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Sample records for barbarine sheep fed

  1. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S.; Hassayoun, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH 3 -N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  2. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  3. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged.

  4. Growth performance, carcass and noncarcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed rosemary distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, Y; Hajji, H; Smeti, S; Mahouachi, M; Kamoun, M; Atti, N

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of total replacement of oat hay by rosemary distillation residues (RR) on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. A total of 21 lambs were divided into three groups. The control group (C) was offered 600 g of oat hay; the RR87 and RR60 groups received 600 g of pellets containing 87% and 60% of RR, respectively. The CP content was 9% and 14% for RR87 and RR60, respectively. All animals were supplemented by 600 g of concentrate. After 77 days of fattening, lambs were slaughtered. The DM and CP intakes were significantly increased with RR diets. The average daily gain was higher (Pcarcass composition did not differ among groups. The bony organs and gut weights were similar among groups, while functional ones (skin, liver, kidney and testicles) were significantly heavier for both RR groups than control. The ultimate pH, water cooking loss and color variables were similar among groups and the chemical composition (protein, fat, myoglobin, collagen and iron) did not differ also among groups. These results revealed the opportunity of RR use in fattening lambs without adverse effects on carcass and meat characteristics. Moreover, 9% CP in RR pellets are enough given the same growth performance recorded as that of RR with 14% CP.

  5. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  6. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  7. Behaviour of confined sheep fed with different concentrate sources

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    A.H.H. Minervino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the effects of different feed concentrates on sheep behaviour. Our hypothesis was that citric pulp would stimulate rumination and be capable of replacing other concentrates traditionally used for feeding in confinement, to reduce the risk of urolithiasis. Ten adult Santa Inês sheep were distributed in a Latin square with five different diets, one control diet with 80% hay and 20% commercial feed and four diets containing 30% coast-cross hay and 70% of the following concentrates: pelleted citrus pulp, citrus pulp meal, cornmeal or wheat bran. After 21d of adaptation to each one of the five diets, the sheep were visually monitored for 24 h at 3 min intervals to record the time spent ruminating, time spent eating and time spent resting; the animals' positions (standing or lying down were also noted. Daytime was considered to be from 06:00h to 18:00h. The data were evaluated using ANOVA, with Tukey post-hoc test or throughout Two-sample T test for circadian and position assessment. Citrus pulp diets resulted in time spent ruminating similar to the control diet (601, 590 and 669 min, respectively, but greater (P<0.05 than the cornmeal group (421min, which showed that citrus pulp generated effective rumination. The estimated saliva production in the control diet (26L was greater than in the other groups, and was greater in the citrus pulp groups (24L/d than cornmeal (21L/d. Feeding with cornmeal led to shorter time spent eating and time spent ruminating than all other diets. The sheep had higher time spent resting at night when fed concentrates (P<0.05. For all diets, about 90% of the time spent ruminating occurred with the animals lying down. Pelleted citrus pulp, citrus pulp meal and to a lesser degree wheat bran, led to adequate time spent ruminating. The use of citrus pulp can act as a preventive management measure to reduce the incidence of urolithiasis in sheep flocks.

  8. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  9. Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration

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    Darwinsyah Lubis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat. To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control, C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P0.05. Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05 respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05. It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.

  10. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  11. Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus pear cladodes in ruminant diets are characterized by the production of wet faeces and assumed to be diarrhoea. Incremental levels of sun-dried and coarsely ground spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Algerian) cladodes were used to substitute part of the lucerne hay in balanced sheep diets. Feed and ...

  12. Commercial Cuts of Carcass of Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

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    Nurbaeti, N.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Purbowati, E.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to examine the commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. This study used 6 male thin tailed sheep aged ±11 months with average body weight of 23,01 ± 1,91 kg (CV 8,31%) and 6 male thin tailed lambs aged ±4 months with average body weight of 15,41 ± 2,11 kg (CV 13,72%). They were fed a complete feed as much as 3.5% from body weight. Fed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% total digestible nutrients (TDN) and was given ad libitum. The animals were raised for 12 weeks and slaughtered being carcass. Commercial cuts were obtained from a half right body part of each sheep carcass and divided into eight commercial cuts, i.e., neck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, flank, rack, loin and leg. The collected data was analysed using t- test in 5% level. The results showed that slaughter weight, carcass weight and half carcass weight were significantly different (Pcarcass weight and half carcass was not significantly different (P>0.05). All of the weight commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep were significantly different (P0.05). The percentage of neck and leg were significantly different (P<0.05), while the other commercial cuts were not significantly different (P<0.05). Based on the result, it can be concluded that commercial cuts of sheep is better than lambs.

  13. Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a medium protein diet. JG van der Walt, EA Boomker, A Meintjes, WA Schultheiss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Rumen Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Performance of Sheep Fed Tropical Browse Plants

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    D. A. Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study was designed to evaluate total gas production, dry matter degradability (DMD, and VFA profile; while in vivo study was designed to evaluate nutrient intakes, blood metabolites, and performance of sheep fed native grass mixed with Calliandra calothyrrus (CC, Leucaena leucochepala (LL, Moringa oleifera (MO, Gliricidea sepium (GS, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (AH. The best three from the in vitro results were used to formulate diets in in vivo study. Sixteen male growing sheep (average BW 20 kg were fed 100% native grass (NG as control; 70% NG + 30% GS; 70% NG + 30% MO; and 70% NG + 30% AH. Nutrient consumptions, DMD, blood metabolites, and sheep performances were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design. The in vitro results showed that the total gas production and DMD of CC and LL were the lowest (P<0.05 while the highest was found in GS, MO, and AH treatments (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the in vivo results showed that nutrient intakes (DM, CP, and CF of GS and AH rations were the highest. The ADG, concentration of albumin, and globulin in all treatments were similar, while total serum protein, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in MO and AH rations were higher than others. Serum cholesterol concentration in MO ration was the lowest, meanwhile the concentration of IgG was the highest (P<0.05. Supplementation of 30% MO was the best choice for optimum rumen fermentation and maintaining health status of local sheep.

  15. The Productivity of Male Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

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    Aluns, M. S.; Luthfi, N.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the productivity of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. The material used in this study were 6 thin tailed lambs aged ± 5 months with an average body weight of 15.41 ± 2.11 kg (CV 37.04%) and 6 thin tailed rams aged ± 1 year with an average body weight of 23, 01 ± 1.91 kg (CV 28.83%). The animals were raised intensively with complete feed as much as 3.5% of body weight. The feed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% Total Digestible Nutrients (TDNs). The results showed that the average feed intake was 567.10 g DMI/d in lambs and 726.24 g DMI per day in sheep. An average of body gain of lambs was 0.02 kg/d and 0.01 kg/d. The day matter digestibility of lambs achieves 50.23% and 50.74% in sheep. Based on results, it can be inferred that lambs has same digestibility with sheep and has more efficient to be fattened than sheep.

  16. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

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    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  17. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

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    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  18. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

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    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  19. Genetic diversity of two Tunisian sheep breeds using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study genetic diversity and population structure in six sheep populations belonging to two native Tunisian breeds (the Barbarine and the Western thin tail). A total of 96 samples were typed using eight RAPD primers. 62 bands were scored, of which 44 ...

  20. Ingestive behavior of crossbred Santa Inês sheep fed water with different salinity levels

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    José Helder Andrade de Moura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four water salinity levels on the ingestive behavior of non-castrated crossbred Santa Inês sheep. Thirty-two non-castrated crossbred Santa Inês sheep in feedlot, at seven months of age and initial average weight of 21.76±1.25 kg, were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and eight replicates. Four concentrations of salts in the water fed to the animals were evaluated: low (640 mg/l; medium (3,188 mg/l; high (5,740 mg/l and very high (8,326 mg/l levels of total dissolved solids (TDS. For the ingestive behaviors, the animals were observed every ten minutes, for 24 hours, to determine the time spent feeding, ruminating and idle. Also, cud chewing and the average number of defecations and urinations and the frequency of water ingestion were determined. The time spent feeding, ruminating and idle were not changed by the salinity levels in the water. Dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber intake, total chewing time, total cud chews per day, number of daily meals, average duration of each meal and number of defecations per day did not change either. However, feeding and rumination efficiency in grams of DM/h, water intake and number of urinations were linearly affected, whereas the variables rumination efficiency in grams of NDF/h, grams of dry matter per cud, grams of neutral detergent fiber per cud, number of cuds, number of chews per cud and chewing time per cud presented quadratic effect. The different levels of total dissolved solids (640; 3,188; 5,740; and 8.326 mg/l in the water fed to the sheep did not cause alterations in their ingestive behavior. In conclusion, water with up to 8,326 mg TDS/l can be an alternative strategic and seasonal method to water crossbred Santa Ines sheep.

  1. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  2. Lead absorption in sheep fed forage contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, R; Bovay, E; Luginbuehl, H R; Loenig, H

    1972-01-01

    For a period of 24 weeks three sheep received hay contaminated with lead deposits from motor vehicle exhaust gases. The aim of this study was to compare the lead accumulation in different organs and tissues of two young sheep (I and II) consuming every day forage containing 8 and 73 ppM lead respectively (= milligrams per kg of dried substance). A third animal (III) was fed with forage containing 73 ppM Pb and received in addition water with 200 mg Pb/liter. The analyses made after slaughtering of the animals revealed a marked accumulation of lead in the liver, the bones of the pelvis, the kidneys, and the spleen. However, a notable proportion of lead is also excreted with the urine and feces. Histological studies revealed some changes in the hepatocytes of animals II and III. These lesions were more significant in animal III, which received the highest level of lead, than in animal II. It is possible that these alterations have been caused by toxic substances.

  3. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R.S.; Roque, A.P.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32 P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (P F ) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  4. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O.; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein

    2014-01-01

    goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d......, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg0.75 was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP...

  5. Response of sheep fed on concentrate containing feather meal and supplemented with mineral Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of protein concentrate with feather meal supplemented with organic chromium mineral on performance of lambs. Twenty five male lambs were fed basal feed of fresh chopped king grass ad libitum and were allotted to either one of five different supplements (five dietary treatments: Control (C; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal (FM; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr yeast at 1.5 mg (FMCrOrg; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr inorganic which equal to the amount of Cr bound in yeast (FMCr; Concentrate control supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr yeast (CCrOrg. Cr-organic was synthesized by incorporating CrCl3 in fermented rice flour by Rhizopus sp. The mineral is mixed with feather meal as a mineral carrier. Sheep in all treatments received iso protein concentrate. Parameters observed were body weight change, feed consumption and nutrient digestibility. Results shows that there was no significant effect of diet treatments on average daily gain (ADG, dry matter consumption and feed conversion, with the average value of 75.4 gr/day; 74.9 g/BW0.75 and 9.9 respectively, However diet treatment of organic chromium and protein substitution with feather meal (FMCrOrg showed tendency of having higher ADG (83.57 g/h/d. Average nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NDF were 68.7; 69.6 and 60.9%, respectively. However NDF digestibility of FMCrOrg tended to be higher than other treatment (67.0%. It is concluded that partial substitution of protein concentrate by feather meal and 1.5 mg Cr-organic supplementation did not affect sheep performance.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS

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    Dewi Apri Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the physiological status, blood profiles and body composition of sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs. Twenty fat-tailed sheep (av. BW 23±1.2 kg were used in this experiment by using Completely Randomized Design with five treatments ration and four replications of each. Sheep fed with concentrate containing 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil and king grass (1:1 ad libitum. Treatments were control diet without herbs (R1; Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by curcumae domestica (R2; coated by Zingiber officinale Rosc (R3; coated by Eugenia polyantha (R4 and coated by Pluchea indica Less (R5. Data of physiological parameters were measured three times a day, in the morning, at noon and afternoon. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment through jugular vein, together with zero sample for Urea Space measurement. The variables observed were physiological data (heart rate, respiration rate, and rectal temperature, blood profiles (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV, leucocytes and body composition (water, protein and fat measured using Urea Space technique. Results of the study showed that sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs was not significantly different on heart rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature among treatments. Meanwhile, total leucocytes, neutrophil cell, and lymphocytes significantly increased (P<0.05 by the treatment. Body composition percentage (water, protein and fat were same in all treatments, except the total body fat and energy retained. In conclusion, supplementation of 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by Curcumae domestica, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Eugenia polyantha and Pluchea indica Less in fat-tailed sheep had no effect on physiological parameters, but improved the leucocyte and neutrophil cells. Total body fat and energy retained lower compared to control treatment. (Key words: Body composition, Ca-saponified, Herbs, Lemuru

  7. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  8. Phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta Reduce Cell Proliferation in Sheep Fed Flaxseed during Post Partum

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    Maria Giovanna Ciliberti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The post partum period is characterized by immunosuppression and increased disease susceptibility. Both phytosterols from microalga Dunaniella tertiolecta and dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influence cell proliferation and cytokine release during inflammation. The objective of this paper was the evaluation of the effects of physterols, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta, on the in vitro immune responses of ewes supplemented with flaxseed during post partum. Twenty Comisana parturient ewes were divided in two balanced groups, and supplemented with flaxseed (FS, 250 g/day or fed with a conventional diet (CON. Blood samples (15 mL were collected for five weeks, starting from lambing, in order to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Stimulated PBMC were treated with a total sterols fraction from D. tertiolecta (TS, a mix of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (purified extract, PE, and a mix of acetylated ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (acetylated purified extract, AcPE, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta at two concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL. Results of the experiment demonstrated that n-3 PUFA from flaxseed induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with an increase of both IL-10, IL-6 and a decrease of IL-1β. TS, PE, and AcPE purified from D. tertiolecta showed an anti-proliferative effect on sheep PBMC regardless their chemical composition and concentration.

  9. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  10. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass-browse leaves diets. Results indicate that browse leaves supplementation affect the enzyme activities of sheep and goats rumen, while the goats rumen liquor had higher activities of GOT, GPT and GDH enzyme than sheep.

  11. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  12. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  13. rete}itton of trace elements in the livers of sheep fed poultry manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gedroogde batteryhoendermis (DHM) is teen 4 peile van toevoeging (0,0, I1,6, 23,5 en 35,4/, respektiewelik) in afrondingsrantsoene vir skape gebruik. Byvoeging van hoendermis het. 'n verhoging ... levels well above the nutritional requirements of sheep. (Lowman & Knight, 1970; Wilke & Van der Merwe,. 1914; Van ...

  14. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on cassava (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm.

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    Michel V Maciel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems installed in the semi-arid region of Brazil depend on the forage support the 'caatinga' biome. This study aimed at evaluating the substitution of hybrid 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp. by cassava (Manihotpseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm. hay or silage on the components of sheep's' body weight. Twenty-four animals, with no defined breed, were used for the study, with an initial body weight of 19.77 ± 1.95 kg and an average age of 6-mo, being divided into three treatments ('Tifton 85' hay, cassava silage, and cassava hay. The animals were slaughtered at 56 d and all the body parts of the animals were weighed. Data were subjected to ANOVA and mean comparison test (P = 0.05. Means were superior (P 0.05 for body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight, which had means of 28.10 and 12.38 kg, respectively. The hot carcass and leg yields showed values of 58% and 34%, respectively, and were not influenced (P > 0.05 by different forages. The constituents that were not components of the carcass, organs, offal, and by-products were not affected by the replacement of 'Tifton 85' hay by cassava hay or silage. Cassava hay or silage can replace 'Tifton 85' hay for feeding sheep in complete diets without compromising their body components' yields and weights.

  15. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  16. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations.

  17. Bacterial and Protozoal Communities and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Added Tannins ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C18:2 c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C18:2 c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C18:0 (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (−30.6%; P tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  18. Gastrointestinal nitrogen turnover in sheep fed non-protein nitrogen and a phosphorus deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Hoeller, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sheep were fitted with rumen cannulas and re-entrant duodenal and T-shaped ileal cannulas and adapted to a semisynthetic phosphorus deficient diet providing approximately 0.96 g P/d and 14 g N/d, about half of which was in the form of urea-N. Phosphorus repletion was achieved by daily intraduodenal infusion of phosphate, bringing up the daily P supply to about 4.2 g. In P depletion, as well as in P repletion, a series of infusion periods of six days each were established with continuous intraruminal infusion of Cr-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid as a fluid marker and 15 NH 4 Cl as a marker of microbial N. Gastrointestinal phosphorus and nitrogen balances were established and the net yield of microbial N in the rumen and the flow of microbial N into the duodenum were calculated. The following significant findings were obtained in P depleted sheep. The concentrations of P in plasma and in rumen fluid and the flow of P to the small intestines fell by 60 to 90%; the P balances became negative. The gastrointestinal balance and the flow of N before the large intestines were not affected, but N digestibility in the large intestines was reduced. The daily net yield of microbial N in the rumen was reduced by 27% and the daily flow of microbial N into the duodenum was reduced by 26%. (author)

  19. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals.

  20. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration of sheep fed temperate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on ruminal pH and NH. 3-N concentration of wethers consuming a fresh temperate pasture (Lotus corniculatus) in metabolism cages. Sixteen Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers were fed temperate pastures ad libitum and were ...

  1. The Nutrient Digestibility of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Byproduct-Based Complete Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of palm oil by-product such as palm fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches (EFB, fiber fruit juice (FFJ, palm kernel cake (PKC, and palm oil sludge (POS as the source of energy and protein for ruminants, especially sheep is an efficient effort to make a new opportunities in term of economical and beneficial product that will reduce environmental pollution. The objectives of this research were to analyze the effect of palm oil’s byproduct-based complete feed on sheep’s nutrient digestibility. Sixteen male sheeps of nine month old with average body weight 14.69+0.82 kg were used. The complete feed was formulated by ammoniated-fermented technology from palm fronds and leaves, EFB and FFJ, also Centrosema sp., PKC, POS, ground corn, rice bran, cassava, molasses, urea, mineral mix and salt. The complete feed with different levels of crude protein (CP and TDN were used in this research which consisted of T1=10,63% CP; 63.46% TDN; T2=12.27% CP; 62.38% TDN; T3=13.70% CP; 64.11% TDN; and T4=15.90% CP; 61.28% TDN. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD which consisted of four treatments and four replications. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with significance level at 95% and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The experimental results showed that the protein level affected the feed digestibility. The highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were 65.79%, 70.30%, and 84.34% respectively, resulting in 14% protein level (T3 were significantly different with treatment at protein level 10% (T1, 12% (T2 and 16% (T4 at p <0.05. It can be concluded that by-product of palm oil plantation and mill had good nutritional value. Therefore, this feedstuff can be used to formulate complete feed for sheep and it successfully increased the nutrient digestibility /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso

  2. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  3. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  5. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  6. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  7. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  8. Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity of the rumen liquor from australian merino and corriedale sheep, fed on pasture

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    Francisco Leydson Formiga Feitosa

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity from rumen liquor was carried out in Australian Merino and Corriedale sheep fed on pasture, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer, in Botucatu City, São Paulo, Brazil. Ruminal samples were collected using a standard tube, from 103 sheep during the winter period (50 Corriedale and 53 Australian Merino and from 107 sheep in the summer (52 Corriedale and 55 Australian Merino. The results obtained for pH and total titratable acidity in Australian Merino sheep in winter and summer were, respectively 6,69 ± 0,20 and 6,75 ± 0,23, and 26,27 ± 5,02 and 29,24 ± 6.24 units. The results observed in these tests for Corriedale sheep in winter and summer were, respectively, 6,70 ± 0,21 and 6,84 ±0,28, and 27,26 ± 4,82 and 30,40 ± 5,11 units.

  9. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude supplemented with the second harvest (L as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude, M2 (1600-1700 m altitude, M3 (1800 m altitude, M4 (1900 m altitude, M5 (2200 m altitude were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA, arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA increased significantly (P<0.001 with the diet. In the milk from M5 grazing the percentage of ALA was 2.5 times higher than in milk from L and 2.6 times higher than in milk from TMR. The percentage of ARA and DHA in milk was the highest when ewes were grazing on the M5 pasture (0.21±0.02 wt. %; 0.22±0.02 wt. % respectively. Total n-3PUFA and n-6PUFA increased significantly (P<0.001 by the diet. Therefore, the n-6/n-3PUFA ratio was the best (1.2 in milk produced in the highest mountain pasture (M5, in terms of nutritional requirements.

  10. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Christopher S.; Palmer, Brian; Bunch, Rowan; Krause, Denis O.

    1999-01-01

    Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra tannin) or hydrolyzable (tannic acid) tannin. Fifteen genotypes were identified, based on 16S ribosomal DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and all were proteolytic and fermented peptides to ammonia. Ten of the isolates grew to high optical density (OD) on carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, xylan, starch, and maltose), while the other isolates did not utilize or had low growth on these substrates. In pure culture, representative isolates were unable to ferment protein that was present in calliandra or had been complexed with tannin. One isolate, Lp1284, had high protease activity (80 U), a high specific growth rate (0.28), and a high rate of ammonia production (734 nmol/min/ml/OD unit) on Casamino Acids and Trypticase Peptone. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence showed that Lp1284 was related (97.6%) to Clostridium botulinum NCTC 7273. Purified plant protein and casein also supported growth of Lp1284 and were fermented to ammonia. This is the first report of a proteolytic, ammonia-hyperproducing bacterium from the rumen. In conclusion, a diverse group of proteolytic and peptidolytic bacteria were present in the rumen, but the isolates could not digest protein that was complexed with condensed tannin. PMID:10388706

  12. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  13. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  15. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  16. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  17. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  18. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

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    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  19. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical changes and oxidative stress indicators of meat from sheep fed diets with coffee pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how feeding sheep coffee pulp affects carcass characteristics and what changes occur in physicochemical, antioxidant capacity and oxidation of the meat during refrigerated storage. The experiment was carried out in 15 Blackbelly lambs weighing an average 22.86±0.76kg. The animals were assigned to three treatments: T0=control diet, T1=diet with 8% coffee pulp, and T2=diet with 16% coffee pulp. After fattening for 56 days, the sheep were slaughtered and the carcasses assessed. The inclusion of 16% coffee pulp in the diet increased carcass dressing from 48.19 to 50.83% and decreased the amount of fat in rumen and intestines from 3.43 to 2.53% (P<0.05. The inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet did not alter the amount of crude protein or fat in meat or its oxidation and antioxidant capacity during refrigerated storage. However, the inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet decreased fat in the rumen and intestines, and thus increased the amount of usable meat.

  20. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  1. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau Ingestive behavior of Santa Inês sheep fed diets with cocoa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos Santa Inês fêmeas, não-gestantes e não-lactantes, com peso corporal médio de 25 kg e aproximadamente 12 meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O farelo de cacau foi fornecido no concentrado nos níveis de 0, 10, 20 e 30% e, como volumoso, utilizou-se feno de mandioca. As dietas foram fornecidas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50 volumoso:concentrado. Os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio obtidos em 24 horas de observação foram semelhantes. Contudo, os animais que consumiram dietas com maiores níveis de farelo de cacau, acima de 14,8% de substituição no concentrado, reduziram o número de bolos ruminados por dia, que foi compensado pelo aumento do tempo de mastigações por bolo. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a eficiência de alimentação (g MS e FDN/hora não foram influenciados pelos níveis de farelo de cacau na dieta, entretanto, esse alimento provocou alterações na eficiência de ruminação (g MS e FDN/bolo. O número de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminado aumentou linearmente, enquanto o número de mastigações por dia apresentou comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo de 42.818,4 mastigações diárias para o nível de 16,9% de farelo de cacau. Embora não se tenha verificado diferença nos consumos de MS e FDN (kg/dia, a inclusão de farelo de cacau em dietas para ovinos Santa Inês afetou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed diets containing cocoa meal. Sixteen Santa Inês female sheep, no-pregnant, no-lactating, averaging 25 kg of body weight and 12 months of age, maintained in individual barns were used. The cocoa meal was fed in the concentrate at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, and as forage was cassava

  2. Rumen bacterial community evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in dairy sheep fed marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Carrera, T; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; McEwan, N R; Hervás, G; Abecia, L; Pinloche, E; Girdwood, S E; Belenguer, A

    2014-03-01

    Developing novel strategies to increase the content of bioactive unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant-derived products requires a deeper understanding of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria involved in this process. Although high-throughput pyrosequencing may allow for a great coverage of bacterial diversity, it has hardly been used to investigate the microbiology of ruminal FA metabolism. In this experiment, 454 pyrosequencing and a molecular fingerprinting technique (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; T-RFLP) were used concurrently to assess the effect of diet supplementation with marine algae (MA) on the rumen bacterial community of dairy sheep. Eleven lactating ewes were divided in 2 lots and offered a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrate (40:60), supplemented with 0 (control) or 8 (MA) g of MA/kg of dry matter. After 54 d on treatments, animals were slaughtered and samples of rumen content and fluid were collected separately for microbial analysis. Pyrosequencing yielded a greater coverage of bacterial diversity than T-RFLP and allowed the identification of low abundant populations. Conversely, both molecular approaches pointed to similar conclusions and showed that relevant changes due to MA addition were observed within the major ruminal phyla, namely Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Decreases in the abundance of unclassified Bacteroidales, Porphyromonadaceae, and Ruminococcaceae and increases in as-yet uncultured species of the family Succinivibrionaceae, might be related to a potential role of these groups in different pathways of rumen FA metabolism. Diet supplementation with MA, however, had no effect on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio genera. In addition, results from both 454 pyrosequencing and T-RFLP indicate that the effect of MA was rather consistent in rumen content or fluid samples, despite inherent differences between these fractions in their bacterial composition

  3. Consumo e digestibilidade em ovinos alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola Intake and digestibility of sheep fed grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Neubern de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta nas dietas sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade. Seis ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês (210 e 240 dias de idade e peso corporal de 44,8 + 4,2kg receberam dietas contendo 40% de feno de capim Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, mistura mineral, além de canola em grão integral, farelo de canola e torta de canola, que constituíram os três tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 para o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF entre as dietas experimentais, no ensaio de digestibilidade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 de tratamento para a digestibilidade de MS, MO, EE, PB, EB, FDN, CT e CNF. Recomenda-se incluir até 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta na dieta de ovinos.The effect of feeding 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola on intake and digestibility was evaluated. Six non castrated Santa Ines sheep (from 210 to 240 days old and body weight of 44.8 + 4.2kg were fed diets composed by 40% of Tifton hay and 60% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. No differences on the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC were observed among treatments, in the digestibility trial. No treatment effect on the digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CP, GE, NDF, TC and NFC was observed. It is recommended to include up to 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola in the sheep diet.

  4. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  5. Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana Miocardiopatia crônica e degeneração esponjosa do encéfalo em ovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por Ateleia glazioviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Buss Raffi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days. One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical signs observed in three sheep included depression, anorexia, general weakness, staggering gait and prolonged recumbency. One sheep had signs of congestive heart failure. Necropsy findings included subcutaneous dependent edema and edema of the body cavities in two sheep and nutmeg liver in one. Histopathological findings included degeneration, necrosis and interstitial fibrosis in the myocardium of four sheep and vacuolation of cerebral white matter (spongy degeneration, status spongiosus in 10 sheep, although this latter change were marked only in two of those 10. The ultrastructure of the brain lesion was morphologically consistent with that found in diseases grouped as spongiform myelinopathies in which vacuolation of the myelin occurs in the absence of significant myelin breakdown or phagocytosis. The morphology and pathogenesis of the chronic cardiomyopathy and of the cerebral spongy degeneration in affected sheep in this experiment are discussed and compared with other similar conditions in domestic ruminants.Quinze ovinos mestiços adultos receberam quantidades variáveis (2,5-35g kg-1 pv, por via oral, das folhas verdes frescas de Ateleia glazioviana durante períodos de tempo que variaram de 1 a 24 dias. Um ovino não recebeu a planta e serviu como controle. Todos os 16 ovinos foram submetidos à eutanásia em diferentes estágios do experimento, necropsiados, e vários órgãos, incluindo coração e encéfalo, foram avaliados histologicamente

  6. ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF DRIED GROUND BANANA PLANT LEAVES (MUSA SPP.) FED TO SHEEP ARTIFICIALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS AND TRICHOSTRONGYLUS COLUBRIFORMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Yoshihara, Eidi; Silva, Leandro Kataoaka Fernandes; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo Mendonça; de Souza Meira, Enoch Brandão; Rossi, Rodolfo Santos; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Hasegawa, Marjorie Yumi

    2017-01-01

    Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana leaves in infected sheep as alternative control strategies and see its viability. In this study, we performed two trials to investigate the anthelmintic properties of banana leaves on endoparasites in sheep. In Trial 1, twelve sheep were artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis ; in Trial 2, eleven sheep were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus . Clinical examinations, packed cell volume, total protein, faecal egg counts (FECs) and egg hatchability tests (EHTs) were performed. At the end of the trials, the sheep were humanely slaughtered, and total worm counts were performed. In Trial 1 and 2, no significant FEC decreases were note but significant diference in EHTs were observed. Total worm counts, clinical and haematological parameters did not reveal significant changes between the treatment and control groups. These results suggest that feeding dried ground banana plant leaves to sheep may reduce the viability of Trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs, and this anthelmintic activity is potentially exploitable as part of an integrated parasite management programme. However, further investigation is needed to establish the optimal dosage, develop a convenient delivery form and confirm the economic feasibility of using banana plantation byproducts as feed for ruminant species. Abbreviations: Coproculture test (CT)., Faecal egg count (FEC)., Egg hatchability test (EHT).

  7. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (penergy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  8. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khateri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO, containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control, 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05 compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05 in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent

  9. In vivo and in situ measurements of the digestive characteristics of sainfoin in comparison with lucerne fed to sheep as fresh forages at two growth stages and as hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Poncet, C

    2008-09-01

    In vivo and in situ digestive characteristics of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L., a tannin-rich forage) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L., a tannin-free forage) were compared to evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) and growth stage (vegetative v. early flowering) in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the hays of the two forages, harvested at early flowering, were compared. Ingestibility, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed sainfoin and lucerne fresh forages and hays. The loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine was also measured using rumen fistulated sheep and other intestine fistulated sheep. Nitrogen content was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne. Content of CT in sainfoin decreased with growth stage (3.5 to 2.5 g CT/kg DM) and was lower for sainfoin hay (0.6 g CT/kg DM). Ingestibility and OMD did not differ between fresh-fed forage species. Total N tract digestibility in vivo was much lower for sainfoin than for lucerne fresh forages (mean value 0.540 v. 0.721, P forages. Nitrogen degradability in the rumen determined by the nylon bag technique (DegN) was lower for sainfoin than for lucerne when forages were studied both fresh (mean value 0.608 and 0.818, respectively) and as hays (0.631 and 0.767). The efficiency of forage N digestion (ENd) was higher for sainfoin at the vegetative stage. Compared with lucerne, sainfoin greatly increased the in situ estimate of forage N escaping the rumen but decreased its intestinal digestibility.

  10. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  11. Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P  .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

  12. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in sheep fed diets either adequate or restricted in calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Mrochen, N; Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2010-04-01

    It was the aim of the present study to collect basic data on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) homoeostasis in sheep. Two series of experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitammin D(3) (calcitriol) in supraphysiological dosage in combination with varying alimentary Ca supply. In the first series, blood samples were collected over 72 h to determine the concentrations of total Ca (Ca), ionized Ca (Ca(2+)), inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and the bone resorption marker CrossLaps (CL). In the second series, measurements were carried out over 12h. In addition, urine samples were collected to calculate the fractional excretions (FE) of Ca and P(i). Changes in plasma macromineral concentrations (Psheep (Pbone by calcitriol exclusively in this group. From these data, it can be concluded that the sheep can be a suitable animal model for studying catabolic effects of Ca deficiency and calcitriol on bone metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between level of forage intake, blood flow and oxygen consumption by splanchnic tissues of sheep fed a tropical grass forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, F; Kozloski, G V; Zeni, D; Brun, M V; Stefanello, S

    2017-02-01

    Four Polwarth castrated male sheep (42 ± 4.4 kg live weight (LW) surgically implanted with chronic indwelling catheters into the mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins, housed in metabolism cages and offered Cynodon sp. hay at rates (g of dry matter (DM)/kg LW) of 7, 14, 21 or ad libitum, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effect of the level of forage intake on blood flow and oxygen consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues (ST). The portal blood flow and the oxygen consumption by PDV linearly increased at increased organic matter (OM) intake. No effect of level of OM intake was obtained for the hepatic artery blood flow and oxygen consumption by liver. As a consequence, the level of OM intake only tended to directly affect hepatic blood flow and oxygen consumption by total ST. Oxygen consumption was linearly and positively related to blood flow across PDV, liver and total ST. The heat production by PDV and total ST, as proportion of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, decreased curvilinearly at increased ME intake. In conclusion, the oxygen consumption by PDV, but not by liver, was directly related to the level of forage intake by sheep. Moreover, when ingested at levels below maintenance, most of ME was spent as heat produced by ST. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Live Weight Changes and Their Relationship with the Ovarian Status of Maiden Fat-Tailed Barbarine Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imēne Ben Salem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the effect of the pattern of live weight change on the ovarian function of maiden Barbarine ewes at approximately 1 year of age. For this purpose, a total of 171 weaned ewe lambs (mean live weight  ± s.d. 34.7±3.07 kg and mean age ± SD 196±10 days at weaning were selected for the experiment. Adjustment of live weight variation  was used. Based on the slope of the curve, animals were grouped into three classes LWCI (n=46,  LWCII (n=91 and LWCIII (n=34 with live weight loss being highest in LWCI and lowest in LWCIII.  Following laparoscopy at 13 months of age, the proportion of ewe lambs found cycling in LWCIII  (85.3% was higher in comparison to animals in LWCI (43.4%; P<0.001 and tended to be superior to those in LWCII (61.5%; P<0.05. Following synchronisation with progestagen of the females found cycling, levels of plasma IGF-I concentrations between 6 and 42 hrs after removal of sponges were not significantly different between the three classes of live weight, and respectively averaged 94.2, 90.8 and 89.8 µg/l for LWCI, LWCII and LWCIII females. Levels of estradiol were also not significantly different between the three groups (0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 pg/ml for LWCI, LWCII and LWCIII ewe lambs, respectively. It was concluded that, in low input systems of semi-arid and arid Tunisia, mating ewe lambs at the approximate age of 1 year is likely to lead to depressed reproductive performance particularly when the summer live weight-loss is elevated.

  15. Carcass traits and meat fatty acid composition of Barbarine lambs reared on rangelands or indoors on hay and concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Kraiem, K

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass and meat quality between Barbarine lambs raised on rangelands and those reared indoors. A total of 24 weaned male lambs (23.2 kg) were allotted into two groups. The first group (GS) grazed pasture dominated by natural shrubs and was supplemented with 100 g of concentrate. The second group (HS) received oat hay and 200 to 300 g supplement of the same concentrate in order to obtain the same average daily gain (ADG) as the GS group. Six lambs from each group were slaughtered. Lambs to be slaughtered were randomly identified at the beginning of the trial. Carcass traits (offals percentage, dressing percentage, cuts yield, tissue composition, fatness and conformation) were determined; pH and meat and fat color were measured. Samples from longissimus lumborum were collected to analyze fatty acid composition. The GS group was characterized by a higher offals percentage, associated with higher lungs, heart, liver and kidney percentage. Carcass dressing percentage defined as the rate between hot carcass weight and empty BW was lower by 3.4% in the GS group. No differences were observed for carcass meat yield and carcass and leg compactness. Shoulder bone percentage of the GS group was higher, without differences in fat and lean percentages. Fat thickness, kidney and tail fats were lower in the GS lambs. However, intramuscular fat content was not affected. Percentages of saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not modified, whereas levels of n-3 and long n-3PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) as well as Δ5 desaturase plus Δ6 desaturase index were higher for the GS group. Thrombogenic and atherogenic indexes were not altered. No significant effects were observed for meat pH, meat and fat color. Despite having the same ADG, lambs from the GS group were less fatty, and their meat was richer in beneficial fatty acids.

  16. Effects of feeding different proportions of silver leaf desmodium (Dismodium uncinatum) with banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaf on nutrient utilization in Horro sheep fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chali, Diriba; Nurfeta, Ajebu; Banerjee, Sandip; Eik, Lars Olav

    2018-03-02

    The objective was to evaluate feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characteristics of sheep fed a basal diet of hay supplemented with banana leaves and silver leaf desmodium. Thirty yearling lambs with an average initial body weight of 15.85 ± 1.6 kg were grouped into six blocks of five rams in each block. The treatments were: hay alone (T1), hay + 100% banana leaf (T2), hay + 67% banana leaf + 33% desmodium leaf (T3), hay + 33% banana leaf + 67% desmodium leaf (T4) and hay + 100% desmodium leaf (T5). Three hundred grams of treatment diets were offered daily on as fed basis. The feeding and digestibility trial lasted for 84 and 7 days, respectively, followed by carcass evaluation. The total dry matter (DM) intake for T3, T4 and T5 were greater (P T4 > T3 > T2 > T1. Rams lambs receiving supplementary diets had higher (P<0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility compared with the control diet. The empty body weight and slaughter weight was highest (P<0.05) in rams receiving T3, T4 and T5 diets. The average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency was highest (P<0.05) in rams receiving the supplementary diets. The DP on the basis of hot carcass weight linearly increased with increasing levels of desmodium. Rams reared on supplementary diet had higher (P<0.05) rib eye area compared with the control diet. In conclusion, when banana leaf is used as a supplement to poor quality grass, better response was obtained when fed in combination with desmodium.

  17. Desempenho de ovinos mantidos com dietas com capim-elefante ensilado com diferentes aditivos Performance of sheep fed diets with elephant grass ensiled with different addictives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nobre de Carvalho Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca, com base na matéria natural (peso/peso, à forragem verde de capim-elefante no momento da ensilagem sobre o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho de 20 ovinos Santa Inês em confinamento. Os animais tinham 5 meses de idade, peso inicial de 22,27 ± 3,24 kg e o peso final foi de 28,6 ± 3,78 kg. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: capim-elefante ensilado sem aditivo ou ensilado com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A utilização da casca de café, do farelo de cacau e do farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumentou o consumo de matéria seca. Os maiores consumos de proteína bruta foram observados nas silagens contendo farelo de cacau e farelo de mandioca. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro foram semelhantes e o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais foi maior na silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. A conversão alimentar dos animais não foi afetada pela inclusão dos aditivos na ensilagem. A inclusão de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumenta o ganho de peso (140,5 g/dia em ovinos Santa Inês.The effects of the addition of 15% of different addictives (coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal to green elephant grass forage, in natural matter basis (weight/weight, at the ensilage moment on the consumption of nutrients and the performance of twenty Santa Inês sheep under feedlot system were evaluated. The animals had 5.0 months of age, initial weight of 22.27 ± 3.24 kg and final weight of 28.6 ± 3.78 kg. The treatments were: T1 = elephant grass ensiled without addictive; T2 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% coffee hulls; T3 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cocoa meal; T4 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cassava meal. The use of the addictives coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava

  18. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  19. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  20. Efeitos da defaunação em ovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. adicionada de uréia Effects of defaunation in sheep fed sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum, L. plus urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, estudou-se o efeito da defaunação em ovinos que receberam cana-de-açúcar e uréia sobre o consumo e digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, dinâmica da fase sólida, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal e de degradação in situ. As taxas de passagem no rúmen foram, respectivamente, de 3,05 e 1,97%/h, para ovinos faunados e defaunados. Valores mais elevados para taxa (5,4%/h e extensão (46,7% da digestão ruminal e de degradabilidade efetiva da FDN da cana (31,5% foram obtidos nos ovinos faunados. Seus consumos diários (57,7 e 32,3 g/kg0,75, respectivamente para MS e FDN foram superiores (PThe defaunation effect on feed intake, nutrient apparent digestibilities, solid phase dynamics, ruminal fermentation parameters and in situ degradation in sheep fed on sugar cane plus urea was studied in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Ruminal passage rates of 3.05 and 1.97%/h were observed for the faunated and defaunated groups, respectively. Higher values for sugar cane NDF ruminal digestion rate (5.41%/h, extension (46.7% and effective degradability (31.53% were observed for the faunated group. The faunated group daily intake (57.7 and 32.3 g/kg0.75 for dry matter and NDF residue, respectively was higher (P<0.06 than that for the defaunated group. Total VFA, acetate and propionate concentrations were higher (P<0.05 in the faunated group and were dependent on sampling time. Defaunated sheep showed higher (P<0.04 post prandial decrease in pH. Relative to apparent digestibility difference (P<0.05 between treatments was observed only for dry matter.

  1. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  2. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes, totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testando-se os efeitos de tratamento, de período e de animal, e os contrastes foram comparados pelo teste F. A retenção de fósforo foi negativa nos fenos dos capins gordura, braquiária e coastcross e positiva no feno do capim-colonião. Por análise de regressão, a perda fecal do fósforo endógeno foi estimada em 15,5mg/kg PV/dia e o coeficiente médio de retenção foi de 0,37. Pela razão entre o balanço e a ingestão, estimou-se que o consumo de fósforo necessário para alcançar o equilíbrio foi de 44mg/kg PV/dia.One experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (P retention. The experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection. The treatments were: A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, B brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens, C coastcross grass (Cynodon dactilon and D Guinea grass (Panicum maximum. Phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by F test. Negative P balances were produced in treatments A, B and C (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg LW/day, respectively which were not significantly different from each other. Positive P balance of 8.14mg/kg LW/day was produced in treatment D, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatments A, B and C. Endogenous losses

  3. Intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and ingestive behavior of sheep fed cashew nut meal Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo em ovinos alimentados com farelo de castanha de caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior of sheep fed rations with cashew nut meal (CNM at the levels of 0; 10; 20 and 30% in the concentrate ration. It was used a double 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein, mineral matter, non-fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients were not influenced by the addition of CNM, however, intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber and total carbohydrates presented a quadratic behavior with the increase of content of lipids in the ration. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, NDF, acid detergent fiber and non-fibrous carbohydrates was not influenced by the addition of CNM in the rations; however digestibility of ether extract and total carbohydrates presented quadratic and linear behavior, respectively. It was not observed any significant differences in time spent with feeding and rumination, however, total chewing time was influenced, presenting increasing linear behavior with the levels of CNM. Concerning to intakes of dry matter and NDF per hour, feed efficiency and rumination were not affected by increase on lipid content in the rations. Ruminating chews time per rumen bolus, number of ruminated boli and the number of ruminating chews per day were not influenced by experimental rations. In sheep feeding management, it is suggested as a feeding alternative the use of up to 30% of CNM in the concentrate ration if it is available.Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com rações contendo farelo de castanha de caju (FCC nos níveis de 0; 10; 20 e 30% na ração concentrada. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi quadrado latino 4 × 4 duplo. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, matéria mineral, carboidratos n

  4. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  5. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  6. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  7. Quantitative kinetics of renal glucose metabolism by the isotope dilution method in the unanesthetized sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yasukuni; Ambo, Kaichi; Tsuda, Tsuneyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Renal glucose production and utilization rates in normal fed and fasted sheep were determined by the measurements of renal blood flow and arteriovenous 14 C-glucose and glucose concentration differences using the method of primed continuous infusion of u- 14 C-glucose. At the same time total body glucose turnover rate was measured, and the contribution of renal glucose production to glucose requirement in the whole animal was quantitatively estimated. The renal blood flow for fed and fasted sheep were 20 +- 1 and 20 +- 3 ml/min/kg, respectively. No significant difference in the renal blood flow existed between the groups. The total body glucose turnover rate in fasted sheep (1.68 +- 0.20 mg/min/kg) was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) than that of fed sheep (2.20 +- 0.13 mg/min/kg). The renal glucose production rate in fed sheep was 0.47 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg and this rate accounted for about 21.4% of the glucose turnover rate. The renal glucose production rate in fasted sheep decreased to about 45% of that in fed sheep. However, the renal glucose utilization rate was similar in fed (0.26 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg) and fasted sheep (0.27 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg). Net renal glucose production rate in fed sheep, which was measured by the method of arteriovenous glucose concentration differences, was 0.22 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg, but that in fasted sheep was a negative value. These results suggest that the kidney of ruminant seems to produce a significant amount of glucose and to utilize it simultaneously with production. (author)

  8. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  9. Dung matters : An experimental study into the effectiveness of using dung from hay-fed livestock to reconstruct local vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Mans; Van Haaster, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between standing vegetation and dung from hay-fed cattle and sheep. In an experimental study, hay is retrieved from a known hay field, surrounded by a semi-open landscape of hedgerows, forests and heather fields. The hay is fed to cattle and sheep, after which

  10. Comportamento ingestivo e ingestão de água em caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno e silagem de Maniçoba Ingestive behavior and water intake in goats and sheep fed with Maniçoba hay and silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ricardo de Farias Zumba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e consumo de água de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno ou silagem de maniçoba (Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann. Foram empregados sete caprinos sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 14,6kg e oito ovinos da raça Santa Inês de 13,9kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (forma de conservação x espécie animal. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos. Para estudo de comportamento ingestivo, os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais alimentados com feno de maniçoba mostraram maior consumo de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo (56 e 24 g/dia em relação àqueles que receberam a maniçoba conservada pela fermentação (42 e 14g/dia, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação (405,00 e 399,38 min, ruminação (625,63 e 599,38 min e ócio (413,13 e 44,01 min entre os animais alimentados com silagem e feno de maniçoba, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais alimentados com maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação apresentaram menor consumo de água no bebedouro (0,473vs 0,990kg/dia para silagem e feno, respectivamente. Assim, conclui-se que o método de conservação de maniçoba não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo, mas a ingestão da maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação leva ao menorThe objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior and water intake of goats and sheep fed Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann silage or hay. Seven goats (average live weight 14,6 ± 1,24kg and eight sheep (average live weight 13,8 ± 1,22kg were allotted to individual pens. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2 x 2 factorial outline composed of

  11. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep. Five control ewes were slaughtered d -38 from parturition, whereas 10 ewes were fed ad libitum and another 10...

  12. Aspectos metodológicos do comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com capim-elefante amonizado e subprodutos agroindustriais Methodological aspects of feeding behaviour of sheep fed ammoniated elephantgrass and agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de definir o intervalo de tempo de registro do comportamento de ovinos Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 18 ovinos machos, não-castrados, com peso corporal médio inicial de 22,62 kg. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e distribuídos ao acaso em seis tratamentos, constituídos de dois volumosos (capim-elefante amonizado ou não com 5% de uréia e três concentrados (com 0% de farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê; com 40% de farelo de cacau; ou com 40% de torta de dendê em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja, fornecidos na proporção de 60:40 (volumoso:concentrado. O registro das atividades foi realizado durante dois períodos de 24 horas, no final do período experimental, registrando-se o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação, ócio e efetuando-se a discretização dessas séries. Foram testados os intervalos de observações de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutos. Os tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação e ócio não diferiram em nenhum dos intervalos estudados, entretanto, na discretização das séries temporais, ou seja, no número de períodos e no tempo médio gasto por período, apresentaram diferenças significativas. Os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio em ovinos Santa Inês podem ser obtidos com observações em intervalos de até 30 minutos. Para a discretização das séries temporais, recomenda-se o uso da escala de cinco minutos.The objective of this trial was to compare and determine the most adequate time interval to register chewing activity in Santa Inês sheep. The following time intervals were investigated: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Eighteen intact male sheep averaging 22.62 kg of body weight at the beginning of the study were used. Animals were housed in individual pens and randomly assigned to one of six treatments: ammonia-treated elephantgrass or elephatgrass supplemented with three concentrates sources (0% cocoa meal and palm

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação e de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo palma forrageira Ingestive behavior of lactating cows and sheep fed diets with spineless cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Valença Bispo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, o primeiro com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira e o segundo para avaliar o efeito da substituição total do milho, e parcial da soja, por palma e ureia sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos e de vacas em lactação, respectivamente. No experimento 1, foram utilizados cinco ovinos machos, não-castrados, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 25,8 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 5 x 5. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 8 vacas em lactação, com produção média inicial de 14 kg leite/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latino 4 x 4. A observação dos dados comportamentais foi realizada visualmente, durante 24 horas, em ambos os experimentos. No experimento 1, com a inclusão da palma forrageira, os consumos de matéria seca, o tempo de alimentação e as eficiências de ruminação aumentaram linearmente, ao passo que o tempo de ruminação reduziu, linearmente também; o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e as eficiências de alimentação apresentaram comportamento quadrático. No experimento 2, a inclusão de palma e ureia não influenciou os consumos de matéria seca e FDN nem os tempos de alimentação e ruminação e as eficiências de alimentação e de ruminação (kgMS/hora, no entanto, a eficiência de ruminação (kg FDN/hora apresentou comportamento quadrático. O tempo de mastigação total e o tempo de ócio não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma na dieta nos dois experimentos. Recomenda-se para ração de ruminantes com alta proporção de palma forrageira a inclusão de uma fonte de fibra fisicamente efetiva.It was carried out two experiments, the first aiming to assess the effect of substituting elephant grass hay by spineless cactus and the second to evaluate the total replacement of corn and partial replacement of soybean by cactus and urea regarding to the ingestion behavior of sheep and lactating

  14. Growth performance and economics of sheep production with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda lambs to determine the growth performance of sheep fed varying levels of rice milling waste. Diets containing graded levels of rice milling waste replacing wheat offal at 15, 30 and 45% inclusion levels were formulated. Diet without rice milling waste ...

  15. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  16. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  17. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  18. Dinâmica do fósforo em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo diversos níveis deste mineral Dynamics of phosphorus in the body of sheep fed different levels of this mineral in the diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton do Espírito Santo Borges

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica do fósforo no organismo de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas com diversos níveis deste mineral, considerando as correlações entre os níveis de fósforo consumido e de fósforo no plasma; na saliva; no conteúdo ruminal; nas fezes; e na urina. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros com 5 meses de idade e 27 kg de peso vivo. O experimento foi dividido em dois períodos de cinco semanas, cada um com nove animais. Os animais foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas para estudo de metabolismo e receberam uma dieta basal constituída de feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers. e concentrado com diferentes níveis de fósforo (1,9; 2,6; 3,3 g/dia provenientes de fosfato bicálcico. No 15º dia, iniciaram-se as coletas de saliva, plasma, conteúdo ruminal, fezes e urina para as análises de fósforo inorgânico. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre o aumento do consumo de fósforo e os teores desse mineral no plasma (r = 0,64, na saliva (r = 0,86, no conteúdo ruminal (r = 0,82, nas fezes (r = 0,92 e na urina (r = 0,37, comprovando que, quando absorvido, o fósforo é distribuído no corpo pelo plasma. Após a saturação no organismo, o excesso é secretado via saliva, segue para o rúmen e, ao chegar ao intestino, é reabsorvido em menor quantidade e excretado via fezes. À medida que se aumentaram os níveis de fósforo na dieta, verificou-se aumento expressivo dos teores desse mineral na saliva, no plasma, no conteúdo ruminal e nas fezes.The dynamics of phosphorus in the body of Santa Ines lambs fed diets with different levels of this mineral was evaluated, considering the correlations among the levels of phosphorus consumed, in plasma; in saliva, in rumen contents, in feces, and in urine. Eighteen lambs were used with five mo old and 27 kg BW. The experiment was divided into two periods of five weeks, each with nine animals. The animals were individually kept in cages of metabolism study and were

  19. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in

  20. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  1. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    types of forage for two periods in a crossover design. The species included six adult, non-pregnant female Danish Landrace goats, Shropshire sheep, and Lama glama llamas with body weights of 45 ± 5, 75 ± 6, and 135 ± 20 kg (mean ± SD), respectively. Forage included chopped artificially dried grass hay.......05). Sheep and goats had a higher NDF intake per kg BW than did llamas when fed GSS (P ... chewing was higher in sheep than in goats (P goats than in sheep (P goats or sheep (P

  2. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  3. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven...... reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003......, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum...

  4. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  5. Sheep and goat fermented meat sausages — health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Rodrigues, Sandra; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2016-01-01

    The most common sausages use only pork meat and are ripened for long periods. However, some countries with great tradition of sheep and goat meat consumption have the habit of eating some processed products of these meats. In Mediterranean countries as well as in other parts of the world, the meat from young lamb or kid is very usual and appreciated. These young milk fed animals producing lightweight carcasses are highly appreciated by consumers and are traditionally comm...

  6. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  7. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  8. Digestibilidade da dieta, parâmetros ruminais e desempenho de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com polpa cítrica peletizada e resíduo úmido de cervejaria Diet digestibility, ruminal parameters and performance of Santa Ines sheep fed dried citrus pulp and wet brewer grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gilaverte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho por polpa cítrica peletizada e resíduo úmido de cervejaria sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta, os parâmetros ruminais e o desempenho de ovinos. As dietas foram definidas pela substituição do milho (controle pela polpa cítrica peletizada ou pela mistura de resíduo úmido de cervejaria e polpa cítrica. No experimento 1, para avaliação do consumo, da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e dos parâmetros ruminais, foram utilizados 12 machos da raça Santa Inês canulados no rúmen, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualisados, com três dietas e quatro repetições. No experimento 2, para avaliação do desempenho, foram confinadas 48 fêmeas, que foram alimentadas com as mesmas dietas do experimento 1. A substituição do milho pela polpa cítrica peletizada não influenciou o consumo nem a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta, diferente da inclusão de resíduo úmido de cervejaria, que reduziu o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, com exceção apenas da FDN, cuja digestibilidade aparente foi similar entre as dietas. A inclusão de resíduo úmido de cervejaria na dieta reduziu as concentrações ruminais de acetato e propionato e aumentou a relação acetato/propionato e o pH ruminal. Em geral, não há diferença entre a dieta contendo milho e aquela contendo polpa cítrica em substituição total ao milho. A utilização de resíduo úmido de cervejaria, no entanto, reduz o ganho médio diário, o peso corporal final e a eficiência alimentar.Two experiments were carried out with the objective to determine the effect of replacing corn by dried citrus pulp and wet brewer grain on apparent digestibility of nutrients of the diet, ruminal parameters and performance of sheep. The diets were defined by the replacement of corn (control by dried citrus pulp or by a

  9. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  10. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  11. Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Tamminga, S.; Tegegne, A.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two successive experiments were conducted to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of Ethiopian Menz sheep. Forty ewes and 40 rams ranging in weight and age between 16¿20 kg and 14¿15 months respectively were fed a teff straw basal diet

  12. Changed mitochondrial function by pre- and/or postpartum diet alterations in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Wenche; Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Andersen, Jesper Løvind

    2009-01-01

    In a sheep model, we investigated diet effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria to look for fetal programming. During pregnancy, ewes were fed normally (N) or were 50% food restricted (L) during the last trimester, and lambs born to these ewes received a normal (N) or a high-fat diet (H...

  13. Nitrogen mineralization from sheep faeces can be predicted from the apparent digestibility of the feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, P.; Sørensen, P.; Møller, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to predict plant availability of N in faeces because most faecal N is bound in organic form. In this study the influence of diet and faeces composition on mineralization of sheep faeces in soil were investigated. Net mineralization of C and N from 16 different samples of sheep...... faeces originating from sheep fed different known diets was studied after incubation in a sandy soil. After 4 weeks net mineralization of N ranged from -41 to 9% of faeces N and after 12 weeks -28 to 43% was net mineralized. Mineralization was related to different feed and faeces characteristics...... of the mineralization of sheep faeces N in soil based on chemical analyses of the feed. However, when using a biological measure of the feed quality (apparent digestibility) a robust prediction of faeces N mineralization was possible....

  14. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  15. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep. © 2013.

  16. Características e rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes em ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684 Characteristics and yields of carcass and cuts in Santa Ines sheep fed with different concentrations of metabolizable energy - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o ganho de peso (GMD, conversão alimentar (CA, eficiência alimentar (EA, características de carcaça e dos cortes comerciais de ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável (2,08; 2,28; 2,47 e 2,69 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS. Vinte cordeiros, com idade e peso corporal médio de 50 dias e 13,00 ± 0,56 kg, respectivamente, foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (p 0,05 pelos níveis energéticos das rações. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria, e o peso do corpo vazio, expressos em kg, apresentaram efeito quadrático (p This study evaluated the weight gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency (FE, characteristics of carcass and retail cuts of Santa Inês sheep fed different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal kg-1 of DM. Twenty lambs, with age and mean body weight of 50 days and 13 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were distributed in randomized block design with five replications. We verified a linear increase effect (p 0.05 by the energy levels of the rations. Nevertheless, the weights of hot and cold carcass and theempty body , expressed in kg, presented quadratic effect (p < 0.05, as we increase the levels of metabolizable energy in experimental diets. The energy levels influenced the yield of rib and shoulder, as the loin eye area (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the manipulation of the energy level of the ration changes the ADG, the hot and cold carcass weight, the shoulder yield, the rib weight and the loin eye area of Santa Ines sheep.

  17. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  18. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

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    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  19. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. II. Protozoa population and diversity of bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of dietary characteristics on microbial populations and bacterial diversity. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the differences between diets found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios of 70:30 (high forage; HF) or 30:70 (high concentrate; HC) with either alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as the forage. Total bacterial numbers were greater in the rumen of sheep fed HF diets compared with those fed HC diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria were not affected by F:C ratio in any fermentation system, but cellulolytic numbers were 2.7 and 1.8 times greater in sheep than in fermenters for HF and HC diets, respectively. Neither total bacterial nor cellulolytic numbers were affected by the type of forage in sheep or fermenters. Decreasing F:C ratio increased total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers in sheep by about 29 and 25%, respectively, but it had no effect in fermenters. Isotrichidae and Ophryoscolecinae numbers in sheep were not affected by changing F:C ratio, but both disappeared completely from fermenters fed HC diets. Total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers were greater in sheep fed A diets than in those fed G diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. Results indicate that under the conditions of the present study, protozoa population in Rusitec fermenters was not representative of that in the rumen of sheep fed the same diets. In addition, protozoa numbers in fermenters were 121 and 226 times lower than those in the sheep rumen for HF and HC diets, respectively. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used to analyze the diversity of liquid- and solid-associated bacteria in both systems. A total of 170 peaks were detected in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis

  20. Commercial cuts and carcass characteristics of sheep and goats supplemented with multinutritional blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aimed to identify the weight and yield of the commercial cuts, muscularity, and adiposity in the carcasses of sheep and goats grazing in the Caatinga supplemented with different sources of supplementations; these include feed-blocks. Material and methods. Sixty non-castrated males an initial average body weight of 18.63 ± 1.93 kg were used: 30 goats and 30 sheep all animals did not have a defined breed standard (WDBS. The experimental design used was entirely randomized (DIC, in factorial scheme 3x2 (three types of supplementation: mineral salt, MBs and MBs + buffel hay, and two species: sheep and goats and 10 replications. Animals were raised in a rangeland grazing system in an area with vegetation characteristic of Caatinga ecosystem under three types of supplementation: 1: only mineral salt; 2: Feed blocks (MBs; and 3: MBs + buffel hay There were measured the weight, yield and the components of left half-part of carcass of lambs and kids. Results. The sheep were superior to goats in carcass conformation, loin-eye area, index of muscularity of the leg and compactness index of the leg while the goats were superior to sheep in leg muscles weight. Conclusions. Sheep and Goats, when fed with supplementation of pasture feeding blocks in the Caatinga ecosystem; Supplementation with mineral salt and Multinutritional Blocks with and without Buffel can be used to improve herds in the caatinga, with similar results among the three. Sheep show more adiposity of meat than goats, in contrast, goats have higher musculature than sheep when fed with feed blocks.

  1. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  2. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  3. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  4. Uso de n-alcanos na estimativa da composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Arachis pintoi Koprov e Gregory Use of n-alkanes to estimate the dietary botanical composition in sheep fed different proportions of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Arachis pintoi Koprov and Gregory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Massaru Fukumoto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento objetivou-se avaliar o poder discriminatório dos n-alcanos para estimar com acurácia e precisão a composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory cv. Amarillo (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com período experimental de dez dias de adaptação à dieta e cinco dias de coleta de fezes. Nas amostras (compostas de fezes do período e nos fenos, foi analisada a concentração de n-alcanos. Para o cálculo da composição botânica, utilizou-se minimização da soma dos quadrados dos desvios, considerando as concentrações dos alcanos nos componentes da dieta e nas fezes. Para a escolha dos alcanos mais discriminatórios, foram utilizadas as análises multivariadas e as variáveis canônicas. As estimativas calculadas foram submetidas à análise de variância. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste t e as correções dos valores estimados em relação aos valores reais foram ajustadas em regressão linear. As variáveis canônicas indicaram que os alcanos C35, C33, C30, C31, C27, C29 e C36 são os de maior potencial discriminatório. O uso desses alcanos nos cálculos foi mais acurado e preciso para estimar a proporção de A. pintoi na dieta que o uso de apenas dois ou três alcanos com poder discriminatório. O melhor ajuste da regressão também foi encontrado para esses alcanos. O teste t para o intercepto da equação (a e o coeficiente de regressão (b indicaram que a = 0 e b = 1, comprovando que os valores estimados são equivalentes aos valores reais. As análises multivariadas mostraram-se ferramentas de grande importância na escolha dos n-alcanos nos cálculos nas estimativas.The objective of this experiment was to use n-alkane to estimate accurately and precisely the botanical composition of dietary forage in sheep fed different proportions of Arachis pintoi

  5. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  6. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with [14C]urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, [14C]urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of [14C]urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed

  7. The Effect of Crude Protein Content on Meat and Fat Production in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawati, S.; Restitrisnani, V.; Soedarsono

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) content on meat protein and fat production in sheep. Twenty four male thin tail sheep aged 6-7 months with average body weight of 13±1.56 kg were used in this study. The sheep were fed 10-14% CP. Sheep with the average body weight amount 16.75 kg were slaughter after 4 months rising. Parameters observed in this study were carcass weight, meat weight and fat weight of thin tail sheep. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The result of this study showed that CP content on diet had weak and negative correlation with meat production (r = -0.06) (y = -0.148x + 62.54) but had weak and possitive correlation with fat production (r = 0.3) (y = 0.807x2 -18.40x + 119.1). Based on the result, it can be concluded that the optimum CP content for sheep is 12.5% CP.

  8. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  9. Effects of dietary protein intake on responses of young sheep to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtert, M F; Barger, I A; Steel, J W; Windon, R G; Emery, D L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation and infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis on production responses and immune function in young sheep and on nematode population dynamics were assessed. Eighty-four 3-month-old Merino wether sheep were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum chopped oaten hay containing 0.5% urea, together with 50 g day-1 lucerne meal. Fish meal (FM) was given as a source of protected protein at 0, 50 or 100 g day-1 (FM0, FM50, FM100; from Days --28 to 140). From Days 1 to 140, 0 or 1000 T. colubriformis infective larvae were given on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Infected sheep were slaughtered after 35, 70, 105, or 140 days of infection. Live-weight gain was reduced significantly by infection with T. colubriformis in sheep given FM0, but not in sheep given FM50 or FM100. Greasy wool production and fibre diameter were increased by FM, whereas the effects of infection with T. colubriformis on wool measurements depended on the level of FM given. Worm egg concentrations in faeces were significantly lower for sheep given FM100 than for those given FM0 or FM50 during the last 28 days of infection. Similarly, the apparent rate of worm expulsion was considerably higher in sheep given FM than in those not given FM. The rate of expulsion of T. colubriformis correlated with levels of circulating eosinophils as well as with the concentration of intestinal sheep mast cell proteases. Levels of parasite-specific and non-specific circulating antibodies were either unaffected or reduced as a result of supplementation with FM, although lymphocyte stimulation in vitro in response to T. colubriformis third stage larval antigen was enhanced significantly in infected animals given FM100. It was concluded that supplementary feeding with FM substantially reduced the production losses attributable to infection with T. colubriformis and was associated with enhanced expulsion of the parasite burden.

  10. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  11. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  12. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  13. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  14. Risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep with separate access to forage and concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commun, L; Mialon, M M; Martin, C; Baumont, R; Veissier, I

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether sheep offered free-choice intake of forage and concentrate develop subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and to identify SARA-associated feeding behavior components. In a crossover design over two 28-d periods, 11 rumen-cannulated wethers received wheat and alfalfa hay in 2 separate compartments. Concentrate and forage were provided for ad libitum access or in a fixed amount corresponding to 80% of ad libitum hay intake with a concentrate:forage ratio of 60:40 on a DM basis. In both diets, sheep were fed 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Ruminal pH, voluntary intake, and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from d 1 to 9 and d 15 to 23 in each period. When no measurements were performed, the animals were housed in larger pens with straw bedding. When fed for ad libitum intake, the sheep ingested 1,340 g of DM/d consisting of 49.1% wheat, whereas with the fixed diet they ate 872 g of DM/d consisting of 58.4% wheat. Sheep fed for ad libitum intake spent more time with ruminal pH ruminal pH ruminal pH reached the same minimum level in both diets after main meals, time to reach pH nadir was longer with ad libitum diet (P ruminal pH increased more slowly in this diet, inducing a decreased preprandial ruminal pH (P ruminal pH may enable sheep to consume larger quantities of food. However, free access to concentrate maintains continuously elevated content of ruminal fermentation end products and so requires more time for pH to return to neutral values. Thus, interval between feed distributions should be as large as possible to help resume the preprandial ruminal pH and to limit time spent with pH <5.6.

  15. Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadinis, N D; Psychas, V; Polizopoulou, Z; Papadopoulos, E; Papaioannou, N; Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A-L; Petridou, E J; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Lafi, S Q; Brellou, G D

    2012-07-01

    A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining four flocks (5, 8, 9, 10) the animals were fed alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and concentrates indoors. A follow-up study of the affected flocks was conducted during the next 12 months. Of 42 sheep with acute coenurosis that were examined, the most prominent neurological abnormalities were ataxia, depression, blindness, scoliosis, coma and dysmetria. Except for the four sheep that were comatose, all other animals had normal body temperatures and their appetites remained normal or were slightly decreased. Haematological findings of 15 examined sheep were within normal limits. The affected sheep were subject to euthanasia. A histopathological examination was performed in 13 cases. Faecal samples from dogs associated with these flocks were negative for taeniid infections. During the following 12 months cases of chronic coenurosis in these flocks were observed. In the 42 animals that were necropsied, the main gross findings were cystic formations between 0.5-1 cm in diameter with translucent walls that were seen lying free on the leptomeninges or partly penetrating the brain tissue, sterile microabscecess and brain necrosis. Histopathological evaluation of tissue sections of 13 brains showed multifocal purulent or pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, accompanied by eosinophilic infiltrations. No bacteria were isolated following bacterial culture of brain tissue Parasitological examination of the cysts from five cases revealed whitish specks on the transparent cyst wall and germination membrane representing the scolices. Acute coenurosis was diagnosed in all cases studied. Acute coenurosis can be one of the

  16. Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xuejia; Sun Yongqiang; Zheng Guoping; Li Mangxue; Liu Dasen

    2007-01-01

    Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T 3 and T 4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P 0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

  17. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition alter thyroid hormone axis function in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Lærke; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2013-01-01

    the lambs were slaughtered. Remaining sheep (exclusively females) were fed the same moderate diet until 2-years of age (young adults). At 6-months and 2-years of age fasting challenges were conducted and target tissues were collected at autopsy. LG-UN caused adult hyperthyroidism associated with increased...... signaling in adipose versus other tissues may be part of a mechanism whereby fetal malnutrition can predispose for obesity and other metabolic disorders....

  18. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion

  19. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  20. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  1. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

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    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  2. Characterization of toxicosis in sheep dosed with blossoms of sacahuiste (Nolina microcarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Smith, G S; Ross, T T; Caton, J S; Kloppenburg, P

    1993-09-01

    To characterize more fully sacahuiste (Nolina microcarpa Watson) toxicosis in sheep and to evaluate benefits of supplemental Zn, sheep were dosed intraruminally with sacahuiste blossoms. In Trial 1, eight fine-wool sheep (47 +/- 2 kg BW) were fed alfalfa hay at 1% of BW daily and dosed intraruminally with inflorescences amounting to 1% of BW daily, in three portions per day, for 10 d. Four sheep were dosed intraruminally with aqueous ZnSO4 (30 mg of Zn/kg BW) daily for 3 d before initial sacahuiste dosing and on alternate days thereafter, and four sheep were untreated with Zn. Toxicosis was evident within 24 h after initial sacahuiste dosage, involving inappetence, depression, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase). One sheep (untreated with Zn) died on d 3. Aqueous ZnSO4 alleviated inappetence and suppressed elevation of serum urea N and creatinine but did not suppress other changes in serum clinical profiles. In Trial 2, sacahuiste inflorescences were ruminally dosed into 12 fine-wool wethers (29 +/- 2 kg BW) in amounts equalling 0, .25, .50, .75% of BW per day, and chopped alfalfa hay was provided at 1.75% of BW per day for 14 d. Sacahuiste inflorescenses dosed at .75% of BW elicited severe toxicosis within 24 h, and dosage at .50 or .25% of BW per day increased (P = .12) serum bilirubin. Ruminal fluid pH, mean particle retention time, and particulate passage rate were not affected (P > .10) by sacahuiste, but ruminal fluid passage rate increased 1.6-fold (P < .10) and ruminal fluid volume decreased by 60% (P < .10) in sheep given inflorescenses amounting to .50% of BW daily. Sacahuiste inflorescenses dosed intraruminally at .75% of BW per day elicited ruminal impaction with severe hepatotoxicosis, and dosages amounting to .50% or .25% of BW per day caused similar trends.

  3. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  4. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  5. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  6. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  7. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  8. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  9. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  10. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  11. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  12. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  13. The effect of polyethylene glycol on intake of Mediterranean shrubs by sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosic, J; Pfister, J A; Provenza, F D; Pavlicevic, J

    2008-12-01

    Poor nutritional quality and increased content of secondary compounds can reduce consumption of Mediterranean shrubs by herbivores. In 2 sequential trials, we examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and number of shrub species offered on daily intake of Mediterranean shrubs by 12 sheep and 12 goats. The PEG (25 g) was fed to experimental animals with barley. In trial 1 (6 shrubs), goats ate more (P = 0.0008) daily total shrub biomass than did sheep (60.7 vs. 45.9 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). There was a trend (P = 0.08) toward a positive PEG effect on total shrub intake, with PEG-supplemented animals consuming more total shrubs than controls (56.7 vs. 50.0 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). Trial 2 (using 3 shrubs) was a continuation of trial 1, except that animals were given less barley and treatment animals were given more PEG (50 g). Both sheep and goats showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake from trial 1 to trial 2. Sheep receiving PEG ate more (P = 0.002) total shrubs than did controls, but no PEG effect was found for goats. Thus, PEG had a greater influence on sheep than goats when only 3 shrubs were offered, a result that may be related to the fact that fewer shrubs with complementary secondary compounds were offered and that goats appear to have a greater ability to consume and detoxify secondary compounds from Mediterranean shrubs. Overall, as the number and diversity of shrubs offered increased, supplemental PEG had less effect on increasing intake for both goats and sheep.

  14. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  15. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  16. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  17. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  18. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas compostas de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não e subprodutos agroindustriais Ingestive behaviour of sheep fed with ammoniated or non-ammoniated elephantgrass silage and agro industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos do uso de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não com uréia (5% na base da MS e da substituição do concentrado (milho e farelo de soja por farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD na dieta sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês. Dezoito ovinos machos não-castrados (peso médio inicial de 22,62 kg, alojados em baias individuais, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, dois volumosos (silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não com uréia e três níveis de substituição do concentrado (milho + farelo de soja por farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê (0% FC e TD, 40% FC e 40% TD na dieta, fornecida na proporção de 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período experimental foi de 78 dias, sendo 15 dias destinados à adaptação dos animais às dietas. Os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos, durante dois períodos de 24 horas/dia, no final do período experimental. Foram registrados o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio e o número e o tempo de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminado. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. A amonização do capim-elefente e a inclusão do farelo de cacau no concentrado aumentaram a eficiência de ruminação, mas a maioria dos parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo avaliados não sofreu alterações.The effects of feeding elephantgrass silage ammoniated or not with urea (5% DM basis and the concentrate replacement (corn and soybean meal by cocoa meal (CM or palm cake (PC on the ingestive behaviour of 18 Santa Inês non-castrated male sheep averaging 22.62 kg of initial body weight were studied. The animals were allotted to individual pensas a completely randomized design with six treatments, two roughages (elephantgrass silage ammoniated with urea or not and three concentrate replacement level with by cocoa meal or palm cake (0% CM and PC, 40% CM

  19. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDLOT SHEEP FED WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYZED WITH CALCIUM OXIDE GANHO EM PESO E CARACTERÍSTICAS DA CARCAÇA DE OVINOS CONFINADOS ALIMENTADOS COM BAGAÇO DE CANA HIDROLISADO COM ÓXIDO DE CÁLCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Willian Barbosa Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of calcium oxide (0.75; 1.5 and 2.25% in the sugarcane bagasse were studied with the objective of evaluating characteristics of the carcass in crossbred Santa Ines lambs. Twenty animals, with average live weight of 14 ± 4,5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The animals received concentrated containing corn, soybean meal and urea, and also the sugar cane bagasse. The slaughter reached 81 days of confinement. Means for hot and cold carcass weights, hot and cold carcass revenues, and chilling lost were 14.66 kg, 14.35 kg, 46.62%, 45.45% and 2.09%, respectively. Treatments did not affect the subjective measures, degree of fat covering and shape form, and the objective measures, ribeye area and kidney and cavity fat. The treatment of the sugar-cane bagasse with CaO increased the live weight, but did not affect the carcass characteristics in sheep.

    KEY WORDS:  Carcass quality, co-products, ruminant. Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de teores crescentes de óxido de cálcio (0,75; 1,5 e 2,25% no bagaço de cana-de-açúcar fornecido a ovinos mestiços da raça Santa Inês no ganho de peso e nas características da carcaça. Vinte ovinos, com peso vivo médio de 14 ± 4.5 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os animais receberam concentrado contendo milho, farelo de soja e ureia, e o bagaço com as doses de CaO. Realizou-se o abate dos ovinos após 67 dias de confinamento. As médias do peso de carcaça quente, peso de carcaça fria, rendimento de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria e quebra no resfriamento foram de 14,66 kg, 14,35 kg, 46,62%, 45,45% e 2,09%, respectivamente, não se observando efeito dos tratamentos, o que ocorreu também para as medidas subjetivas (grau de cobertura de gordura e conformação e para as medidas objetivas (área de olho de lombo, gordura perirenal e gordura cavitária. O tratamento do bagaço de cana

  20. The effect of plane of nutrition on the urinary purine derivative excretion in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poshiwa, X.; Tigere, A.; Ngongoni, N.T.; Manyuchi, B.; Chakoma, C.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on purine derivative excretion and to develop a set of model equations that relate intake to the purine derivative (PD) excretion in sheep and goats. Four male Sabi sheep and four male Small-East African goats (four months old) were used. The trial was a 4 x 4 Latin square cross-over design to examine the response of PD excretion to feed intake. The four diets consisted of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay fed ad libitum, and at 85, 70 or 55% of ad libitum. Total PD excretion increased with the increase in feed intake for both sheep and goats. However, the increase did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). The model equations relating digestible organic matter intake (X) to PD excretion (Y) were Y = 2.97 X + 0.15 (R 2 =0.72) and Y = 5.86 X - 0.33 (R 2 =0.99) for sheep and goats respectively. (author)

  1. Desempenho, características de carcaça e constituintes corporais de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com farelo de girassol em substituição ao farelo de soja na dieta Performance, carcass characteristics and body measurements of Santa Inês sheep fed diets with different proportions of sunflower meal and soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Louvandini

    2007-06-01

    Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen intact lambs averaging 90 days of age and 14±1.43 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the study were assigned to a completely randomized design and confined during 87 days. Animals were fed coastcross (Cynodon dactylon hay ad libitum plus 300 g of one of the following three concentrate mixtures: ground corn + 100% soybean meal (SB, ground corn + 50% soybean meal + 50% sunflower meal (SBSF, or ground corn + 100% sunflower meal (SF. Feed intake was measured three times a week while body weight once a week. At slaughter the following measurements were taken: BW, hot carcass and half carcass weights, carcass length, carcass fat cover, skin weight and thickness, thoracic (lung, trachea and heart and abdominal (liver and kidneys organ weights, and retail cut weights (neck, ham, loin, shoulder, rib and rib/belly. The average daily weight gain and total weight gain were greater on animals fed SB than on those fed SBSF and SF. However, DM intake expressed as metabolic weight was lower on SB diet compared to SBSF but similar to SF diet. Weights of half-carcass as well as loin and rib/belly weights were all higher on SB than on SBSF and SF diets. Replacing SB with SBSF decreased production and carcass characteristics in feedlot finishing lambs.

  2. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  3. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  4. Histological study on the new bone formation of the implanted bone allograft in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Sun Guiying; Shi Zhancheng

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the formation of new bone in the implanted frozen irradiated bone allograft with the fresh bone autograft. The work on animal model included resection and implantation of sheep's tibial diaphysis and intramedullary nail fixation, with total number 20. Tibias were harvested at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. Sheep were fed with tetracycline I week before bone harvesting. Bones were examined with usual and fluorescence microscopes. The results showed that the progress of graft incorporation in allografts were generally similar to that of autografts. Capillaries penetration and callus formation extended from the host end to surround the host-graft junction in 6 months. Incorporation of new bone was nearly completed in 12 months; then the speed of new bone formation was decreased, and the implanted bone graft was almost completely substituted with non-nal bone structure in 24 months

  5. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  6. Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Cespedes, R; Rojas, M R; Conde, V; Aliaga, L; Balboa, M; Danov, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6 °C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m(-3) d(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRINCEANU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from łurcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in γ – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic α-amylase both in sheep and goats.

  8. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  9. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  10. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    1999-04-01

    New methodology for measuring forage condensed tannin (CT) content is described and the effects of CT upon forage feeding and nutritive value for ruminant animals are reviewed. CT react with forage proteins in a pH-reversible manner, with reactivity determined by the concentration, structure and molecular mass of the CT. Increasing concentrations of CT in Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus reduce the rates of solubilization and degradation of fraction 1 leaf protein in the rumen and increase duodenal non-NH3 N flow. Action of medium concentrations of total CT in Lotus corniculatus (30-40 g/kg DM) increased the absorption of essential amino acids from the small intestine and increased wool growth, milk secretion and reproductive rate in grazing sheep without affecting voluntary feed intake, thus improving the efficiency of food conversion. High concentrations of CT in Lotus pedunculatus (75-100 g/kg DM) depressed voluntary feed intake and rumen carbohydrate digestion and depressed rates of body and wool growth in grazing sheep. The minimum concentration of CT to prevent rumen frothy bloat in cattle is defined as 5 g/kg DM and sheep grazing CT-containing legumes were shown to better tolerate internal parasite infections than sheep grazing non CT-containing forages. It was concluded that defined concentrations of forage CT can be used to increase the efficiencies of protein digestion and animal productivity in forage-fed ruminants and to develop more ecologically sustainable systems of controlling some diseases under grazing.

  11. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  12. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  13. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COW AND SHEEP'S BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan Ahmed Elhouri Ahmed; Mubarak Dirar Abdallah2

    2017-01-01

    In this work five samples of (cow and sheep's bones) were prepared to powders in a period of crashing (10 up to 50 sec); weight = 56.73mg To find values of: Refractive index Energy gap And Electrical Conductivity

  14. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  15. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  16. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  17. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Fattah Z.M. Salem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Six crossbred sheep (32.00±0.603 kg BW and 6 Baladi goats (18.00±0.703 kg BW were used in 2×2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes of ZADO® (i.e., ENZ and on digestibility and growth performance. Animals were fed on wheat straw ad libitum and restricted amount of commercial concentrate with (+ENZ or without (-ENZ 10 g/animal/day of ZADO to cover 120% of their maintenance requirements. Nutrients digestibilities were increased (P

  18. Direct fed microbial supplementation repartitions host energy to the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R; Croom, J; Ali, R A; Ballou, A L; Smith, C D; Ashwell, C M; Hassan, H M; Chiang, C-C; Koci, M D

    2012-08-01

    Direct fed microbials and probiotics are used to promote health in livestock and poultry; however, their mechanism of action is still poorly understood. We previously reported that direct fed microbial supplementation in young broilers reduced ileal respiration without changing whole-body energy expenditure. The current studies were conducted to further investigate the effects of a direct fed microbial on energy metabolism in different tissues of broilers. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old broiler chicks (16 chicks/pen) were randomly assigned to 2 dietary groups: standard control starter diet (CSD) and CSD plus direct fed microbial (DFMD; 0.3%) with 6 pens/treatment. Body weight, feed consumption, whole-body energy expenditure, organ mass, tissue respiration rates, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ATP concentrations were measured to estimate changes in energy metabolism. No differences in whole body energy expenditure or BW gain were observed; however, decreased ileal O(2) respiration (P energy consumption by PBMC corresponded with an altered immune response, broilers were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and assayed for differences in their humoral response. The DFMD-fed broilers had a faster rate of antigen specific IgG production (P direct fed microbial used in this study resulted in energy re-partitioning to the immune system and an increase in antibody production independent of changes in whole body metabolism or growth performance.

  19. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  20. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  1. Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03 was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0, 5% (C1, and 10% (C2 AOFC (w/w. Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF. Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05 digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05 in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05, as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05 were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.

  2. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  3. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  4. Pre- and postnatal nutrition in sheep affects ß-cell secretion and hypothalamic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Thygesen, Malin P.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome later in life, particularly upon postnatal exposure to a high-energy diet. However, dysfunctions of, for example, the glucose–insulin axis are not readily detectable by conventional tests early in life, making...... and short-term abundance of food. In this study, twin-pregnant sheep were fed diets meeting 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of energy and protein requirements during the last trimester. Twin offspring were fed either a normal moderate (CONV) diet or a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet from 3 days to 6 months...... abundance) and adrenalin challenges. At 6 months of age, postnatal HCHF diet exposure caused metabolic alterations, reflecting hypertriglyceridaemia and altered pancreatic β-cell secretion. Irrespective of postnatal diet, prenatal undernutrition was found to be associated with unexpected endocrine responses...

  5. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  6. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  7. Measurement of the proportion of plasma purine derivatives excreted in the urine of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasitkusol, P.; Chen, X.B.; Kyle, D.J.; Oerskov, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Four sheep were used to measure the proportion of plasma allantoin excreted in the urine at three levels of intake. The sheep were fed a mixed ration at 800, 1200 and 1600 g air dry matter per animal/d during three periods, using an incomplete Latin Square design. Each period consisted of 10-days adaptation and 7-days measurement. After the adaptation, each animal was injected via a jugular catheter, a single dose of 30 μCi of 4,5- 14 C-allantoin as a tracer. Urine collection was made 5 days before tracer injection and until 7 days after tracer injection. Plasma samples were taken at different intervals after the tracer injection. The proportion of plasma allantoin which is excreted in the urine was measured as the recovery of dosed 14 C-allantoin in the urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from creatinine clearance. There was no significant difference in the recovery of plasma allantoin between levels of intake but there was a considerable variation (P 0.75 /day in the four sheep, respectively). GFR tended to increased with feed intake. However, variation in GFR in the same animal did not seem to affect the proportion of plasma allantoin excretion. (author)

  8. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  9. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate on reducing radiocaesium transfer from grass silage to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate (AFCF on the transfer of radiocaesium from grass silage to the tissues of male lambs. During ensiling, a formic acid based additive and AFCF were sprayed on grass contaminated with 134Cs and the mixture was allowed to incubate for 45 days. A dose of 21 mg AFCF d-1, fed to sheep offered contaminated silage for fourteen days, reduced 134Cs transfer to muscle by 45% compared to that of control sheep. An equivalent dose of AFCF administered in a capsule reduced transfer by only 3%. In another experiment, AFCF intake of 50, 100 and 150 mg d-1 for ten days reduced 134Cs transfer to sheep muscle by 75, 82 and 86%, respectively. In control lambs, of average live weight 38 and 47 kg, the feed to muscle 134Cs transfer coefficient averaged 0.15 d kg-1, but equilibrium between tissue and feed 134Cs had probably not been reached due to the short feeding period. Increasing doses of AFCF from 0 to 150 mg d-1 increased the faecal/urinary 134Cs ratio from 2 to 42.;

  11. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  12. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  13. Mesquite pod meal in diets for Santa Inês sheep: ingestive behavior - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed increasing levels of mesquite pod meal (0, 15, 30 and 45% in total dry matter diet, replacing grass silage elephant. Eight non-castrated Santa Inês sheep with average weight of 32 kg were divided into two 4 x 4 Latin squares, each lasting 15 days. The sheep were submitted to visual observation every ten minutes, for 24 hours, in the 13th day of each experimental period. There was no significant regression (p > 0.05 relative to the time spent on feeding, rumination and resting, depending on the levels of substitution of mesquite pod meal. The average time spent on feeding, rumination and resting was 5.64, 10.88 and 8.8h day-1, respectively. There was a positive linear effect (p

  14. STEPVfISE ADAPTATION OF SHEEP FED AD LIBITUM TO A HIGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All dicts contained a mxed buttbr and l5% Cp. Samples of ruminal in- gesta ucre takcn at short intervals dunng thc llrst l4 h of the t-eeding c:ycle until Day 7 on the finaldiet when it was continued over the .... fuged at 4 000 g for 20 min and the supernatant stored ..... diets would give rise to an alkaline urine high in HPO4=.

  15. Feeding behaviour of sheep fed lucerne v. grass hays with controlled post-ingestive consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Favreau, Angelique; Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Understanding what determines feeding behaviour in herbivores is essential to optimise the use of forages in breeding systems. Herbivores can evaluate foods by associative learning of their pre-ingestive characteristics (taste, odour, etc.) and their postingestive consequences. Post-ingestive consequences are acknowledged as influencing intake and food choices, but the role of pre-ingestive characteristics is still being debated. Our experiment was designed to test their separate effects on d...

  16. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  17. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional regulation of IGF-II, but not IGF-I, is age dependent in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, J M; Martyn, J A; Hua, K M; MacDonald, N A; Hodgkinson, S C; Bass, J J

    1999-12-01

    In post-natal animals, plasma concentrations of IGF-I are tightly regulated by nutritional status. The current study reports that plasma levels of IGF-II in sheep are also regulated by nutrition, but whether plasma IGF-II is increased, decreased or remains the same, depends on the age of the animal. Ewe lambs, ranging in age from 2 days to 2 years, were fed or fasted for lengths of time between 24 and 72 h. Blood samples were taken at intervals of 24 h throughout the treatment period and immediately before slaughter. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I increased with advancing age in fed animals (Panimals matured (Pnutrition (Panimals (Panimals (Pnutritional sensitivity of serum IGF-binding proteins (BPs) also changed with age. The 29 kDa BP, which we presume to be BP1, was elevated by fasting in young animals and reduced slightly in older animals. BP2 was increased to a similar magnitude by fasting at all ages. BP3 was depressed by fasting in young animals and showed little change in adults. In contrast, a 24 kDa BP, which is probably BP4, showed little change in young animals and was reduced substantially in older sheep. In conclusion, the response of plasma IGF-II to fasting suggests that this peptide has functions in mediating nutritional stress which depend on the age of the animal, and also that the role of IGF-II may differ from that of IGF-I in adults.

  19. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  20. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  1. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  2. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  3. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  4. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  5. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  6. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  7. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  8. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  9. Feed selection and radiocaesium intake by reindeer, sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaland, H.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) were measured in extrusa from oesophageally fistulated sheep, goats and reindeer grazing alpine summer vegetation in Griningsdalen, Southern Norway in the period 1987-1989. The experiments with sheep and goats were conducted in different sub-alpine areas. The reindeer were, in addition, grazed in three areas in the low alpine zone. Grazing bouts lasted for 10-20 min and bite selections were recorded every 15 s through the grazing bout. Reindeer and goats had the most diverse food selection whereas sheep fed mainly on grasses, forbs and to some extent, on leaves of willow. The reindeer extrusa had the highest radiocaesium activity, apparently to a large extent caused by intake of lichens in areas where this type of plants were present. Depending on the type of vegetation in the grazed areas the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to grazed vegetation (Bq kg -1 dry extrusa/Bq m -2 soil) was estimated to 0.02-0.04 in sheep, 0.02-0.05 in goats and 0.02-0.43 in reindeer for 1987. (author)

  10. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  11. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  12. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  13. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  14. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of diets containing whole cottonseed on the quality of sheep semen - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Trindade Soares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the semen quality of Santa Ines sheep fed diets containing different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS. Twenty sheep were distributed into four groups that were given diets with 0; 20; 30; 40% of WCS. For this study the semen was collected by electroejaculation, and a monthly andrological examination was performed during nine months. The analyzed variables were: scrotal circumference (SC, appearance and color of the ejaculate, progressive motility (PM, vigor, mass movement (MM, total sperm concentration (spzX109, sperm morphology (SM and blood hematocrit. The SC had no difference among diets, with mean 31.83 cm. The animals fed diets with WCS, presented mean intake of 9.16 mg gossypol kg BW, and were prone to present greenish semen, and appearance ranging from thin creamy to watery. The PM decreased linearly (p

  16. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  17. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  18. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  19. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  20. Improving the utilization of beech sawdust by sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, I.; Boda, K.; Jalc, D.; Lenart, J.; Kmet, V.; Havassy, I.; Kosta, K.

    1991-01-01

    Defibration following treatment with 1% H 2 SO 4 as an impregnation agent increased the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of beech sawdust to 59.5%. Digestibilities of barley straw, wheat straw, maize stover and bagasse were also increased through defibration without prior chemical treatment. Increased DM degradability was also reflected in better digestibility of fibre components and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The inclusion of treated beech sawdust in the diet at levels of up to 20% had no negative effect on lamb performance. Studies with 15 N labelled urea did not show clear positive effect on nitrogen utilization when sheep were fed the treated beech sawdust. Immobilized cellulase and the addition of branched-chain VFA significantly increased the in vitro degradation of treated beech sawdust. Methanol extract of treated beech sawdust had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococus bovis and Lactobacillus plantarum and reduced in vitro fermentation of rumen fluid. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  2. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: A study using13C natural abundance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heav......To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content......) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ13C = -26.8‰; dung δ13C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C4 plant with δ13C = -14.6‰; dung δ13C = -15.7‰). Fresh C3 and C4 sheep dung was mixed......-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO2 originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg-1 dry soil had been emitted as CO2 for the L. chinensis...

  3. Is there any association between renal failure and hepatotoxic photosensitization caused by feeding foxtail millet (Setaria italica in sheep and goats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity is an abnormal skin reaction to direct sunlight exposure. Photosen sitivity occurred because of failure to excrete phylloerythrin due to hepatic dysfunction. Foxtail millet feeding can induce hepatotoxic photosensitization and influence on different organs. This study attempts to evaluate renal function and serum electrolyte status in sheep and goats experimentally feeding foxtail millet. Twelve male goats and sheep were kept in the sunlight. The animals were fed foxtail millet diet freely in a eight-week experimental period. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured until last day of experiment in a weekly manner. On the last day, the animals were euthanized and kidneys were removed for pathologic examination. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement analysis by SPSS software (version 20. Three sheep showed clinical signs of photosensitivity. BUN showed a decreasing trend from the second week of the experiment. Creatinine was increased in the six and second weeks. An increase in sodium concentration in goats from fourth week was significant. Sodium levels in sheep showed a fluctuational change. Potassium and phosphorus of sheep and phosphorus in the blood of goats were increased from the second week. Potassium in goats was constant during the time. Magnesium in the blood of sheep and goats was increased from the third and fourth weeks, respectively. The hematocrit and hemoglobin increased significantly over time. Moderate to severe hyperemia with abundant deposits of blue-violet material in the collecting ducts and mild degenerative changes in the convoluted tubules in sheep kidneys and congestion in the center of the goats’ kidney were seen. In conclusion, feeding the foxtail millet can cause renal dysfunction, and changes in the balance of some serum electrolytes.

  4. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  5. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  6. Factors affecting litter size in Texel sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharafeldin, M.A.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of age of ewes and of different lambing years on fertility expressed as number of lambs born and surviving to 2 months per lambing has been studied in field data collected by the herdbook for Texel sheep in North Holland. The fertility of ewes was compared when first bred at about 8

  7. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  8. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorus levels in various organs, tissues, bones, body fluids or excretory products of sheep reflected dietary ... did decrease bone mineral deposition slightly. Rumen fluid P and total daily urinary P levels did .... which were alike in composition except for their levels of. P and Ca. After 98 days rib biopsy specimens were.

  9. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  10. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  11. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  12. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  13. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  14. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  15. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Gas production, microbial synthesis by radio phosphorus and digestibility of babassu and mofumbo in sheep diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla Filho, Adibe Luiz

    2015-01-01

    . Enteric CH4 production of sheep fed with Mofumbo leaves did not differ from the Control group but was lower (P < 0.05) than the sheep fed Babassu leaves. In the second study, the five male animals of each treatment were sent to slaughter and to precede the assessment of carcass, not carcass components and color and fatty acid profile in the meat. The results of the assessment of carcass, not carcass components, color and overall fatty acids showed no differences between the treatments. Mofumbo treated sheep showed greater (P < 0.10) values of the Δ 9 -desaturase C16 enzyme activity. Significant linear effect (P = 0.01) was observed when it analyzed the enzyme activity estimation Δ 9 -desaturase C18 and TC levels in the diets. The inclusion of Babassu and Mofumbo leaves shown no negative effects on animal health, did not compromise the performance, production potential or meat quality of the animals, having Mofumbo also presented CH4 mitigating potential, indicating that those plants can be used as ingredients in the composition of sheep diets. (author)

  17. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  18. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  19. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  20. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Phytolacca decandra EM OVINOS EXPERIMENTAL POISONING BY Phytolacca decandra IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Ecco

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Doses únicas de 10 a 25g/kg das folhas verdes de Phytolacca decandra foram administradas oralmente a 11 ovinos. Dois desses ovinos (20 e 25g/kg morreram 6 horas após a ingestão da planta e os outros nove adoeceram levemente e se recuperaram. Um outro ovino recebeu 4 doses diárias de 5g/kg da mesma planta. Esse ovino e outros dois usados como controles não adoeceram. Os principais sinais clínicos nos ovinos afetados foram dor abdominal, inquietação, manoteio, distúrbios respiratórios, tremores e hiperestesia. As alterações macroscópicas mais importantes em dois ovinos necropsiados estavam restritas ao sistema digestivo e consistiam de avermelhamento difuso da mucosa do rúmen, retículo, abomaso e intestino delgado. Microscopicamente, as alterações eram necrose de coagulação e microabscessos na mucosa dos pré-estômagos e presença de numerosos cristais birrefringentes na luz dos túbulos renais.Single dosis varying from 10 to 25g/kg of fresh green leaves of Phytolacca decandra were orally force fed to 11 sheep. Two of these sheep (20 and 25g/kg died 6 hours after the ingestion of the plant and the other 9 got mildly sick and recovered. Another sheep was fed 4 daily dosis of 5g/kg of the same plant. This sheep and another two used as controls did not get sick. The main clinical signs in the affected sheep were abdominal pain, restless, pawing, respiratory distress, muscle tremors, and hyperesthesia. Gross findings in the two necropsied sheep were confined to the digestive tract and consisted of diffuse mucosal reddening of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum, and small intestine. Microscopic changes were coagulative necrosis and microabscesses in the mucosa of the forestomachs and several intratubular birefringent crystals in the kidney.

  1. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  2. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  3. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on rumen papillae protein turnover in growing lambs. Under the feeding conditions used and the rate of continuous butyrate infusion into the rumen in the present studies, butyrate does not affect overall N retention in growing sheep. However, butyrate may play a role in the redistribution of urea N fluxes in the overall scheme of N metabolism.

  4. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  5. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  6. Blood meal analysis and virus detection in blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomiah, Joel; Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively.

  7. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  8. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  9. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.; Adler, G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44 Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  11. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  12. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  13. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  14. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    with ewe-juvenile groups at Allan Gulch, Tweed Creek, Peck Gulch and eventually Stone Hill marked the northward progression of all age and sex classes...r ~W- k’-P-.- M N rer. C.A. l12. Tioe Birh-_rrn sheep Co-- rad: C. 6zare. F :.Pa.r:: D- r~. A.S., F.A. Jcn-rstone. C.A.P.. Savory , an-1 fl.F.D:srn

  15. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  16. Preliminary Results Regarding Organic Sheep Meat Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With a national flock of  10.07 million sheep, Romania currently occupies the 3rd place in the EU (after the UK and Spain in terms of the sheep numbers. However, only 0.85% (85.419 heads are being reared in organic production systems. The development of sheep breeding in organic systems is very heavily influenced by the economic factors, but also by the consumer demand for organic products. An empirical study on consumer behavior towards sheep meat produced in organic system was developed in 2016. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of developing sheep breeding sector in the organic system, in the terms of the consumer’s behavior towards  sheep meat obtained in organic system in order to develop strategies that will lead to sustainable development of the sector. The finding shown that 85% of consumers consider that sheep meat produced in organic farming system is more expensive compared to that produced in the conventional systems. However, 74% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. The availability of the respondents to pay an additional price for organic sheep product is high, hovering around 77%. Current research highlights the potential production and marketing of sheep from Romania in organic system, which could have a positive impact on overall farm income and on animal welfare.

  17. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

    2000-10-01

    Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles.

  18. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  19. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  20. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  1. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  2. Meat cuts and non-carcass of sheep finished on pasture with different levels of supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaqueu Gonçalves Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the yield of meat cuts and other body components of sheep kept on pasture Panicum maximum, Massai cultivar, fed increasing amounts of concentrate. The animals were divided into four treatments according to the concentrate intake in relation to body weight (zero, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1%. After slaughter of the sheep, the weights of non-hollow viscera (tongue, lung, liver, diaphragm, kidney and spleen, hollow ones (trachea, esophagus, heart, gallbladder, bladder, rumen, omasum, abomasum, small and larger intestines, other components (blood, skin, feet, head, tail and mammary gland and fat in the viscera (omental, mesenteric, perirenal and cavity. In carcasses, the commercial cuts were made (shoulder, ribs, loin, leg, and neck. The cuts except the neck, did not alter their weights, however, there were changes in their proportions. Only the percentage of loin did not change. With the intake of 1.42% in concentrate for body weight, there was an increase of ribs over the leg. The total weight of the non-carcass did not change, however, there was variations in its proportion. Amongst the most noticeable changes is the amount of visceral fat, which greatly increased when the sheep ingested 1.35% in concentrate for body weight. Therefore, concentrate intake by culling ewes does not increase mass commercial cuts. The proportions of commercial cuts and other body constituents change diffusely. With the maturity has been reached, the observed weight gain is, in most cases, result of increased visceral fat.

  3. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  4. Nutritional status affects the microRNA profile of the hypothalamus of female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Lin, Shan; Lei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Cong; Yu, Yaosheng; Zhao, Zongsheng; Chen, Jingbo

    2018-01-25

    Recent studies on the seasonal regulation of the oestrous cycle in sheep have focussed mainly on the responses to photoperiod. However, the brain systems that control reproductive activity also respond to nutritional inputs, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely understood. One possibility is that small, non-coding RNAs, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), have significant influence. In the present study, the amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in hypothalamus from oestrous and anestrous ewes, fed low- or high-nutrient diets, were compared using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology. In total, 398 miRNAs, including 261 novel miRNAs, were identified in ewes with an enhanced nutritional status (HEN), whereas 384 miRNAs, including 247 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ewes with a lesser nutritional status (HAN). There were eight conserved and 140 novel miRNAs expressed differentially between the two libraries. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, six miRNAs were assessed to verify the accuracy of the library database. Moreover, the correlation between the miRNA target and several upstream and downstream genes in the oestrus-related pathways were also verified in hypothalamus nerve cells. According to the results, nutritional status plays an important role in oestrous regulation in sheep, and the hypothalamic processes and pathways induced by nutritional signals (folic acid and tyrosine) are different from those induced by photoperiodic regulation of oestrus. We have expanded the repertoire of sheep miRNAs that could contribute to the molecular mechanisms that regulate the initiation of oestrous cycles in anestrous ewes in response to the influence of nutritional status.

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  7. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SUPPLY IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE BASED RATION ON BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Wati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The study was consisted of two steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutral detergent fibre (iso-NDF. The second step of experiment was to determine the body composition of sheep fed the experimental diets, which were created in the first experiment. The body composition of fifteen rams were determined on week 0; 4; and 8 of experimental period, these were accomplished using the technique of urea dilution. The alteration of synchronization index did not affect on feed intake, ratio of ruminal acetate to propionate and serum glucose concentration, but dry matter (DM digestibility was affected (P<0.05 by the treatment of synchronization index in the diet. The alteration of synchronization index in the diet did not affect on the percentage of body protein, fat and water significantly, though body weight of sheep gained slightly during the experimental period.

  9. The transfer of radionuclides from saltmarsh vegetation to sheep tissues and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Radionuclides released into the Irish Sea by the Sellafield reprocessing plant are deposited onto tide-washed pastures along the western coast of the United Kingdom. Many of these pastures are grazed by sheep or cattle. This paper describes a controlled feeding study, in which saltmarsh vegetation harvested from close to the Sellafield plant, was fed to lambs and adult female sheep for a period of 8 weeks. Activity concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were determined in edible tissues and transfer parameters estimated. The activity concentrations of some of the radionuclides will not have been in equilibrium with those in the diet. Nevertheless, the study was reasonably realistic in terms of agricultural management as the period of the study was similar to that for which lambs graze on the saltmarshes. A field study to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in the milk of ewes grazing a saltmarsh close to Sellafield is also described.

  10. The use of sodic monensin and probiotics for controlling subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schwegler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to validate a protocol for induction of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA (Experiment 1 and test the efficiency of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae or monensin to avoid pH ruminal drops in sheep (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, six ewes were fasted for two days and then fed most with concentrate during four days. Ewes in this protocol had ruminal fluid pH below 6.0 and kept it for 75 consecutive hours. In Experiment 2, 18 sheep were distributed into three groups: Control (CG, n = 6, monensin (MG, n = 6 and probiotic group (PG, n = 6. SARA was induced according Experiment 1. PG had lower pH (5.7 ± 0.1 than CG (6.0 ± 0.1 (P = 0.05, while MG (5.7 ± 0.1 was similar to both during SARA induction. SARA induction reduced ruminal protozoa population (P < 0.05 and increased chloride concentrations in ruminal fluid (P < 0.01. In serum, SARA increased concentrations of phosphorus (P < 0.01, AST (P < 0.01 and GGT (P < 0.01, but reduced LDH (P < 0.01. In conclusion, the protocol used for SARA induction was able to maintain ruminal pH between 5.5-6.0 for more than 48 hours. However, monensin and probiotics supplementation was not effective in preventing changes in ruminal and serum parameters during SARA.

  11. Assessment of algae meal as a ruminant feedstuff: Nutrient digestibility in sheep as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, R S; Van Emon, M L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrophic microalgae combined with soyhulls forms an algae meal (ALG), which contains partially deoiled microalgae (PDM; 57% DM basis) and soyhulls (43%). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of PDM and ALG on lamb digestibility. In Exp. 1, 8 wethers (23.02 ± 0.54 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of the PDM portion of ALG on total tract nutrient digestibility. Diets included a soyhull-based control (CON; 53% soyhulls), 10% PDM from ALG, 20% PDM from ALG (PDM20), and 30% PDM from ALG. Dry matter and OM intake and fecal DM and OM output were similar ( ≥ 0.11) between CON- and ALG-fed lambs. Urine output linearly increased ( = 0.02) as PDM increased in diets. Dry matter, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility linearly decreased ( digestibility did not differ ( = 0.24) between CON- and PDM-fed lambs. Nitrogen digestibility and N retention linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as PDM increased in the diet. In Exp. 2, to determine the effects of ALG on diet and nutrient digestibility and N retention, 10 whiteface cross wethers (33.71 ± 0.55 kg) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square. Diets included a cracked corn-based control (CORN), 15% ALG, 30% ALG, 45% ALG (ALG45), and 60% ALG (ALG60). Dry matter and OM digestibility linearly ( Digestibility of NDF and ADF were lesser ( ≤ 0.03) for CORN-fed sheep than for ALG-fed sheep and linearly ( ≤ 0.03) increased as ALG increased in the diet. Ether extract digestibility was lesser ( = 0.002) for CORN than ALG, with a linear ( = 0.002) increase as ALG inclusion increased. There was a cubic ( = 0.03) effect for N digestibility with ALG45 and ALG60 being lesser and CORN being greater than all other treatments. Retention of N and plasma urea N concentration did not differ ( ≥ 0.22) between CORN and ALG. Nonfibrous carbohydrate digestibility linearly ( digestible than soyhulls in ruminants, and differences in N retention in Exp. 1 may suggest an effect on growth in lambs

  12. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  13. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  14. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  15. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  16. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  17. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  18. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  19. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  20. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  1. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...

  2. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  3. Gene expression and maturation evaluation of sheep oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated X protein (Bax) of matured sheep oocytes. To carry out this study, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) aspirated from sheep ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with various concentrations of FSE (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL).

  4. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  5. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  6. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in Lori Sheep Vomeronasal Organ dimensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of gender on anatomy of vomeronasal organ (VNO) and their correlations with some external body measurements in Lori sheep. Six external body characteristics were measured on 21 Lori sheep (10 ewes and 11 rams). Heads of the animals were collected and several ...

  9. Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestiviruses including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV1), BVDV-2 and Border Disease Virus (BDV) have been reported in sheep populations worldwide. These viruses are not strictly host specific and can also infect cattle, goats, swine and wild ruminants. In sheep, clinical signs are related t...

  10. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  11. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.

    2007-01-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin,

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Awassi sheep flocks in north-east of Jordan: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, S Q; Talafha, A Q; Giadinis, N; Kalaitzakis, E; Pourliotis, K; Panousis, N

    2009-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted using 32 randomly selected Awassi sheep flocks to identify factors hypothesized to be associated with the occurrence of pregnancy, twinning and fetal loss between August 2005 and May 2006 in the region of Al-Safawi (northeast of Jordan). Vitamins A and E and selenium concentrations were determined on 448 blood samples. Using the forward selection procedure of the logistic regression module, models with statistically significant risk factors (P loss. Serum vitamin A concentration levels were associated with pregnancy (OR = 2.26, 2.48), twinning (OR = 6.49, 17.74) and fetal loss (OR = 0.13, 0.19). Primiparous ewes were 48% less likely to become pregnant than fourth or higher parity ewes. The likelihood of twinning increased significantly in ewes up to the third parity. Ewes that were fed 700-900 g barley, 250-300 g wheat-bran per head per day and grazed on vegetables residues were 4.15 times more likely to have twins than ewes that were fed 600 g barley and 200 g wheat-bran per head per day. Fetal loss in first and second parity ewes was about 3 times more likely than that in third or higher-parity ewes. Ewes pregnant with twins were about 14 times more likely to have fetal loss than ewes carrying single fetus. Pregnant ewes of the stationary flocks were 37% less likely to have fetal loss than ewes of the semi-nomadic flocks. These results demonstrate that stationary Awassi sheep flocks had higher pregnancy and twinning rates and less pregnancy loss. Supplementation of vitamin A, providing sufficient quantity of dry feed and increasing ram: ewe ratio for primiparous ewes of semi-nomadic flocks is essential to improve Awassi sheep reproductive performance.

  13. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  14. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  15. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanikova, A.; Pastorova, B.; Halagan, J.; Maracek, I.; Sopkova, D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  16. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  17. Relationship between chemical composition of native forage and nutrient digestibility by Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuntao; Gao, Peng; Hou, Fujiang; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Chen, Xianjiang; Wang, Zhaofeng

    2018-04-02

    To better utilize native pasture at the high altitude region, three-consecutive-year feeding experiments and a total of seven metabolism trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of three forage stages of maturity on the chemical composition, nutrient digestibility, and energy metabolism of native forage in Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Forages were harvested from June to July, August to October, and November to December of 2011 to 2013, corresponding to the vegetative, bloom, and senescent stages of the annual forages. Twenty male Tibetan sheep were selected for each study and fed native forage ad libitum. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, DE, DE/GE, and ME/GE were greatest (P digestibility and energy parameters correlated positively (linear, 0.422 to 0.778; quadratic, 0.568 to 0.815; P digestibility. Contrary to previous studies, in this study, ADF content had a greater linear relationship (0.766 vs. 0.563 to 0.732) with OM digestibility than the other parameters of nutrient digestibility. The quadratic relationship between forage CP content and CP digestibility indicates that when forage CP content exceeds the peak point (9.7% DM in the present study), increasing forage CP content could decrease CP digestibility when Tibetan sheep were offered native forage alone on the QTP. Additionally, using the forage CP, EE, NDF, and ADF content to predict DMI (g/kg BW·d) yielded the best fit equation for Tibetan sheep living in the northeast portion of the QTP.

  18. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  19. Phosphorus availability from different sources for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Meirelles, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    An assay was carried out with 12 sheep to determine the endogenous losses of P and the true absorption of this element from rock phosphate (TP), diammonium phosphate (DP) and bone meal (BM). Animals received the experimental diet for 30 days and after this period 200μCi 32 P was injected in each one. Blood and faeces samples were collected to determine specific activity. Faecal endogenous P and P availability were estimated. P availability was 58.39, 69.71 and 75.03 per cent for TP, DP and BM, respectively. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  20. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  1. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  2. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  3. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  4. Brucellosis outbreak in a flock of seventeen sheep in Zaria | Onoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a case report of brucellosis in a flock of sheep in Zaria. The flock comprised of seventeen Yankasa sheep, 14 ewes and 3 rams, with history of 2 recent cases of abortion, a presented case of uterine prolapse and 3 cases of carpal hygroma (1st and 2nd sheep bilaterally and the 3rd sheep left unilaterally).

  5. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  6. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  7. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  8. The impact of various browse feeds with different tannin content on the fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens in West African dwarf sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, A; Müller, W; Drochner, W

    2000-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995 leaves from eight browse feeds, containing tannins in different amounts (BF), were fed to West African Dwarf Sheep in Benin to evaluate their impact on Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal tract. An inhibitory impact of various BF on the growth of C. perfringens was assessed in in-vitro assays before, and thus a potential use of these leaves as a preventive diet against C. perfringens enterotoxemia in small ruminants was assumed. Surprisingly, an inhibitory impact of the BF on the shedding of C. perfringens in the feces of West African Dwarf Sheep could not be shown in seven of the eight BF examined. However, the pattern of inhibition of unlike C. perfringens toxovars may differ and a selective inhibitory impact of the BF Dialium guineense on C. perfringens toxovar D may be assumed.

  9. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  10. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  11. Triiodothyronine improves the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells in severely undernourished weanling mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filteau, S.M.; Perry, K.J.; Woodward, B.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which weanling mice were fed a nutritionally complete diet either ad libitum or in restricted quantities such that they lost about 30% of their initial weight over a 14-day period. In Experiments 1 and 2, half the animals from each group received dietary triiodothyronine (T 3 ) supplements. In Experiment 3, food-intake-restricted mice were fed graded levels of potassium iodide. Malnutrition reduced the number of nucleated cells per spleen, the number of splenic IgG plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10 6 cells, and the serum antibody titers against sheep red blood cells as determined by radioimmunoassay. T 3 supplements increased antibody titers, the number of nucleated cells per spleen, and both IgM and IgG PFC per 10 6 spleen cells in malnourished mice, but had no effect on well-nourished mice. The beneficial effect of T 3 was not a result of improved protein, energy, or iodine status in the malnourished mice

  12. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF PELIBUEY SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Ubaldo Aguilar Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries is descendant from Asian mouflon and was domesticated in the Near East. Later, sheep began its dissemination to West Africa, where it is believed that the ancestry of Pelibuey sheep came from. Pelibuey sheep were brought to America by the Spaniards to feed the crew of the boats. It is unclear whether these animals came directly from West Africa or from the Canary Islands. It is considered that Pelibuey sheep entered to Mexico between 1930 and 1940, although some authors think that this breed already existed in the country in the late nineteenth century. Since 1963, Pelibuey sheep has been the most studied breed in Mexico, due to its ability to produce in tropics, as well as its high adaptability to most agro-ecological zones of the country. A brief review about productive and reproductive traits in current Pelibuey herds, allowed to conclude that they are very similar to those of the first sheep studied almost 50 years ago. Currently, the breed has been subjected to  non-planned crosses with other breeds to increase productivity, which puts in risk this important genetic resource. Therefore, there is a need to realize the conservation of the breed.

  13. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  14. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinković, Franjo; Matanović, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. Hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela: Reproduction in Pelibuey and West African Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Lopez Barbella, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  17. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Schaefer, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3 H] or L-[U- 14 C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  18. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  19. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M.

    1983-01-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co 60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  20. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  2. Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted selection (MAS) and gene-based selection in sheep breeding strategies. ... control criteria (genotyping frequency >95%, minor allele frequency >0.05 and .... of roles in the body: food digestion, regulation of other proteins and ...

  3. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC......, osteocalcin was significantly reduced after 7 months but a rebound phenomenon was observed 3 months after cessation of GC. In conclusion, this study has validated an osteopenia sheep model. Bone quality was significantly reduced following a 7 months GC-treatment and recovered after further 3 month observation...

  4. Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Edul, Vanina Siham Kanoore; Pozo, Mario Omar; Murias, Gastón; Canullán, Carlos Manuel; Martins, Enrique Francisco; Ferrara, Gonzalo; Canales, Héctor Saul; Laporte, Mercedes; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis after endotoxemic shock resuscitation. DESIGN: Controlled experimental study. SETTING: University-based research laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 14 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated sheep.

  5. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  6. The morphology of skin sheep of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    LADYSH I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the morphology by the merino sheep skin Askania and Prekos breed in the different natureclimatic conditions were studied. The breeds and age peculiarities of the morphology skin layers were established.

  7. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Keywords: Ethnoveterinary medicine, Ethnoveterinary knowledge, Nigeria, Oyo State, Sheep. Received 14-10-2012 ... can be used to provide economical solutions to improve productivity of ... Other factors included road traffic accidents, theft.

  8. Detection of phylogenetic extraction of sheep populations in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... populations in East and South Asia based on fuzzy ... Based on the previous research, according to the Hierarchy clustering, the sheep populations in East and South ... have been known and some data have been obtained,.

  9. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  10. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  11. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  12. Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, L. J.; Sinclair, K. D.; Kwong, W. Y.; Sturrock, C.; Clifford, B. L.; Giles, T. C.; Gardner, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies a common nutritional pathway relating maternal through to fetal protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and compromised fetal kidney development. Thirty-one twin-bearing sheep were fed either a control (n=15) or low-protein diet (n=16, 17 vs. 8.7 g crude protein/MJ metabolizable energy) from d 0 to 65 gestation (term, ?145 d). Effects on the maternal and fetal nutritional environment were characterized by sampling blood and amniotic fluid. Kidney development was characterized ...

  13. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Gwyn; Williams, Aled; Last, D.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  15. MRI of experimental focal cerebral ischemia in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerschler, A.; Waldmin, D.; Gille, U.; Leipzig Univ.; Zimmer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the specific characteristic of rete mirabile epidurale rostrale in sheep, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to observe vascular anatomy and to validate MCA occlusion in a new model of experimental focal cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in sheep (designed to study stroke therapy using autologous stem cells from umbilical cord blood). Furthermore, we wanted to assess the extent and natural time course of ischemic focal brain injury in sheep using functional and morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Method: 13 Merino sheep were examined. In 4 of the animals all, in 5 sheep 1 or 2 MCA branches were occluded and in 1 one case touched (sham operation). 4 controls did not undergo a surgical procedure. 23 MRI sessions were performed in 10 sheep. These sessions included T1, T2, T2 * sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TOF MRA before and 2 - 46 days after the onset of stroke using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Corrosion casts of the cerebral arteries of 3 sheep were prepared and compared to MRA. Results: The MRA visualized the vessel anatomy or occlusion distal to the rete mirabile. Anatomical variants concerning the variant origin of the MCA and inconstant arteria choroidea rostralis and communicans rostralis were revealed. Sheep with occluded left MCA showed space occupying lesions with a drop in ADC values. Depending on the number of preserved MCA branches (0; 1; 2), highly significant (p < 0.001) differences in lesion size (21 ± 5.7; 13; 1.7 ± 1.3 ml) could be found. No indication of ischemia but minimal contusion damage was observed in the sham operated animal. (orig.)

  16. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  17. Effect of chronic copper poisoning on the kidneys of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Howell, J M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of copper poisoning on kidneys was studied in 16 housed sheep given a daily drench of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 mg CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O per kg body weight. Seven similar sheep were kept as controls. All sheep were bled and weighed at weekly intervals, urine was collected via a catheter from groups of sheep at varying times and animals were killed in groups throughout the experiment. Nine sheep were allowed to develop the hemolytic crisis. Prior to hemolysis copper levels in the liver and copper and iron levels in the kidneys rose significantly, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules became numerous in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but significant changes were not detected by the histochemical methods used nor was kidney function impaired. In the animals that developed hemolysis there was degeneration, necrosis and loss of enzyme activity from the cells of the PCT. The tubule cells contained large amounts of hemoglobin, copper and iron and much of this material seemed to be localized in intracytoplasmic granules that were probably lysosomes. There was marked functional impairment at this time and blood urea levels began to rise. These lesions, an interstitial fibroblastic and inflammatory cell response together with changes suggestive of tubular regeneration were seen in the posthemolytic group of sheep.

  18. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two Inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: a study using ¹³C natural abundance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ¹³C = -26.8‰; dung δ¹³C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C₄ plant with δ¹³C = -14.6‰; dung δ¹³C = -15.7‰). Fresh C₃ and C₄ sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of ¹³C-CO₂ emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ¹³C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO₂. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7-8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO₂ originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg⁻¹ dry soil had been emitted as CO₂ for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg⁻¹ soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration.

  19. Feeding Value of Silybum marianum for Sheep and its Effect on Fiber and Protein Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mojadam

    2016-04-01

    with a mean body weight of 37±1.2 kg were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were including control diet (without Silybum marianum and diets supplemented with different levels of Silybum marianum (50, 100 and 200 g/kg as diets 2, 3 and 4 respectively that fed for 84 days. Dry matter intake, digestibility, fermentation parameters and blood metabolites were determined. Digestibility and gas production potential of wheat straw and soybean meal incubated with rumen fluid of sheep fed diets containing Silybum marianum were examined. The in vitro digestibility was measured by the two-step method. Gas Production was analyzed in triplicate as described by the Menke and Steingass. Results and Discussion: The results showed that dry matter intake, rumen fermentation parameters and blood metabolites were significantly affected by the experimental diets (P

  20. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  1. Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130 ± 1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller's grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.

  2. Maternal diet during pregnancy induces gene expression and DNA methylation changes in fetal tissues in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong eLan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from d 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (d 130 ± 1, they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber, corn (CN; starch, or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat. A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methylatransferase (DNMTs genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.

  3. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  4. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes em ovinos Meningoencephalitis in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2010-01-01

    fed with silage. In three farms there were close contact among affected sheep and other species. Clinical signs were characterized by recumbency (7/7, head tilt (4/7, incoordination (3/7, depression (3/7, circling (2/7, unilateral blindness, wasting, fever, midriasis, paddling, opisthotonus, hind or hind and fore limb paralysis, drooling, and muscle tremors (1/7 each. Clinical evolution varied from 12 hours to three days. Histological findings consisted of predominantly unilateral, microabscedative encephalitis with variable degrees of gliosis and degenerative lesions characterized by axonal spheroids and infiltration by Gitter cells. These lesions were observed extending from medulla oblongata to mesencephalon. Listeria monocytogenes antigen was showed by imunohistochemistry in routinely processed sections of brainstem from all seven affected sheep. The diagnostic was based on epidemiological, clinical, and pathological findings and confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ using polyclonal anti-L. monocytogenes antibody.

  6. Comparison of microbial fermentation of high- and low-forage diets in Rusitec, single-flow continuous-culture fermenters and sheep rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, M D; Ranilla, M J; Martín-García, A I; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2009-04-01

    Eight Rusitec and eight single-flow continuous-culture fermenters (SFCCF) were used to compare the ruminal fermentation of two diets composed of alfalfa hay and concentrate in proportions of 80 : 20 (F80) and 20 : 80 (F20). Results were validated with those obtained previously in sheep fed the same diets. Rusitec fermenters were fed once daily and SFCCF twice, but liquid dilution rates were similar in both types of fermenters. Mean values of pH over the 12 h postfeeding were higher (P 0.05) were found in any in vitro system. A more precise control of pH in both types of fermenters and a reduction of concentrate retention time in Rusitec could probably improve the simulation of in vivo fermentation.

  7. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  8. A High Grain Diet Dynamically Shifted the Composition of Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Induced Mucosal Injuries in the Colon of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamic shifts in mucosa-associated microbiota composition and mucosal morphology in the colon of sheep fed a high grain (HG diet. A total of 20 male sheep were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5 for each. The sheep in first group received hay diet. The animals in other 3 groups were fed an HG diet for 7 (HG7, 14 (HG14, or 28 (HG28 days, respectively. Colonic digesta samples were collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA and lactate. The colonic mucosa was sampled to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and tight junction protein genes using quantitative real-time PCR. As time advanced, results revealed that colonic pH linearly decreased (P = 0.007, and the concentrations of total VFA linearly increased (P < 0.001. Microbial analysis showed that an HG diet linearly reduced (P < 0.050 the diversity and richness of the colonic microbiota. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the four groups significantly shifted with number of days fed an HG diet. At the genus level, HG feeding significantly increased the relative abundance of some taxa including Prevotella, Coprococcus, Roseburia, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and decreased the proportion of Treponema, and the percentage of these taxa was not affected by days fed an HG diet. The microscopic examination showed that HG feeding caused the mucosal epithelial injury. The RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of claudin-1 (P = 0.038, IL-1β (P = 0.045, IL-6 (P = 0.050, and TNF-α (P = 0.020 increased linearly with number of days fed an HG diet. The correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between the colonic mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines and mucosal bacterial composition. Generally, HG feeding increased colonic fermentation and altered colonic

  9. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  10. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  11. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  12. Taenia ovis: an emerging threat to the Chinese sheep industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2016-07-26

    Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep. Although T. ovis infection is not a public health issue, it causes a great financial loss due to condemnation of carcasses.  The first outbreak of T. ovis infection in China occurred in 2015. Reassessment of adverse effects of T. ovis infection on Chinese sheep industry in future is necessary. The first T. ovis outbreak in China suggests that the epidemic situation across the country is underestimated. For the transmission of T. ovis, many factors, including eggs, dogs and wild canids, human behaviours and sheep trade, should be seriously considered. In blocking the transmission chain, regular treatments of the infected dogs using anthelmintics play a crucial step, but at the moment it is difficult to be fully executed in China, largely due to the behaviours, customs and faith of local farmers. Moreover, combined with no clinical symptoms in the infected adult sheep and goats, the lack of pre-mortem diagnostic tools makes it harder to practice a national wide surveillance as well as inspection and quarantine in increasingly frequent free sheep trade activities in China, leading to an inability to restrict T. ovis infection into small areas. Furthermore, the ongoing campaigns against Echinococcus granulosus may have an adverse effect on control of T. ovis infection because of no consideration of a role of dogs in the transmission of the parasite. Lack of national epidemic data, pre-mortem diagnostic reagents and vaccines severely hampers the implementation of disease control campaigns and the restriction of T. ovis infection into small areas. Consequently, sheep and goats are at an increasing risk of T. ovis exposure and the possibility of large-scale outbreaks across China in future is possible, causing great adversity towards sheep industry.

  13. Ultrasonographic features of the liver with cystic echinococcosis in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein Awad; Elrashidy, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to gain information about the ultrasonographic features of livers with cystic echinococcosis, as well as to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for diagnosis of such disease in sheep. Design This was a retrospective study during the period April 2011 to March 2013. Participants A total of 22 Baladi sheep (aged three to six years) were included in this study. Based on clear hepatic ultrasonographic findings, all animals were classified into two groups: those with hepatic cysts (n=9) and without liver cysts (healthy liver, n=13). Results Biochemically, serum concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and globulins were significantly increased (P<0.01), while albumin was lowered (P<0.01) in sheep with cystic livers. Ultrasonographic findings of diseased sheep livers revealed the presence of rounded, anechoic and unilocular hydatid cysts with ellipse circumference ranged from 6–10 cm. The borders of cysts were mostly well defined. The interior of cysts contained echogenic particulate materials, septations, or fine echoes. At the 10th intercostal space, the ventral margin, size, thickness and angle of livers were higher (P<0.01), while the diameter of portal vein was lower (P<0.01) in sheep with liver cysts than control ones. Furthermore, at the 9th intercostal space, the circumference of the gall bladder was decreased in sheep with hepatic cysts (P<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cysts were 80 per cent and 100 per cent, and 100 per cent and 83 per cent, respectively. Conclusions Cystic echinococcosis is associated with a number of anatomical alterations in the liver tissues that can be easily recognised by ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasonography alone or in combination with analysis of biochemical parameters reflecting liver function could be helpful for diagnosis of hepatic

  14. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (<0.04 [upper 90% CI]). Similar survival rates of female bighorn sheep from female bighorn sheep from British Columbia and Montana, coupled with greater recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  15. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jennifer Morton

    Full Text Available Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID and extradimensional (ED set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

  16. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

    2012-10-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.

  18. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  19. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  20. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  1. Effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation on Weight Gain, Ruminal Fermentation and Major Microbe Populations of Winter-Grazing Sheep in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chang-qing; Alatengdalai; Xue Shu-yuan; Atsushi Asano; Atsushi Tajima; Naoto Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation (MUS) on weight gain, ruminal fermentation and major microbial populations in sheep on a winter grazing regime in Inner Mongolia. Total 40 sheep, allowed free consumption of MUS after grazing, served as a treatment group, while 30 sheep, fed only by pasture grazing, served as a control group. Ruminal fermentation parameters, consisted of pH, Bacterial Crude Protein (BCP) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were measured. In addition, numbers of five symbiotic bacteria were investigated. The results showed as follows: the average daily weight gain, concentration of NH3-N and numbers of protozoa were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the treatment group than those in the control group. Contrastingly, no significant difference was found in BCP concentration and pH between the two groups. At the end of the experiment, the populations of Selenomonas ruminantium,Anaerovibrio lipolytica,Fibrobacter succinogenes,Ruminococcus flaveciens and Ruminococcus albus in the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that greater weight gain could be induced during winter in Inner Mongolia by improved nutritional status through promotion of microbial populations using urea and sugar.

  2. Morphological adaptation of sheep's rumen epithelium to high-grain diet entails alteration in the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Yue; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize changes in the relative mRNA expression of candidate genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the ruminal epithelium (RE) of sheep during high-grain (HG) diet adaptation. Twenty sheep were assigned to four groups with five animals each. These animals were assigned to different periods of HG diet (containing 40% forage and 60% concentrate mix) feeding. The HG groups received an HG diet for 7 (G7, n  = 5), 14 (G14, n  = 5) and 28 d (G28, n  = 5), respectively. In contrast, the control group (CON, n  = 5) was fed the forage-based diet for 28 d. The results showed that HG feeding linearly decreased ( P  genes IGFBP-2 ( P  = 0.034) and IGFBP 5 ( P  gene Caspase 8 decreased (quadratic, P  = 0.012), while Bad mRNA expression tended to decrease (cubic, P  = 0.053) after HG feeding. These results demonstrated sequential changes in rumen papillae size, cell cycle regulation and the genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as time elapsed in feeding a high-grain diet to sheep.

  3. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  4. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  5. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T

    2011-03-01

    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sero-prevalence study of bluetongue infection in sheep and goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion channels, muddy areas and fecal runoff areas around farms and habitats for them ... susceptible than native African sheep (Davies and Walker, 1974; Howell, 1979; ..... ity in sheep flocks in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Prev. Vet.

  7. Experimental transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiropoulos John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been an EU regulatory requirement since 2002. A number of European countries have subsequently reported cases of atypical scrapie, similar to previously published cases from Norway, which have pathological and molecular features distinct from classical scrapie. Most cases have occurred singly in flocks, associated with genotypes considered to be more resistant to classical disease. Experimental transmissibility of such isolates has been reported in certain ovinised transgenic mice, but has not previously been reported in the natural host. Information on the transmissibility of this agent is vital to ensuring that disease control measures are effective and proportionate. Results This report presents the successful experimental transmission, in 378 days, of atypical scrapie to a recipient sheep of homologous genotype with preservation of the pathological and molecular characteristics of the donor. This isolate also transmitted to ovinised transgenic mice (Tg338 with a murine phenotype indistinguishable from that of Nor 98. Conclusion This result strengthens the opinion that these cases result from a distinct strain of scrapie agent, which is potentially transmissible in the natural host under field conditions.

  8. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  9. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  10. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcroft, R

    1951-09-15

    The danger of paint and other lead compounds to the bovine is well recognized and has been recorded and discussed fairly extensively from time to time. The literature indicates that the calf is extremely susceptible to lead poisoning, but relatively little has been reported regarding the levels of lead in tissues of animals which have died as a result of lead poisoning, and still less in animals suspected of suffering from sub-lethal doses of lead compounds. In order to provide sufficient data to enable interpretation of figures obtained from tissues in cases of suspected lead poisoning sent in from the field, and to provide information on the metabolic fate of lead in ruminants, investigations were made at Weybridge on the absorption, excretion, retention and general metabolic effects of lead in both cattle and sheep and the results have been published in a series of five papers. In this brief review it is intended to discuss points from these and subsequent investigations which are likely to be of interest to the veterinarian.

  11. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  12. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  13. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M.; Cardoso, W.M.; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  14. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  15. Probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii improve the vaccine immune response to Bovine herpesvirus type 5 in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Talita Bandeira; de Moraes, Carina Martins; Sturbelle, Régis Tuchtenhagen; Dummer, Luana Alves; Fischer, Geferson; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2018-04-01

    There have been significant efforts toward the development of more efficient vaccines for animal health. A strategy that may be used to improve vaccine efficacy is the use of probiotics. Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an example of an important animal pathogen for which vaccines have provided only limited protection. In this study, we examined the use of the probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii as a potential immune modulator to improve vaccine efficiency. Thirty, 5-month-old lambs were randomly grouped in three lots of 10 each and vaccinated at days 0, 21 and 42 of the experiment. They grazed on the same pasture and were fed ad libitum twice a day with commercial sheep feed supplemented with either B. toyonensis (1×10 6 CFU/g of feed) or S. boulardii (1×10 7 CFU/g of feed), or non-supplemented feed. The probiotic supplementation was suspended day 28; thereafter, the next 35days, they were fed with the same commercial feed as control group. Animals supplemented with probiotics showed a significant (p>0.001) increased seroconversions against BoHV-5, and higher neutralizing antibodies titres (p>0.05) to BoHV-5 than non-supplemented animals. At 63days of experiment, splenocytes from the supplemented sheep had higher mRNA transcription levels of cytokines IL-10 and IL-17A. These results suggest that these probiotics could provide a promising means of improving vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  18. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Shen

    Full Text Available Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01 and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01. Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01. Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  19. Developing an Ethically Acceptable Virtual Fencing System for Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Marini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To ensure animal welfare isn’t compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. This study used an associative learning test to train 30, four-year-old, Merino x Suffolk ewes, to associate an audio cue with an electric stimulus. Collars manually controlled by a GPS hand-held unit were used to deliver the audio and electric stimuli cues. For the associative learning, when sheep approached an attractant at a distance of three m from the trough, an audio cue was applied for one s. If the sheep stopped or changed direction, the audio cue ceased immediately and no electrical stimulus was applied. If the sheep did not respond to the audio cue it was followed by a low-level electrical stimulus. Approaches to the attractant significantly decreased from day one to day two. It took a mean of three pairings of the audio cue and electrical stimulus for a change in behaviour to occur, after which sheep that approached the attractant had a 52% probability of avoiding the electrical stimulus and responding to the audio cue alone. Further research is required to determine whether sheep can be trained to associate an audio cue with a negative stimulus for use in group grazing situations.

  20. Controlling Within-Field Sheep Movement Using Virtual Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Llewellyn, Rick; Belson, Sue; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-26

    Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment. The virtual fence was effective at preventing a small group of sheep from entering the exclusion zone. The probability of a sheep receiving an electrical stimulus following an audio cue was low (19%), and declined over the testing period. It took an average of eight interactions with the fence for an association to be made between the audio and stimulus cue, with all of the animals responding to the audio alone by the third day. Following the removal of the virtual fence, sheep were willing to cross the previous location of the virtual fence after 30 min of being in the paddock. This is an important aspect in the implementation of virtual fencing as a grazing management tool and further enforces that the sheep in this study were able to associate the audio with the virtual fence and not the physical location itself.

  1. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  2. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  3. Valence of facial cues influences sheep learning in a visual discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Bellegarde, Lucille; Erhard, Hans; Weiss, A.; Boissy, Alain; Haskell, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  4. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Hans W. Erhard; Alexander Weiss; Alain Boissy; Marie J. Haskell

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  5. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumoni...

  6. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  7. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  8. Puberty and Fertility of Ewe Lambs Fed on By-products of Palm and Olive Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-T arabany, A.A.; Mostafa, M.M.M.; Mohamed, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effect of palm and olive oil by-products adding to rations on production and reproductive performance of Rahmani and Osimi female sheep. After weaning, Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs (24 for each) of similar birth type were identified to compare between two rations containing hard fatty acids (HFA) or olive cake (OC) on sexual puberty and fertility of two breeds. The lambs of both breed were randomly divided into three groups: the first group is considered control and received ration which contained concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group nourished (OC) consisted of CFM +HFA and the third group nourished (HFA) composed of CFM +OC. The CFM was offered as basal ration to all experimental lambs. Body weight, functions of the liver, kidney, thyroid and progesterone hormones at puberty, and the fertility traits were assayed in the two breeds of ewes. The average body weight of female lambs was higher (P<0.05) with OC than HFA. Female lambs supplied OC reached puberty faster and their thyroid and sexual hormones (progesterone) have been developed earlier than ewe lambs given HFA and those in the control group. Age at puberty and progesterone level in both Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs were better in ewes fed on OC , than other two groups. The fertility (%) from total ewe lambs and birth weight in ewe lambs fed on OC were higher than ewes fed on HFA and the control. It may be concluded that feeding ewe lambs on diet containing HFA from weaning had positive effects on age at puberty, reproductive fertility and prolificacy

  9. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  10. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  11. Sheep do not have a major role in bovine herpesvirus 1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Vellema, P.; Schukken, Y.H.; Barkema, H.W.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Wentink, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    With regard to BHV1 eradication programs in cattle it is important to know whether sheep can he a reservoir of BHV1. We therefore performed an experiment that consisted of three phases. In phase 1, 10 sheep were inoculated with high doses of BHV1 and kept in close contact with 5 sheep and 5 calves.

  12. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in Menz sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling

  13. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  16. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  17. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  18. Recognition of lameness and decisions to catch for inspection among sheep farmers and specialists in GB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green LE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have used farmer estimates of the prevalence of lameness in their flocks. This assumes that farmers can identify lame sheep. Eight movie clips of sheep with locomotion from sound to moderately lame were used to investigate the ability of farmers and sheep specialists to recognise lame sheep. Each participant was asked to complete a form and indicate, for each movie clip, whether they thought the sheep was lame and whether they would catch it if it was the only lame sheep or if 2 – 5, 6 – 10 or > 10 sheep were equally lame. The farmers' responses were compared with their estimates of flock lameness prevalence and the interval between observing a lame sheep and catching it. Results 178 farmers and 54 sheep specialists participated. Participants could identify even mildly lame sheep but made a separate decision on whether to catch them. This decision was dependent on the severity of lameness and the number of sheep lame in a group. Those who said they would catch the first lame sheep in a group were significantly more likely to catch mildly lame sheep (farmer-reported median prevalence of lameness 5% (IQR: 2%–6%. In contrast, farmers who waited for several sheep to be lame indicated that they would only catch more severely lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 11% (IQR: 9%–15%. Approximately 15% of farmers did not catch individual lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 15% (IQR: 10%–15%. The flock prevalence of lameness increased as time to treatment increased and time to treatment was positively correlated with only catching more severely lame sheep. Conclusion If movie-clips are similar to the flock situation, farmers and specialists can recognise even mildly lame sheep but vary in their management from prompt treatment of the first lame sheep in a group to no individual sheep treatments. The former practices would be appropriate to minimise transmission of footrot, a

  19. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  20. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  1. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  2. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  3. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  4. Antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinski, T A; Greenway, T; Presson, B L; Pote, L M; Featherstone, H; Williams, M

    1983-11-01

    Sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. All animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. Parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: Dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), Oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), Trichuris ovis (98.9%), Strongyloides papillosus (99.8%), Nematodirus spathiger (100%), arrested 4th stage Nematodirus spp (96.2%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (100%), T axei (100%), Oster tagia circumcincta (100%), Haemonchus contortus (100%), and arrested Haemonchus spp 4th stage larvae (99.9%). The sheep showed no adverse effects due to ivermectin or vehicle administration.

  5. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  6. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  7. FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-31

    Dec 31, 2010 ... against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to ... controller, doubly fed induction motor, fuzzy logic control. 1. ... capabilities in accounting for modeling imprecision and bounded disturbances. It ..... To show the effect of the parameters uncertainties, we have simulated the system with.

  8. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  9. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  10. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  11. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  12. Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyz-Łukasik Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III. No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6% samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5% samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively. There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    is very prevalent, and eating unprocessed sheep and lamb meat has a high risk of transmitting infections to humans. The presence of cats on the farm, farm size and using surface water as drinking water for the animals were risk factors for infection in sheep, with age as a significant confounder...... outdoor on pasture and only one was claiming organic farming. Having cats on the farm, age of the animals, farm size and the use of surface water sources for drinking were all significantly associated with T. gondii-infected animals on the farm. T. gondii infection in mutton used for human consumption...

  14. Rituals Cows or just another flock of Sheep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Pernille

    or body-parts and any special treatment of the bones, such as cutting, skinning and painting. In order to contextualise the faunal deposits I have also included information concerning the cemeteries, the graves, the small finds and the gender and age of the deceased. In the SJE assemblages three types...... of deposits could be identified, these include complete sheep deposited next to the dead, cut cattle skulls as well as large deposits of decorated sheep and goat skulls, the two latter located on or near the original surface of the cemetery. In the following fifth chapter information regarding from a number...

  15. Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: review of the most practical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen, A.; Szenci, O.; Kovacs, P.; Beckers, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Various practical methods have been used for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: radiography, rectal abdominal palpation, assessment of progesterone, assessment of estrone sulphate, RIA assay of placental lactogen, assessment of pregnancy proteins or pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, A-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Real-time, B-mode ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and accurate method for diagnosing pregnancy and determining fetal numbers in sheep. Transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography achieved high accuracy for pregnancy diagnosis (94-100 %) and the determination of fetal numbers (92-99 %) on d 29 to 106 of gestation

  16. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  17. A review of Melophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep ked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Richard W

    2005-06-10

    The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus is a member of the parasitic Dipteran family Hippoboscidae; it was a widespread ectoparasite of sheep that was of veterinary importance until the introduction of effective pesticides. Since then it has become of less concern and may have become a relatively uncommon species through much of its former range. Changes in agricultural practice, both greater intensification and development of more extensive systems (including organic farming and conservation grazing), may allow resurgence and a review of existing knowledge of M. ovinus may be timely. This paper reviews the biology, annual population cycles, natural causes of mortality, veterinary and economic significance and control of, and host resistance to, M. ovinus.

  18. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  19. Corpora lutea in superovulated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisoon, A; Redmer, D A; Bass, C S; Navanukraw, C; Dorsam, S T; Valkov, V; Reyaz, A; Grazul-Bilska, A T

    2018-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian structure which is critical for the maintenance of reproductive cyclicity and pregnancy support. Diet and/or diet components may affect some luteal functions. FSH is widely used to induce multiple follicle development and superovulation. We hypothesized that FSH would affect luteal function in ewes fed different nutritional planes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if FSH-treatment affects (1) ovulation rate; (2) CL weight; (3) cell proliferation; (4) vascularity; (5) expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) proteins; and (6) luteal and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in control (C), overfed (O), and underfed (U) ewes at the early- and mid-luteal phases. In addition, data generated from this study were compared to data obtained from nonsuperovulated sheep and described by Bass et al. Ewes were categorized by weight and randomly assigned into nutrition groups: C (2.14 Mcal/kg; n = 11), O (2xC; n = 12), and U (0.6xC; n = 11). Nutritional treatment was initiated 60 d prior to day 0 of the estrous cycle. Ewes were injected with FSH on day 13-15 of the first estrous cycle, and blood samples and ovaries were collected at early- and mid-luteal phases of the second estrous cycle. The number of CL/ewe was determined, and CL was dissected and weighed. CL was fixed for evaluation of expression of Ki67 (a proliferating cell marker), CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), and eNOS and sGC proteins using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. From day 0 until tissue collection, C maintained, O gained, and U lost body weight. The CL number was greater (P ewes; however, concentration of P4 in luteal tissues was similar in both groups. Thus, in superovulated ewes, luteal cell proliferation and vascularity, expression of eNOS, and serum P4 concentration depend on the stage of luteal development, but not diet. Comparison to control ewes demonstrated several differences and some

  20. The plasma composition of karakul lambs fed isocaloric high- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ences in the efficiency of metabolizable energy utilisation were determined from the average daily intake (ADl), ..... tissue growth may be influenced by metabolic hormones .... propionate and acetate in the control of food intake in sheep. ,Br. J.

  1. Transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an FMDV infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Orsel, K.; Kluitenberg-van Hemert, F.; Dekker, A.

    2015-01-01

    We wanted to quantify transmission of FMDV Asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an FMDV infection in sheep. For this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. In each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2

  2. DIGESTION OF HIGH FIBER DIET IN SHEEP AND GOAT OF JENEPPONTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Rahardja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four does (goat, G and four ewes (sheep, S of Jeneponto were fed chaffed rice straw hay (3.7%crude protein, 63.5% cell wall constituents, 44.5% acid detergent fiber and 6.2% acid detergent lignin,all based on dry matter. The intakes and digestibility of the diet by G and S were compared. Bothspecies consumed the same level of the diet. G digested dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crudefiber, and lignin of the diet to a significant higher extent than did by S. The superiority of G over S indigesting the diet was attributable with longer retention time of ruminal fluid and particulate matters inthe rumen and the entire gut, which then resulted in higher proportion of small size particles (<1 mmsieve, higher proportions of propionic, butyric, valeric and isovaleric acid concentrations produced inthe rumen. Additionally for further studies, there were some possibilities of G having a better chewingactivity (duration and intensity, and ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia levels by a greater urearecycle to the rumen, particularly through salivation.

  3. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Arrighi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  4. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-04

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  6. Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L. L'Hérit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Stroebel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP, South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL. One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farmfrom which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type in sheep if ingested in large quantities.

  7. Transfer of single dose of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab into milk of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Cakmak Argun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether single-dose intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab transfer into milk. METHODS: This study included lactating 12 sheep and a single 3-month old suckling lamb of each sheep. Two groups consisting of 6 sheep and their lambs were constituted; the ranibizumab group and the bevacizumab group before the administration of intravitreal injections, blood and milk samples were obtained from all sheep and, following the injections, blood and milk samples of all sheep and blood samples of all lambs were collected at regular time points. Serum and milk concentrations of bevacizumab and ranibizumab were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The limit of determination was 0.9 ng/mL for bevacizumab and 0.62 ng/mL for ranibizumab. RESULTS: At 6h after intravitreal injections, bevacizumab concentration was above the limit of determination in the blood of all sheep. At 3wk, when the study was terminated, bevacizumab concentrations were high in 4 sheep. Even though bevacizumab concentrations in milk showed fluctuations, the drug transferred into the milk of all sheep at detectable concentrations. Ranibizumab drug concentrations in the blood and milk of sheep and those in the blood of lambs were below the limit of determination by the ELISA kit. CONCLUSION: This sheep model study demonstrate that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, which did not transfer into the milk of sheep and suckling lambs, is safer than bevacizumab during lactation period.

  8. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  9. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  10. Parasitic helminth infections in native sheep (Mehraban in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep play an important role in national economy and social economy in rural areas in Iran. The main goal of this study was to investigate the fauna and frequency of parasitic helminth infections prevalent in native sheep in Hamedan, western Iran. From April 2010 to March 2011, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of 100-sheep were examined using conventional parasitological methods. The overall infection rate was found as 69%. No infection was found in esophagus and rumens. Parabronema skerjabini (22% and Ostertagia circumcincta (1% were recorded as the maximum and minimum cases for the presence of nematode, respectively. On the other hand, the most dominant of trematode and cestode were Fasciola hepatica (13% and Monezia expansa (13%, respectively. The highest infection rate was reported in summer (84%. The prevalence of helminth infection was varied among gender, seasons and age groups. In conclusion, this is the first report of parasitic helminth infections in sheep in Hamedan province in western Iran. Our results provide baseline information for the future studies.

  11. Economics of vaccinating extensively managed sheep flocks against Bluetongue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is a serious and recurring threat to sheep producers throughout the world. In the western United States, bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges in late summer and early autumn, just before lambs are sent to market. No vaccine is currently sold for the most common serotype ...

  12. Improvement of sheep skin quality after treatment with diazinon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cockle, otherwise known as ekek locally, has been economically the most important skin defect among the tanneries in Ethiopia for the last three decades. The disease has been experimented on since 1996 when FAO sponsored the trials on sheep and goat skin improvement trial (TCP/ETH/4558&6712) and found that ...

  13. Assessing genetic diversity of Hamdani sheep breed in Kurdistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variation in Hamdani sheep in the Kurdistan region of Iraq was studied using 35 microsatellite markers. All 35 markers were found to be highly polymorphic. The mean number of observed alleles ranged from four at BMS1494 to twenty five at BM6444 and INRABERN185 loci. The polymorphic information ...

  14. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  15. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  16. The Reproductive Performance of the Nigerian Dwarf Sheep | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three of the most important parameters of reproduction in sheep, the age at first lambing, the lambing interval and the number of lambs born per ewe at each lambing, were analysed from the herdbook of the breeding flock of the University of Ibadan for the period-1968 to 1974. The means were as follows: 1. age at first ...

  17. The heritability of acceptability in South African Merino sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection for production and reproduction in South African Merino sheep is always combined with selection based on visual appraisal and will, in all probability, remain so for many years to come. Heritabilities for acceptability were estimated using a threshold model to analyse data from two parent Merino studs. Effects ...

  18. Preliminary studies in sheep exposed to 85Kr atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Willard, D.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Sikov, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Accumulation of 85 Kr in arterial blood of sheep occurs within 10 min of inhalation exposure initiation, and disappears by 30 min after exposure termination. As reported for other species, 85 Kr concentrations in fat were approximately 10 times those in other tissues

  19. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  20. Parentage verification and identity test of Ghezel sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... The Ghezel sheep is a fat tail high weight Iranian breed which is raised in the North-west of Iran. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for this indigenous breed, accurate estimates of the population genetic parameters is per-required and all pedigrees and relationships ...

  1. haematology of the west african dwarf sheep under two different

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The coat is usually white in colour or a mixture of black and white. They weight about 30kg. Although there are a number of studies on the normal haematology of the West Africa Dwarf Sheep (Oduye, 1976, Durotoye 1987, Oyewale, 1991), there is no report on the influence of management on the haematology of these ...

  2. Perception of Sheep and Goat Milk Consumption among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected to study the perception of sheep and goat milk consumption among rural dwellers in South-Western Nigeria. The study showed that most of the respondents (72.5%) are not aware of the consumption of such milk and as such only few (10, 8%) claimed that they have ...

  3. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  4. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  5. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  6. Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relic...

  7. Evaluation of large stock unit equivalents for sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    does not recognize body weight differences of up to 20% between these two breeds. According to ... in body weight; lactating ewes lose 100 g/day in body weight; metabolizability (q) of energy of the feed which sheep select in the veld is .... normally slaughtered at a lower body weight due to fat accumulation. Conclusion.

  8. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  9. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  10. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  12. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  13. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  14. Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of progestagen outside the normal breeding season. JPC Greyling, WF Kotzé, GJ Taylor, WJ Hagendijk, F Cloete. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  16. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult worm population and the egg excretion positively and significantly correlated together, whereas they were .... Figure 1: Nematode egg excretion from sheep infected with different doses of H. contortus L3. Total worm burden .... further drop in haematological parameters until the end of the experiment. Eosinophils are ...

  17. Hydatidosis of cattle and sheep, its economic importance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs were studied in. South Wollo .... retail market price of average sized zebu liver, lung and the cost of 1kg of .... cattle. The cysts recovered form sheep were not that much in good shape.

  18. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... Alterations in the liver, central nervous system, and heart muscle have ..... mean heart rate of 119 bpm in normal sheep (Tório et al., 1997). In this ... heart samples could reveal information on remodeling of the extracellular ...

  19. Prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis in sheep in Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis survey was carried out to determine the infection rate of Coenurus cerebralis in Urmiaabattoir, West Azerbaijan, Iran. A total of 402 sheep heads were examined and the number ofC. cerebralis cysts per each head was recorded. Thirty three sheep heads were examined eachmonth during 12 months from 2006 to 2007. Of 402 heads, a number of 75 heads (18.65%were infected with C. cerebralis. The cysts located in the left and right hemispheres andcerebellum were 54.63%, 40.20% and 5.15%, respectively. The infected heads contained 1-4cysts. The highest and lowest prevalence were detected in sheep in March (42.42% and in July(2.94%, respectively. The infection rates according to age of sheep were 42.02% in 0.5 to 2years, 22.50% in 2 to 4 years and 8.92% in older than 4 years. The age specific infection ratesamong age groups were significantly differed (P 0.05.

  20. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUNEEB

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... purpose breed, primarily used for meat, milk and wool production. Najdi has ... PET-Red, NED-Yellow and VIC-Green provided by Applied. Biosystems™ (CA ..... Copper status of Najdi sheep in eastern. Saudi Arabia under ...

  1. Studies on the blood parasites of sheep in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred and fourteen blood samples collected from West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep between the months of January and April 2001 were examined for haemoparasites using the blood smear method. The rectal temperature, Packed Cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) ...

  2. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of main sheep breed of Saudi Arabia, Najdi. Randomly selected 49 blood samples were used to extract the DNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using 19 microsatellite markers, which were used to investigate the genetic ...

  3. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal ...

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  5. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  6. Polymorphism investigation of calpastatin gene in Zel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Meat tenderness is an important quality characteristic for which consumers are interested. ... Key words: Calpastatin gene, polymorphism, Zel sheep, meat and polymerase chain reaction- ..... correlations for bovine postrigor calpastatin activity, intramuscular fat ... expression of the mRNA in skeletal muscle.

  7. PRESENT AND FUTURE SITUATION OF SHEEP PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autumn to produce winter lambs on hay and barley and, if the weather is mild, the same grazing is used as that for the mothers. This, in general, is the Mediter- ranean type of sheep husbandry. There are of course a whole range of situations in between: Percentage of national flock in different husbandry systems. Numbers ...

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of sheep in Sherpur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Rani Poddar

    2017-09-01

    Results: Out of 106 samples, 67.9% (n=72/106 revealed the presence of ova of different helminths. The prevalence of helminth infection was associated with Fasciola gigantica (11.3%; n=12/106, Paramphistomes (13.2%; n=14/106, Schistosoma indicum (3.8%; n=4/106, Moniezia sp. (3.8%; n=4/106, Strongyle-type (24.5%; n=26/106, hook worm (6.6%; n=7/106, Strongyloides sp. (12.3%; n=13/106 and Trichuris sp. (1.9%; n=2/106. Egg count per gram (EPG was calculated which was ranged between 100 and 600. Parasitic counts in lambs, young and adult showed no significant variations (P=0.511 from one other. Infection was significantly (P=0.04 higher in poor body conditioned sheep (76.3 % as contrasted to normal body conditioned sheep (57.4%. No significant variation (P=0.601 was noticed in infection rates between sexes. Females displayed a higher infection (70.0% as compared to males (65.2%. In rearing system, the result was found statistically insignificant (P=0.247. Conclusion: Utterly, GI helminths are endemic at great levels among sheep in the study area. Also, their infestation differs within various age groups, sexes, nutritional condition and rearing system of sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 274-280

  9. Morphological changes in organs of sheep perished following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated with doses of 6.7 Gy. The main section finding was hemorrhagic diathesis. A detailed description is presented of changes in organs and mucous membranes, of the areas of hemorhages and ecchymoses. (M.D.)

  10. Histomorphological changes in uterine cervix of sheep following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokosova, M.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated for seven days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis showed greater roundness and articulation of epithelial folds of the cervix uteri. The number and localization of the glands were changed and the surface epithelium of the cervix uteri was reduced. (M.D.)

  11. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  12. Genetic variation among pelt sheep population using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in three Iranian pelt sheep breeds namely: Gray Shiraz, Zandi and Karakul were investigated using fifteen microsatellite loci. Genomic DNA was extracted from 360 blood samples by extraction kits and salting-out procedure with some modifications. The total number of alleles ranged from 6 to12 in loci.

  13. Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small intestines of 12 West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep and those of 12 Red Sokoto goats obtained from an abattoir were converted into casings. The imported cellulose casing used for the study was obtained from a sausage manufacturing company. Cellulose casing had the widest diameter of 35.00mm followed by ...

  14. supplementing sheep with protein and phosphorus on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanges between the different treatments and breeds, were statistically significant (P ... (i) a Protein supplement (Fish meal SO/n Sa|t 30f",. Dicalciumphosphate l5f' ... as the cause for the poor response by sheep to supplementary feeding in the form.

  15. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants).

  16. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  17. Response of West African dwarf sheep to differently processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to assess the response of West African Dwarf sheep to differently processed corncob meal based-diets. Sun-dried corncobs were collected at Teaching and Research farm of Federal University of Technology, Akure, treated with water, lye, urea, poultry litter and fermented for twenty-one (21) ...

  18. Complete genome sequence of a novel pestivirus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Pestivirus from Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  20. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  1. A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B W; Moss, G E; Rule, D C

    2008-04-01

    Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the

  2. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  3. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  4. Quartz exposure, retention, and early silicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, R; Dufresne, A; Cantin, A; Possmayer, F; Sébastien, P; Fabi, D; Bilodeau, G; Martel, M; Bisson, D; Pietrowski, B

    1989-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the chronology of events in cellular and biochemical changes thought to be important in the development of silicosis, (2) to relate these to changes in lung function and radiograph, and (3) to evaluate the relation of quartz exposure and retention to individual response leading to early silicosis. Thirty-six sheep were exposed by repeated intratracheal infusion at 10-day intervals to 100 mg Minusil-5 in 100 ml saline (Si group), and 10 sheep were exposed at the same intervals to 100 ml saline (control). All sheep were investigated at 3-month intervals by chest radiograph, lung function, and lung lavage. At month 9, chest radiograph score of parenchymal opacities was significantly increased at 2.8 +/- 0.6 versus 0.4 +/- 0.4 in the Si group (p less than .05), establishing early radiologic silicosis. Lung function was significantly altered with reduction in lung compliance, vital capacity, and diffusion capacity (p less than .05). Lung lavage cellularity revealed significant increase in total cells (X 2.5), macrophages (X3), and neutrophils (X3). Albumin in BAL remained at the control level. Fibronectin production was significantly increased, as was the fibroblast growth activity, without significant change in procollagen 3 at this early stage of disease. Total phospholipids were significantly elevated in the Si-exposed sheep, and the profile demonstrated an increase in all the phospholipid components. Spontaneous release of hydrogen peroxide by alveolar cells was not increased, but in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) higher levels of peroxide were found in the quartz-exposed sheep (p less than .05). The cellular and biochemical alterations of lung lavage preceded other changes. At month 12, there were good correlations (r greater than .49, p less than .001) between parameters evaluating related phenomena but poor correlations between measurements evaluating different aspects of the disorder. To

  5. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  6. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabok, J T; Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J

    2006-03-31

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin at 200 microg/kg body weight. Five weeks post-treatment, six reindeer calves were each artificially dosed with 10,000 third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from sheep, and an additional six reindeer with L3 derived from cattle. Lambs and bovine calves received the same dose of ovine and bovine larvae as reindeer, from the same larval source, respectively. Faecal samples collected on five occasions after the larval dosing revealed that by the fourth week, all reindeer calves, lambs, and bovine calves were infected. Animals were slaughtered on days 40 (reindeer) or 47 (lambs and bovine calves) after the larval dosing. Reindeer calves were most susceptible to L3 derived from sheep. The overall mean intensity of Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, and Teladorsagia circumcincta, did not differ between reindeer and sheep; however, early fourth-stage larvae of H. contortus were more abundant in reindeer (p = 0.002). The establishment of bovine-derived Ostertagia ostertagi was similar in reindeer (62%) and bovine calves (57%), but larval inhibition was much higher in reindeer (91%, p bovine derived Cooperia oncophora was recorded in reindeer calves (2%) compared with bovine calves (59%). These results show that young reindeer are susceptible hosts to the important gastrointestinal parasites of sheep (T. circumcincta, H. contortus) and cattle (O. ostertagi), as well as being a suitable host for T. axei.

  7. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  8. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  9. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  10. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  11. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  12. Variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium between individual sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable variability has been recorded in the radiocaesium activity concentration of muscle between individual sheep in the same flocks in upland areas that received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In a previous paper we demonstrated that there is a propensity for certain sheep within a flock to be always amongst the most contaminated and others to be consistently the least contaminated. Here we report a study to determine the extent to which variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium by individual sheep may contribute to the observed variability within sheep flocks. The transfer coefficient and biological half-life of orally administered ionic radiocaesium in muscle were determined under controlled conditions in 22 ewes from an upland farm in an area of the UK which received comparatively high levels of Chernobyl fallout. There was considerable variation between individuals in both the transfer coefficient (0.19-0.56 day.kg -1 ; mean 0.34 day.kg -1 ) and biological half-life in muscle (5.2- 18.7 days; mean 9.8 days). Changes in liveweight during the study and feed intake together accounted for 72% of the variation in the derived transfer coefficients; liveweight change also accounted for 56% of the observed variation in biological half-life. In a subsequent study, the true absorption coefficient of radiocaesium was determined in 12 of the ewes. There was a positive correlation between transfer and true absorption coefficients (R=0.57). We conclude that differences in the metabolism of radiocaesium will contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks in areas which were contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. We also suggest that for growing animals, the influence of liveweight change and feed intake on radiocaesium transfer may be greater than observed here. Similarly, in dairy cattle, for which feed intake changes considerably during the course of a lactation, large temporal variation in radiocaesium

  13. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  14. Genetic diversity of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sympatric wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and sheep in Helan Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ji-Fei; Zhang, Dan-Yu; Peng, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Bowman, Dwight D; Hou, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-09-19

    Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife. H. contortus specimens (n = 57) were isolated from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) inhabiting Helan Mountains (HM), China and additional H. contortus specimens (n = 20) were isolated from domestic sheep that were grazed near the natural habitat of the blue sheep. Complete ITS2 (second internal transcribed spacer) sequences and partial sequences of the nad4 (nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) gene were amplified to determine the sequence variations and population genetic diversities between these two populations. Also, 142 nad4 haplotype sequences of H. contortus from seven other geographical regions of China were retrieved from database to further examine the H. contortus population structure. Sequence analysis revealed 10 genotypes (ITS2) and 73 haplotypes (nad4) among the 77 specimens, with nucleotide diversities of 0.007 and 0.021, respectively, similar to previous studies in other countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia and Yemen. Phylogenetic analyses (BI, MP, NJ) of nad4 sequences showed that there were no noticeable boundaries among H. contortus populations from different geographical origin and population genetic analyses revealed that most of the variation (94.21%) occurred within H. contortus populations. All phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was little genetic differentiation but a high degree of gene flow among the H. contortus populations among

  15. A comparison of the effect of forage type and level of feeding on the digestibility and gastrointestinal mean retention time of dry forages given to cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys.

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    Pearson, R A; Archibald, R F; Muirhead, R H

    2006-01-01

    Four cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys were fed dehydrated lucerne, early-cut hay, later-cut hay or barley straw in a Latin square-based design for four periods of 35 d. In the first sub-period animals were fed the diets ad libitum (1-21 d) and in the second sub-period they were fed the same diet restricted to 0.75 of ad libitum intake (days 22-35). Measurements of forage intake, apparent digestibilities and gastrointestinal mean retention times (MRT) were made in the last 7 d of each sub-period. Differences between species in voluntary DM intake (VDMI; g/kg live weight (LW)(0.75) and g/LW) were greatest on the lucerne and least on barley straw. Cattle VDMI (g/kg LW(0.75)) compared with intake of the other species was > ponies > sheep > donkeys on lucerne. On barley straw VDMI (g/kg LW(0.75)) of cattle compared with intake of the other species was = donkey = ponies > sheep. VDMI of hays were intermediate between the lucerne and straw forages. Apparent digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre (ADF) of the lucerne and hays were higher in the ruminants than in the equids. Effect of feeding level was not significant. Gastrointestinal MRT was shorter in the equids than in the ruminants. On straw diets donkeys showed similar apparent digestibilities of feed components to those of the cattle, whilst apparent digestibility of the straw diet by the ponies was lowest. Results are discussed in relation to evolutionary differences in feeding and digestion strategy associated with fore- or hind-gut fermentation in ruminants and equids.

  16. Development of a cDNA microarray for the measurement of gene expression in the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis

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    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis which initiates a profound cutaneous inflammatory response, leading to the development of the skin lesions which are characteristic of the disease. Existing control strategies rely upon injectable endectocides and acaricidal dips but concerns over residues, eco-toxicity and the development of acaricide resistance limit the sustainability of this approach. In order to identify alternative means of disease control, a deeper understanding of both the parasite and its interaction with the host are required. Methods Herein we describe the development and utilisation of an annotated P. ovis cDNA microarray containing 3,456 elements for the measurement of gene expression in this economically important ectoparasite. The array consists of 981 P. ovis EST sequences printed in triplicate along with 513 control elements. Array performance was validated through the analysis of gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. Results Sequences represented on the array include homologues of major house dust mite allergens and tick salivary proteins, along with factors potentially involved in mite reproduction and xenobiotic metabolism. In order to validate the performance of this unique resource under biological conditions we used the array to analyse gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. These analyses identified a number of house dust mite allergen homologues up-regulated in fed mites and P. ovis transcripts involved in stress responses, autophagy and chemosensory perception up-regulated in starved mites. Conclusion The P. ovis cDNA microarray described here has been shown to be both robust and reproducible and will enable future studies to analyse gene expression in this important ectoparasite.

  17. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  18. Comparative analysis of the number of sheep in FYR and some European countries

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    Arsić Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming in Serbia, from year to year, notices a descending course in number of sheep, as well as in production of milk and meat. The main objective of this paper is the analysis of the number of sheep in Serbia and the surrounding countries (FYR. By comparing the current state of the total number of sheep (in 2011 with the state in the former Yugoslavia, the result shown is that there are 66% less sheep in Serbia compared to the total number seen in 1967 (base year. Compared to the last census from 2012, there is an increased number of sheep in Serbia, compared to previous year (2011 by 18.4%. Other former Yugoslav republics (FYR also have a decrease in the total number of sheep: in Bosnia and Herzegovina by 76.5%, in Montenegro by 64.3%, in Croatia by 41.3%, in Macedonia by 63.5% compared to 1967 (base year, except for Slovenia, which has an increase in the total number of sheep by 83,000 head of cattle. In paper is given overview of the number of sheep for some European countries and for some part of world, in purpose of comparison with sheep state in FYR.

  19. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

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    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  20. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

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    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of