20 amplitude and central conduction time. The outcome in patients with grade III somatosensory evoked potential was in each case unfavorable. The prognostic accuracy of grade III somatosensory evoked potential for unfavorable and non-awakening outcome was 100% and 80%, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of grade I somatosensory evoked potential for favorable and wakening outcome was 86% and 100%, respectively. These results suggest that somatosensory evoked potential grade is closely correlated with coma severity and degree of recovery. Somatosensory evoked potential is a valuable diagnostic tool to assess prognosis in prolonged coma patients with diffuse axonal injury.

  16. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P., E-mail: David.Kraljic@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  17. Cometary models - excitation of molecules at radio wavelengths and thermodynamics of the coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for molecular excitation under physical conditions of cometary atmospheres are obviously a requisite for interpreting radio spectroscopic observations of comets. A review of such models is presented. The prevailing excitation mechanism for the rotational lines of parent molecules is pumping of the fundamental vibrational bands by the solar infrared radiation field, followed by spontaneous decay; the molecular rotational population is then at fluorescence equilibrium. Another competing mechanism in the inner coma is thermal excitation by collisions. Its evaluation needs the knowledge of the coma kinetic temperature law, which up to now can only be achieved by modeling the coma thermodynamics. A review of cometary thermodynamical models is also given here, and the relations between such models and cometary molecular observations are discussed. 50 references

  18. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.; Merafina, M.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by ΛCDM cosmology. Aims: We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large and rich cluster of galaxies. Methods: We base our work on recent observational data on the Coma cluster, and apply our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius RZG of the local force field as the key parameter. Results: 1) Three masses are defined that characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass MM, the dark-energy effective mass MDE (antigravity affects the structure of the Coma cluster strongly at large radii R ≳ 14 Mpc and should be considered when its total mass is derived.

  19. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Neal A; Mobasher, Bahram; Bridges, Terry J; Hudson, Michael J; Marzke, Ronald O; Smith, Russell J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function (RLF) and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies. Our VLA data reach down to log(L) = 20.23 W/Hz for Coma, and we associate 249 sources with optical counterparts from the SDSS. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between AGN and star-forming galaxies (SFG). The radio-detected SFG are the dominant population only for ~21 ~ 22.48 W/Hz) and low (log(L) <~ 21 W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to log(L) = 19.48. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ~ -14) dw arf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy Associated With Cancer or Anticancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, Kaspar J.; Nott, Louise M.; Broadbridge, Vy T.; Price, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is an uncommon cause of neurologic deterioration associated with hyperammonemia, which results from hepatic dysfunction or altered ammonia metabolism. Often overlooked, hyperammonemia may occur via any of several pathophysiological processes, and in the setting of malignancy, it is a potentially reversible cause of confusion and coma. Hepatic dysfunction as a result of malignant infiltration, chemotherapeutic toxicities, targeted anticancer therapies, reactivation hepat...

  1. DEEP ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT THE INFALL REGION OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to MUV = –10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (α ≈ –1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of α ≈ –1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than α = –1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at MUV ≈ –14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M* = 108 M☉. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  2. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  3. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  4. Results from the worldwide coma morphology campaign for comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Knight, Matthew M.; Farnham, Tony L.; Briol, John; Brosch, Noah; Caruso, John; Gao, Xing; Gomez, Edward; Lister, Tim; Hergenrother, Carl; Hoban, Susan; Prouty, Roy; Holloway, Mike; Howes, Nick; Guido, Ernesto; Hui, Man-To; Jones, Joseph H.; Penland, Tyler B.; Thomas, Samuel R.; Wyrosdick, Jim; Kiselev, Nikolai; Ivanova, Aleksandra V.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Eluo, Jean-Baptist Kikwaya; Lau, Betty P. S.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Martin, José Luis; Moskvitin, Alexander S.; Nicolini, Martino; Ottum, Brian D.; Pruzenski, Chris; Vogel, David C.; Kellett, Leo; Rapson, Valerie; Schmid, Joel; Doyle, Brandon; Dimino, Frank; Carlino, Stephanie; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sutaria, Firoza; Schleicher, David G.; Snodgrass, Colin; Tezcan, Cihan T.; Yorukoglu, Onur; Trowbridge, David; Whitmer, Dennis; Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during comet ISON's pre-perihelion leg. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was likely present from at least February through May and did not show variations on diurnal time scales. From these images we constrain the grain velocities to ~10 m s-1, and we find that the grains spent 2-4 weeks in the sunward side prior to merging with the dust tail. We present a rationale for the lack of continuum coma features from September until mid-November 2013, determining that if the feature from the first half of 2013 was present, it was likely too small to be clearly detected. We also analyze the continuum coma morphology observed subsequent to the November 12 outburst, and constrain the first appearance of new features in the continuum to later than November 13.99 UT.

  5. The Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae in 2013: Magnetic field and activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ana P.; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Aurière, Michel; Petit, Pascal; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2014-08-01

    We have observed the giant star 31 Comae in April and May 2013 with the spectropolarimeter Narval at Pic du Midi Observatory, France. 31 Comae is a single, rapidly rotating giant with rotational period ~6.8 d and vsini ~ 67 km/s. We present measurements and discuss variability of the longitudinal magnetic field (Bl), spectral activity indicators Hα, CaII H&K, Ca II IR triplet and evolutionary status. Our future aim is to perform a Zeeman-Doppler imaging study for the star.

  6. Near infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and in the cancer cluster. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new near infrared observations of 110 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and 40 galaxies in the Cancer cluster. These observations are part of an on-going investigation of the properties of normal galaxies and of their near-IR emission, which aims at obtaining homogeneous, multifrequency data for a large sample of galaxies in different density environments. The addition of these observations to the sample presented in Gavazzi and Trinchieri raises the number of Coma/A1367 galaxies with near-IR data to 275. Our measurements, together with data published by Bothun et al, give a sample of 45 spirals in the Cancer cluster

  7. Inner coma imaging of Comet Levy (1990c) with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feldman, P. D.; Arpigny, C.; Baum, W. A.; Brandt, J. C.; Light, R. M.; Westphal, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    HST observations of Comet Levy at geocentric and heliocentric distances of about 1 AU show a highly asymmetrical coma in which the sunward-facing hemisphere is brighter than the tailward one by a factor of 2; this is in keeping with dayside volatile sublimation. Radial brightness profiles perpendicular to the sun-comet line are found to be highly symmetric about the nucleus. Detailed image analysis reveals indications of a hemispherical dust arc which propagates through the coma at an average projected velocity of about 0.16 km/sec. It is suggested that periodic occurrences of such dust arcs could account for the temporal variability in IUE continuum photometry.

  8. Coma-type radio halos and cluster x-ray morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is pointed out that there seems to be a characteristic x-ray morphology for clusters with Coma-type radio halos. This correlation may be the first evidence that the conditions conducive to formation of a radio halo influence or are influenced by the thermal gas distribution. It is suggested that heating of the intracluster gas by the cosmic rays that power the radio halo may be the source of the correlation. The anomalous gas temperature of Coma may be the result of this process. Future observations of cluster temperatures and velocity dispersions should provide a test of the cosmic-ray heating hypothesis

  9. Repeatability of the Dust and Gas Morphological Structures in the Coma of Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Samarasinha, N. H.; Ojha, L.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2013-10-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is the most famous comet in history and has been observed for over two millennia, making it one of the most extensively studied comets. The morphology in the coma of comet 1P/Halley originates due to the activity at the nucleus and could be used as a probe of the nuclear rotation and the activity. We will present the results from a study summarizing the evolution of coma morphology of comet 1P/Halley observed from ground between October 1985 and June 1986. The results to be presented include analysis of dust features as well as gas (CN) features in the coma and comparisons will be made between their spatial and temporal evolution. About 80 CN images and 300 continuum images from the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System were analyzed using image enhancement techniques that were not available n the 1980s. This enables us to see coma structure never observed before in comet 1P/Halley. Because of the comet's proximity to Earth, most of our best signal-to-noise images were taken in the March-April interval of 1986. Despite the limited coverage of preceding and following months, there is a sufficient number of images to monitor morphological evolution over many months. The initial synodic periods as a function of time used to phase the images together were extrapolated from the lightcurves of the active coma (Schleicher et al. 1990, AJ, 100, 896-912). We will present the periods of repeatability of individual coma features measured using the position angle at different spatial distances from the nucleus in adjacent cycles. Separate features appear to have slightly different periods of repeatability, perhaps depending on the corresponding source regions on the nucleus and/or projection effects. The periods of repeatability of coma morphologies will be presented as a function of time from the perihelion. These results will ultimately be used in detailed modeling of the coma morphologies of comet 1P/Halley over the 1985-1986 apparition in

  10. HST detection of spiral structure in two Coma Cluster dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, A W; Guzmán, R; Graham, Alister W.; Jerjen, Helmut; Guzman, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of (stellar) spiral-like structure in Hubble Space Telescope images of two dwarf galaxies (GMP 3292 and GMP 3629) belonging to the Coma cluster. GMP 3629 is the faintest such galaxy detected in a cluster environment, and it is the first such galaxy observed in the dense Coma cluster. The large bulge and the faintness of the broad spiral-like pattern in GMP 3629 suggests that its disk may have been largely depleted. >We may therefore have found an example of the ``missing link'' in theories of galaxy evolution which have predicted that dwarf spiral galaxies, particularly in clusters, evolve into dwarf elliptical galaxies.

  11. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score: a new scoring system for the Coma Recovery Scale-revised for assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Minati, Ludovico; Rossi, Davide; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-12-01

    The differential diagnosis between vegetative state and minimally conscious state is still complex and the development of an evaluation systems is one of the challenging tasks for researchers and professionals. The Coma Recovery Scale-revised is considered the gold standard for clinical/behavioral assessment and for the differential diagnosis of patients with disorder of consciousness. However, the scale presents some limitations in that (i) scores may partially overlap between different diagnoses and (ii) there is an underlying assumption that if a patient is able to show higher-level behaviors, he/she is also able to show lower-level responses. In the present study, a procedure to calculate a modified Coma Recovery Scale-revised score is presented that attempts to avoid these problems. To exemplify this new scoring approach, 60 patients with disorder of consciousness were studied and the results showed the usefulness of the Modified Score. PMID:26465775

  12. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  13. Evaluation of the incidence and risk of hypoglycemic coma associated with selection of basal insulin in the treatment of diabetes: a Finnish register linkage study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Hoti, Fabian; Erästö, Panu; Saukkonen, Tero; Mäkimattila, Sari; Korhonen, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Long-acting basal insulin analogs have demonstrated positive effects on the balance between effective glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in randomized controlled trials. Evidence of severe hypoglycemic risk with insulin detemir, insulin glargine, or NPH insulin is presented from a nationwide retrospective database study. Research design and methods Data from hospital and secondary healthcare visits due to hypoglycemic coma from 75 682 insulin-naïve type 1 or 2 diabetes patients initiating therapy with NPH insulin, insulin glargine, or insulin detemir in Finland between 2000 and 2009 were analyzed. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox's regression with adjustments for relevant background variables. Results The adjusted risk of hospital/secondary healthcare visits due to the first severe hypoglycemic event was 21.7% (95% CI 9.6–32.1%, p < 0.001) lower for insulin detemir and 9.9% (95% CI 1.5–17.6%, p = 0.022) lower for insulin glargine versus NPH insulin. Risk of hypoglycemic coma recurrence was 36.3% (95% CI 8.9–55.5%, p = 0.014) lower for detemir and 9.5% but not significantly (95% CI −10.2 to 25.7%, p = 0.318) lower for glargine versus NPH insulin. Risk of all hypoglycemic coma events was 30.8% (95% CI 16.2–42.8%, p-value <0.001) lower for detemir and 15.6% (95% CI 5.1–25.0%, p-value 0.005) lower for glargine versus NPH. Insulin detemir had a significantly lower risk for first (13.1% lower [p = 0.034]), recurrent (29.6% lower [p = 0.021]), and all (17.9% lower [p = 0.016]) severe hypoglycemic events than insulin glargine. Conclusions There were considerable differences in risk of hospitalization or secondary healthcare visits due to hypoglycemic coma between basal insulin treatments in real-life clinical practice. PMID:24150837

  14. The role of regional nerve block anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: an experimental comparison with previous series with the use of general anesthesia and barbiturates for cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrifoglio, G; Agus, G B; Bonalumi, F; Costantini, A; Carlesi, R

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of 60 cases divided into two groups given carotid endarterectomy (C.E.) for atherosclerotic disease. In the first group general anesthesia and barbiturate cerebral protection were employed; in group two, loco-regional anesthesia. Indications and risk factors were similar in the two groups; the surgical procedure was identical. The differences in the results are reported and factors contributing to cerebral protection or reduction in the risk of stroke are analyzed. The analysis indicates that loco-regional anesthesia for C.E. is a reliable method for detecting cerebral ischemia and guaranteeing cerebral protection by means of a temporary shunt when strictly necessary. PMID:3450753

  15. Formation of C═C bond via knoevenagel reaction between aromatic aldehyde and barbituric acid at liquid/HOPG and vapor/HOPG interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanfang; Dai, Hongliang; Chang, Shaoqing; Hu, Fangyun; Zeng, Qingdao; Wang, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Controlling chemical reactions on surface is of great importance to constructing self-assembled covalent nanostructures. Herein, Knoevenagel reaction between aromatic aldehyde compound 2,5-di(5-aldehyde-2-thienyl)-1,4-dioctyloxybenzene (PT2) and barbituric acid (BA) has been successfully performed for the first time at liquid/HOPG interface and vapor/HOPG interface. The resulting surface nanostructures and the formation of C═C bond are recorded through scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectrometer and UV-vis absorption. The obtained results reveal that Knoevenagel condensation reaction can efficiently occur at both interfaces. This surface reaction would be an important step toward further reaction to produce innovative conjugated nanomaterial on the surface. PMID:25664650

  16. 5-(2-Cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB): correlation of hypnotic and convulsant properties with alterations of synaptosomal 45Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male ICR mice were given either 5-(2-cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB) alone or CHEB after a 1 h pretreatment with phenobarbital CHEB alone produced excitatory behavior but not convulsive seizures. Higher doses produced convulsive seizures resulting in death. Pretreatment with phenobarbital prevented seizure activity. In vitro, CHEB significantly inhibited 'fast-phase' K+-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake into cerebrocortical synaptosomes. CHEB also significantly increased basal 45Ca2+ uptake. The addition of CHEB or pentobarbital to striatal synaptosomes inhibited 'fast-phase' K+-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake and endogenous dopamine release. CHEB, but not pentobarbital, produced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the resulting release of endogenous dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. The results of this study show that CHEB possesses hypnotic activity if its lethal convulsant actions are blocked. The hypnotic actions of CHEB appear to correlate with inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in brain synaptosomes. (Auth.)

  17. The Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Pre- and Post- Equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Altwegg, Kathrin; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, Andre; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Calmonte, Ursina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combi, Mike; Dekeyser, Johan; Debout, Vincent; Erard, Stephane; Fiethe, Bjorn; Fillacchione, Gianrico; Fink, Uwe; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Hassig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Leroy, Lena; Leyrat, Cedric; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Giovanna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Shou, Yinsi

    2016-04-01

    As the Rosetta spacecraft escorts comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) during its journey in the Solar System, it monitors the evolution of the neutrals' distribution in the coma of 67P. Indeed, while the comet orbits around the Sun, the energy input received by the different regions of the nucleus varies, directly impacting 67P's outgassing pattern. We model the H2O, CO2, and CO coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) pre- and post- equinox using a 3D Direct Monte-Carlo Simulation approach. The use of a kinetic method enables us to model the coma from the nucleus' surface to a few hundreds of kilometers even in the regions where collisions cannot maintain a fluid regime. The activity at the surface of the nucleus is described using a spherical harmonic expansion with 25 terms constrained by ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) observations. The model outputs contain information about numerous macroscopic parameters such as number densities, velocities, and temperatures of each species. Then, the results from the simulations are integrated along the line of sight to be compared with the remote sensing observations from the VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. The model shows a good agreement with the data, giving a clear evidence of our understanding of the physics of the coma of comet 67P.

  18. [Coma and resolution in wide spectral region Czerny-Turner spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan-Xuan; Yang, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ke-Xin; Tan, Qiao-Feng; Jin, Guo-Fan

    2010-06-01

    The Czerny-Turner layout, which is most frequently used in miniature spectrometers, should follow Shafer's coma-free condition and Fastie's flat-field principal to eliminate the central wave's primary coma and maximize its resolution. However, the design process does not take the comas and resolutions at non-central waves into consideration. Based on the theory of primary coma in reflection optical system, the present paper points out that in the crossed beam design, the resolutions at wide 'spectral region present a "V" shape, while in the M design, the resolutions change little over the whole region, and present an approximately straight line shape, so the latter kind of spectrometer maintains a far more consistent resolution than the former one. Accordingly, this paper designs two kinds of spectrometers with spectrum regions from 400 to 600 nm, and carries out theoretical simulation and contrast experiment. The result demonstrates that for the two designs the resolutions at the fringe wavelength are 3.8 times and 1.5 times respectively that at the central wavelength, which accords with the conclusion of the theoretical simulation. PMID:20707178

  19. Neutral and ionized gas distribution in and around the radio galaxy Coma A

    OpenAIRE

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Wills, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    HI absorption has been detected with the WSRT against both lobes of the radio galaxy Coma A. This radio galaxy could be expanding in a particularly gas rich environment, perhaps the result from interactions/mergers between the dominant giant galaxy (associated with the radio galaxy) and less massive galaxies in the same group.

  20. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in Coma. Also we find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3x10^5 M_odot. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions (LF) of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70<(V-I)<1.05) in the halo are estimated to be V(max) =27.11+-0.09 mag and I(max)=26.21+-0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max)=26.25+-0.03 mag. Adopting M_I (max) = -8.56+-0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies, 91+-4 Mpc. Combining this and the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, ...

  1. The dynamical state of the Coma cluster with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, D M; Pratt, G W; Briel, U G

    2003-01-01

    We present in this paper a substructure and spectroimaging study of the Coma cluster of galaxies based on XMM-Newton data. XMM-Newton performed a mosaic of observations of Coma to ensure a large coverage of the cluster. We add the different pointings together and fit elliptical beta-models to the data. We subtract the cluster models from the data and look for residuals, which can be interpreted as substructure. We find several significant structures: the well-known subgroup connected to NGC4839 in the South-West of the cluster, and another substructure located between NGC 4839 and the centre of the Coma cluster. Constructing a hardness ratio image, which can be used as a temperature map we see that in front of this new structure the temperature is significantly increased (higher or equal 10 keV). We interpret this temperature enhancement as the result of heating as this structure falls onto the Coma cluster. We furthermore reconfirm the filament-like structure South-East of the cluster centre. This region is ...

  2. Dust in Cometary Comae: Present Understanding of the Structure and Composition of Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Zolensky, M.; Lasue, J.

    2007-01-01

    In situ probing of a very few cometary comae has shown that dust particles present a low albedo and a low density, and that they consist of both rocky material and refractory organics. Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust provide information on the properties of dust particles in the coma of a larger set of comets. The observations of the linear polarization in the coma indicate that the dust particles are irregular, with a size greater (on the average) than about one micron. Besides, they suggest, through numerical and experimental simulations, that both compact grains and fluffy aggregates (with a power law of the size distribution in the -2.6 to -3 range), and both rather transparent silicates and absorbing organics are present in the coma. Recent analysis of the cometary dust samples collected by the Stardust mission provide a unique ground truth and confirm, for comet 81P/Wild 2, the results from remote sensing observations. Future space missions to comets should, in the next decade, lead to a more precise characterization of the structure and composition of cometary dust particles.

  3. H-ATLAS: The Far-Infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, C; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Eales, S; Bourne, N; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Furlanetto, C; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Maddox, S; Sansom, A; Michalowski, M J; Davis, T

    2016-01-01

    We describe a far infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of $\\sim$150 deg$^2$ observed by $Herschel$ H-ATLAS in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500$\\mu$m. The SDSS spectroscopic survey ($m_{r} \\le 17.8)$ is used to define an area (within the Virial radius) and redshift selected ($4268 < v < 9700$ km s$^{-1}$) sample of 744 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue (CCC). For comparison we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue (CFC). The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13\\%) and 422 of 951 (44\\%) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250$\\mu$m band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We ...

  4. A turn-over in the galaxy luminosity function of the coma cluster core?

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Durret, F; Nichol, R C; Mazure, A; Holden, B P; Romer, A K; Savine, C

    2000-01-01

    Our previous study of the faint end (R$\\leq$21.5) of the galaxy luminosity function (GLF) was based on spectroscopic data in a small region near the Coma cluster center. In this previous study Adami et al. (1998) suggested, with moderate statistical significance, that the number of galaxies actually belonging to the cluster was much smaller than expected. This led us to increase our spectroscopic sample. Here, we have improved the statistical significance of the results of the Coma GLF faint end study (R$\\leq$22.5) by using a sample of 85 redshifts. This includes both new spectroscopic data and a literature compilation. The relatively small number of faint galaxies belonging to Coma that was suggested by Adami et al. (1998) and Secker et al. (1998) has been confirmed with these new observations. We also confirm that the color-magnitude relation is not well suited for finding the galaxies inside the Coma cluster core, close to the center at magnitudes fainter than R$\\sim$19. We show that there is an enhancemen...

  5. FAST MOTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE COMA I CLOUD: A CASE OF DARK ATTRACTOR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We note that nearby galaxies having high negative peculiar velocities are distributed over the sky very inhomogeneously. A part of this anisotropy is caused by the 'Local Velocity Anomaly', i.e., by the bulk motion of nearby galaxies away from the Local Void. However, half of the fast-flying objects reside within a small region known as the Coma I cloud. According to Makarov and Karachentsev, this complex contains 8 groups, 5 triplets, 10 pairs, and 83 single galaxies with a total mass of 4.7 × 1013 M☉. We use 122 galaxies in the Coma I region with known distances and radial velocities VLG –1 to draw the Hubble relation for them. The Hubble diagram shows a Z-shaped effect of infall with an amplitude of +200 km s–1 on the nearby side and –700 km s–1 on the back side. This phenomenon can be understood as the galaxy infall toward a dark attractor with a mass of ∼2 × 1014 M☉ situated at a distance of 15 Mpc from us. The existence of a large void between the Coma and Virgo clusters also probably affects the Hubble flow around the Coma I.

  6. Observations of the Coma cluster (A 1656) at the frequency of 102.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of observations at 102.5 MHz of the Coma cluster with Lebedev Physical Institute radio telescopes are presented. The brightness distribution map with the resolution of 48'x26' and the brightness strip distribution with the resolution of 10' have been obtained. Total flux and the size of Coma C radio source have been measured as well as fluxes of extended radio halo of the radio galaxies NGC 4869 and NGC 4874 and of ''pseudo-halo'' have been evaluated. The flux S of the radio halo is (26+-4) Jy at 102.5 MHz and its size is approximately 35'x25'. Near Coma C there is one more extended radio source with steep spectrum (Ssub(102.5)=(7+-2) Jy, α approximately 1.1.). The large extension of radio halo can't be explained by the fast diffusion of relativistic particles in the intergalactic medium of the Coma cluster. Therefore the suggestion on reacceleration of relativistic particles from the conter to the periphery of radio halo is implied

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in the column density distribution of comet Halley's CN coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Rita; Schlosser, W.; Meisser, W.; Koczet, P.; Celnik, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Mean radial column density profiles of comet P/Halley's CN coma were derived by combining photographic and photoelectric observations. The shape of the profiles as well as their temporal variations were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of other CN observations of the comet.

  8. High-sensitivity radio observations of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio observations of the Coma cluster of galaxies, performed at 326 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and at 1.4 GHz with the Very Large Array, are presented. Of the 31 radio-emitting galaxies identified, 29 belong to the Coma cluster. Detailed maps are given of the extended low-brightness structures present in the Coma cluster, i.e., the central halo source Coma C and the peripheral extended source 1253 + 275. A very low brightness bridge connecting them is revealed for the first time. CCD images are presented for 11 radio-emitting galaxies, and optical core radii are derived for the ellipticals and cDs. It is found that the probability of forming radio-emitting E galaxies is not related to their radial distance, while S galaxies within 0.5 R(A) of the center have a larger probability of showing radio activity. A statistical analysis of the spectral index distribution of the field radio sources is performed to search for steep-spectrum sources. 59 refs

  9. Modeling Cometary Coma with a Three Dimensional, Anisotropic Multiple Scattering Distributed Processing Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Chris B.

    1997-01-01

    Development of camera and instrument simulations for space exploration requires the development of scientifically accurate models of the objects to be studied. Several planned cometary missions have prompted the development of a three dimensional, multi-spectral, anisotropic multiple scattering model of cometary coma.

  10. Course of fracture-dislocation of the hip during coma: value of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a case of repeated dislocation of a fracture-dislocation of the hip, despite effective traction in a comatose patient, the authors emphasise the value of computed tomography in the initial assessment of traumatic lesions of the hip. They also stress the value of repeating this examination during the course of the coma

  11. Communication Opportunities via Special Messaging Technology for Two Post-Coma Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; de Pace, Claudia; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a special messaging technology with two additional post-coma adults who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, but showed multiple disabilities including profound motor and communication impairments. For each participant, the study involved an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  12. Discovery of intergalactic radio emission in the Coma-A1367 supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coma cluster is a rich cluster of galaxies nested in an even larger super cluster of galaxies. The plane of the supercluster seems to be defined by the Coma cluster itself and another galaxy cluster, Abell 1367, which lies ∼ 40 Mpc farther west. The largest structures known are the giant voids and superclusters which are as large as 70h75-1 Mpc (refs 3-5). The Coma cluster of galaxies seems to be located on the rim of a giant void in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies. Here we describe the detection of faint, supercluster-scale radio emission at 326 MHz that extends between the Coma cluster of galaxies and the Abell 1367 cluster and which is apparently not associated with any individual galaxy system in the complex. The radiation's synchrotron origin implies the existence of a large-scale intercluster magnetic field with an estimated strength of 0.3-0.6 μG, which is remarkably strong. The synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons cannot be older than a few times 108 yr, but we speculate that the magnetic field is the fossil of a pre-galactic primaeval field, which was amplified in the course of the formation of intergalactic voids and superclusters. (author)

  13. H-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Sansom, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Davis, T.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a far-infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of ˜150 deg2 observed by Herschel H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm. The SDSS spectroscopic survey (mr ≤ 17.8) is used to define an area (within the virial radius) and redshift selected (4268 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue. For comparison, we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue. The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far-infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13 per cent) and 422 of 951 (44 per cent) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250 μm band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We find no differences between the dust masses and temperatures of cluster and filament galaxies with the exception of early-type galaxy dust temperatures, which are significantly hotter in the cluster than in the filament (X-ray heating?). From a chemical evolution model, we find no evidence for different evolutionary processes (gas loss or infall) between galaxies in the cluster and filament.

  14. 西学东渐——新译“Glasgow coma scale”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹西峰; 李建民; 李兵; 费舟

    2014-01-01

    西方的科学研究成果大多来源于英语的语言文化环境,把西方的科学研究成果介绍到中国,必须重视英语的语言文化环境和汉语的语言文化环境的不同,这样才能使国人准确、方便地应用西方的科学研究成果,西学东渐。格拉斯哥昏迷评分(Glasgow coma scale)被翻译、介绍到国内已有数十年,但汉语版的“Glasgow coma scale”多种多样。容易造成初学者和使用者的迷惑。本文复习有关“Glasgow coma scale”的原始英式英文文献、美式英语英文文献和以往的几个主要的汉语翻译版。结合英式英语、美式英语和汉语的语言文化特点,新译了“Glasgow coma scale”,以方便医护人员使用。

  15. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  16. Evolution of the Dust Coma in Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Before 2009 Perihelion

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, G P; Boehnhardt, H; Vincent, J -B; Licandro, J; Kolokolova, L; Schulz, R; Stüwe, J

    2011-01-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the main target of ESA's Rosetta mission and will be encountered in May 2014. As the spacecraft shall be in orbit the comet nucleus before and after release of the lander {\\it Philae}, it is necessary necessary to know the conditions in the coma. Study the dust environment, including the dust production rate and its variations along its preperihelion orbit. The comet was observed during its approach to the Sun on four epochs between early-June 2008 and mid-January 2009, over a large range of heliocentric distances that will be covered by the mission in 2014. An anomalous enhancement of the coma dust density was measured towards the comet nucleus. The scalelength of this enhancement increased with decreasing heliocentric distance of the comet. This is interpreted as a result of an unusually slow expansion of the dust coma. Assuming a spherical symmetric coma, the average amount of dust as well as its ejection velocity have been derived. The latter increases exponentially with...

  17. Brainstem ischaemia presenting as naloxone-reversible coma followed by downward gaze paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, S.; Cordonnier, M J; Sztencel, J

    1984-01-01

    A 65-year-old man showed naloxone-reversible unconsciousness followed by downward gaze paralysis. CT scan suggested an ischaemic lesion in the mesodiencephalic region. This observation represents the first case of naloxone-reversible coma related to brainstem ischaemia.

  18. Relationship between inner coma water emissions and ice deposits in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Filacchione, Gianrico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Erard, Stephane; Leyrat, Cedric; Ciarniello, Mauro; Combi, Michael; Fougere, Nicolas; Taylor, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Data acquired in April 2015 with the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission provided information on the possible correlation between the H2O emission in the inner coma and the exposed water deposits detected in the Hapi region on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface (Migliorini et al. submitted). Further bright spots attributed to exposed water ice have been identified in other regions by OSIRIS at visible wavelengths (Pommerol, et al., 2015) and confirmed in the infrared by VIRTIS-M in the Imothep region (Filacchione et al., 2016). Furthermore, new water ice deposits have been identified in regions located both at the equator and at southern latitudes. These regions might be localised sources of water emissions in the inner coma of 67P/C-G. The present investigation seeks to identify the spatial and temporal correlations between the H2O emissions in the inner coma and the water ice rich deposits on the surface in order to identify the mechanisms operating at the surface-coma interface. It extends the study already carried out for a limited region located in the comet's neck, and identifies how the observed emissions and deposits evolve with the heliocentric distance, as observed by VIRTIS during the Rosetta escort phase mission.

  19. Results from the Worldwide Coma Morphology Campaign for Comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinha, Nalin H

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during the pre-perihelion leg of comet ISON. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was l...

  20. Effect of Cd, Zn and Hg complexes of barbituric acid and thiouracil on rat brain monoamine oxidase-B (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Masoud, Mamdouh S; Awad, Doaa; Mawlawi, Mai A; Sadek, Omayma M

    2014-02-01

    Metal pyrimidine complexes (MPCs) including cadmium-barbiturate (Cd-BA), zinc-barbiturate (Zn-BA), cadmium-thiouracil (Cd-TU) and mercury-thiouracil (Hg-TU) were prepared and their analysis was carried out. These MPCs were evaluated as monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors. Rat brain MAO-B was inhibited (in vitro) by Cd-BA, Zn-BA, Cd-TU and Hg-TU complexes. The inhibition of MAO-B by these complexes was time and concentration dependent. The values of IC50 of Zn-BA, Cd-BA, Hg-TU and Cd-TU were 10.2, 15.8, 16.2 and 20.4 nM, respectively. The effect of different substrate concentrations in the absence and in the presence of MPCs was determined. Lineweaver-Burk plots were plotted and the values of apparent Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), the dissociation constant of enzyme inhibitor complex (Ki) and the percent of inhibition (i%) were calculated. The data showed that the inhibition of MAO-B by all studied MPCs was the non-competitive type. The sequence of inhibition zone was: Zn-BA>Cd-BA and Hg-TU>Cd-TU affected by the chemistry of both the metal and the ligand. Otherwise, the results of the present study showed that the inhibition of MAO-B by all MPCs was fully reversible. The data showed that the presence of Cd-BA, Zn-BA, Cd-TU and Hg-TU complexes changed the optimum temperature and pH of MAO-B. PMID:24300193

  1. [A 57-year-old woman with gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion, and coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, H; Satoh, S; Mori, H; Tsukahara, M; Suda, K; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1995-07-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion and coma. She was well until 55 years of age, when she noted an onset of unsteady gait. At times she experienced transient weakness in her right hand, which was followed some difficulty in articulation. She was admitted to our service for the work up on April 6, 1992. Neurologic examination at that time revealed an alert Japanese lady in no acute distress. She was oriented to all spheres, however, she was somewhat bradyphrenic and had some disturbance in recent memory. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. The visual acuity and visual fields were normal as were the optic fundi. Pupils were round and isocoric reacting promptly to light. Ocular movement was full, however, horizontal nystagmus was noted upon right lateral gaze. The sensation of the face was intact. She showed right facial paresis of the central type. Hearing was intact. She showed slurred speech and some difficulty in swallowing. The tongue was deviated to the right. Her gait was wide based and unsteady; tandem gait was difficult, however, walking on toes and on heels were performed well. No cerebellar ataxia was noted, but she showed some clumsiness in her right hand. Deep reflexes were symmetric and normally reactive; plantar response was extensor bilaterally. Sensation was intact; no meningeal sign was elicited. Routine laboratory work up was unremarkable; the CSF was under a borderline pressure (180 mmH2O) and contained 39 mg/dl of protein and 59 mg/dl of sugar. Cranial CT scan revealed diffuse low density areas involving bilateral cerebral white matter as well as the brain stem; MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in those areas; gadolinium enhancement was negative; cortical sulci were effaced and the anterior part of the left lateral ventricle was compressed without deviation of the midline structure. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy without effect. She was

  2. DARK MATTER SUBHALOS AND THE X-RAY MORPHOLOGY OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure formation models predict that clusters of galaxies contain numerous massive subhalos. The gravity of a subhalo in a cluster compresses the surrounding intracluster gas and enhances its X-ray emission. We present a simple model, which treats subhalos as slow moving and gasless, for computing this effect. Recent weak lensing measurements by Okabe et al. have determined masses of ∼1013 M☉ for three mass concentrations projected within 300 kpc of the center of the Coma Cluster, two of which are centered on the giant elliptical galaxies NGC 4889 and NGC 4874. Adopting a smooth spheroidal β-model for the gas distribution in the unperturbed cluster, we model the effect of these subhalos on the X-ray morphology of the Coma Cluster, comparing our results to Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data. The agreement between the models and the X-ray morphology of the central Coma Cluster is striking. With subhalo parameters from the lensing measurements, the distances of the three subhalos from the Coma Cluster midplane along our line of sight are all tightly constrained. Using the model to fit the subhalo masses for NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 gives 9.1 × 1012 M☉ and 7.6 × 1012 M☉, respectively, in good agreement with the lensing masses. These results lend strong support to the argument that NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 are each associated with a subhalo that resides near the center of the Coma Cluster. In addition to constraining the masses and 3-d location of subhalos, the X-ray data show promise as a means of probing the structure of central subhalos.

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DUST IN A COMETARY COMA: APPLICATION TO COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. With a limited amount of available observational data, planning of the mission as well as the interpretation of measurements obtained by instruments on board the spacecraft requires modeling of the dusty/gas environment of the comet. During the mission, the collision regime in the inner coma will change starting from transitional to fully collisionless. As a result, a physically correct model has to be valid at conditions that are far from equilibrium and account for the kinetic nature of the processes occurring in the coma. A study of the multi-species coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is presented in our previous paper, where we describe our kinetic model and discuss the results of its application to cases that correspond to the different stages during the mission. In this work, we focus on numerical modeling of the dust phase in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its interaction with the surrounding gas. The basic phenomena that govern the dynamics and energy balance of the dust grains are outlined. The effect of solar radiation pressure and the nucleus gravity in limiting the maximum liftable mass of the grains is discussed. The distribution of the terminal velocity of the dust grains as a function of subsolar angle is derived in the paper. We have found that in the regions with high gradients of the gas density, spike-like features can form in the dust flow. The obtained results represent the state of the coma in the vicinity of the nucleus for a series of stages throughout the Rosetta mission. The implications of the model results for future measurements by the GIADA instrument are discussed.

  4. Ogilvie's syndrome in a case of myxedema coma

    OpenAIRE

    Uday Yanamandra; Narendra Kotwal; Anil Menon; Velu Nair

    2012-01-01

    Ogilvie′s syndrome [acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO)] presents as massive colonic dilatation without a mechanical cause, usually in critically ill patients due to imbalanced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The initial therapy remains conservative with supportive measures (correction of metabolic, infectious or pharmacologic factors) followed by neostigmine and decompressive colonoscopy. Surgery is reserved for patients with clinical deterioration or with evidence of colonic i...

  5. Neurotoxic effects during vidarabine therapy for herpes zoster.

    OpenAIRE

    Burdge, D R; Chow, A W; Sacks, S L

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of neurotoxic effects resulting from therapy with vidarabine are described. Both patients were undergoing treatment for cutaneously disseminated herpes zoster complicating therapy for solid malignant tumours. Both had normal renal function. The serum levels of hepatic enzymes were normal in one patient and slightly elevated in the other. Neurotoxicity was first manifested in both patients by the development of intention tremors that progressed to gross tremors. Obtundation, coma and...

  6. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G;

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) and...... accordingly onset of chill coma has been hypothesised to result from depolarization of membrane potential caused by loss of ion-homeostasis. Here we examined whether onset of chill coma is associated with a disturbance in ion balance by examining the correlation between disruption of ion homeostasis and onset...... of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial...

  7. The Impact of High Pressure Cluster Environment on the X-ray Luminosity of Coma Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A

    2004-01-01

    We present an observational study of the Lx vs Lb sigma^2 relation for early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster based on the XMM-Newton survey data. Compared to a similar relation for a sample dominated by field early-type galaxies, the Coma cluster galaxies show a flatter slope. Our calculations show that adiabatic compression produces a flattening in the Lx vs Lb sigma^2 relation that is in remarkable agreement with the observed effect. Our scenario is further supported by the observed compactness of the X-ray emission of Coma galaxies.

  8. The impact of high pressure cluster environment on the X-ray luminosity of Coma early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finoguenov, A.; Miniati, F.

    2004-04-01

    We present an observational study of the LX vs. LB σ2 relation for early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster based on the XMM-Newton survey data. Compared to a similar relation for a sample dominated by field early-type galaxies, the Coma cluster galaxies show a flatter slope. Our calculations show that adiabatic compression produces a flattening in the LX vs. LBσ2 relation that is in remarkable agreement with the observed effect. Our scenario is further supported by the observed compactness of the X-ray emission of Coma galaxies.

  9. Etiology and Outcome of Non-Traumatic Coma in Children Admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Khodapanahandeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-traumatic coma is a relatively common condition in children that may cause considerable mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical presentation, etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children.Methods: In a retrospective cross sectional study over a period of 5 years, files of 150 children aged between 1 month and 14 years admitted with non-traumatic coma to pediatric intensive care unit of Rasool Akram hospital were reviewed. Historical, presenting symptoms, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Etiology of coma was determined on the basis of clinical history and relevant investigations. The outcome was recorded as died or neurological condition at discharge as normal, mild or sever disability. Chi-square test was used to test the differences in categorical variables.Findings: There were 63 (42% boys and 87 (58% girls. The mean±SD age of patients was 2.7±2.35 years. Systemic presentations including nausea, vomiting, fever, lethargy and poor feeding were more prominent in children under 2 years. Etiology of coma in 49 patients (32.7% was infectious (meningitis, encephalitis, respiratory and systemic. Other causes were status epilepticus 44 (29.4%, metabolic (diabetic ketoacidosis, inborn errors of metabolism 11 (7.3%, intoxications 10 (6.7%, accidental (drowning, electrical shock, suffocation 9 (6%, shunt dysfunction (secondary to congenital brain malformations 7 (4.6%, others (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, vasculitis, hypertensive encephalopathy 11 (7.3%, unknown 9 (6%. Infection occurred significantly (P=0.002 in children under 2 years of age, whereas accidents and intoxications were more prominent (P=0.004 in those between 2 and 6 years. Overall 25 children (16.6% died. Of those survived 16 became severely disabled. Accidents and infections had higher mortality compared to other groups (P<0.001 and P=0.02 respectively.Conclusion: Our results showed that infection was the

  10. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 10) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin2. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described in

  11. DEEP GALEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER: SOURCE CATALOG AND GALAXY COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a source catalog from a deep 26 ks Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observation of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 A) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 A) wavebands. The observed field is centered ∼0.09 (1.6 Mpc) southwest of the Coma core in a well-studied region of the cluster known as 'Coma-3'. The entire field is located within the apparent virial radius of the Coma cluster, and has optical photometric coverage with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and deep spectroscopic coverage to r ∼ 21. We detect GALEX sources to NUV = 24.5 and FUV = 25.0, which corresponds to a star formation rate of ∼10-3 M sun yr-1 for galaxies at the distance of Coma. We have assembled a catalog of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically confirmed Coma member galaxies that span a large range of galaxy types from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is ∼80% complete to NUV = 23 and FUV = 23.5. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g., object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence the source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here; we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion

  12. 1,3-Dimethyl-5-(3,4,5-tris(alkoxy)benzoyl) barbituric acid derivatives and their liquid crystalline difluoroboron complexes: Synthesis, characterization and comparative investigations of mesomorphic, thermotropic and thermo-morphologic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Nesrullajev, Arif; Orhan, Nil

    2014-01-01

    A series of 1,3-dimethyl-5-(3,4,5-tris(alkoxy)benzoyl) barbituric acid derivatives 1a-4a with various chain length were synthesized by our group for the first time through the addition of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid to 3,4,5-tris(alkoxy)benzoyl chloride at room temperature in presence of pyridine. For preparation of their difluoroboron complexes, the derivatives 1a-4a reacts with borontrifluoride in the presence of triethylamine affording 1b-4b in moderate yields. All derivatives and complexes have been fully characterized by MS, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. We also explored their liquid crystal properties by using POM, OM, CTW and DSC techniques. The results show that 3b and 4b with longer alkyl chain are monomorphic mesogens and exhibited enantiotropic thermotropic liquid crystalline mesophases. Investigation of their mesomorphic, thermo-morphologic and thermotropic properties is presented in this work.

  13. Solvent influence on the excited states of the oxo form of barbituric acid and the mechanisms of the out-of-plane non-radiative elongation of the N-H bond: a comparative theoretical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterev, Ivan G; Delchev, Vassil B

    2014-05-01

    The solvent influence on the excited states, emission and absorption energies of the oxo for of barbituric acid was studied with experimental (UV and fluorescence spectra) and theoretical methods. The excited-state reaction paths of the out-pf-plane elongation of the N-H bond of the oxo form of barbituric acid were also investigated (TD DFT level) to the conical intersections mediating internal conversions to the ground state. The (1)nσ* excited state was found to be the driven electronic state. We found that the increase of the polarity of the solvent reduces the (1)nσ* excited state decay rate through a non-planar conical intersection and increases its energy. Thus, solvents with higher polarity disfavor the non-radiative decay through conical intersections. PMID:24566117

  14. Solvent influence on the excited states of the oxo form of barbituric acid and the mechanisms of the out-of-plane non-radiative elongation of the Nsbnd H bond: A comparative theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterev, Ivan G.; Delchev, Vassil B.

    The solvent influence on the excited states, emission and absorption energies of the oxo for of barbituric acid was studied with experimental (UV and fluorescence spectra) and theoretical methods. The excited-state reaction paths of the out-pf-plane elongation of the Nsbnd H bond of the oxo form of barbituric acid were also investigated (TD DFT level) to the conical intersections mediating internal conversions to the ground state. The 1nσ* excited state was found to be the driven electronic state. We found that the increase of the polarity of the solvent reduces the 1nσ* excited state decay rate through a non-planar conical intersection and increases its energy. Thus, solvents with higher polarity disfavor the non-radiative decay through conical intersections.

  15. Hydrogen-bond motifs in N-monosubstituted derivatives of barbituric acid: 5-allyl-5-isopropyl-1-methylbarbituric acid (enallylpropymal) and 1,5-di(but-2-enyl)-5-ethylbarbituric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbrich, Thomas; Zencirci, Neslihan; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2010-01-01

    Both title structures exhibit essentially planar barbiturate rings. The crystal structure of enallylpropymal (5-allyl-5-isopropyl-1-methylbarbituric acid), C(11)H(16)N(2)O(3), is composed of centrosymmetric N-H...O hydrogen-bonded dimers, while 1,5-di(but-2-enyl)-5-ethylbarbituric acid, C(14)H(20)N(2)O(3), forms N-H...O hydrogen-bonded helical chains. Each of the ten known crystal structures of closely related N-monosubstituted derivatives of barbituric acid displays one of the fundamental N-H...O hydrogen-bonded motifs of the two title structures, i.e. either a dimer or a chain. PMID:20048427

  16. A DOZEN NEW GALAXIES CAUGHT IN THE ACT: GAS STRIPPING AND EXTENDED EMISSION LINE REGIONS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present images of extended Hα clouds associated with 14 member galaxies in the Coma cluster obtained from deep narrowband imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam at the Subaru Telescope. The parent galaxies of the extended Hα clouds are distributed farther than 0.2 Mpc from the peak of the X-ray emission of the cluster. Most of the galaxies are bluer than g - r ∼ 0.5 and they account for 57% of the blue (g - r < 0.5) bright (r < 17.8 mag) galaxies in the central region of the Coma cluster. They reside near the red- and blueshifted edges of the radial velocity distribution of Coma cluster member galaxies. Our findings suggest that most of the parent galaxies were recently captured by the Coma cluster potential and are now infalling toward the cluster center with their disk gas being stripped off and producing the observed Hα clouds.

  17. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  18. Ogilvie′s syndrome in a case of myxedema coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Yanamandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ogilvie′s syndrome [acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO] presents as massive colonic dilatation without a mechanical cause, usually in critically ill patients due to imbalanced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The initial therapy remains conservative with supportive measures (correction of metabolic, infectious or pharmacologic factors followed by neostigmine and decompressive colonoscopy. Surgery is reserved for patients with clinical deterioration or with evidence of colonic ischemia or perforation. A 60-year-old lady presented with fever, altered sensorium, obstipation, bradycardia and abdominal distension. Investigation revealed hyponatremia and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Supportive measures and decompressive colonoscopy were not of great benefit. Thyroid profile was suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. Colonic motility was restored only on starting thyroxin. The case is illustrative of the need to consider hypothyroidism, a common endocrine disorder, in the differential diagnosis of Ogilvie′s.

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of three barbiturates in pork by ion trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) following microwave assisted derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was developed for the rapid screening and confirmation analysis of barbital, amobarbital and phenobarbital residues in pork by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) with ion trap MSD. The residual barbiturates in pork were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, cleaned up on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) packed solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and applied acetone-ethyl acetate (3:7, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent and derivatized with CH3I under microwave irradiation. The methylated barbiturates were separated on a TR-5MS capillary column and detected with an ion trap mass detector. Electron impact ion source (EI) operating MS/MS mode was adopted for identification and external standard method was employed for quantification. One precursor ion m/z 169 was selected for analysis of barbital and amobarbital and m/z 232 was selected for phenobarbital. The product ions were obtained under 1.0 V excitation voltage. Good linearities (linear coefficient R > 0.99) were obtained at the range of 0.5-50 μg kg-1. Limit of detection (LOD) of barbital was 0.2 μg kg-1 and that of amobarbital and phenobarbital were both 0.1 μg kg-1 (S/N ≥ 3). Limit of quatification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg kg-1 for three barbiturates (S/N ≥ 10). Satisfying recoveries ranging from 75% to 96% of the three barbiturates spiked in pork were obtained, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) in the range of 2.1-7.8%

  20. Structural analysis and reactivity of unusual tetrahedral intermediates enabled by SmI2-mediated reduction of barbituric acids: vinylogous N-acyliminium additions to α-hydroxy-N-acyl-carbamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2014-03-01

    Structural characterisation and reactivity of new tetrahedral intermediates based on a highly modular barbituric acid scaffold, formed via chemoselective electron transfer using the SmI2-H2O reagent, are reported. Lewis acid promoted cleavage of bicyclic α-amino alcohols affords vinylogous N-acyliminium ions, which undergo selective (>95 : 5, 1,4 over 1,2) capture with a suite of diverse nucleophiles in a practical sequence to biologically active uracil derivatives. PMID:24463565

  1. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here. PMID:27264892

  2. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: the dust coma as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Güttler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger

    2016-04-01

    OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, is imaging the nucleus and the coma of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies performed with OSIRIS. Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range are used to study the unresolved coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. Individual grains are characterized in terms of color, size, distance, light curves, orbits. Images acquired spanning the phase angle range 0-165 deg are used to determine the dust phase function in different colors and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust particles by solving the inverse scattering problem.

  3. Model for the coma of Comet Halley, based on the Astron ultraviolet spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a model of the Comet Halley coma from spectral and photometric data is described. Spectra in the 1500-3500 A range and photometric scans at the 3085 A and 2190 A in the (0-0) band of the OH and CO(+) molecules were obtained by the UV telescope of the satellite Astron on December 3, 13, and 23, 1985. Surface-brightness profiles of the coma in the (0-0) band of OH, NH, and CS molecules are derived. The source and formation of these molecules, the lifetime of their radicals, the radial velocity of their parent molecules, and the water-molecule sublimation rate are computed and examined. The basic characteristics of the comet observed from the UV data are compared to the properties of other comets. It is observed that Comet Halley is similar to other large short-period comets. 29 references

  4. Distribution of dust in the inner coma of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior and characteristics of the inner coma of the Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (IAA) were examined for five nights in May 1983 using a ground-based 2.2 m CCD telescope. A highly variable, asymmetric sunward emission was detected, along with a long filamentary structure. The brightness was highest in the sunward direction, with radial brightnesses diminishing more slowly than predicted with a 1/r model. The slow fall-off is attributed to the emission of conglomerate dust grains which fragment while traveling through the inner coma and increase the effective surface area of the dust. Significant day-to-day variations were observed, and the filamentary features were indicative of a centralized region on a mantled nucleus which rotated. The nucleus is estimated to be no more than 17 km in diameter. 22 references

  5. Dust coma of Halley comet: measurements with the dust counter and mass analyzer (DUSMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper represents a preliminary report on measurements of spatial and temporal distribution of mass and flows of dust particles coming from comet nucleus performed by means of devices constructed on the new principle of detecting comet dust specks. The device has a high time resolution (∼ 4 μs) in the wide range of mass and dust flows. On the base of a preliminary analysis the following conclusions are drawn: dust coma in quiet state (''Vega-2'') as well as at the presence of considerable emissions (''Vega-1'') manifests the presence of important short-term out-bursts having by time a quasi-periodic structure. Integral mass spectra show flows intensity growth with the decrease of measured mass (which contradicts some theoretical models). Flow levels lie approximately in the region previously determined by ground observations. The coma is extremely dynamic both in space and in time which proves the complex structure of regions of dust emission from the nucleus

  6. 30.9 MHz observations of the radio halo in the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffuse radio emission in the central part of the Coma cluster of galaxies has been extensively studied at relatively high radio frequencies, but the information available at low frequencies is quite sparse. A map of the radio halo in the Coma cluster has been made at 30.9 MHz using the University of Maryland's Clark Lake radio telescope. Because a more precise process was used to remove the flux of the superimposed discrete sources than was previously possible, the error estimate for the flux of the halo at this frequency has been significantly reduced. If the radiation is due to synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons, these observations give information about the population of electrons radiating at low energies. Knowing the flux and extent of the halo at a low frequency helps to constrain the possible models of halo formation. 19 refs

  7. Coma-free alignment of high resolution electron microscopes with the aid of optical diffractograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alignment by means of current commutating and defocusing of the objective does not yield the desired rotational symmetry of the imaging pencils. This was found while aligning a transmission electron microscope with a single field condenser objective. A series of optical diffractograms of micrographs taken under the same tilted illumination yet under various azimuths have been arranged in a tableau, wherein strong asymmetry is exhibited. Quantitative evaluation yields the most important asymmetric aberration to be the axial coma, which becomes critical when a resolution better than 5 A0 is obtained. The tableau also allows an assessment of the three-fold astigmatism. A procedure has been developed which aligns the microscope onto the coma-free and dispersion-free pencil axis and does not rely on current communication. The procedure demands equal appearance of astigmatic carbon film images produced under the same tilt yet diametrical azimuth. (Auth.)

  8. THE GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS DOWN TO MR = –10 IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derived the luminosity function (LF) of dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster down to MR = –10 at three fields located at the center, intermediate, and outskirt of the cluster. The LF (–19 R R ∼ –13 and is composed of two distinct components of different slopes; the bright component with –19 R R R R < –10) consists largely of point-spread-function-like compact galaxies. We found that both these compact galaxies and some extended galaxies are present in the center while only compact galaxies are seen in the outskirt. In the faint component, the fraction of blue galaxies is larger in the outskirt than in the center. We suggest that the dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster, which make up the two components in the LF, are heterogeneous with some different origins.

  9. Beyond S\\'ersic + exponential disc morphologies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Head, Jacob T C G; Hudson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] We explore the diversity of internal galaxy structures in the Coma cluster across a wide range of luminosities ($-17$\\,$>$\\,$M_g$\\,$>$\\,$-22$) and cluster-centric radii ($0$\\,$ 10$ kpc). 11\\% of galaxies ($N=52$) feature a break in their outer profiles, indicating `truncated' or `anti-truncated' discs. Beyond the break radius, truncated galaxies are structurally consistent with exponential discs, disfavouring physical truncation as their formation mechanism. Bulge luminosity in anti-truncated galaxies correlates strongly with galaxy luminosity, indicating a bulge-enhancing origin for these systems. Both types of broken disc are found overwhelmingly ($>70\\%$) in `barred' galaxies, despite a low measured bar fraction for Coma ($20\\pm2\\%$). Thus, galaxy bars play an important role in formation of broken disc structures. No strong variation in galaxy structure is detected with projected cluster-centric radius.

  10. Optical identifications of IRAS point sources: the Fornax, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present optical identifications for 66 IRAS point sources in the region of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, 106 IRAS point sources in the region of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) and 59 IRAS point sources in the region of the Coma cluster of galaxies (Abell 1656). Eight other sources in Hydra I do not have optical counterparts and are very probably due to infrared cirrus. Twenty-three (35 per cent) of the Fornax sources are associated with stars and 43 (65 per cent) with galaxies; 48 (42 per cent) of the Hydra I sources are associated with stars and 58 (51 per cent) with galaxies; 18 (31 per cent) of the Coma sources are associated with stars and 41 (69 per cent) with galaxies. The stellar and infrared cirrus surface density is consistent with the galactic latitude of each field. (author)

  11. [Rare consciousness disturbances in toxicological practice: akinetic mutism, somnambulism, locked-in syndrome, and psychogenic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of xenobiotics can result inrare disorders of consciousness, such as akinetic mutism and somnambulism as well as syndromes mimicking consciousness disturbances, such as locked-in syndrome and psychogenic coma. Akinetic mutism is a condition characterized by a lack of spontaneous movements and little or no vocalization. Somnambulism include performing of complex motor activity in an automatic manner during deep sleep, without any awareness of its execution. The locked-in syndrome is a state with quadriplegia coexisting with cranial nerves palsies and mutism, but with fully preserved consciousness. Psychogenic coma is a condition in which the patient has preserved level of consciousness and awareness, but does not communicate with theenvironment and does not exhibit the external manifestations of consciousness. This paper presents the etiology, clinical characteristics, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic issues for the above syndromes. PMID:24466703

  12. Optical identifications of IRAS point sources: the Fornax, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.; Leggett, S.K. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy); Clowes, R.G.; MacGillivray, H.T. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK)); Savage, A. (Anglo-Australian Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW (Australia). UK Schmidt Telescope)

    1991-01-01

    We present optical identifications for 66 IRAS point sources in the region of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, 106 IRAS point sources in the region of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) and 59 IRAS point sources in the region of the Coma cluster of galaxies (Abell 1656). Eight other sources in Hydra I do not have optical counterparts and are very probably due to infrared cirrus. Twenty-three (35 per cent) of the Fornax sources are associated with stars and 43 (65 per cent) with galaxies; 48 (42 per cent) of the Hydra I sources are associated with stars and 58 (51 per cent) with galaxies; 18 (31 per cent) of the Coma sources are associated with stars and 41 (69 per cent) with galaxies. The stellar and infrared cirrus surface density is consistent with the galactic latitude of each field. (author).

  13. Hyperammonemic coma in a post-partum patient with undiagnosed urea cycle defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sananta Kumar Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea cycle disorders (UCD are common during neonatal period, and it is rarely reported in adults. We are reporting a patient presenting with post-partum neuropsychiatric symptoms rapidly progressing to coma. Markedly raised serum ammonia level on presentation with an initial normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain and normal liver function tests led to the suspicion of UCD, which was confirmed on the basis of urine orotic acid and elevated serum amino acid levels. We had to resort to hemodialysis to correct the hyperammonemic coma, which was unresponsive to conventional anti-ammonia measures. She exhibited remarkable improvement with a progressive decline in serum ammonia with repeated hemodialysis and made a full recovery. Timely diagnosis and early institution of hemodialysis in the setting of a poor neurological status maybe considered a suitable treatment option.

  14. Prolonged hypernatremia triggered by hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with coma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Darlene; Ganta, Kavitha; Sun, Yijuan; Dorin, Richard I.; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.; Servilla, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    A man with past lithium use for more than 15 years, but off lithium for two years and not carrying the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), presented with coma and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). Following correction of HHS, he developed persistent hypernatremia accompanied by large volumes of urine with low osmolality and no response to desmopressin injections. Urine osmolality remained < 300 mOsm/kg after injection of vasopressin. Improvement in se...

  15. Familial lysinuric protein intolerance presenting as coma in two adult siblings.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, P. J.; Dale, G; Bates, D.

    1989-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of metabolism which usually presents in infancy with failure to thrive and vomiting. Two patients are described who presented in adult life with hyperammonaemic coma due to LPI. Both had been underweight and had had intermittent gastrointestinal symptoms during childhood. They were of normal intellect and had maintained good health, until presentation in their thirties, by unconscious dietary protein avoidance. The diagnosis of LPI should...

  16. Selections from 2015: Discovery of Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma ClusterPublished January 2015Main takeaway:Using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered 47 ultra-diffuse galaxies in the Coma galaxy cluster. These galaxies are very large, with half-light (effective) radii of 1.54.6 kpc, similar to that of the Milky Ways disk. But their stellar masses are a factor of 1000 lower than the Milky Ways, and theyre accordingly much dimmer.Plot of the effective radius versus the central surface brightness for the ultra-diffuse Coma cluster galaxies (red markers). These galaxies are similar in size to the Milky Ways disk (blue), but significantly dimmer. [Van Dokkum et al. 2015]Why its interesting:These galaxies make up an odd population. Why are their stellar masses so low? The authors posit that these objects may be failed galaxies that lost their gas after having formed their first generation of stars. Adding to the intrigue, the authors find that in order for these galaxies to hold themselves together at their current distance from the cluster core, they must have a whopping dark-matter fraction of 98%.About the discovery:These ultra-diffuse galaxies were actually discovered entirely by accident. Van Dokkum and collaborators observed the Coma cluster in a project to measure properties of the intra-cluster light and look for streams and tidal features. Surprisingly, their images revealed these faint, uncataloged galaxies.CitationPieter G. van Dokkum et al 2015 ApJ 798 L45. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L45

  17. Study of FK Comae Berenices: VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, K.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I. V.; Oláh, K.; Andersen, M. I.; Hackman, T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale lon...

  18. Evolution of the dust coma in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko before the 2009 perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, G. P.; Patriarchi, P.; Boehnhardt, H.; Vincent, J.-B.; Licandro, J.; Kolokolova, L.; Schulz, R.; Stüwe, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the main target of ESA's Rosetta mission and will be encountered in May 2014. Because the spacecraft will orbit the comet nucleus before and after release of the lander Philae, it is necessary to know the conditions in the coma. Aims: We study the dust environment, including the dust production rate and its variations along the comet's pre-perihelion orbit. Methods: The comet was observed during its approach to the Sun on four epochs between early-June 2008 and mid-January 2009 over a large range of heliocentric distances that will be covered by the mission in 2014. Results: An anomalous enhancement of the coma dust density was measured toward the comet nucleus. The scale length of this enhancement increased with decreasing heliocentric distance of the comet. We interpret this as a result of an unusually slow expansion of the dust coma. Assuming a spherically symmetric coma, we derive the average amount of dust as well as its ejection velocity. The latter increases exponentially with decreasing heliocentric distance (rh), ranging from about 1 m/s at 3 AU to about 25-35 m/s at 1.4 AU. Based on these results we describe the dust environment at those nucleocentric distances at which the spacecraft will presumably be in orbit. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (programs 381.C-0123 and 082.C-0740) and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) of INAF (program TAC_35).

  19. Modeling the heterogeneous ice and gas coma of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Rubin, M.; Tenishev, V.

    2013-07-01

    The spectacular images of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 recorded by the Medium Resolution Instrument (MRI) and High Resolution Instrument (HRI) on board of the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) spacecraft, as the Deep Impact extended mission, revealed that its bi-lobed very active nucleus outgasses volatiles heterogeneously. Indeed, CO2 is the primary driver of activity by dragging out chunks of pure ice out of the nucleus from the sub-solar lobe that appear to be the main source of water in Hartley 2's coma by sublimating slowly as they go away from the nucleus. However, water vapor is released by direct sublimation of the nucleus at the waist without any significant amount of either CO2 or icy grains. The coma structure for a comet with such areas of diverse chemistry differs from the usual models where gases are produced in a homogeneous way from the surface. We use the fully kinetic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo model of Tenishev et al. (Tenishev, V.M., Combi, M.R., Davidsson, B. [2008]. Astrophys. J. 685, 659-677; Tenishev, V.M., Combi, M.R., Rubin, M. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 732, 104-120) applied to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 including sublimating icy grains to reproduce the observations made by EPOXI and ground-based measurements. A realistic bi-lobed nucleus with a succession of active areas with different chemistry was included in the model enabling us to study in details the coma of Hartley 2. The different gas production rates from each area were found by fitting the spectra computed using a line-by-line non-LTE radiative transfer model to the HRI observations. The presence of icy grains with long lifetimes, which are pushed anti-sunward by radiation pressure, explains the observed OH asymmetry with enhancement on the night side of the coma.

  20. The clinic discuss of prognosis and treatment or brainstem infarction combined coma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Junying; Wanglei; YinShimin; Zheng Yishan; Shijie Qu; Zhanfen

    2000-01-01

    Objective Discuss the relationship between the position, bound of brainstem infarction and .consciousness clog,determinan the prognosis and curative effect. Background and Methods Total brainstem infarction 14 patients,9 male and 5 female,43 to 80 years old.all patients had been checked by CT or MRI,brainstem foliun scanning 6 cases,checked by MRI 8 canes micbrain infarction 2 cases,pon infarction 5 cases,medulla infasction 7 cases the midbrain infarction were rise rapid,inmediately coma,the mydrasis in defect side,opposite body mucsle tension heighten.then both lower limbs straight,both pathology sign masculine.the two cases are all alive .tocked-in syndrom has appeared in 1 case of pon infarction ,and died of combined illness 1 year later. 1 case defect affect centrum of breath and hearlbeat, coma,breath rhythm malajustment,breath stop.threr were no consciousness clog in the other 3 cases ,vertigo,force head position to trouble side, nystagmus, trouble side face hypalgesia,and all cureed .2 cases of medulla infarction appeared quactriplegia ,swallow hardness,anarthriad and so on, 5 others were hemi Watlenberg syndrom,all wcre cured. Results and Discussion coma or no in brainstem infaciton was related with position.it is reparted that midbrain infarction coma was 7.6 persent of brainstem infarction. consciousness clog is distinctness which defect position in midbrain lateral-back, pon ventro defect, not involved ARAS ,lwas locked-in synxdom. brainstem infarction combined combined with freedom breath clog,in medulla was 16.1percent,midorain was 1 1.6 percent, pons ws 83.96 percent the prognosis was.all right in lightly brainsterm infarction, lf involved in both medulla, ventro pon,the prognosis was bad, and lose quadriplegia. CT brainstern foliun scanning would enhanced scanning lay, and helpful for chech up the pathological chanoes of brainstem.

  1. The Large-Grained Dust Coma of 174P/Echeclus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, James M.; Choi, Young-Jun; Weissman, Paul R.; Stansberry, John A.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Roe, Henry G.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2008-01-01

    On 2005 December 30, Y.-J. Choi and P. R. Weissman discovered that the formerly dormant Centaur 2000 EC98 was in strong outburst. Previous observations by P. Rousselot et al. spanning a 3-year period indicated a lack of coma down to the 27 mag arcsec 2 level.We present Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS observations of this newly active Centaur--now known as 174P/Echeclus (2000 EC98)--or 60558 Echeclus--taken in 2006 late February. The images show strong signal at both the 24 and 70 micron bands and reveal an extended coma about 2' in diameter. Analyses yield estimates of the coma signal contribution that are in excess of 90% of the total signal in the 24 micron band. Dust production estimates ranging from 1.7-4 x 10(exp 2) kg/s are on the order of 30 times that seen in other Centaurs. Simultaneous visible-wavelength observations were also obtained with Palomar Observatory's 200-inch telescope, the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) 1.8-m telescope, and Table Mountain Observatory's 0.6-m telescope, revealing a coma morphology nearly identical to the mid-IR observations. The grain size distribution derived from the data yields a log particle mass power-law with slope parameter (alpha) = -0.87 +/- 0.07, and is consistent with steady cometary-activity, such as that observed during the Stardust spacecraft's encounter at 81P/Wild 2, and not with an impact driven event, such as that caused by the Deep Impact experiment.

  2. FORTY-SEVEN MILKY WAY-SIZED, EXTREMELY DIFFUSE GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec–2 and effective radii r eff = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r eff = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L * galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ∼6 × 107 M ☉. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with (g – i) = 0.8 and (b/a) = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ475 = 25.8 mag arcsec–2, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these ''ultra-diffuse galaxies'' may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions

  3. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non Ketotic Coma and Rhabdomyolysis; An Uncommon Clinical Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    C, Philip; J., Jacob; S, Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is usually attributed to trauma. However there is an association of rhabdomyolysis with hyperosmolar states. Recognition of this association will enable better management of the patient and reduce the burden on the care taker by preventing the onset of complications that can prove fatal. It is also important to realise that hyperosmolar coma can be the presenting complaint of a diabetic seeking medical attention for the first time. Key words: Rhabdomyolysis, Diabetes mellitus H...

  4. THE RADIO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 μJy per 4.''4 beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22. For cluster galaxies, these correspond to L 1.4 = 1.7 x 1020 W Hz-1(for a 5σ source) and Mr = -13. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are the dominant population only at radio luminosities between about 1021 and 1022 W Hz-1, an interesting result given star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions for all luminosities lower than about 1023 W Hz-1. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (∼>3x1022 W Hz-1) and low (∼21 W Hz-1) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3 x 1019 W Hz-1. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ∼ -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGNs.

  5. Composition of Dust Particles Collected in the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchenbach, Martin; Kissel, Jochen; Langevin, Yves; Briois, Christelle; Koch, Andreas; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Rynö, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser (COSIMA) is a dust particle composition analyzing instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. COSIMA is collecting cometary particles on metal targets in the inner coma, identifies the collected particle on microscopic images and analyses their composition by secondary ion mass spectrometry. We will report on the high resolution mass spectra containing positive or negative ions of elements, organic molecules and molecular fragments originating from the cometary particle surfaces.

  6. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  7. A NuSTAR observation of the center of the coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldello, Fabio; Wik, Daniel R.; Molendi, S.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a 55 ks NuSTAR observation of the core of the Coma Cluster. The global spectrum can be explained by thermal gas emission, with a conservative 90% upper limit to non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission of 5.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 in a 12' × 12' field of view. The bright...

  8. Forty-seven Milky Way-sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Abraham, Roberto; Merritt, Allison; Zhang, Jielai; Geha, Marla; Conroy, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radii r eff = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r eff = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L * galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 × 107 M ⊙. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with langg - irang = 0.8 and langb/arang = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ475 = 25.8 mag arcsec-2, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these "ultra-diffuse galaxies" may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

  9. FORTY-SEVEN MILKY WAY-SIZED, EXTREMELY DIFFUSE GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Merritt, Allison; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai [Department of Astronomy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conroy, Charlie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3° × 3° field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness μ(g, 0) ranging from 24-26 mag arcsec{sup –2} and effective radii r {sub eff} = 3''-10'', as measured from archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r {sub eff} = 1.5-4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L {sub *} galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ∼6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with (g – i) = 0.8 and (b/a) = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness μ{sub 475} = 25.8 mag arcsec{sup –2}, a Sérsic index n = 0.6, and an effective radius of 7'', corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is not resolved into stars, consistent with expectations for a Coma cluster object. We speculate that these ''ultra-diffuse galaxies'' may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

  10. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    SK Sah; ND Subedi; K. Poudel; Mallik, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT) findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours) cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS) was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A s...

  11. Assessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosseries, Olivia; Thibaut, Aurore; Boly, Mélanie; M. Rosanova; Massimini, M; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging populat...

  12. The Nociception Coma Scale: a new tool to assess nociception in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakers, Caroline; Chatelle, Camille; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Majerus, Steve; Ledoux, Didier; Boly, Melanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boveroux, Pierre; Demertzi, Athena; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Assessing behavioral responses to nociception is difficult in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma. We here propose a new scale developed for assessing nociception in vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) coma survivors, the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), and explore its concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and sensitivity. Concurrent validity was assessed by analyzing behavioral responses of 48 post-comatose patients to a noxious stimulation (pressure applied to the fingernail) (28 VS and 20 MCS; age range 20-82 years; 17 of traumatic etiology). Patients' were assessed using the NCS and four other scales employed in non-communicative patients: the 'Neonatal Infant Pain Scale' (NIPS) and the 'Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability' (FLACC) used in newborns; and the 'Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia Scale' (PAINAD) and the 'Checklist of Non-verbal Pain Indicators' (CNPI) used in dementia. For the establishment of inter-rater agreement, fifteen patients were concurrently assessed by two examiners. Concurrent validity, assessed by Spearman rank order correlations between the NCS and the four other validated scales, was good. Cohen's kappa analyses revealed a good to excellent inter-rater agreement for the NCS total and subscore measures, indicating that the scale yields reproducible findings across examiners. Finally, a significant difference between NCS total scores was observed as a function of diagnosis (i.e., VS or MCS). The NCS constitutes a sensitive clinical tool for assessing nociception in severely brain-injured patients. This scale constitutes the first step to a better management of patients recovering from coma. PMID:19854576

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in coma survivors: promises and pitfalls.

    OpenAIRE

    Tshibanda, Luaba; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Galanaud, Damien; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven; Puybasset, Louis

    2009-01-01

    The status of comatose patient is currently established on the basis of the patient-exhibited behaviors. Clinical assessment is subjective and, in 40% of patients, fails to distinguish vegetative state (VS) from minimally conscious states (MCS). The technologic advances of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have dramatically improved our understanding of these altered states of consciousness. The role of neuroimaging in coma survivors has increased beyond the simple evaluation of morphological ...

  14. Human brain activity patterns beyond the isoelectric line of extreme deep coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kroeger

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes. Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

  15. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4GHz = 1.3 x 1020 W Hz-1. The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with Mr r r ∼sun yr-1.

  16. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Derek; Hoyos, Carlos; Brok, Mark den; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F; Smith, Russell J; Graham, Alister W; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H; Lucey, John R; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J; Davies, Jonathan I; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W; Miller, Neal A; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M; Tully, R Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin^2, and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (~1.75 Mpc or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SExtractor source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform apertur...

  17. Radio Halos From Simulations And Hadronic Models I: The Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Donnert, J; Brunetti, G; Cassano, R; Bonafede, A

    2009-01-01

    We use the results from a constrained, cosmological MHD simulation of the Local Universe to predict the radio halo and the gamma-ray flux from the Coma cluster and compare it to current observations. The simulated magnetic field within the Coma cluster is the result of turbulent amplification of the magnetic field during build-up of the cluster. The magnetic seed field originates from star-burst driven, galactic outflows. The synchrotron emission is calculated assuming a hadronic model. We follow four approaches with different distributions for the cosmic-ray proton (CRp) population within galaxy clusters. The radial profile the radio halo can only be reproduced with a radially increasing energy fraction within the cosmic ray proton population, reaching $>$100% of the thermal energy content at $\\approx$ 1Mpc, e.g. the edge of the radio emitting region. Additionally the spectral steepening of the observed radio halo in Coma cannot be reproduced, even when accounting for the negative flux from the thermal SZ ef...

  18. Diffuse Radio Emission in/around the Coma Cluster: Beyond Simple Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Shea

    2010-01-01

    We report on new 1.41 GHz Green Bank Telescope and 352 MHz Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the Coma cluster and its environs. At 1.41 GHz we tentatively detect an extension to the Coma cluster radio relic source 1253+275 which makes its total extent ~2 Mpc. This extended relic is linearly polarized as seen in our GBT data, the NVSS, and archival images, strengthening a shock interpretation. The extended relic borders a previously undetected "wall" of galaxies in the infall region of the Coma cluster. We suggest that the radio relic is an infall shock, as opposed to the outgoing merger shocks believed responsible for other radio relics. We also find a sharp edge, or "front", on the western side of the 352 MHz radio halo. This front is coincident with a similar discontinuity in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature in its southern half, suggesting a primary shock-acceleration origin for the local synchrotron emitting electrons. The northern half of the synchrotron front is less well ...

  19. The HI properties of galaxies in the Coma I cloud revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2009-01-01

    Pre-processing within small groups has been proposed to explain several of the properties of galaxies inhabiting rich clusters. The aim of the present work is to see whether pre-processing is acting in the nearby universe, where the structures that are merging to form rich clusters are rather large and massive. We study the HI gas properties of a large sample of late-type galaxies belonging to the Coma I cloud, an association of objects close to the Virgo cluster. Contrary to what previously claimed, late-type galaxies in the Coma I cloud are not deficient in HI gas (HI-def=0.06+-0.44). If the Coma I cloud is representative of infalling groups in nearby clusters, this result suggests that, in the local universe, the evolution of late-type galaxies belonging to loose structures with high velocity dispersions (>= 300 km/s)associated to rich clusters such as Virgo is not significantly perturbed by pre-processing.

  20. THE PLANCK SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH VERSUS THE X-RAY VIEW OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Planck collaboration has recently published precise and resolved measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster of galaxies), thus directly gauging the electron pressure profile in the intracluster plasma. On the other hand, such a quantity may be also derived from combining the density and temperature provided by X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by the plasma. We find a model-independent tension between the SZ and the X-ray pressure, with the SZ one being definitely lower by 15%-20%. We propose that such a challenging tension can be resolved in terms of an additional, non-thermal support to the gravitational equilibrium of the intracluster plasma. This can be straightforwardly included in our Supermodel, so as to fit in detail the Planck SZ profile while being consistent with the X-ray observables. Possible origins of the non-thermal component include cosmic-ray protons, ongoing turbulence, and relativistic electrons; given the existing observational constraints on the first two options, here we focus on the third. For this to be effective, we find that the electron population must include not only an energetic tail accelerated to γ ∼> 103 responsible for the Coma radiohalo, but also many more, lower energy electrons. The electron acceleration is to be started by merging events similar to those that provided the very high central entropy of the thermal intracluster plasma in Coma.

  1. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered both a red and a blue subpopulation of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in the Coma galaxy cluster. We analyzed deep F475W (Sloan g) and F814W (I) Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel as part of the Coma Cluster Treasury Survey and have fitted the light profiles of ∼5000 point-like sources in the vicinity of NGC 4874, one of the two central dominant galaxies of the Coma Cluster. Although almost all of these sources are globular clusters that remain unresolved, we found that 52 objects have effective radii between ∼10 and 66 pc, in the range spanned by dwarf globular transition objects (DGTOs) and UCDs. Of these 52 compact objects, 25 are brighter than MV ∼ -11 mag, a magnitude conventionally thought to separate UCDs and globular clusters. The UCD/DGTO candidates have the same color and luminosity distribution as the most luminous globular clusters within the red and blue subpopulations of the immensely rich NGC 4874 globular cluster system. Unlike standard globular clusters, blue and red UCD/DGTO subpopulations have the same median effective radius. The spatial distribution of UCD/DGTO candidates reveals that they congregate toward NGC 4874 and are not uniformly distributed. We find a relative deficit of UCD/DGTOs compared with globular clusters in the inner 15 kpc around NGC 4874; however, at larger radii UCD/DGTO and globular clusters follow the same spatial distribution.

  2. Catalog of Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Clusters from Subaru Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koda, Jin; Komiyama, Yutaka; Yamanoi, Hitomo

    2016-07-01

    We present a catalog of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster. UDGs are a subset of low surface brightness (SB) galaxies with very large effective radii defined by van Dokkum et al. We surveyed the Subaru data archive for deep Suprime-Cam/Subaru R-band images, and used data covering the 1.°7 × 2.°7 region of the Coma cluster. The data are ∼1 magnitude deeper than the data of van Dokkum et al (2015a) in limiting SB. This paper explains the details of our sample selection procedure. This UDG catalog includes positions, magnitudes, effective radii, mean and central SBs, and colors (when available). Comparisons with previous galaxy catalogs in the literature are performed, and we show that the current catalog is the largest for UDGs. We also discuss that most of the UDGs are members of the Coma cluster, and the major axis of the UDGs tends to align toward the cluster center (radial alignment). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  3. Equilibrium distribution of the elements in the gas in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations governing the equilibrium distribution of the elements for an isothermal plasma in a gravitational potential well are presented, together with a rapidly converging iterative procedure for determining their solution. These results are applied to the case of the intracluster gas in clusters of galaxies and are shown to have important implications (i) for the recent controversy as to whether or not the iron nuclei ''settle out'' in the cluster core, and (ii) for the interpretation of the size and shape of the distribution of the continuum X-ray emission from clusters. We consider a model for the Coma cluster in which the intracluster gas is in equilibrium and is ''partially processed''; that is, the elements with Z>2 have abundances proportional to their cosmic values, but reduced by a factor of approx.20. We find that this model can account for the angular dependence of the continuum X-ray emission from Coma, as determined by recent Einstein observations, as well as or better than the traditional uniform composition model, although the latter is not ruled out. This suggests that the heavy elements in Coma may have settled in the cluster core and that the iron abundance for this cluster may have been overestimated by nearly an order of magnitude

  4. Measurements of the gas temperature and iron abundance distribution in the Coma Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium energy X-ray detectors onboard the EXOSAT Observatory have been used to determine the gas temperature at several positions in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. Evidence is found at greater than 95 percent confidence for a higher temperature in the center of the cluster than in a position approximately 45 arcmin off-center. No difference in iron abundance is observed between the center and off-center regions and the equilibrium model for the distribution of elements in the Coma Cluster of Abramopoulos, Chanan, and Ku can be rejected with greater than 99.5 percent confidence, in favor of a model with more uniform composition. A phenomenological model is presented of the Coma Cluster, which is consistent with the data presented here, as well as the imaging data from the Einstein Observatory and the Tenma X-ray spectrum. The model has a central isothermal region of temperature about 9 keV extending to about 25 arcmin (about 1 Mpc). Beyond this radius the temperature falls as a polytrope with index about 1.6. 36 references

  5. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  6. Negative Ion Chemistry in the Coma of Comet 1P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Negative ions (anions) were identified in the coma of comet 1P/Halley from in-situ measurements performed by the Giotto spacecraft in 1986. These anions were detected with masses in the range 7-110 amu, but with insufficient mass resolution to permit unambiguous identification. We present details of a new chemical-hydrodynamic model for the coma of comet Halley that includes - for the first time - atomic and molecular anions, in addition to a comprehensive hydrocarbon chemistry. Anion number densities arc calculated as a function of radius in the coma, and compared with the Giotto results. Important anion production mechanisms arc found to include radiative electron attachment, polar photodissociation, dissociative electron attachment, and proton transfer. The polyyne anions C4H(-) and C6H(-) arc found to be likely candidates to explain the Giotto anion mass spectrum in the range 49-73 amu. Thc CN(-) anion probably makes a significant contribution to the mass spectrum at 26 amu. Larger carbon-chain anions such as C8H(1) can explain the peak near 100 amu provided there is a source of large carbon-chain-bearing molecules from the cometary nucleus.

  7. Supporting self-managed leisure engagement and communication in post-coma persons with multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'Amico, Fiora; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Denitto, Floriana; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa

    2015-03-01

    Post-coma persons affected by extensive motor impairment and lack of speech, with or without disorders of consciousness, need special support to manage leisure engagement and communication. These two studies extended research efforts aimed at assessing basic technology-aided programs to provide such support. Specifically, Study I assessed a program for promoting independent stimulation choice in four post-coma persons who combined motor and speech disabilities with disorders of consciousness (i.e., were rated between the minimally conscious state and the emergence from such state). Study II assessed a program for promoting independent television operation and basic communication in three post-coma participants who, contrary to those involved in Study I, did not have disorders of consciousness (i.e., had emerged from a minimally conscious state). The results of the studies were largely positive with substantial levels of independent stimulation choice and access for the participants of Study I and independent television operation and communication for the participants of Study II. The results were analyzed in relation to previous data in the area and in terms of their implications for daily contexts dealing with these persons. PMID:25546297

  8. Anesthesia for pediatric external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: For very young patients, anesthesia is often required for radiotherapy. This results in multiple exposures to anesthetic agents over a short period of time. We report a consecutive series of children anesthetized for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods: Five hundred twelve children ≤ 16 years old received EBRT from January 1983 to February 1996. Patient demographics, diagnosis, anesthesia techniques, monitoring, airway management, complications, and outcome were recorded for the patients requiring anesthesia. Results: One hundred twenty-three of the 512 children (24%) required 141 courses of EBRT with anesthesia. Anesthetized patients ranged in age from 20 days to 11 years (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 ). The frequency of a child receiving EBRT and requiring anesthesia by age cohort was: ≤ 1 year (96%), 1-2 years (93%), 2-3 years (80%), 3-4 years (51%), 4-5 years (36%), 5-6 years (13%), 6-7 years (11%), and 7-16 years (0.7%). Diagnoses included: primary CNS tumor (28%), retinoblastoma (27%), neuroblastoma (20%), acute leukemia (9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (6%), and Wilms' tumor (4%). Sixty-three percent of the patients had been exposed to chemotherapy prior to EBRT. The mean number of anesthesia sessions per patient was 22 ± 16. Seventy-eight percent of the treatment courses were once daily and 22% were twice daily. Anesthesia techniques included: short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (21%), inhalation only (20%), ketamine (19%), propofol only (12%), propofol induction + inhalation maintenance (7%), ketamine induction + inhalation maintenance (6%), ketamine or short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (6%). Monitoring techniques included: EKG (95%), O2 saturation (93%), fraction of inspired O2 (57%), and end-tidal CO2 (55%). Sixty-four percent of patients had central venous access. Eleven of the 74 children with a central line developed sepsis (15%): 6 of the 11 were anesthetized with propofol (55%), 4 with a short

  9. Successful use of haemodialysis to treat phenobarbital overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyland, Kimberley; Hoy, Michael; Austin, Richard; Wildman, Martyn

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented with coma caused by a phenobarbital overdose, requiring intubation and admission to critical care. She was an international visitor and had been prescribed the drug for night-sedation. Phenobarbital is a long-acting barbiturate, which in an overdose can cause central nervous system depression, respiratory failure and haemodynamic instability; these patients can remain obtunded for many days. After initial supportive therapy, she was dialysed to help in the elimin...

  10. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF CO PRODUCTION IN COMETARY COMAE: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GAS-PHASE PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the sources of CO in cometary comae is important for understanding comet chemistry and the roles comets have played in the development of the solar system. Among comets sampled to date, the CO abundances vary widely and no direct correlation of CO abundance with other known comet properties has been identified. The picture is complicated further by the discovery of CO production in the comae of some comets, most notably comets Halley and Hale-Bopp. In this study, we investigate the conditions under which CO can be produced in the coma via gas-phase phenomena. We include photochemistry of several parent molecules, as well as two-body chemical reactions that involve the parents and their photodissociative daughter and granddaughter products. We also consider the level of excitation of 'hot' hydrogen (H*) and O(1D) in the network, because the level of excitation of these reactants strongly influences reaction rates. Our results suggest that the dominant gas-phase contributor to CO formation is the photodissociation of H2CO. Even though typical abundances of H2CO are at ∼1% relative to water in the coma, it produces more CO than other processes due to its relatively short photodissociation lifetime. Because other studies have shown H2CO to have a distributed source as well, it suggests that at least some CO formation in the coma is connected to the H2CO distributed source. We take the time to examine the CO2/CO ratio and note that while the CO2/CO ratio in comets Halley, Hale-Bopp, and Hyakutake are noticeably different when only native CO is considered, the CO2/CO ratios show greater similarity when total CO is considered. Although this sample is relatively small, should the relatively similar CO2/COTotal ratio of ∼0.25 indeed be constant for comets with distributed CO sources, it suggests that the extended CO source of these comets is tied directly to the overall C, H, O chemistry of comets, as is likely to happen if hydrogenation of CO occurred on

  12. Recorrência da Crise Convulsiva após Terapia Anticonvulsivante com Sulfato de Magnésio em Pacientes com Eclâmpsia Recurrence of Seizures after Anticonvulsant Therapy with Magnesium Sulfate in Patients with Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    2000-04-01

    . Patients and Methods: a prospective cohort study was conducted, enrolling all cases of eclampsia managed at IMIP between January/1995 and June/1998. Magnesium sulfate and oxygen therapy were administered routinely and interruption of pregnancy was performed after maternal stabilization. The frequency of recurrence of seizures and its association with maternal complications were determined. chi² test for association was used at a 5% level of significance. Results: twelve cases presented recurrence of convulsions after magnesium sulfate (10% and all received a repeated dose. In four of them convulsions persisted and they received intravenous diazepam. After diazepam, one patient still had seizures, with unsuccessful administration of phenytoin and therefore barbituric coma was induced (thionembutal. This patient had a CT-scan with evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage. Maternal complications were significantly more frequent in the group with recurrence: coma (16.7% versus 0.95, acidosis (50% versus 2.9%, pulmonary edema (16.7% versus 2.9%, cerebral hemorrhage (16.7% versus 0% and acute renal failure (16.7% versus 1.9%. Three cases of maternal death occurred in patients with recurrence (25% versus 2 cases in patients without recurrence (1.9%. Conclusions: rate of recurrence after anticonvulsant therapy with magnesium sulfate is low (10% but it is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality. These cases must be managed in an intensive care unit and submitted to routine CT-scan because cerebral hemorrhage can be the cause of recurrence.

  13. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000-5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-SN dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μV ∼ 27 mag arcsec-2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 1012 Msun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of dwarf

  14. One barbiturate and two solvated thiobarbiturates containing the triply hydrogen-bonded ADA/DAD synthon, plus one ansolvate and three solvates of their coformer 2,4-diaminopyrimidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Egert, Ernst; Bolte, Michael

    2016-09-01

    A path to new synthons for application in crystal engineering is the replacement of a strong hydrogen-bond acceptor, like a C=O group, with a weaker acceptor, like a C=S group, in doubly or triply hydrogen-bonded synthons. For instance, if the C=O group at the 2-position of barbituric acid is changed into a C=S group, 2-thiobarbituric acid is obtained. Each of the compounds comprises two ADA hydrogen-bonding sites (D = donor and A = acceptor). We report the results of cocrystallization experiments of barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid, respectively, with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, which contains a complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding site and is therefore capable of forming an ADA/DAD synthon with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. In addition, pure 2,4-diaminopyrimidine was crystallized in order to study its preferred hydrogen-bonding motifs. The experiments yielded one ansolvate of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (pyrimidine-2,4-diamine, DAPY), C4H6N4, (I), three solvates of DAPY, namely 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1,4-dioxane (2/1), 2C4H6N4·C4H8O2, (II), 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/1), C4H6N4·C4H9NO, (III), and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (1/1), C4H6N4·C5H9NO, (IV), one salt of barbituric acid, viz. 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium barbiturate (barbiturate is 2,4,6-trioxopyrimidin-5-ide), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O3(-), (V), and two solvated salts of 2-thiobarbituric acid, viz. 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 2-thiobarbiturate-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/2) (2-thiobarbiturate is 4,6-dioxo-2-sulfanylidenepyrimidin-5-ide), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O2S(-)·2C3H7NO, (VI), and 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 2-thiobarbiturate-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/2), C4H7N4(+)·C4H3N2O2S(-)·2C4H9NO, (VII). The ADA/DAD synthon was succesfully formed in the salt of barbituric acid, i.e. (V), as well as in the salts of 2-thiobarbituric acid, i.e. (VI) and (VII). In the crystal structures of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, i.e. (I)-(IV), R2(2)(8) N-H...N hydrogen-bond motifs are preferred and, in two

  15. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Sohail; Shahzadi, Lubna; Mahmood, Nasir; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar; Rauf, Abdul; Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Yar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. PMID:27207049

  16. Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction Structure of the Stable Enol Tautomer Polymorph of Barbituric Acid at 224 and 95 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Madalynn G; Lopez-Diaz, Valerie; Hudson, Bruce S

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamically stable enol crystal form of barbituric acid, previously prepared as powder by grinding or slurry methods, has been obtained as single crystals by slow cooling from methanol solution. The selection of the enol crystal was facilitated by a density-gradient method. The structure at 224 and 95 K confirms the enol inferred on the basis of powder data. The enol has bond lengths that are consistent with the expected bond order and with DFT calculations that include treatment of hydrogen bonding. In isolation, the enol is higher in energy than the tri-keto form by 50 kJ mol(-1) which must be more than compensated by enhanced hydrogen bonding. Both crystal forms have four normal H-bonds; the enol has two additional H-bonds with O-O distances of 2.49 Å. Conversion into the enol form occurs spontaneously in the solid state upon prolonged storage of the commercial tri-keto material. Slurry conversion of tri-one to enol in ethanol is reversed in direction in ethanol-D1 . PMID:26662287

  17. 急诊科昏迷病人的病例分析%The emergency cases analysis of coma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉辉; 康岩; 李林芫

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析急诊科昏迷患者的发病原因及处理措施,提高昏迷的诊断及抢救成功率。方法回顾分析326例昏迷病人的急救诊疗。结果猝死27例(48.21%)为深度昏迷的主要原因;心脑血管意外68例(38.42%),糖尿病相关性昏迷39例(22.04%),为中度昏迷的常见原因;酒精中毒30例(32.26%),药物中毒22例(23.66%),为轻度昏迷的常见原因。结论详细询问病人病史、有效的抢救措施是抢救成功的关键。%Aim to analyze the etiology and treatment of coma patients in emergency department , and to improve the diagnosis and treatment rates of coma. Methods 326 cases of coma patients were analyzed by retrospective method.Results sudden death(27cases ,48.21%) was the mainly cause of deep coma.cerebrovascular accident (68 cases ,38.42%)and diabetes-related coma( 39 cases ,22.04%) were the common cause of moderate coma . alcoholism (30 cases ,32.26%)and poisoning( 22 cases ,23.66%) was the common cause of mild coma. Conclusion it is very important to query the patient’s history and effective rescue measures .

  18. 急诊昏迷患者分诊与护理%Triage and nursing care of emergency coma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学勤; 吕荣菊; 陈霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the triage and nursing care of acute coma patients. Methods:The clinical materials of 265 cases with coma in the emergency department of our hospital from January,2013 to June,2014 were analyzed retro-spectively. Results:Among the 142 patients with cerebrovascular diseases,63 cases of severe craniocerebral injury,25 ca-ses of poisoning,15 cases of Hypoglycemic coma,8 cases of diabetic hyperosmolar coma,3 cases of Uremic coma,3 pa-tients with hepatic coma,4 cases of heat stroke coma,2 cases of unidentified cause coma,the triage accuracy was 92%. Conclusion:Solid basic skills,rich medical knowledge and the correct timely identification of emergency triage of coma pa-tients play a decisive role in making clear the causes as soon as possible. Strengthening the accurate and effective emergen-cy treatment and nursing care directly affects the success rate of rescue and rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急诊昏迷患者的分诊与护理。方法选择我院急诊科2013年1月-2014年6月接诊的265例急诊昏迷患者资料进行回顾性分析。结果脑血管病142例,严重颅脑创伤63例,各类中毒25例,低血糖昏迷15例,糖尿病高渗性昏迷8例,尿毒症昏迷3例,肝昏迷3例,中暑昏迷4例,不明原因昏迷2例,分诊正确率92%。结论具备扎实的基本功和丰富的医学知识,正确及时做好对急诊昏迷患者的鉴别分诊,对尽快明确病因起决定作用;及时加强准确有效的急救治疗与护理,直接影响最终的抢救成功率以及患者的康复情况。

  19. Sinais vitais e expressão facial de pacientes em estado de coma Signos vitales y expresión facial de pacientes en estado de coma Vital signs and facial expression of patients in coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Giesbrecht Puggina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar a influência da música e mensagem oral sobre os Sinais Vitais e Expressão Facial dos pacientes em coma fisiológico ou induzido. Realizou-se um Ensaio Clínico Controlado e Randomizado. A amostra consistiu-se de 30 pacientes de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, que foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo Controle (sem estímulos auditivos e Grupo Experimental (com estímulos auditivos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a 3 sessões, em dias consecutivos. Encontraram-se alterações estatisticamente significativas nos sinais vitais (saturação de O2 - sessão 1; saturação de O2 - sessão 3; freqüência respiratória - sessão 3 durante a mensagem e na expressão facial, sessão 1, durante a música e a mensagem. Aparentemente a mensagem foi um estímulo mais forte do que a música em relação à capacidade de produzir respostas fisiológicas sugestivas de audição.El objetivo era verificar la influencia de la música y del mensaje verbal en los Señales Vitales y la Expresión Facial de los pacientes en coma fisiológico o inducido. Un Ensayo Clínico Controlado y Randomizado fue echo. La muestra fue consistida en 30 pacientes de Unidad de terapia Intensiva, que fueran divididos en 2 grupos: Grupo Control (sin estímulos auditivos y Grupo Experimental (con los estímulos auditivos. Los pacientes fueran sometidos a las 3 sesiones, en días consecutivos. Los cambios estadísticamente significativos en las Señales Vitales fueran encuentrados (saturación del oxigeno - sesión 1; saturación del oxigeno - sesión 3; frecuencia respiratoria - sesión 3 durante el mensaje y en la Expresión Facial, sesión 1, durante música y el mensaje. Aparentemente el mensaje era uno estimulo más fuerte de qué la música en lo que refiere a la capacidad de producir respuestas fisiológicas de audición.The objective was to check music and voice message influence on the Vital Signals and Facial Expressions of patients in physiological or

  20. S0 galaxies in the Coma cluster: Environmental dependence of the S0 offset from the Tully-Fisher relation

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Smith, Russell J; Head, J T C G

    2013-01-01

    We present deep GMOS long-slit spectroscopy of 15 Coma cluster S0 galaxies, and extract kinematic properties along the major axis to several times the disc scale-length. Supplementing our dataset with previously published data, we create a combined sample of 29 Coma S0s, as well as a comparison sample of 38 Coma spirals. Using photometry from SDSS and 2MASS, we construct the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR; luminosity versus maximum rotational velocity) for S0 galaxies. At fixed rotational velocity, the Coma S0 galaxies are on average fainter than Coma spirals by 1.10$\\pm$0.18, 0.86$\\pm$0.19 and 0.83$\\pm$0.19 mag in the g, i and Ks bands respectively. The typical S0 offsets remain unchanged when calculated relative to large field-galaxy spiral samples. The observed offsets are consistent with a simple star formation model in which S0s are identical to spirals until abrupt quenching occurs at some intermediate redshift. The offsets form a continuous distribution tracing the time since the cessation of star formatio...

  1. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  2. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  3. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Rishi; Gaspari, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    We report the detection of thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZ) fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with Planck. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2-d SZ perturbations into 3-d pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at δP/P = 33 ± 12% and 74 ± 19% in the 15' and 40' radius region, respectively. We perform tests to ensure fluctuations are intrinsic to the cluster and not due to noise contamination. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3-d Mach number Ma3d = 0.8 ± 0.3 (15' region), increasing to supersonic values at larger radii (40'), and an injection scale Linj ≈ 500 kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers, in particular tied to internal galaxy groups. The large pressure fluctuations show that Coma is in adiabatic mode (mediated by sound waves), rather than isobaric mode (mediated by buoyancy waves). As predicted by turbulence models, the distribution of SZ fluctuations is log-normal with mild non-Gaussianities (heavy tails). The substantial non-thermal pressure support implies hydrostatic mass bias bM = -15% to -45% from the core to the outskirt region, respectively. While total SZ power probes the thermal energy content, the SZ fluctuations constrain the non-thermal deviations important for precision cosmology. The proposed, novel approach can be exploited by multifrequency observations using ground based interferometers and future space CMB missions.

  4. Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Ledoux, Didier; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athéna; Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Damas, Pierre; Goldman, Serge; Peeters, Erika; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    Summary Monitoring the level of consciousness in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness is crucial as it provides diagnostic and prognostic information. Behavioral assessment remains the gold standard for assessing consciousness but previous studies have shown a high rate of misdiagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) entropy measurements in differentiating unconscious (coma or vegetative) from minimally conscious patients. Left fronto-temporal EEG recordings (10-minute resting state epochs) were prospectively obtained in 56 patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed in the acute (≤1 month post-injury; n=29) or chronic (>1 month post-injury; n=27) stage. The etiology was traumatic in 23 patients. Automated online EEG entropy calculations (providing an arbitrary value ranging from 0 to 91) were compared with behavioral assessments (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) and outcome. EEG entropy correlated with Coma Recovery Scale total scores (r=0.49). Mean EEG entropy values were higher in minimally conscious (73±19; mean and standard deviation) than in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients (45±28). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an entropy cut-off value of 52 differentiating acute unconscious from minimally conscious patients (sensitivity 89% and specificity 90%). In chronic patients, entropy measurements offered no reliable diagnostic information. EEG entropy measurements did not allow prediction of outcome. User-independent time-frequency balanced spectral EEG entropy measurements seem to constitute an interesting diagnostic – albeit not prognostic – tool for assessing neural network complexity in disorders of consciousness in the acute setting. Future studies are needed before using this tool in routine clinical practice, and these should seek to improve automated EEG quantification paradigms in order to reduce the remaining false

  5. Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Ledoux, Didier; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athéna; Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Damas, Pierre; Goldman, Serge; Peeters, Erika; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the level of consciousness in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness is crucial as it provides diagnostic and prognostic information. Behavioral assessment remains the gold standard for assessing consciousness but previous studies have shown a high rate of misdiagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) entropy measurements in differentiating unconscious (coma or vegetative) from minimally conscious patients. Left fronto-temporal EEG recordings (10-minute resting state epochs) were prospectively obtained in 56 patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed in the acute (≤1 month post-injury; n=29) or chronic (>1 month post-injury; n=27) stage. The etiology was traumatic in 23 patients. Automated online EEG entropy calculations (providing an arbitrary value ranging from 0 to 91) were compared with behavioral assessments (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) and outcome. EEG entropy correlated with Coma Recovery Scale total scores (r=0.49). Mean EEG entropy values were higher in minimally conscious (73±19; mean and standard deviation) than in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients (45±28). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an entropy cut-off value of 52 differentiating acute unconscious from minimally conscious patients (sensitivity 89% and specificity 90%). In chronic patients, entropy measurements offered no reliable diagnostic information. EEG entropy measurements did not allow prediction of outcome. User-independent time-frequency balanced spectral EEG entropy measurements seem to constitute an interesting diagnostic - albeit not prognostic - tool for assessing neural network complexity in disorders of consciousness in the acute setting. Future studies are needed before using this tool in routine clinical practice, and these should seek to improve automated EEG quantification paradigms in order to reduce the remaining false negative and

  6. Modelo Vectorial para la Inferencia del Estado Cognitivo de Pacientes en Estados Derivados del Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Velásquez R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La forma tradicional de evaluar el estado de conciencia de un individuo, ha sido mediante la aplicación de estímulos y el análisis de sus respuestas, sin embargo, esta técnica se ve limitada cuando el individuo es incapaz de responder evidentemente ante un estímulo, como es el caso de los pacientes en estados derivados del coma. En estos casos, se requiere de una conexión directa con el cerebro del paciente para detectar una respuesta. Por consiguiente, en este artículo se desarrolla y analiza un modelo computacional basado en los principios de las máquinas de soporte vectorial (MSV, para inferir el estado cognitivo de pacientes en estados derivados del coma, mediante la utilización de un equipo de electroencefalografía comercial. Los resultados obtenidos, mostraron que el modelo logró clasificar correctamente una tarea cognitiva en al menos cuatro de cada cinco pruebas en pacientes de control, lo que se traduce en la obtención de un sistema de bajo costo para el análisis del estado de conciencia y para la posible comunicación con algunos pacientes en estados derivados del coma mediante protocolos médicos definidos. De esta manera, este sistema se presenta como un gran aporte para las clínicas y centros hospitalarios, como herramienta potencial de diagnóstico para este tipo de pacientes.

  7. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) coma composition at ~4 au from HST observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Hines, Dean C.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Muinonen, Karri; Knight, Matthew M.; Sitko, Michael L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Mutchler, Max; Wooden, Diane H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the first color and polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken during two measurement campaigns of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 April 10 and May 8, when the phase angles of Comet ISON were α≈13.7° and 12.2°, respectively. We model the particles in the coma using highly irregular agglomerated debris particles. Even though the observations were made over a small range of phase angle, the data still place significant constraints on the material properties of the cometary coma. The different photo-polarimetric responses are indicative of spatial chemical heterogeneity of coma in Comet ISON. For instance, at small projected distances to the nucleus (particles are composed predominantly of small, highly absorbing particles, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics material heavily irradiated with UV radiation; whereas, at longer projected distances (>1000 km), the refractive index of the particles is consistent with organic matter slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and/or Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. The modeling suggests low relative abundances of particles with low material absorption in the visible, i.e., Im(m)≤0.02. Such particles were detected unambiguously in other comets in the vicinity of nucleus through very strong negative polarization near backscattering (P≈-6%) and very low positive polarization (P≈3-5%) at side scattering. These materials were previously attributed to Mg-rich silicates forming a refractory surface layer on the surface of cometary nuclei (Zubko et al., 2012). The absence of such particles in Comet ISON could imply an absence of such a layer on its nucleus.

  8. Abundance determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-04-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montrèal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A star members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundance patterns.

  9. Abundances determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2008-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montr\\'eal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A stars members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundances patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundances patterns.

  10. Coma in the course of severe poisoning after consumption of red fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata A; Pankowska, Sylwestra; Janiak, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Łazowski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Red fly agaric poisoning is rare. It can be consumed for suicidal purposes or its psychedelic effect. The paper describes the case of a young men, who fell into a coma after ingestion of the red toadstools. Quick identification of the poison, early use of gastric lavage and symptomatic treatment resulted in regression of symptoms and lead to the patient's discharge from the hospital on the third day after intoxication. Authors discussing the poisonous alkaloids contained in the red toadtools: ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscasone and muscarine and theirs properties, responsible for the symptoms of intoxication. PMID:26828668

  11. Biblioteca Aritmética de operaciones en Tiempo Real para Números en Coma Flotante

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Mora, Higinio; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Espí Botella, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    El estándar IEEE754 es ampliamente utilizado en representación numérica de números reales y es actualmente seguida por los fabricantes en muchas de las implementaciones de CPU. Este estándar determina una serie de formatos para la representación de números en coma flotante, sus casos especiales y situaciones de error. Muchos lenguajes especifican que formatos y aritmética de la IEEE implementan, por ejemplo, en los lenguajes C/C++ y Java, el tipo float representa números en simple precisión y...

  12. Diagnostic strategy on coma%昏迷的诊断思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫东

    2009-01-01

    @@ 昏迷(coma)指各种病因导致的高级神经中枢结构与功能活动(意识、感觉和运动)处于严重而广泛抑制状态的病理过程,是一种严重的意识障碍,表现为部分或全部意识持续中断或完全丧失,是大脑功能衰竭的王要表现之一.

  13. Deep Galex Observations of the Coma Cluster: Source Catalog and Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.; Jenkins, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from deep 26 ks GALEX observations of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 Angstroms) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Angstroms) wavebands. The observed field is centered 0.9 deg. (1.6 Mpc) south-west of the Coma core, and has full optical photometric coverage by SDSS and spectroscopic coverage to r-21. The catalog consists of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically-confirmed Coma member galaxies that range from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is 80% complete to NUV=23 and FUV=23.5, and has a limiting depth at NUV=24.5 and FUV=25.0 which corresponds to a star formation rate of 10(exp -3) solar mass yr(sup -1) at the distance of Coma. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as a position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g. object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is also free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here: conversely, we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion limited at NUV approximately 23 and FUV approximately 24. We have measured the total UV galaxy counts using our catalog and report a 50% excess of counts across FUV=22-23.5 and NUV=21.5-23 relative to previous GALEX

  14. Behaviour of comet Kohoutek /1973f/. [chemical reactions in coma and tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral identification of CH3CN and HCN provides the first support for the hypothesis first proposed by Wurm (1943), of chemically stable 'parent molecules' for the less stable radicals and ions seen in the coma and the tail. These two molecules were among the earliest discovered in dense interstellar clouds. Circumstantial evidence for the presence of water as the dominant volatile component in the nucleus has been growing for some time. However, a much more volatile species is required to explain the observed behavior of the comet. CO, formaldehyde, or methane would quickly evaporate as the comet approached the sun.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dwarf galaxies in Coma supercluster (Mahajan+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Haines, C. P.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2010-11-01

    We base our work on the photometric and spectroscopic data acquired by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2006ApJS..162...38A, Cat. II/267), which for the first time covers the entire region of the Coma supercluster presented in this paper. Over a smaller area, we also use archival 24um MIR images, from the MIPS instrument aboard Spitzer (Rieke et al., 2004ApJS..154...25R), available over a significant fraction of the two main clusters. (2 data files).

  16. Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Jourdan, Jean-Pierre; Thonnard, Marie; Ledoux, Didier; Donneau, Anne-Francoise; Quertemont, Etienne; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers is still a matter of debate. To date, the most widely used standardized tool to identify and characterize NDEs in research is the Greyson NDE scale. Using this scale, retrospective and prospective studies have been trying to estimate their incidence in various populations but few studies have attempted to associate the experiences' intensity and content to etiology. Methods: This retrospective investigation assessed the intensity and the most frequently recounted features of self-reported NDEs after a non-life-threatening event (i.e., “NDE-like” experience) or after a pathological coma (i.e., “real NDE”) and according to the etiology of the acute brain insult. We also compared our retrospectively acquired data in anoxic coma with historical data from the published literature on prospective post-anoxic studies using the Greyson NDE scale. Results: From our 190 reports who met the criteria for NDE (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score >7/32), intensity (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score) and content (i.e., Greyson NDE scale features) did not differ between “NDE-like” (n = 50) and “real NDE” (n = 140) groups, nor within the “real NDE” group depending on the cause of coma (anoxic/traumatic/other). The most frequently reported feature was peacefulness (89–93%). Only 2 patients (1%) recounted a negative experience. The overall NDE core features' frequencies were higher in our retrospective anoxic cohort when compared to historical published prospective data. Conclusions: It appears that “real NDEs” after coma of different etiologies are similar to “NDE-like” experiences occurring after non-life threatening events. Subjects reporting NDEs retrospectively tend to have

  17. Modelo Vectorial para la Inferencia del Estado Cognitivo de Pacientes en Estados Derivados del Coma

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Velásquez R.; Alejandro Cardona M.; Alejandro Peña P.

    2014-01-01

    La forma tradicional de evaluar el estado de conciencia de un individuo, ha sido mediante la aplicación de estímulos y el análisis de sus respuestas, sin embargo, esta técnica se ve limitada cuando el individuo es incapaz de responder evidentemente ante un estímulo, como es el caso de los pacientes en estados derivados del coma. En estos casos, se requiere de una conexión directa con el cerebro del paciente para detectar una respuesta. Por consiguiente, en este artículo se desarrolla y analiz...

  18. Non-Doppler Redshift and Dark Matter in the Coma Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi-Jia

    2013-01-01

    In 1929 Zwicky proposed a tired light theory to interpret the Hubble law (Hubble 1929). The key of the tired light theory is to interpret the observed redshift of galaxy as the non-Doppler effect. But the derivation of the dark matter in the Coma cluster proposed by Zwicky in 1933 was based on the interpretation that redshifts of galaxies were the Doppler effect, and the non-Doppler effect was not considered at all. However, if there is a reasonable non-Doppler effect and the great majority o...

  19. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey: VII - Colour Gradients in Giant and Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, M den; Valentyn, E A; Balcells, M; Carter, D; Erwin, P; Ferguson, H C; Goudfrooij, P; Graham, A W; Hammer, D; Lucey, J R; Trentham, N; Guzman, R; Hoyos, C; Kleijn, G Verdoes; Jogee, S; Karick, A M; Marinova, I; Mouhcine, M; Weinzirl, T

    2011-01-01

    Using deep, high-spatial resolution imaging from the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than $M_\\mathrm{F814W(AB)} = -15$ mag that are either spectroscopically confirmed members of Coma or identified by eye as likely members from their low surface brightness, data are provided for 142 early-type galaxies. Typically, colour profiles are linear against $\\log(R)$, sometimes with a nuclear region of distinct, often bluer colour associated with nuclear clusters. Colour gradients are determined for the regions outside the nuclear components. We find that almost all colour gradients are negative, both for elliptical and lenticular galaxies. Most likely, earlier studies that report positive colour gradients in dwarf galaxies are affected by the bluer colours of the nuclear clusters, underlining that high resolution data are essential to disentangle the colour properties of the different morphological components in g...

  20. The Impact of High Pressure Cluster Environment on the X-ray Luminosity of Coma Early-type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Finoguenov, A.; Miniati, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present an observational study of the Lx vs Lb sigma^2 relation for early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster based on the XMM-Newton survey data. Compared to a similar relation for a sample dominated by field early-type galaxies, the Coma cluster galaxies show a flatter slope. Our calculations show that adiabatic compression produces a flattening in the Lx vs Lb sigma^2 relation that is in remarkable agreement with the observed effect. Our scenario is further supported by the observed compa...

  1. COSIMA - Dust Particles in the Inner Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko prior to perihelion passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, H.; Hilchenbach, M.; Fray, N.; Bardyn, A.; Briois, C.; Baklouti, D.; Engrand, C.; Langevin, Y.; Ligier, N.; Le Roy, L.; Merouane, S.; Orthous Daunay, F.-R.; Thirkell, L.; Kissel, J.; Koch, A.; Schulz, R.; Ryno, J.; Silen, J.

    2015-10-01

    COSIMA, the COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser, is one of the three scientific in-situ dust instruments onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. Rosetta has been accompanying the comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko since August 2014 during the journey of the nucleus into the inner solar system. COSIMA has collected several thousands of cometary particles in the inner coma from 10 to hundreds of kilometers off the cometary nucleus. We will discuss the evolution of the inner coma dust particles as observed for the collected, imaged and analyzed cometary particles.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  3. ComA, a phosphorylated response regulator protein of Bacillus subtilis, binds to the promoter region of srfA.

    OpenAIRE

    Roggiani, M; Dubnau, D

    1993-01-01

    ComA is a response regulator protein of Bacillus subtilis which is required for the transcription of several genes which are involved in late-growth expression and in responses to environmental stress. Among these genes are degQ, gsiA, and srfA. The last is an operon needed for the development of genetic competence, surfactin production, and normal sporulation. We show here that partially purified ComA protein, isolated from an overproducing Escherichia coli strain, is phosphorylated in vitro...

  4. 21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster. II. Evidence for ongoing gas stripping in five cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity 21 cm observations of 73 galaxies in the Coma supercluster are presented. Seventeen new redshifts are reported. Three galaxies in A1367 and two in the Coma Cluster are found with remarkably asymmetrical H I spectra indicating uneven gas distribution in their disks. This unstable configuration is interpreted as being due to ongoing dynamical gas stripping taking place on time scales shorter than those required for differential rotation to redistribute the gas, i.e., a few times 100 million yr. This suggests that spiral galaxies are continuously supplied to the clusters from the surrounding supercluster. 33 refs

  5. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2007-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion)calculated with the Montreal code. A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The F stars have sola...

  6. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey: I - Survey Objectives and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C; Puzia, Thomas H; Aguerri, Alfonso L; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J; Davies, Jonathan I; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R; Marzke, Ronald O; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W; Miller, Neal A; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M; Sharples, Ray M; Smith, Russell J; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 square arcmin in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium within the cluster. The ACS failure of January 27th 2007 leaves the survey 28% complete, with 21 ACS pointings (230 square arcmin) complete, and partial data for a further 4 pointings (44 square arcmin). Predicted survey depth for 10 sigma detections for optimal photometry of point sources is g' = 27.6 in the F475W filter, and IC=26.8 mag in F814 (AB magnitudes). Initial simulations with artificially injected point sources show 90% recovered at magnitude limits of g' = 27.55 and IC = 26.65. For extended sources, the predicted 10 sigma limits for a 1 square arcsecond region are g' = 25.8 mag/sq. arcsec and IC = 25.0 mag/sq. arcsec. We highlight several motivating science goals of the survey, including study of ...

  7. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Fundamental Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Mobasher, B

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the fundamental plane, FP, for a sample of 71 dwarf galaxies in the core of Coma cluster in magnitude range $-21 < M_I <-15$. Taking advantage of high resolution DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II for measuring the internal velocity dispersion of galaxies and high resolution imaging of HST/ACS, which allows an accurate surface brightness modeling, we extend the fundamental plane (FP) of galaxies to $\\sim$1 magnitude fainter luminosities than all the previous studies of the FP in Coma cluster. We find that, the scatter about the FP depends on the faint-end luminosity cutoff, such that the scatter increases for fainter galaxies. The residual from the FP correlates with the galaxy colour, with bluer galaxies showing larger residuals from FP. We find $M/L \\propto M^{-0.15\\pm0.22}$ in F814W-band indicating that in faint dwarf ellipticals, the $M/L$ ratio is insensitive to the mass. We find that less massive dwarf ellipticals are bluer than their brighter counterparts, possibly indicating on...

  8. Water Ice and Dust in the Innermost Coma of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, Silvia; Feaga, Lori M; Kelley, Michael S P; Hearn, Michael F A'; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Besse, Sebastien; Merlin, Frederic; Li, Jian-Yang

    2014-01-01

    On November 4th, 2010, the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) successfully encountered comet 103P/Hartley 2, when it was at a heliocentric distance of 1.06 AU. Spatially resolved near-IR spectra of comet Hartley 2 were acquired in the 1.05-4.83 micron wavelength range using the HRI-IR spectrometer. We present spectral maps of the inner ~10 kilometers of the coma collected 7 minutes and 23 minutes after closest approach. The extracted reflectance spectra include well-defined absorption bands near 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 micron consistent in position, bandwidth, and shape with the presence of water ice grains. Using Hapke's radiative transfer model, we characterize the type of mixing (areal vs. intimate), relative abundance, grain size, and spatial distribution of water ice and refractories. Our modeling suggests that the dust, which dominates the innermost coma of Hartley 2 and is at a temperature of 300K, is thermally and physically decoupled from the fine-grained water ice particles, which are on the order ...

  9. Mapping the Gas Turbulence in the Coma Cluster: Predictions for Astro-H

    CERN Document Server

    ZuHone, J; Zhuravleva, I

    2015-01-01

    Astro-H will be able for the first time to map gas velocities and detect turbulence in galaxy clusters. One of the best targets for turbulence studies is the Coma cluster, due to its proximity, absence of a cool core, and lack of a central active galactic nucleus. To determine what constraints Astro-H will be able to place on the Coma velocity field, we construct simulated maps of the projected gas velocity and compute the second-order structure function, an analog of the velocity power spectrum. We vary the injection scale, dissipation scale, slope, and normalization of the turbulent power spectrum, and apply measurement errors and finite sampling to the velocity field. We find that even with sparse coverage of the cluster, Astro-H will be able to measure the Mach number and the injection scale of the turbulent power spectrum--the quantities determining the energy flux down the turbulent cascade and the diffusion rate for everything that is advected by the gas (metals, cosmic rays, etc). Astro-H will not be ...

  10. The main-sequence rotation-colour relation in the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Skinner, G; Anderson, D R; Christian, D J; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Irwin, J; Joshi, Y; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K D; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Ryans, R; Scholz, A; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Street, R A; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Wheatley, P J

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric survey of rotation rates in the Coma Berenices (Melotte 111) open cluster, using data obtained as part of the SuperWASP exoplanetary transit-search programme. The goal of the Coma survey was to measure precise rotation periods for main-sequence F, G and K dwarfs in this intermediate-age (~600 Myr) cluster, and to determine the extent to which magnetic braking has caused the stellar spin periods to converge. We find a tight, almost linear relationship between rotation period and J-K colour with a root-mean square scatter of only 2 percent. The relation is similar to that seen among F, G and K stars in the Hyades. Such strong convergence can only be explained if angular momentum is not at present being transferred from a reservoir in the deep stellar interiors to the surface layers. We conclude that the coupling timescale for angular momentum transport from a rapidly-spinning radiative core to the outer convective zone must be substantially shorter than the cluster age, a...

  11. WHICH GALAXIES HOST BARS AND DISKS? A STUDY OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of the bar fraction in the Coma Cluster galaxies based on a sample of ∼190 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS). The unprecedented resolution of the HST-ACS images allows us to explore the presence of bars, detected by visual classification, throughout a luminosity range of 9 mag (-23 ∼r ∼r ∼9∼*/Modot∼11). This result holds when compared with a sample of bright/massive field galaxies. In addition, we find that the bar fraction does not vary significantly when going from the center to the cluster outskirts, implying that cluster environment plays a second-order role in bar formation/evolution. The shape of the bar fraction distribution with respect to both luminosity and mass is well matched by the luminosity distribution of disk galaxies in Coma, indicating that bars are good tracers of cold stellar disks. We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolution scenarios of bars and disks.

  12. Thermal emission from the dust coma of Comet Bowell and a model for the grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the physical characteristics of Comet Bowell is presented based on 10 and 20 microns emissions observed with the NASA 3 m IR telescope during 1981-82. Numerical models are defined for quantifying the number of dust particles at a given radius and at a given angular distance from the nucleus, the contribution of icy grains to the 20 microns flux and the average albedo, and the dust distribution in the coma. Large, dirty ice grains are judged to be responsible for production of OH at a rate of about 10 to the 29th mol/sec during the spring of 1981. The total surface area of the dirty ice grains is projected to be 10 to the 15th sq cm. The coma in 1982 would therefore have consisted of nonvolatile grains, i.e., old dirty ice grains. Further observations of other, similar comets are needed to identify the composition of the emitted grains and the heliocentric distance at which high water production is initiated. 24 references

  13. Distributed coma sources and the CH4/CO ratio in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early analyses of the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data from the Giotto flyby of Comet P/Halley indicated significant abundances of Ch+n (n=1 to 4). The source of these ions was assumed to be frozen CH4 in the nucleus. An abundance of about 2% Ch4 was consistent with this interpretation, resulting in a ratio of CH4/CO that is greater than the predicted limits for interstellar clouds or the solar nebula. However, subsequent analyses of data from the Giotto Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) indicate distributed sources of CO and H2CO in the coma that are most likely associated with organic (CHON) particles, rich in CH-bearing compounds that decay and produce CH+n species. The authors present a model that qualitatively accounts for the measured spatial distribution of CO and H2CO and indicates that most of the CH+n deduced from the Giotto IMS data may originate from organic compounds in the coma dust and not from volatiles released directly from the nucleus. As a consequence, the absence of CH4 in the icy phase of the nucleus is consistent with the observations with an upper limit of about 0.5% to the ratio CH4/CO. This is an important criterion for theories of comet formation

  14. Diffuse radio emission in the Coma cluster and Abell 1367: observations at 430 and 1400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rich clusters of galaxies, Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster) and Abell 1367, have been mapped at both 430 and 1400 MHz with the 305-m telescope at Arecibo. The contribution to the observed radio emission due to known discrete sources has been calculated by convolving interferometrically determined source lists with observed Arecibo beam patterns, and maps of the diffuse radio emission alone have been constructed. Both clusters contain regions of diffuse radio emission, although the source in Coma is larger and much more luminous than the source in Abell 1367. The linear extent of the diffuse emission and its dependence on frequency have been used to study particle propagation rates and modes of diffusion in the intracluster medium. The possible correlations between the diffuse radio emission and x-ray emission in these clusters have been investigated, and it has been found that the observed x-ray luminosities can be accounted for if the intracluster gas is heated through Coulomb interactions with the relativistic electrons responsible for the diffuse radio emission

  15. Dry Merger Rate and Post-merger Fraction in the Coma Cluster Core

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Juan P; De Propris, Roberto; Haines, Christopher P; Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, Shardha

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the dry merger activity in the Coma cluster, using a spectroscopically complete sample of 70 red-sequence (RS) galaxies, most of which (~75%) are located within 0.2R200 (~0.5 Mpc) from the cluster center, with data from the Coma Treasury Survey obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The fraction of close galaxy pairs in the sample is the proxy employed for the estimation of the merger activity. We identify 5 pairs and 1 triplet, enclosing a total of 13 galaxies, based on limits on projected separation and line-of-sight velocity difference. Of these systems, none show signs of ongoing interaction, and therefore we do not find any true mergers in our sample. This negative result sets a 1{\\sigma} upper limit of 1.5% per Gyr for the major dry merger rate, consistent with the low rates expected in present-day clusters. Detailed examination of the images of all the RS galaxies in the sample reveals only one with low surface brightness features identifiable as the remnant of a past merger or interacti...

  16. Investigations on the phenomenology of ex-vessel core melt behaviour (COMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the COMAS (corium on material surfaces) project, representative experimental and analytical investigations on the ex-vessel spreading behaviour of prototypic corium were performed to provide a realistic technical basis for the development of core catchers for future nuclear reactor generations. In various large-scale experiments, melts in the Mg-range with real corium compositions and temperatures around 2000 deg. C were tested using different substratum materials (concrete, ceramics, cast iron). These tests were carried out at Siempelkamp's CARLA melting facility for radioactively contaminated metal scrap supported by laboratory experiments at Siemens, Erlangen. The COMAS results indicate that for a sufficiently high melt release rate a quick and homogeneous coverage of an ex-vessel spreading compartment as realized in the Franco-German EPR project can be expected. Regarding the analytical assessment, it can be concluded that some spreading codes have reached a sufficient level to provide guidelines for the evaluation of spreading concepts. Open questions are mainly related to segregation and immobilization of the melt

  17. Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Merritt, Allison; Zhang, Jielai; Geha, Marla; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3 x 3 degree field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness mu(g,0) ranging from 24 - 26 mag/arcsec^2 and effective radii r_e = 3"-10", as measured from archival Canada France Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r_e = 1.5 - 4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L* galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 x 10^7 Solar masses. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with = 0.8 and = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness mu(g,0) = 25.8 mag/arcsec^2, a Sersic index n=0.6, and an effective radius...

  18. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A; Lutovinov, Alexander A; Sazonov, Sergey Yu; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Sunyaev, Rashid A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of deep surveys of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), LMC (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a $4\\sigma$ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6$\\times$10$^{-12}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10% and 90% of its full area of 4900 deg$^{2}$, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at $S/N>4\\sigma$, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly by active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, 7 LINERs, 3 XBONGs, 16 blazars and 8 AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and 2 low-mass X-ray binaries and 2 X-ra...

  19. Ion chemistry in the coma of comet 67P near perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Berthelier, J. J.; Beth, A.; Bieler, A.; Briois, C.; Broiles, T. W.; Burch, J. L.; Calmonte, U.; Cessateur, G.; Combi, M.; De Keyser, J.; Fiethe, B.; Galand, M.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Gunell, H.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Heritier, K. L.; Korth, A.; Roy, L. Le; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mall, U.; Mandt, K. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Rème, H.; Rinaldi, M.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Trattner, K. J.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Vigren, E.; Waite, J. H.; Wurz, P.

    2016-08-01

    The coma and the comet-solar wind interaction of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko changed dramatically from the initial Rosetta spacecraft encounter in August 2014 through perihelion in August 2015. Just before equinox (at 1.6 AU from the Sun), the solar wind signal disappeared and two regions of different cometary ion characteristics were observed. These "outer" and "inner" regions have cometary ion characteristics similar to outside and inside the ion pileup region observed during the Giotto approach to comet 1P/Halley. Rosetta/DFMS ion mass spectrometer observations are used here to investigate the H3O+/H2O+ ratio in the outer and inner regions at 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The H3O+/H2O+ ratio and the H3O+ signal are observed to increase in the transition from the outer to the inner region and the H3O+ signal appears to be weakly correlated with cometary ion energy. These ion composition changes are similar to the ones observed during the 1P/Halley flyby. Modeling is used to determine the importance of neutral composition and transport of neutrals and ions away from the nucleus. This modeling demonstrates that changes in the H3O+/H2O+ ratio appear to be driven largely by transport properties and only weakly by neutral composition in the coma.

  20. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Teerikorpi, P; Valtonen, M J; Byrd, G G; Merafina, M

    2013-01-01

    {We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology.} {We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large rich cluster of galaxies?} {We use recent observational data on the cluster together with our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius $R_{\\rm ZG}$ of the local force field as the key parameter.} {1) Three masses are defined which characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass $M_{\\rm M}$, the dark-energy effective mass $M_{\\rm DE}$ ($<0$) and the gravitating mass $M_{\\rm G}$ ($= M_{\\rm M} + M_{\\rm DE}$). 2) A new matter density profile is suggested which reproduces well the observational data for the Coma cluster in the radius range from 1.4 Mpc to 14 Mpc and takes into account the dark energy background. 3) Using this profile, we calculate upper limits for the total siz...

  1. Multiaperture U BV RIzJHK Photometry of Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhardt, P R; De Propris, R; Gonzalez, A H; Stanford, S A; Dickinson, M; Wang, M C

    2006-12-05

    We present a set of UBV RIzJHKs photometry for 745 J +H band selected objects in a 22:5{prime} x 29:2{prime} region centered on the core of the Coma cluster. This includes 516 galaxies and is at least 80% complete to H = 16, with a spectroscopically complete sample of 111 cluster members (nearly all with morphological classification) for H < 14:5. For each object we present total Kron (1980) magnitudes and aperture photometry. As an example, we use these data to derive color-magnitude relations for Coma early-type galaxies, measure the intrinsic scatter of these relations and its dependence on galaxy mass, and address the issue of color gradients. We find that the color gradients are mild and that the intrinsic scatter about the color-magnitude relation is small ({approx} 0:05 mag in U-V and less than {approx} 0:03 in B-R, V-I, or J-K). There is no evidence that the intrinsic scatter varies with galaxy luminosity, suggesting that the cluster red sequence is established at early epochs over a range of {approx} 100 in stellar mass.

  2. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Existence of Large, Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Geha, Marla; Merritt, Allison; Villaume, Alexa; Zhang, Jielai

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a population of low surface brightness objects in the field of the z=0.023 Coma cluster, using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Here we present Keck spectroscopy of one of the largest of these "ultra-diffuse galaxies" (UDGs), confirming that it is a member of the cluster. The galaxy has prominent absorption features, including the Ca II H+K lines and the G-band, and no detected emission lines. Its radial velocity of cz=6280 +- 120 km/s is within the 1 sigma velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The galaxy has an effective radius of 4.3 +- 0.3 kpc and a Sersic index of 0.89 +- 0.06, as measured from Keck imaging. We find no indications of tidal tails or other distortions, at least out to a radius of ~2 r_e. We show that UDGs are located in a previously sparsely populated region of the size - magnitude plane of quiescent stellar systems, as they are ~6 magnitudes fainter than normal early-type galaxies of the same size. It appears that the luminosity distribution of large quiescent galax...

  3. Planck Intermediate Results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombo, L P L; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Stivoli, F; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zaroubi, S; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged data. We find that the Arnaud et al. universal pressure profile does not fit Coma, and that their pressure profile for merging systems provides a good fit of the data only at rR_500 than the mean pressure profile predicted by the simulations. The Planck image shows significant local steepening of the y profile in two regions about half a degree to the west and to the south-east of the cluster centre. These features are consistent with the presence of shock fronts at these radii, and indeed the western feature was previously noticed in the ROSAT PSPC mosaic by Markevitch (2000) as well as in the radio. Using Planck y profiles extracted from corresponding sectors we find pressure jumps of 4.5+2.5-0.1 and 4.9+0.7-0.2 ...

  4. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with ${\\it Planck}$

    CERN Document Server

    Khatri, R

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) ${\\it fluctuations}$ can open up a new powerful window into the astrophysics of the hot diffuse medium in cosmological structures. We report the detection of SZ fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with ${\\it Planck}$. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2-d SZ perturbations into 3-d pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at $\\delta P/P = 33\\pm 12\\%$ and $74\\pm19\\%$ in the $15'$ and $40'$ radius region, respectively. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3-d Mach number ${\\rm Ma_{3d}}= 0.8\\pm0.3$ (15' region) and injection scale $L_{\\rm inj}\\approx 500$ kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers tied to internal galaxy groups. For larger radii (40'), the injection scale is unaltered and the Mach number do...

  5. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion) calculated with the Montréal code. Methods: A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise échelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. Results: The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances of C, O, Na, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The abundances of Mn, Ni, Sr and Ba are strongly correlated with that of iron for A and Am stars. In contrast the ratios [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] appear to be anticorrelated with [Fe/H] as found earlier for field A dwarfs. All Am stars in Coma Berenices are deficient in C and O and overabundant in elements heavier than Fe but not all are deficient in calcium and/or scandium. The F stars have solar abundances for almost all elements except for Mg, Si, V and Ba. The derived abundances patterns, [X/H] versus atomic number, for the slow rotator HD 108642 (A2m) and the moderately fast rotator HD 106887 (A4m) were compared to the predictions of self consistent evolutionary model codes including radiative and different amounts of turbulent diffusion. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance pattern. Conclusions: While part of the discrepancies between derived and predicted abundances may

  6. Evolution of H2O related species in the neutral coma of 67P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A. M.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Bar-Nun, A.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bochsler, P. A.; Briois, C.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M. R.; De Keyser, J.; van Dishoeck, E.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Jäckel, A.; Kopp, E.; Korth, A.; Le Roy, L.; Mall, U.; Maggiolo, R.; Marty, B.; Mousis, O.; Owen, T. C.; Reme, H.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Tzou, C. Y.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Walsh, C.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ROSINA-DFMS mass spectrometer has been probing the coma of 67Psince the spacecraft arrived at the comet in August 2014.The acquired data set covers a large range of viewing geometries forthe ever changing conditions of 67P along its journey to pericenter. With the high temporal resolutionof ROSINA-DFMS we are able to examine diurnal and seasonal changesof different species in the gaseous coma.Large scale heterogeneities in the coma have been reported since the very first measurements of the neutral inventory at 67P.Many of the minor species are seen to follow one of the major compounds,H2O, CO or CO2.In this paper we will present the latest results on H2O related species.We will discuss the possible trapping/building mechanisms responsible for these species and why it is different from other species such asCO, N2 or CO2. Acknowledgements:Work at the University of Michigan was funded by NASA contract JPL-1266313.Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundationand the European Space Agency PRODEX Program. Work at MPS was funded by the Max-Planck Society and BMWI contract 50QP1302. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the « Investissements d'Avenir » French Government program, managed by the French National Research Agency (ANR). This work was supported by CNES grants at IRAP, LATMOS, LPC2E, UTINAM, CRPG, and by the European Research Council (grant no. 267255 to B. Marty). A. Bar-Nun thanks the Ministry of Science and the Israel Space agency. Work by JHW at Southwest Research Institute was funded by the NASA JPL subcontract NAS703001TONMO710889. EvD and CW are supported by A-ERC grant 291141 CHEMPLAN and an NWO Veni award. We acknowledge herewith the

  7. A spectroscopic survey of dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster: stellar populations, environment and downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Allanson, Steven P.; Bridges, Terry J.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Miller, Neal A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the stellar populations in a sample of 89 faint red galaxies in the Coma cluster, using high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectroscopy from the 6.5-m MMT. Our sample is drawn from two 1° fields, one centred on the cluster core and the other located 1° to the south-west of the cluster centre. The target galaxies are mostly 2-4mag fainter than M* galaxies with these luminosities have been previously studied only using small samples, or at low S/N. For a comparison sample we use published high-S/N data for red-sequence galaxies in the Shapley supercluster. We use state-of-the-art stellar population models (by R. Schiavon) to interpret the absorption-line indices and infer the single-burst-equivalent age and metallicity (Fe/H) for each galaxy, as well as the abundances of the light elements Mg, Ca, C and N. The ages of the Coma dwarfs span a wide range from 10Gyr, with a strong environmental dependence. The oldest galaxies are found only in the core, while most of the galaxies in the outer south-west field have ages ~3Gyr. The galaxies have a metallicity range -1.0 solar ratios predominate in the outskirts. We show that parametrized models with more complex star formation histories perform no better than single-burst models in reproducing the observed line indices. Assuming a star formation history dominated by a single burst, the number of dwarf galaxies on the red sequence in the Coma core has doubled since z ~ 0.7. Assuming instead an abruptly truncated constant star formation rate, the equivalent redshift is z ~ 0.4. These estimates bracket the red-sequence growth time-scales found by direct studies of distant clusters. In the south-west field, the red sequence was established only at z ~ 0.2 for a burst-dominated star formation history (z ~ 0.1 for the truncated case). Our observations confirm previous indications of very recently quenched star formation in this part of the cluster. Our results strongly support the scenario in which much of the

  8. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  9. The Nucleus and Coma of Comet 67P/C-G at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths as seen by MIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter, M. D.; Gulkis, S.; Allen, M.; Von Allmen, P.; Beaudin, G.; Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Choukroun, M.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Frerking, M. A.; Hartogh, P.; Ip, W. H.; Janssen, M. A.; Jarchow, C.; Keihm, S. J.; Lee, S.; Lellouch, E.; Leyrat, C.; Rezac, L.; Schloerb, F. P.; Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Microwave Instrument on the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) makes submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength observations of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Broadband continuum measurements at wavelengths of 0.5 and 1.6 mm probe the thermal and dielectric properties of the nucleus subsurface. High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of 8 molecular lines in the submillimeter (H2O, H217O, H218O, CO, NH3, and three lines of CH3OH) constrain the abundance, velocity, and temperature of gases in the coma. These measurements allow MIRO to study the nucleus and coma as a coupled system. Using its two continuum channels, MIRO has mapped the thermal properties of the nucleus subsurface (depths from millimeters to tens of centimeters), and generally finds its properties to be consistent with very porous, dusty material. We see temperature variations due to diurnal and seasonal changes in insolation, and also see evidence for subsurface ice in some regions. This talk will provide an update on our observations of variations over time, variations with temperature, and variations in composition. We also will report on our attempts to detect the continuum thermal emission of dust in the coma. MIRO's spectroscopic observations have shown the abundance and velocity of gas as it comes off the nucleus to vary with time and location. The regions MIRO sees as particularly active are generally consistent with activity reported by other instruments. Moving away from the nucleus, MIRO is sensitive to the three-dimensional structure of the coma. We will present an update on our understanding of that structure, which is influenced by the shape of the nucleus, nucleus rotation, and processes acting within and on the coma. Our ultimate goal is to develop a coupled model of the nucleus and coma, tracing the processes by which solar heating of the surface drives sublimation of subsurface ice and generation of dust, and how gases and dust evolve in the coma. Part of this work was conducted at the Jet

  10. Physicochemical studies of the reaction of 99mTc with 5,5‧-diethyl barbituric acid, adenine, D-glucose and thiobarbituric acid at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, M. S.; El-Shahat, M. F.; Elkholany, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of 99mTc pertechnetate with 5,5‧-diethyl barbituric acid, adenine, D-glucose and thiobarbituric acid at different temperatures was studied. The solvent effect on the electronic absorption spectra of the reactions was recorded. The reaction mixtures have been analyzed at different times using TLC and a radiodetctor to show the peaks at the plates. 99mTc pertechnetate is obtained from the Mo generators. It is difficult to separate the complexes in the solid state. The percentage of 99mTc involved in the complexes can be determined. Characterization of the 99mTc complexes as well as the determination of the extent of radiolabeling was done by thin layer chromatography using 0.9% NaCl solution as a solvent. The Rf value of 99TcO4- is (≈1). The solvatochromism for the reaction of 99mTc with D-glucose was mainly affected by solute permanent dipole-solvent permanent dipole interaction, the dipolar interaction for the reaction of 99mTc with of 5,5‧-diethyl barbituric acid and for the reaction of 99mTc with adenine and thiobarbituric was solute-solvent hydrogen bonding.

  11. In vivo roles of Bm3R1 repressor in the barbiturate-mediated induction of the cytochrome P450 genes (P450(BM-3) and P450(BM-)1) of Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q; Chen, L; Fulco, A J

    1998-04-10

    We previously showed [Q. Liang, A.J. Fulco, J. Biol. Chem., 270 (1995) 18606-18614) that the binding of Bm3R1 repressor to Barbie box elements and operator sites in the 5'-flanking regions of the P450BM-3 and P450BM-1 (CYP102 and CYP106) genes in Bacillus megaterium was a critical factor in their regulation at the level of transcription. We now describe experiments that delineate specific roles for Bm3R1 in the barbiturate-mediated induction of these genes. We directly demonstrate the interaction of Bm3R1 with Barbie box and operator sequences and show that high in vivo levels of Bm3R1 prevent putative positive factors from binding to Barbie box elements, strongly inhibit the expression of the P450 genes, prolong the lag phase of growth in Bacillus megaterium cultures and increase the sensitivity of the cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of barbiturates. Finally, our data suggest that there may be two forms of Bm3R1, either of which can interact with OIII, the bicistronic operator sequence. PMID:9565684

  12. Experimental and computational thermochemical study of 1,3,5-trimethyl-, 1,5,5-trimethyl-, and 1,3,5,5-tetramethyl-barbituric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpies of formation in condensed phase have been obtained. • The enthalpies of sublimation have been measured by transpiration method. • The gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been obtained. • The gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been calculated at G3 and G4 levels. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and computational thermochemical study on three barbituric acid derivatives: 1,3,5-trimethylbarbituric acid or (1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 7358-61-4), 1,5,5-trimethylbarbituric acid or (1,5,5-trimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 702-47-6), and 1,3,5,5-tetramethylbarbituric acid or (1,3,5,5-tetramethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 13566-66-0). Values of standard (p0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been derived from experiment. Energies of combustion were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry and standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. Enthalpies of sublimation were derived from temperature dependence of vapour pressures measured by transpiration method. From these results, values of −(570.6 ± 2.3), −(599.4 ± 1.4), and −(605.1 ± 2.9) kJ · mol−1 for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 1,3,5-trimethylbarbituric acid, 1,5,5-trimethylbarbituric acid, and 1,3,5,5-tetramethylbarbituric acid, respectively, were determined. Theoretical calculations at the G3 and G4 levels were performed, and a study of the molecular and electronic structure of the compounds has been carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation were in good agreement with the experimental values

  13. From Voids to Coma: the prevalence of pre-processing in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cybulski, Ryan; Fazio, Giovanni G; Gutermuth, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of pre-processing across the Coma Supercluster, including 3505 galaxies over 500 sq deg, by quantifying the degree to which star-forming (SF) activity is quenched as a function of environment. We characterise environment using the complementary techniques of Voronoi Tessellation, to measure the density field, and the Minimal Spanning Tree, to define continuous structures, and so we measure SF activity as a function of local density and the type of environment (cluster, group, filament, and void), and quantify the degree to which environment contributes to quenching of SF activity. Our sample covers over two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (10^8.5 to 10^11 Msun), and consequently we trace the effects of environment on SF activity for dwarf and massive galaxies, distinguishing so-called "mass quenching" from "environment quenching". Environmentally-driven quenching of SF activity, measured relative to the void galaxies, occurs to progressively greater degrees in filaments, groups, and...

  14. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    profiles extracted from corresponding sectors we find pressure jumps of 4.5+0.4-0.2 and 5.0+1.3-0.1 in the west and southeast, respectively. Assuming Rankine-Hugoniot pressure jump conditions, we deduce that the shock waves should propagate with Mach number M_w=2.03+0.09-0.04 and M_se=2.05+0.25-0.02 in the......We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged...

  15. Experiments about core melt stabilization. The research project 'Corium on material surfaces' (Comas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in controlling core meltdown accidents play a very special role in international programs of reactor safety research. The 'Corium on Material Surfaces' (Comas) research project, which is concentrated on representative studies of the dispersion behavior of prototypical core melts outside the reactor pressure vessel, has contributed important findings about the design requirements for core catchers since 1994. It has been shown that such mixed oxide - metal melts can be made to spread evenly even if the thickness of layers is small. In addition, the results obtained so far allowed conclusions to be drawn about the physico-chemical phenomena accompanying the transport of the melt as a necessary precondition for code verification. (orig.)

  16. [Prolonged coma due to fat embolism syndrome after fracture of the femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gimeno, J I; Ferre, M A; Napal, M T; Pelegrín, F

    2006-03-01

    A 24-year-old male came to the emergency department with a diaphyseal fracture of the femur resulting from a motorcycle accident. Neurological deterioration was progressive, although a computed tomography scan was normal. Endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation was necessary. His condition progressed to sepsis and multiorgan failure before resolving. Magnetic resonance images of the brain suggested a fat embolism. The presence of a patent foramen ovale was investigated. The patient remained in a state of coma vigil for 3 months after the accident. After ruling out other more likely causes of neurological deterioration after trauma with fractures, fat embolism should be suspected. The prognosis for the neurological manifestations of fat embolism syndrome are generally good. Severe cases suggest massive (paradoxical) embolization of the brain and are associated with a patent foramen ovale. Early diagnosis will identify the patient at high surgical risk. A favorable course and outcome have been reported with preoperative closure of the foramen ovale. PMID:16671262

  17. The Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Function and distances to Virgo, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin; Okamura, S

    2012-01-01

    The luminosity function of planetary nebulae populations in galaxies within 10-15 Mpc distance has a cut-off at bright magnitudes and a functional form that is observed to be invariant in different galaxy morphological types. Thus it is used as a secondary distance indicator in both early and late-type galaxies. Recent deep surveys of planetary nebulae populations in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) seem to indicate that their luminosity functions deviate from those observed in the nearby galaxies. We discuss the evidence for such deviations in Virgo, and indicate which physical mechanisms may alter the evolution of a planetary nebula envelope and its central star in the halo of BCGs. We then discuss preliminary results for distances for the Virgo, Hydra I and Coma clusters based on the observed planetary nebulae luminosity functions.

  18. Soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster from a Cosmic Axion Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Stephen; Conlon, Joseph P.; Marsh, M.C. David; Powell, Andrew J.; Witkowski, Lukas T., E-mail: stephen.angus@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.marsh1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: andrew.powell2@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: l.witkowski@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We show that the soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster can be explained by a cosmic background of relativistic axion-like particles (ALPs) converting into photons in the cluster magnetic field. We provide a detailed self-contained review of the cluster soft X-ray excess, the proposed astrophysical explanations and the problems they face, and explain how a 0.1- 1 keV axion background naturally arises at reheating in many string theory models of the early universe. We study the morphology of the soft excess by numerically propagating axions through stochastic, multi-scale magnetic field models that are consistent with observations of Faraday rotation measures from Coma. By comparing to ROSAT observations of the 0.2- 0.4 keV soft excess, we find that the overall excess luminosity is easily reproduced for g{sub aγγ} ∼ 2 × 10{sup -13} Ge {sup -1}. The resulting morphology is highly sensitive to the magnetic field power spectrum. For Gaussian magnetic field models, the observed soft excess morphology prefers magnetic field spectra with most power in coherence lengths on O(3 kpc) scales over those with most power on O(12 kpc) scales. Within this scenario, we bound the mean energy of the axion background to 50 eV∼< ( E{sub a} ) ∼< 250 eV, the axion mass to m{sub a} ∼< 10{sup -12} eV, and derive a lower bound on the axion-photon coupling g{sub aγγ} ∼> √(0.5/Δ N{sub eff}) 1.4 × 10{sup -13} Ge {sup -1}.

  19. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Sazonov, Sergey Yu.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of a deep survey of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), Large Magellanic Cloud (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a 4σ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10 per cent and 90 per cent of its full area of 4900 deg2, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at S/N > 4σ, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, seven low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies, three X-ray bright optically normal galaxies, 16 blazars and eight AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and two low-mass X-ray binaries and two X-ray pulsars), three Galactic cataclysmic variables, one ultraluminous X-ray source (M82 X-1) and one blended source (SWIFT J1105.7+5854). The nature of 25 sources remains unknown, so that the survey's identification is currently complete at 83 per cent. We have constructed AGN number-flux relations (log N-log S) and calculated AGN number densities in the local Universe for the entire survey and for each of the three extragalactic fields.

  20. Soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster from a Cosmic Axion Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the soft X-ray excess in the Coma cluster can be explained by a cosmic background of relativistic axion-like particles (ALPs) converting into photons in the cluster magnetic field. We provide a detailed self-contained review of the cluster soft X-ray excess, the proposed astrophysical explanations and the problems they face, and explain how a 0.1- 1 keV axion background naturally arises at reheating in many string theory models of the early universe. We study the morphology of the soft excess by numerically propagating axions through stochastic, multi-scale magnetic field models that are consistent with observations of Faraday rotation measures from Coma. By comparing to ROSAT observations of the 0.2- 0.4 keV soft excess, we find that the overall excess luminosity is easily reproduced for gaγγ ∼ 2 × 10-13 Ge -1. The resulting morphology is highly sensitive to the magnetic field power spectrum. For Gaussian magnetic field models, the observed soft excess morphology prefers magnetic field spectra with most power in coherence lengths on O(3 kpc) scales over those with most power on O(12 kpc) scales. Within this scenario, we bound the mean energy of the axion background to 50 eV∼< ( Ea ) ∼< 250 eV, the axion mass to ma ∼< 10-12 eV, and derive a lower bound on the axion-photon coupling gaγγ ∼> √(0.5/Δ Neff) 1.4 × 10-13 Ge -1