WorldWideScience

Sample records for barbados

  1. Spotlight: Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Barbados was among the first to advocate a national system of family planning. In 1954 a joint committee report of birth legislation recommended the institution of a family planning system under the aegis of the government. The country's 1980 total fertility rate of 1.9 live births/woman attests to the success of the program. The rate is among the lowest of any developing nation. The population of Barbados was 122,298 at the 1st post emancipation census in 1844. In 1946 the population totaled 193,680. To a considerable extent, this very low rate of growth (0.46%) was due to substantial emigration, first to Trinidad and Guyana and later to countries outside the region such as the UK and more recently the US and Canada. Net emigration was so great between 1881 and 1921 that it exceeded natural increase by 54%. Consequently, the population declined from 182,867 to 156,724. By 1960, the population had reached 232,820, some 40,000 more than in 1946. Since then growth has been slow. Such a remarkably low rate of growth since World War 2 has been accomplished through continued high levels of emigration combined with declining fertility and mortality. The total fertility rate dropped from 4.7 in 1960 to 3.0 in 1970 to 1.9 in 1980. Life expectancy rose from about 50 in 1946 to 70 in 1980. Levels of net emigration have always been high and remain so. About 18,000 more persons left the country than entered it during the 1970s, a rate of 7.5/1000 population. While high, it is lower than in the 1960s. The mainstays of the economy are sugar and tourism. Since independence in 1966, sugar production has fallen steadily in response to depressed world sugar prices as well as increasing production costs. In recent years the government has sought to reduce dependence on the sugar industry. Tourism, adversely affected by the world recession, shows some signs of recovery. The discovery of some petroleum and natural gas may help. Barbados has one of the most developed infrastructures in

  2. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  3. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  4. GRIP BARBADOS/CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...

  5. O barbado da Terceira : estudo comportamental

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Elisabete Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Zootécnica. O cão Barbado da Terceira constitui uma população canina autóctone dos Açores, mais particularmente, da ilha Terceira, especialmente utilizado na condução de gado bovino existente na ilha, com especial destaque para o gado bravo, guarda de bens e propriedades e, mais recentemente, como cão de companhia. Este trabalho teve como objectivo determinar alguns traços da personalidade do cão Barbado da Terceira, nomeadamente a sociabilidade, corag...

  6. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Caribbean 2011 : Barbados ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) model recognizes phases of entrepreneurial activity and is concerned with studying the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth. It assesses entrepreneurial environment and level of entrepreneurial activity. This report analyses various aspects of Barbados ...

  7. COTYLEDONOUS DEPOSITS OF PRIDE OF BARBADOS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados. (Caesalpina pulcherrima) stored at various temperatures were investigated. 2,6 - Dichlorophenolindophenol (dye) solution titration method was used in ascorbic acid determination while. Nutrient and Sabouraud agar were ...

  8. Cyanide Content of Parts of Pride of Barbados ( Caesalpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cyanide determined in the edible extra-cotyledonous deposit of this legume was minimal and equally very low in all other parts studied (p>0.05). Pride of Barbados is presumably among the legumes with the lowest cyanide content. Keywords: Cyanide content, Pride of Barbados. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science Vol ...

  9. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  10. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  11. Social Class as Flow and Mutability: The Barbados Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather; Castro, Michelle; Bulut, Ergin; Goel, Koeli; Lin, Chunfeng; McCarthy, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research that examines the contemporary articulation of class identity in the postcolonial elite school setting of Old College high school in Barbados. From the qualitative data derived from this study, we argue that social class is better conceived as a series of flows, mutations, performances and performatives.…

  12. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  13. Workplace violence against medical staff in healthcare facilities in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, M; Morris, E; Sobers-Grannum, N

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests increasing workplace violence against healthcare workers in the Caribbean, but the prevalence is largely undocumented. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence reported by medical staff at primary care clinics in Barbados. A study utilizing a modified version of the standard World Health Organization Workplace Violence Questionnaire, designed to assess the incidence, types and features of workplace violence. All nursing and physician staff on duty at the island's eight primary care clinics during the study period were invited to participate. Of the 102 respondents (72% response rate), 63% of nursing and physician staff at the polyclinics in Barbados reported at least one episode of violence in the past year. The majority reported being exposed to verbal abuse (60%) and 19% reported being exposed to bullying. Seven percent of the staff reported incidents of sexual harassment, 3% physical violence and another 3% reported racial harassment. Patients emerged as the main perpetrators of violence (64%). Logistic regression showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence. Females and nurses were more predisposed to experience violent incidents than males and physicians. Over a half of medical staff surveyed reported experiencing some type of violence in the past year, female gender being a significant predictor of abuse. Adequate documentation and implementing clear policies and violence prevention programmes in health institutions are crucial steps towards addressing this issue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Calibration of the Raman Lidar at the Barbados Cloud Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliani, Johannes; Serikov, Ilya; Brügmann, Björn; Linne, Holger; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Meteorology has been conducting atmospheric measurements on the Caribbean island of Barbados with Raman lidars starting in 2010. We present our methods for calibrating temperature and water vapor retrievals from these measurements. Raman lidars measure water vapor by the number density ratio of water vapor to nitrogen molecules, from the amount of vibrational Raman scattered light by both H2O and N2. As there are instrumental uncertainties in the lidar backscatter signal, this data must be calibrated using reference measurements such as radiosondes or ground-based weather stations. We use a combined approach including local balloon soundings, regular soundings at the Barbados airport (11 km distant), and multiple weather stations at the Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO). The most stable calibration method fits the Lidar profiles to a combination of ground stations, with an adjustment for the typical boundary layer water vapor gradient. Since the weather stations show systematic differences in measured H2O at the same location, their values have to be adjusted to match a trusted source. For this, we consider the small set of BCO balloon soundings as most reliable since they include a pre-launch calibration procedure. This method yields calibrations with low variance and continuous data availability. The Raman lidar can also measure temperatures by Rotational Raman scatter of air molecules. We define the Pure Rotational Raman Scatter (PRRS) ratio as the intensity ratio of PRRS lines with opposite temperature sensitivity. The PRRS ratio links to the air temperature with two dependent calibration constants, which are derived by comparing to balloon soundings. Further, we use the dependence of the two constants to solve for a single independent calibration constant, which we show to be sufficiently stable in time to model the calibration for time periods where no soundings are available. The calibrated temperature can be used to calculate

  15. A comparison of outcome for stroke patients in Barbados and South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  16. The Acropora inheritance: A reinterpretation of the development of fringing reefs in Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John B.

    1984-11-01

    The discovery of the widespread occurrence of the remains of the reef coral Acropora palmata within the fabric of the fringing reefs on the west coast of Barbados requires a new interpretation of their Holocene development. Radiocarbon dating of the A. palmata framework suggests that reef construction by this species began as early as 2,300 years B.P. A. palmata probably flourished in Barbados into the present century but has now declined. The present fringing reefs are characterized by a core and base of A. palmata upon which subsequent colonization took place, especially by Montastrea annularis, Porites porites and coralline algae.

  17. Relating emotional intelligence to academic achievement among university students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among 151 undergraduate psychology students at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados, making use of Barchard (2001)'s Emotional Intelligence Scale and an Academic Achievement Scale. Findings revealed significant positive correlations between academic achievement and six of the emotional intelligence components, and a negative correlation with negative expressivity. The emotional intel...

  18. Sharing Best Practices in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago: Patterns of Policy Implementation and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines policies from multilateral organisations that advocate sharing best practices between developing nations. The article discusses the degree to which these best practices are implemented by small states as indicated by teachers, academics and policymakers in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. For the purpose of this article, a…

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  20. Locale-specific sugar packet opening by Lesser Antillean Bullfinches in Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Nover, D.; Lefebvre, L.

    2002-01-01

    Lesser Antillean Bullfinches Loxigilla noctis were observed opening packets of sugar on the grounds of a hotel on the west coast of Barbados. We presented closed sugar packets at 40 sites in 10 areas on the west coast, near the site where opening was originally observed, to determine whether the

  1. Active Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement among Some Psychology Undergraduates in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Adebisi Fayombo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...

  2. Inbound medical tourism to Barbados: a qualitative examination of local lawyers' prospective legal and regulatory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Cohen, I Glenn; Adams, Krystyna; Whitmore, Rebecca; Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-07-28

    Enabled by globalizing processes such as trade liberalization, medical tourism is a practice that involves patients' intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical legal research on this issue is limited and seldom based on the perspectives of destination countries receiving medical tourists. We consulted with diverse lawyers from across Barbados to explore their views on the prospective legal and regulatory implications of the developing medical tourism industry in the country. We held a focus group in February 2014 in Barbados with lawyers from across the country. Nine lawyers with diverse legal backgrounds participated. Focus group moderators summarized the study objective and engaged participants in identifying the local implications of medical tourism and the anticipated legal and regulatory concerns. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Five dominant legal and regulatory themes were identified through analysis: (1) liability; (2) immigration law; (3) physician licensing; (4) corporate ownership; and (5) reputational protection. Two predominant legal and ethical concerns associated with medical tourism in Barbados were raised by participants and are reflected in the literature: the ability of medical tourists to recover medical malpractice for adverse events; and the effects of medical tourism on access to health care in the destination country. However, the participants also identified several topics that have received much less attention in the legal and ethical literature. Overall this analysis reveals that lawyers, at least in Barbados, have an important role to play in the medical tourism sector beyond litigation - particularly in transactional and gatekeeper capacities. It remains to be seen whether these findings are specific to the ecology of Barbados or can be extrapolated to the legal climate of other medical tourism destination countries.

  3. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse, learning goals and the nature of classroom activities. Five hundred nineteen students from 12 of the 23 secondary schools on the island and 15 teachers across 8 schools participated in the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, an observational schedule and field notes. It was found that while problem-solving and questioning were mainly used in the classroom, the use of experiments was among the least popular teaching strategies. Additionally, results showed that teachers' display of the knowledge of the characteristics of scientific literacy was unsatisfactory. Generally, the findings indicate a gap between teaching for scientific literacy as expressed in the literature and current instructional practices in secondary science classrooms in Barbados.

  4. Who's right? Human rights, sexual rights and social change in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David A B

    2006-01-01

    Currently, in a number of public and semi-public forums in Barbados, the idea of 'sexual rights' is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to 'rights'. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rights discourses are the best way to advocate for social justice or bring about changes to socio-sexual attitudes in the Caribbean. It is argued that framing justice and equality through rights talk may have deleterious effects for its advocates, as there is no 'clear' or transparent universality as to what rights means. It is suggested that it may be more efficacious for groups who are stigmatized based on sexual orientation to develop vernacular strategies with values and/or logics stressing elements of justice, equality, dignity and respect for personhood, which include but also move beyond sexual orientation as a principal identification.

  5. Recreational SCUBA divers' willingness to pay for marine biodiversity in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Peter W; Casey, James F; Horrocks, Julia A; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2013-05-30

    The use of natural resources and the services they provide often do not have an explicit price and are therefore undervalued in decision-making, leading to environmental degradation. To 'monetize' the benefits from these services requires the use of non-market valuation techniques. Using a stated preference survey of recreational divers in Barbados conducted between 2007 and 2009, the economic value of marine biodiversity to recreational SCUBA divers in Barbados was estimated. In addition to a variety of demographic variables, divers were asked about their level of experience, expenditures related to travel and diving, and encounters with fish and sea turtles. Divers then completed a choice experiment, selecting between alternative dives with varying characteristics including price, crowding, fish diversity, encounters with sea turtles, and coral cover. Results indicate that divers in Barbados have a clear appreciation of reef quality variables. Willingness to pay for good coral cover, fish diversity and presence of sea turtles is significantly higher than prices paid for dives. In general, divers valued reef attributes similarly, although their appreciation of low density of divers at a site and high coral cover varied with prior diving experience. The results of this study demonstrate the economic value generated in Barbados by the recreational SCUBA diving industry and highlight the potential for substantial additional economic contributions with improvements to the quality of a variety of reef attributes. These results could inform management decisions regarding reef use and sea turtle conservation, and could aid in the development of informed 'win-win' policies aimed at maximizing returns from diving while reducing negative impacts often associated with tourism activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clouds at Barbados are representative of clouds across the trade wind regions in observations and climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Brian; Nuijens, Louise

    2016-05-31

    Trade wind regions cover most of the tropical oceans, and the prevailing cloud type is shallow cumulus. These small clouds are parameterized by climate models, and changes in their radiative effects strongly and directly contribute to the spread in estimates of climate sensitivity. This study investigates the structure and variability of these clouds in observations and climate models. The study builds upon recent detailed model evaluations using observations from the island of Barbados. Using a dynamical regimes framework, satellite and reanalysis products are used to compare the Barbados region and the broader tropics. It is shown that clouds in the Barbados region are similar to those across the trade wind regions, implying that observational findings from the Barbados Cloud Observatory are relevant to clouds across the tropics. The same methods are applied to climate models to evaluate the simulated clouds. The models generally capture the cloud radiative effect, but underestimate cloud cover and show an array of cloud vertical structures. Some models show strong biases in the environment of the Barbados region in summer, weakening the connection between the regional biases and those across the tropics. Even bearing that limitation in mind, it is shown that covariations of cloud and environmental properties in the models are inconsistent with observations. The models tend to misrepresent sensitivity to moisture variations and inversion characteristics. These model errors are likely connected to cloud feedback in climate projections, and highlight the importance of the representation of shallow cumulus convection.

  7. Local Geographies of Crime and Punishment in a Plantation Colony: Gender and Incarceration in Barbados, 1878-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Green

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gendered profiles of crime and punishment in Barbados between 1878 and 1928. During this period, Barbados stood out from the rest of the Caribbean in levels of imprisonment of women. The context of unusually high levels of female committals to custody – related to (1 women’s prominence in the labor force, (2 entrapment within conditions of near-total plantation monopoly, (3 high levels of male migration and (most importantly criminalization of so-called “abandoned” dependants – provides the backdrop for an examination of penal regimes in Barbados. Using spatial frames, particularly those generated in studies of “colonial geographies,” the article surveys gender differences in crimes, institutional arrangements, and punishments within prison. It also analyzes penal system changes that occurred over the period, signaling the transition to a new disciplinary regime.

  8. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  9. Implications of tooth root hypercementosis in a Barbados slave skeletal collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S; Jacobi, K P; Handler, J S; Aufderheide, A C

    1987-10-01

    A 17th- to 19th-century cemetery sample of 104 slaves from Newton Plantation (Barbados) shows uniquely high hypercementosis prevalence, as well as unexpectedly high and variable skeletal lead content. A variety of biological and archeological factors indicates that individuals with lower amounts of these anomalies (relative to age at death) were probably African-born, first-generation slaves. The hypercementosis is related to the progression of periodontal disease as assessed from alveolar bone. Although the hypercementosis is endemic in the Caribbean black population, it does not as yet have a clear explanation. We suggest the etiology might relate to chronic malnutrition involving periodic, seasonal rehabilitation.

  10. Spirituality, gender, and drug use among students from one University in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amour Jules

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo aclarar la relación entre la espiritualidad , el sexo y el consumo de drogas entre los estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad en Barbados . Una muestra por cuotas de 250 estudiantes fue requerido por la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales como el estudio fue parte de un estudio multicéntrico grande que participen estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de otros siete países participantes de América Latina y el Caribe . Relaciones negativas significativas fueron encontradas entre el nivel de un estudiante de la espiritualidad y de su uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas en los últimos 12 y tres meses . Hombres y mujeres también difieren significativamente en términos de consumo de drogas ilícitas (últimos 12 y tres meses . Sin embargo no se encontraron diferencias de género en su relación con el uso de drogas lícitas . Por otra parte , las mujeres poseían niveles significativamente más altos de espiritualidad que sus homólogos masculinos . Además la investigación cualitativa debe llevarse a cabo dentro de este grupo de edad en el contexto de Barbados para explicar mejor estos hallazgos .

  11. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience,…

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  13. What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism's impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism's impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal public health care, private sector health care and a strong tourism industry, is interested in developing an enhanced medical tourism sector. In order to appreciate Barbadians' understanding of how a medical tourism industry might impact health equity. We conducted 50 individual and small-group interviews in Barbados with stakeholders including government officials, business and health professionals. The interviews were coded and analyzed deductively using the schedule's questions, and inductively for novel findings, and discussed by the authors. The findings suggest that in spite of Barbados' universal health care and strong population health indicators, there is expressed concern for medical tourism's impact on health equity. Informants pointed to the direct ways in which the domestic population might access more health care through medical tourism and how privately-provided medical tourism in Barbados could provide health benefits indirectly to the Barbadian populations. At the same time, they cautioned that these benefits may not materialize. For example, the transfer of public resources - health workers, money, infrastructure and equipment - to the private sector to support medical tourism with little to no return to government revenues could result in health inequity through reductions in access to and availability of health care for residents. In clarifying the direct and indirect pathways by which medical tourism can impact health equity, these findings have implications for health

  14. Stigma, discrimination, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among physicians in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, Ernest; Roach, Timothy C; Jacobs, Carol; St John, Anne M; Inniss, Vashti; Walcott, Jerome; Blackwood, Chris

    2004-12-01

    To determine the extent of clinical knowledge of HIV/AIDS that physicians in Barbados have and their attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. In 2000 the Barbados Association of Medical Practitioners conducted a survey in order to assess its members' views on HIV/AIDS issues. Over a two-month period 203 physicians (76% of all those practicing in the country) were interviewed. The survey included physicians working in private practice and the public sector. They were surveyed individually concerning their attitudes towards counseling as well as their clinical knowledge, perception of safe practices, fear of occupational exposure, views on ethical issues, experience treating HIV/AIDS patients, and background with HIV/AIDS continuing education. In comparison to physicians who had graduated in later years, physicians who had graduated in 1984 or earlier had seen fewer HIV/AIDS clients, had lower levels of knowledge about the disease, were more likely to test for HIV/AIDS without informed consent, and were less likely to have ever attended a continuing education training course on HIV/AIDS. Overall, knowledge of the clinical indications of HIV/AIDS was low, and 76% of the physicians did not think they had adequate counseling skills. Over 80% of the physicians were comfortable looking after HIV/AIDS patients. While 95% of the physicians would not release HIV test results without a patient's consent, 33% would test, without consent, a seriously ill patient, and 15% would test without consent a patient upon whom they had to perform an invasive procedure if they perceived the patient to be from a high-risk population such as gay men or commercial sex workers. Only 53% of the physicians had attended an HIV/AIDS in-service training program between 1995 and 1999. Physician training in Barbados should focus on all aspects of HIV/AIDS care, including clinical and emotional factors. Attendance at such training should be mandatory for public sector physicians, and medical

  15. HIV treatment as prevention in Jamaica and Barbados: magic bullet or sustainable response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Geoffrey; Barrow, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This discursive article introduces HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and identifies various models for its extrapolation to wider population levels. Drawing on HIV surveillance data for Jamaica and Barbados, the article identifies significant gaps in HIV response programming in relation to testing, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment adherence, thereby highlighting the disparity between assumptions and prerequisites for TasP success. These gaps are attributable, in large part, to sociocultural impediments and structural barriers, severe resource constraints, declining political will, and the redefinition of HIV as a manageable, chronic health issue. Antiretroviral treatment and TasP can realize success only within a combination prevention frame that addresses structural factors, including stigma and discrimination, gender inequality and gender-based violence, social inequality, and poverty. The remedicalization of the response compromises outcomes and undermines the continued potential of HIV programming as an entry point for the promotion of sexual, health, and human rights. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Relating emotional intelligence to academic achievement among university students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Fayombo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among 151 undergraduate psychology students at The University of the West Indies (UWI, Barbados, making use of Barchard (2001's Emotional Intelligence Scale and an Academic Achievement Scale. Findings revealed significant positive correlations between academic achievement and six of the emotional intelligence components, and a negative correlation with negative expressivity. The emotional intelligence components also jointly contributed 48% of the variance in academic achievement. Attending to emotions was the best predictor of academic achievement while positive expressivity, negative expressivity and empathic concern were other significant predictors. Emotion-based decision-making, responsive joy and responsive distress did not make any significant relative contribution to academic achievement, indicating that academic achievement is only partially predicted by emotional intelligence. These results were discussed in the context of the influence of emotional intelligence on university students' academic achievement.

  17. Evaluation of small wind turbines in distributed arrangement as sustainable wind energy option for Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Justin D.K.; Amaratunga, Gehan A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The island of Barbados is 99% dependent on fossil fuel imports to satisfy its energy needs, which is unsustainable. This study proposes a 10 MW distributed wind energy scheme using micro wind turbines (WT) of horizontal (HAWT) and vertical axis (VAWT) configurations. These units are rated less than 500 W, and the scheme is hereafter referred to as mWT10. mWT10 is compared to the proposed 10 MW medium WT farm by the Barbados Light and Power Company (BL and P). The economic bottom line is the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The results highlight the BL and P proposal as the best economic option at BDS$0.19 per kWh, while that of both mWT10 configurations exceeds the conventional cost of BDS$0.25 by two to nine times. This is attributed to significantly higher relative installation and operational costs. However, the financial gap between mWT10 LCOE and the retail price of electricity is much smaller due to a large fuel surcharge passed on to each customer. Annual additional benefits of using wind energy include: greenhouse gas emissions savings of 6-23 kt of carbon dioxide; and anavoided fuel costs of BDS$1.5-5.3 million. The distributed mWT10 using HAWTs competes directly with the BL and P farm, however, it provides these benefits without the visual or ecological impacts of the larger machines. Conversely, VAWTs have features that favour a visually discrete and widely repeatable scheme but suffer relatively high costs. Therefore, this study illustrates the great potential of small wind turbines to be competitive with conventional wind farms, thus challenging the small wind industry to meet its potential by producing reliable and robust machines at lower cost. (author)

  18. Trans-Atlantic slavery: isotopic evidence for forced migration to Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hannes; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Evans, Jane A; Shuler, Kristrina A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2009-08-01

    The question of the ultimate origin of African slaves is one of the most perplexing in the history of trans-Atlantic slavery. Here we present the results of a small, preliminary isotopic study that was conducted in order to determine the geographical origin of 25 enslaved Africans who were buried at the Newton plantation, Barbados, sometime between the late 17th and early 19th century. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the slaves' origin, we used a combination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in bone and dentinal collagen; oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel. Results suggest that the majority of individuals were born on the island, if not the estate itself. Seven individuals, however, yielded enamel oxygen and strontium ratios that are inconsistent with a Barbadian origin, which strongly suggests that we are dealing with first-generation captives who were brought to the island with the slave trade. This idea is also supported by the fact that their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values differ markedly between their teeth and bones. These intra-skeletal shifts reflect major dietary changes that probably coincided with their enslavement and forced migration to Barbados. While it is impossible to determine their exact origins, the results clearly demonstrate that the slaves did not all grow up in the same part of Africa. Instead, the data seem to suggest that they originated from at least three different areas, possibly including the Gold Coast and the Senegambia.

  19. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-05

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern that medical tourism may spread

  20. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  1. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)?A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important fac...

  2. Trends in beverage prices following the introduction of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miriam; Kostova, Deliana; Suhrcke, Marc; Hambleton, Ian; Hassell, Trevor; Samuels, T Alafia; Adams, Jean; Unwin, Nigel

    2017-12-01

    A 10% excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Barbados in September 2015. A national evaluation has been established to assess the impact of the tax. We present a descriptive analysis of initial price changes following implementation of the SSB tax using price data provided by a major supermarket chain in Barbados over the period 2014-2016. We summarize trends in price changes for SSBs and non-SSBs before and after the tax using year-on-year mean price per liter. We find that prior to the tax, the year-on-year growth of SSB and non-SSB prices was very similar (approximately 1%). During the quarter in which the tax was implemented, the trends diverged, with SSB price growth increasing to 3% and that of non-SSBs decreasing slightly. The growth of SSB prices outpaced non-SSBs prices in each quarter thereafter, reaching 5.9% compared to tax price changes. A continued examination of the impact of the SSB tax in Barbados will expand the evidence base available to policymakers worldwide in considering SSB taxes as a lever for reducing the consumption of added sugar at the population level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Long-term observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlker, Mira L.; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Ovid O.; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Ditas, Florian; Praß, Maria; Holanda, Bruna; Su, Hang; Weber, Bettina; Pöhlker, Christopher; Farrell, David A.; Stevens, Bjorn; Prospero, Joseph M.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Long-term observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations has been conducted at the Ragged Point site in Barbados since August 2016. Ragged Point is a well-established station to monitor the transatlantic transport of Saharan dust outbreaks [1]. In the absence of dust plumes, it represents an ideal site to analyze the maritime boundary layer aerosol that is transported with the trade winds over the Atlantic towards Barbados [2,3]. Broad aerosol size distribution (10 nm to 10 µm) as well as size-resolved CCN measurements at 10 different supersaturations from 0.05 % to 0.84 % have been conducted. The continuous online analyses are supplemented by intensive sampling periods to probe specific aerosol properties with various offline techniques (i.e., microscopy and spectroscopy). Aerosol key properties from our measurements are compared with the continuous and in depth observation of cloud properties at Deebles Point, which is in close neighborhood to the Ragged Point site [2]. Moreover, our activities have been synchronized with the HALO-NARVAL-2 aircraft campaign in August 2016 that added further detailed information on shallow cumulus clouds, which are characteristic for the Atlantic trade winds and represent a crucial factor in the Earth climate system. Our measurements have the following two focal points: (i) We aim to obtain a detailed CCN climatology for the alternation of maritime and dust-impacted episodes at this unique coastal location. This study will complement our recent in-depth analysis for the long-term CCN variability at a remote rain forest location [4]. (ii) Furthermore, we aim to collect detailed information on the role of different aerosol populations on the properties of the climatically important shallow cumulus clouds. References: [1] Prospero, J. M., Collard, F. X., Molinie, J., Jeannot, A. (2014), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, 757-773. [2] Stevens, B., et al. (2016), Bulletin of the American

  4. Contaminants of emerging concern in surface waters in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Quincy A; Kulikov, Sergei M; Garner-O'Neale, Leah D; Metcalfe, Chris D; Sultana, Tamanna

    2017-11-14

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners, steroid hormones, and current-use pesticides have been detected in surface waters around the world, but to date, there have been no reports in the peer-reviewed literature on the levels of these classes of contaminants in freshwater resources in the Caribbean region. In the present study, multi-residue solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze grab samples of surface waters collected from five different watersheds in Barbados, West Indies. The artificial sweeteners (AS), acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were widely detected in the watersheds, indicating contamination from domestic wastewater, and the concentrations of these chemical tracers in water were correlated with the concentrations of the non-prescription pharmaceutical, ibuprofen (R 2 values of 0.4-0.6). Surprisingly, the concentrations of another chemical tracer of domestic wastewater, caffeine were not correlated with ibuprofen or AS concentrations. Several other prescription pharmaceuticals and the steroid hormones, estrone and androstenedione, were detected in selected watersheds at low ng/L concentrations. The fungicide, chlorothalonil was widely detected in surface waters at low (contamination of water resources by pharmaceuticals.

  5. Distribution of CYP17α polymorphism and selected physiochemical factors of uterine leiomyoma in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Angela T.; Austin, Shane; Williams, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a major reproductive health disease among women and in particular Black women. The present study sought to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP17 (rs743572) was associated with the risk of developing uterine leiomyoma (UL) in affected women in Barbados; a majority Black population. It also sought to determine if BMI, waist circumference and oestradiol levels were associated with UL in this group. A total of 96 random persons were assessed in a case–control study using a PCR-RFLP assay, and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, and oestradiol levels were also assessed. Our results showed no genetic association with the risk of UL and this gene. The genetic distribution of CYP 17α- alleles resembled a normal Hardy–Weinberg distribution, and a relatively low risk of 0.25 at a confidence interval at 95%, of UL disease development. However, a significant association was found between oestradiol levels and fibroids, as well as oestradiol levels and BMI, at P physiochemical factors comprising BMI, waist circumference, and oestrogen levels are disease indicators in this population. In conclusion, our findings suggest that obesity and its associated risk factors are important in a majority Black Caribbean population, although the sample size needs to be increased. PMID:25606420

  6. The impact of risk factors on the financial performance of the commercial banking sector in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of risk factors on the financial performance of the commercial banking sector in Barbados using quarterly data for the period 2000 to 2015. The empirical results indicate that Capital Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Interest Rate Risk and Operational Risk have statistically significant impacts on financial performance. The only risk variable which does not derive this result is Country Risk. In addition, of those variables which proxy external factors, only GDP Growth has a statistically insignificant influence on financial performance. Credit risk exerted a negative impact on the banks’ financial performance, thus the banks must ensure they adopt appropriate measures to minimise the impact of this risk. Higher levels of capital impacted positively on the banking sector’s profitability. This paper is the first effort employing such an extensive dataset based on Barbados’ commercial banking sector and shows the main factors that influence commercial banks’ financial performance in this developing economy.

  7. Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Commitment among a Sample of Secondary School Teachers in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Alwyn Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike.  The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels.  In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment.  The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.

  8. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  9. Innovativeness and the effects of urbanization on risk-taking behaviors in wild Barbados birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Simon; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Rodriguez, Jordi Ros; Kayello, Lima; Lefebvre, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on avian cognition remain poorly understood. Risk-taking behaviors like boldness, neophobia and flight distance are thought to affect opportunism and innovativeness, and should also vary with urbanization. Here, we investigate variation in risk-taking behaviors in the field in an avian assemblage of nine species that forage together in Barbados and for which innovation rate is known from previous work. We predicted that birds from highly urbanized areas would show more risk-taking behavior than conspecifics from less urbanized parts of the island and that the differences would be strongest in the most innovative of the species. Overall, we found that urban birds are bolder, less neophobic and have shorter flight distances than their less urbanized conspecifics. Additionally, we detected between-species differences in the effect of urbanization on flight distance, more innovative species showing smaller differences in flight distance between areas. Our results suggest that, within successful urban colonizers, species differences in innovativeness may affect the way species change their risk-taking behaviors in response to the urban environment.

  10. CD4 cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Barbados Recuentos de células CD4 en adultos con diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH en Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna R. Kilaru; Alok Kumar; Namrata Sippy

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the absolute CD4 cell counts of all the newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons who presented at the Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU), which serves as the national HIV/AIDS referral and treatment center for the country of Barbados. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study group was comprised of HIV-infected adults who had been diagnosed with HIV infection and referred to the LRU between January and December 2002. All the patients referred to the LRU had a CD4 cell count done at their f...

  11. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND AGRONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF BARBADOS ALOE (ALOE VERA (L. BURM. F. - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe and America.In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems.

  12. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  13. Aerosol arriving on the Caribbean island of Barbados: physical properties and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine aerosol arriving at Barbados (Ragged Point was characterized during two 3-week long measurement periods in November 2010 and April 2011, in the context of the measurement campaign CARRIBA (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiation and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArbados. Through a comparison between ground-based and airborne measurements it was shown that the former are representative of the marine boundary layer at least up to cloud base. In general, total particle number concentrations (Ntotal ranged from as low as 100  up to 800 cm−3, while number concentrations for cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN at a supersaturation of 0.26 % ranged from some 10 to 600 cm−3. Ntotal and NCCN depended on the air mass origin. Three distinct types of air masses were found. One type showed elevated values for both Ntotal and NCCN and could be attributed to long-range transport from Africa, by which biomass burning particles from the Sahel region and/or mineral dust particles from the Sahara were advected. The second and third type both had values for NCCN below 200 cm−3 and a clear minimum in the particle number size distribution (NSD around 70 to 80 nm (Hoppel minimum. While for one of these two types the accumulation mode was dominating (albeit less so than for air masses advected from Africa, the Aitken mode dominated the other and contributed more than 50 % of all particles. These Aitken mode particles likely were formed by new particle formation no more than 3 days prior to the measurements. Hygroscopicity of particles in the CCN size range was determined from CCN measurements to be κ  =  0.66 on average, which suggests that these particles contain mainly sulfate and do not show a strong influence from organic material, which might generally be the case for the months during which measurements were made. The average κ could be used to derive NCCN from measured number size distributions, showing that this is a valid

  14. Anthropometric indexes of obesity and hypertension in elderly from Cuba and Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Balduino Munaretti, D; Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Ferreti Borgatto, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between various anthropometric indexes of obesity with arterial hypertension in elderly from Barbados (Bridgetown) and Cuba (Havana). Cross-sectional data were extracted from the Survey on Health, Aging and Well being in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE). In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1508 and 1905 subjects ( ≥ 60 years) were examined, and were selected by a controlled sampling design. The occurrence of hypertension was assessed by self-report. Multiple measurements of adiposity were used including body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2)), waist hip ratio (WHR = > 0.95 men; > 0.80 women), waist to height ratio (W/ht. = > 0.50) and waist circumference - WC(L) ( > 88 cm, women; > 102 cm, men) e WC(OK) ( > 90.3 cm, women; > 91.3 cm, men). Binary logistic regression analyses (Odds Ratio) were used to measure strengths of relationships. In the elderly of Bridgetown, the final design (adjusted for age, education, race, smoking, regular physical activity and diabetes) shows that, in men, WC(OK) and W/Ht were associated with hypertension, and in women, WCL and WCOK were the indexes associated. In the Cuban elderly, the final design shows that, with the exception of WHR, all indicators were associated with hypertension. WCOK and W/ht were the indexes most strongly associated with the outcome. The explanatory power of anthropometric indicators when determining the outcome differed between men and women, as well as between cultural groups living in relative proximity (Barbadians and Cubans).

  15. Threats from the past: Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fear leopards after centuries of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Glueck, Amanda C; Merchak, Andrea R; Palmer, Cristin L; Rieskamp, Joshua D; Duggan, Ivy S; Hinds, Rebecca T; Cusato, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Ability to recognize and differentiate between predators and non-predators is a crucial component of successful anti-predator behavior. While there is evidence that both genetic and experiential mechanisms mediate anti-predator behaviors in various animal species, it is unknown to what extent each of these two mechanisms are utilized by the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Green monkeys on the West Indies island of Barbados offer a unique opportunity to investigate the underpinnings of anti-predator behaviors in a species that has been isolated from ancestral predators for over 350 years. In the first experiment, monkeys in two free-ranging troops were presented with photographs of an ancestral predator (leopard, Panthera pardus) and a non-predator (African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Relative to non-predator stimuli, images of a leopard elicited less approach, more alarm calls, and more escape responses. Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine whether the monkeys were responding to a leopard-specific feature (spotted fur) or a general predator feature (forward facing eyes). The monkeys showed similar approach to images of an unfamiliar non-predator regardless of whether the image had forward facing predator eyes or side facing non-predator eyes. However, once near the images, the monkeys were less likely to reach for peanuts near the predator eyes than the non-predator eyes. The monkeys avoided an image of spotted leopard fur but approached the same image of fur when the dark spots had been removed. Taken together, the results suggest that green monkey anti-predator behavior is at least partially mediated by genetic factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiles and behavioral consequences of child abuse among adolescent girls and boys from Barbados and Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Jones, Adele D

    2018-02-24

    The current study used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youths with specific abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) profiles in and outside the family, and identify how membership in each abuse group is associated with behavioral outcomes. Data were collected among a sample of male (n = 662; M age  = 13.02 years) and female (n = 689; M age  = 12.95 years) children and adolescents (9-17 years old) from Barbados and Grenada. Self-report surveys were completed by participants in school settings. Three latent classes of child abuse were distinguished among boys, including 'low abuse' (39.2% of the sample), 'physical and emotional abuse high outside/medium in the family' (43.2%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.6%). Among girls, four unique classes were recovered: 'low abuse' (40.7%), 'high physical and emotional abuse outside the family' (7.6%), 'high emotional and moderate physical abuse' (33.9%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.8%). Compared with members of low abuse groups, youths who reported having experienced high/moderate levels of various forms of violence, including those who were abused in multiple ways and across the two settings ('high overall abuse'), were significantly more likely to engage in violent and hostile behavior. Abused and non-abused youths did not differ on non-violent conflict resolution skills. The significance of present findings for future research and practice is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship between Socio-Demographics and Stress Levels, Stressors, and Coping Mechanisms among Undergraduate Students at a University in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nadini; Persaud, Indeira

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to learn about stress experienced by students enrolled in the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS) at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Barbados. This research was primarily undertaken to help UWI administrators/academic staff understand and address student stress. One hundred and six FSS students responded to:- (1) student…

  18. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  19. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); R. Mögling (Ramona); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); T. Langerak (Thomas); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels.

  20. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, march 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); R. Mögling (Ramona); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); T. Langerak (Thomas); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels.

  1. Comment on "Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reefal crest coral Acropora palmata" by N. A. Abdul et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Deschamps, Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Based on new U-Th ages of corals drilled offshore Barbados, Abdul et al. (2016) have confirmed the existence of the abrupt stratigraphic feature called meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B), which they interpret as being due to a very large and global sea level step change dated at about 11.3 kyr before present (approximately 15 m and equivalent to twice the amount of water stored in the present Greenland ice sheet). This contrasts with the Tahiti record, in which MWP-1B is essentially absent or very small, as Carlson and Clark (2012) and Lambeck et al. (2014) also conclude in their recent reviews of deglacial sea levels at the global scale. However, the evidence provided by Abdul et al. and their main conclusions are not convincing as they are affected by the following three main problems, which may explain the apparent discrepancies: Problem #1/Barbados is located in a subduction zone, which was also active throughout the Late Glacial period. Furthermore, the Barbados cores studied by Abdul et al. were drilled on both sides of the extension of a tectonic feature identified at the southern tip of Barbados (South Point) as underlined by several studies of the Barbados stratigraphy. Problem #2/Fossil samples of Acropora palmata may not be reliable sea level markers during rapid and large sea level rises. Indeed, the asexual reproduction strategy of this species may not be optimal to keep up when the water depth is increasing very rapidly. This may in part explain why the living depth of A. palmata at Barbados was significantly greater than 5 m during some periods of the last deglaciation, notably between 14.5 and 14 kyr B.P. and possibly between 14 and 11.5 kyr B.P. Problem #3/The slow glacio-isostatic adjustment and the rapid responses due to gravitational changes of ice and water masses complicate the interpretation of individual relative sea level (RSL) records at specific locations. Therefore, the Barbados and Tahiti record cannot be compared directly in terms of absolute

  2. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  3. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

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    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  4. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  5. "Best care on home ground" versus "elitist healthcare": concerns and competing expectations for medical tourism development in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Adams, Krystyna; Bishop, Lisa; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-02-03

    Many countries have demonstrated interest in expanding their medical tourism sectors because of its potential economic and health system benefits. However, medical tourism poses challenges to the equitable distribution of health resources between international and local patients and private and public medical facilities. Currently, very little is known about how medical tourism is perceived among front line workers and users of health systems in medical tourism 'destinations'. Barbados is one such country currently seeking to expand its medical tourism sector. Barbadian nurses and health care users were consulted about the challenges and benefits posed by ongoing medical tourism development there. Focus groups were held with two stakeholder groups in May, 2013. Nine (n = 9) citizens who use the public health system participated in the first focus group and seven (n = 7) nurses participated in the second. Each focus group ran for 1.5 hours and was digitally recorded. Following transcription, thematic analysis of the digitally coded focus group data was conducted to identify cross-cutting themes and issues. Three core concerns regarding medical tourism's health equity impacts were raised; its potential to 1) incentivize migration of health workers from public to private facilities, 2) burden Barbados' lone tertiary health care centre, and 3) produce different tiers of quality of care within the same health system. These concerns were informed and tempered by the existing a) health system structure that incorporates both universal public healthcare and a significant private medical sector, b) international mobility among patients and health workers, and c) Barbados' large recreational tourism sector, which served as the main reference in discussions about medical tourism's impacts. Incorporating these concerns and contextual influences, participants' shared their expectations of how medical tourism should locally develop and operate. By engaging with local

  6. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Th/U dated reef-crest corals (Acropora palmata) obtained from new Barbados offshore drill cores provide a local sea level reconstruction in unprecedented detail. The time interval, 13,000 to 11,000 years before present (BP), spans the well-studied Younger Dryas pollen zone, a period that has given rise to more than three decades of sensational climate interpretations and popular press. Widely described as a time when Earth's climate reverted to "glacial-like conditions" the various hypotheses that attempt to explain the "cause" of the Younger Dryas climate event have their staunch supporters as well as their critics but there remains little consensus. The Barbados sea level record for this time interval shows that sea level continued to rise during the Younger Dryas, albeit at a slower rate than prior to 13,000 or following 11,000 years BP. The decrease in the rate of sea level rise can simply be explained by the slow expansion of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet beginning 12,800 years BP followed by its faster demise contributing to a period of rapid sea level increase known as Melt Water Pulse 1B. We calculate the ice volume history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and it compares favorably to the moraine history and ice models. The Younger Dryas climate event is most often defined by the rapid shifts in atmospheric proxies measured in ice cores from Greenland. The ice core proxies shift into and out of the Younger Dryas climate event in only a few years to a few decades. Abrupt shifts in the climate state associated with the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas as revealed in Greenland Ice cores are not expressed in the smooth Barbados deglacial sea level record. We make the case that these Greenland atmospheric records mark regional atmospheric frontal shifts and changes in air mass sources over an ice sheet that largely did not participate in the deglaciation or sea level change. As proposed decades ago, the warming of the North Atlantic between 14,000 and 13

  7. Stigma, discrimination, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among physicians in Barbados Estigma, discriminación y conocimientos sobre el VIH/sida entre los médicos en Barbados

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    Ernest Massiah

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of clinical knowledge of HIV/AIDS that physicians in Barbados have and their attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: In 2000 the Barbados Association of Medical Practitioners conducted a survey in order to assess its members' views on HIV/AIDS issues. Over a two-month period 203 physicians (76% of all those practicing in the country were interviewed. The survey included physicians working in private practice and the public sector. They were surveyed individually concerning their attitudes towards counseling as well as their clinical knowledge, perception of safe practices, fear of occupational exposure, views on ethical issues, experience treating HIV/AIDS patients, and background with HIV/AIDS continuing education. RESULTS: In comparison to physicians who had graduated in later years, physicians who had graduated in 1984 or earlier had seen fewer HIV/AIDS clients, had lower levels of knowledge about the disease, were more likely to test for HIV/AIDS without informed consent, and were less likely to have ever attended a continuing education training course on HIV/AIDS. Overall, knowledge of the clinical indications of HIV/AIDS was low, and 76% of the physicians did not think they had adequate counseling skills. Over 80% of the physicians were comfortable looking after HIV/AIDS patients. While 95% of the physicians would not release HIV test results without a patient's consent, 33% would test, without consent, a seriously ill patient, and 15% would test without consent a patient upon whom they had to perform an invasive procedure if they perceived the patient to be from a high-risk population such as gay men or commercial sex workers. Only 53% of the physicians had attended an HIV/AIDS in-service training program between 1995 and 1999. CONCLUSION: Physician training in Barbados should focus on all aspects of HIV/AIDS care, including clinical and emotional factors. Attendance at such training

  8. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  9. "The Major Forces that Need to Back Medical Tourism Were … in Alignment": Championing Development of Barbados's Medical Tourism Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Governments around the world have expressed interest in developing local medical tourism sectors, framing the industry as an opportunity for economic growth and health system improvement. This article addresses questions about how the desire to develop a medical tourism sector in a country emerges and which stakeholders are involved in both creating momentum and informing its progress. Presenting a thematic analysis of 19 key informant interviews conducted with domestic and international stakeholders in Barbados's medical tourism sector in 2011, we examine the roles that "actors" and "champions" at home and abroad have played in the sector's development. Physicians and the Barbadian government, along with international investors, the Medical Tourism Association, and development agencies, have promoted the industry, while actors such as medical tourists and international hospital accreditation companies are passively framing the terms of how medical tourism is unfolding in Barbados. Within this context, we seek to better understand the roles and relationships of various actors and champions implicated in the development of medical tourism in order to provide a more nuanced understanding of how the sector is emerging in Barbados and elsewhere and how its development might impact equitable health system development. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados

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    Alok Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group of HIV-negative childbearing women. Routine information recorded during antenatal care was obtained from the women's case records. Additional data were collected from interviews with the women. RESULTS: There were 182 HIV-infected women who delivered during the study period, and a group of 202 childbearing women served as controls. In comparison to the control group, the HIV-infected women were younger, more often multiparous, and more likely to have been unemployed at the time of their pregnancy. The HIV-infected women also had had an earlier onset of sexual activity, had had more sexual partners during their lifetime, and were more likely to be involved with an older sexual partner. At the time of giving birth most of the HIV-infected women were asymptomatic for AIDS and were living with either their parents (mother or father or both or the baby's father. In addition, at the time of their six-weeks-postnatal visit, the large majority of the HIV-infected women were involved in caring for their children. The proportion of HIV-infected women who were diagnosed prior to childbirth increased significantly over the study period, rising from 25% during 1986-1990 to 82% during 1996-2000. Slightly over one-fifth of the HIV-infected women had had one or more subsequent pregnancies after they had learned that they were infected. CONCLUSIONS: The early age of sexual activity as well as repeated pregnancies, especially from different and older partners, may have

  11. Ethnicity and attitudes to deceased kidney donation: a survey in Barbados and comparison with Black Caribbean people in the United Kingdom

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    Seed Paul T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black minority ethnic groups in the UK have relatively low rates of deceased donation and report a higher prevalence of beliefs that are regarded as barriers to donation. However there is little data from migrants' countries of origin. This paper examines community attitudes to deceased kidney donation in Barbados and compares the findings with a survey conducted in a disadvantaged multi-ethnic area of south London. Methods Questionnaires were administered at four public health centres in Barbados and at three private general practices. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to compare attitudinal responses with a prior survey of 328 Caribbean and 808 White respondents in south London. Results Questionnaires were completed by 327 respondents in Barbados (93% response; 42% men and 58% women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD 12.6. The main religious groups were Anglican (29% and Pentecostal (24%. Educational levels ranged from 18% not completing 5th form to 12% with university education. Attitudes to the notion of organ donation were favourable, with 73% willing to donate their kidneys after their death and only 5% definitely against this. Most preferred an opt-in system of donation. Responses to nine attitudinal questions identified 18% as having no concerns and 9% as having 4 or more concerns. The highest level of concern (43% was for lack of confidence that medical teams would try as hard to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. There was no significant association between age, gender, education or religion and attitudinal barriers, but greater knowledge of donation had some positive effect on attitudes. Comparison of attitudes to donation in south London and Barbados (adjusting for gender, age, level of education, employment status indicated that a significantly higher proportion of the south London Caribbean respondents identified attitudinal barriers to donation. Conclusions Community attitudes in

  12. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the

  13. "That's enough patients for everyone!": Local stakeholders' views on attracting patients into Barbados and Guatemala's emerging medical tourism sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonte, Ronald

    2016-10-07

    Medical tourism has attracted considerable interest within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Governments in the region tout the economic potential of treating foreign patients while several new private hospitals primarily target international patients. This analysis explores the perspectives of a range of medical tourism sector stakeholders in two LAC countries, Guatemala and Barbados, which are beginning to develop their medical tourism sectors. These perspectives provide insights into how beliefs about international patients are shaping the expanding regional interest in medical tourism. Structured around the comparative case study methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 medical tourism stakeholders in each of Guatemala and Barbados (n = 100). To capture a comprehensive range of perspectives, stakeholders were recruited to represent civil society (n = 5/country), health human resources (n = 15/country), public health care and tourism sectors (n = 15/country), and private health care and tourism sectors (n = 15/country). Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded using a collaborative process of scheme development, and analyzed thematically following an iterative process of data review. Many Guatemalan stakeholders identified the Guatemalan-American diaspora as a significant source of existing international patients. Similarly, Barbadian participants identified their large recreational tourism sector as creating a ready source of foreign patients with existing ties to the country. While both Barbadian and Guatemalan medical tourism proponents share a common understanding that intra-regional patients are an existing supply of international patients that should be further developed, the dominant perception driving interest in medical tourism is the proximity of the American health care market. In the short term, this supplies a vision of a large number of Americans lacking adequate health insurance willing to

  14. Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Younger Dryas climate event occurred during the middle of the last deglacial cycle and is marked by an abrupt shift in the North Atlantic polar front almost to its former glacial position, trending east to west. Using high-precision and high-accuracy U-Th-dated Barbados reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, we generate a detailed sea level record from 13.9 to 9000 years before present (kyr B.P.) and reconstruct the ice volume response to the Younger Dryas cooling. From the mid-Allerød (13.9 kyr B.P.) to the end of the Younger Dryas (11.65 kyr B.P.), rates of sea level rise decreased smoothly from 20 mm yr-1 to 4 mm yr-1, culminating in a 400 year "slow stand" before accelerating into meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B). The MWP-1B event at Barbados is better constrained as beginning by 11.45 kyr B.P. and ending at 11.1 kyr B.P. during which time sea level rose 14 ± 2 m and rates of sea level rise reached 40 mm yr-1. We propose that MWP-1B is the direct albeit lagged response of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets to the rapid warming marking the end of the Younger Dryas coinciding with rapid warming in the circum-North Atlantic region and the polar front shift from its zonal to meridional position 11.65 kyr B.P. As predicted by glaciological models, the ice sheet response to rapid North Atlantic warming was lagged by 400 years due to the thermal inertia of large ice sheets. The regional circum-North Atlantic Younger Dryas climate event is elevated to a global response through sea level changes, starting with the global slowdown in sea level rise during the Younger Dryas and culminating with MWP-1B. No meltwater pulses are evident at the initiation of the Younger Dryas climate event as is often speculated.

  15. Dialysis in Barbados: the cost of hemodialysis provision at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital La diálisis en Barbados: el costo de la hemodiálisis en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital

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    Sara A. Adomakoh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the health service cost of hemodialysis delivered at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in St. Michael, Barbados. METHODS: A cost analysis was performed from the viewpoint of the tertiary hospital studied here, using treatment protocols based on current practice for establishing vascular access sites (surgical set-up and dialysis maintenance. Cost and patient data were collected for the period from 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. Sixty-four patients were studied and a total of 7 488 hemodialysis sessions were performed in the study period. The costs analyzed were personnel, drug expenditure, supplies (dialysis and nondialysis, inpatient costs, laboratory and other ancillary services, and indirect or overhead costs such as engineering, housekeeping, laundry and administration. RESULTS: The cost per hemodialysis treatment was calculated as US$ 156.64 in the first year and US$ 145.55 in subsequent years. The total cost per patient per year was US$ 18 327.22 in the first year of dialysis including surgical set-up, and US$ 17 029.54 thereafter. Direct costs (determined by patients' utilization of resources and labor costs for physicians and nurses contributed to 80.7% of the total cost. The main expenditures were dialysis-related supplies, labor and overheads. CONCLUSION: These findings are important in the light of limited economic resources available to health services in Caribbean countries coupled with the spiraling prevalence of kidney failure in these countries. Further analyses are recommended to review the provision of renal replacement therapy services in Barbados and to develop plans to expand and optimize services.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el costo, para los servicios sanitarios, de la hemodiálisis realizada en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital de St. Michael, Barbados. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un análisis de costos desde el punto de vista del hospital terciario objeto de este

  16. Revised paleoenvironmental analysis of the Holocene portion of the Barbados sea-level record: Cobbler's Reef revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.

    2016-06-01

    Sample elevations corrected for tectonic uplift and assessed relative to local modeled sea levels provide a new perspective on paleoenvironmental history at Cobbler's Reef, Barbados. Previously, 14C-dated surface samples of fragmented Acropora palmata plotted above paleo sea level based on their present (uplifted) elevations, suggesting supratidal rubble deposited during a period of extreme storms (4500-3000 cal BP), precipitating reef demise. At several sites, however, A. palmata persisted, existing until ~370 cal BP. Uplift-corrected A. palmata sample elevations lie below the western Atlantic sea-level curve, and ~2 m below ICE-6G-modeled paleo sea level, under slow rates of sea-level rise, negating the possibility that Cobbler's Reef is a supratidal storm ridge. Most sites show limited age ranges from corals likely damaged/killed on the reef crest, not the mixed ages of rubble ridges, strongly suggesting the reef framework died off in stages over 6500 yr. Reef crest death assemblages invoke multiple paleohistoric causes, from ubiquitous hurricanes to anthropogenic impacts. Comparison of death assemblage ages to dated regional paleotempestological sequences, proxy-based paleotemperatures, recorded hurricanes, tsunamis, European settlement, deforestation, and resulting turbidity, reveals many possible factors inimical to the survival of A. palmata along Cobbler's Reef.

  17. The demise of a major Acropora palmata bank-barrier reef off the southeast coast of Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, I. G.; Glynn, P. W.; Toscano, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Formerly attributed to human activity, the demise of a bank-barrier reef off southeastern Barbados known as Cobbler’s Reef is now thought to be largely the result of late Holocene, millennial-scale storm damage. Eleven surface samples of the reef crest coral Acropora palmata from nine sites along its 15-km length plot above the western Atlantic sea-level curve from 3,000 to 4,500 cal years ago (calibrated, calendar 14C years). These elevated clusters suggest that the reef complex suffered extensive storm damage during this period. The constant heavy wave action typical of this area and consequent low herbivory maintain conditions favoring algal growth, thereby limiting the reestablishment of post-storm reef framework. Site descriptions and detailed line surveys show a surface now composed mainly of reworked fragments of A. palmata covered with algal turf, macroalgae and crustose coralline algae. The reef contains no live A. palmata and only a few scattered coral colonies consisting primarily of Diploria spp . and Porites astreoides, along with the hydrocoral Millepora complanata. A few in situ framework dates plot at expected depths for normal coral growth below the sea-level curve during and after the period of intense storm activity. The most recent of these in situ samples are 320 and 400 cal years old. Corals of this late period likely succumbed to high turbidity associated with land clearance for sugarcane agriculture in the mid-1600s.

  18. Awareness, acceptance, and action: an emerging framework for understanding AIDS stigmatizing attitudes among community leaders in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Abell, Neil

    2005-03-01

    AIDS stigma must be acknowledged and reduced to advance HIV prevention and HIV/AIDS care in a variety of settings worldwide, including in the West Indies where national epidemics are thought to be growing rapidly. Regarded by international health organizations as a formidable barrier to service delivery and receipt, AIDS stigma refers to prejudice and discrimination directed toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), persons perceived as being at risk for HIV infection, and the informal and formal service providers who care for PLHA. However, there is little evidence of successful antistigma interventions in the literature. Furthermore, beyond studies of willingness in various professions to serve clients or patients with HIV/AIDS, the stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors of service delivery personnel, paraprofessionals and volunteers have been inadequately studied. This paper uses data obtained during an AIDS awareness workshop with sports coaches in Barbados to illustrate principles of an antistigma intervention framework being developed for social service and health personnel. The Awareness/Acceptance/Action Model (AAAM) draws on principles of mindfulness, rooted in ancient Asian traditions, and recently adapted to a range of physical and mental health interventions in Western contexts. Mindfulness techniques encourage awareness of one's current state and environment, acceptance of the implications of one's attitudes and behaviors, and the development of intentional responses rather than habitually patterned reactions. In this initial effort, community leaders were guided through a series of self-reflective exercises focusing AAAM principles on their tendencies toward AIDS stigma, and exploring more compassionate and functional alternatives.

  19. Reply to comment by E. Bard et al. on "Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata" by N. A. Abdul et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Richard A.; Abdul, Nicole A.; Wright, James D.; Fairbanks, Richard G.

    2016-12-01

    Abdul et al. (2016) presented a detailed record of sea level at Barbados (13.9-9 kyr B.P.) tightly constraining the timing and amplitude during the Younger Dryas and Meltwater Pulse 1B (MWP-1B) based on U-Th dated reef crest coral species Acropora palmata. The Younger Dryas slow stand and the large (14 m) rapid sea level jump are not resolved in the Tahiti record. Tahiti sea level estimates are remarkably close to the Barbados sea level curve between 13.9 and 11.6 kyr but fall below the Barbados sea level curve for a few thousand years following MWP-1B. By 9 kyr the Tahiti sea level estimates again converge with the Barbados sea level curve. Abdul et al. (2016) concluded that Tahiti reefs at the core sites did not keep up with intervals of rapidly rising sea level during MWP-1B. We counter Bard et al. (2016) by showing (1) that there is no evidence for a hypothetical fault in Oistins Bay affecting one of the Barbados coring locations, (2) that the authors confuse the rare occurrences of A. palmata at depths >5 m with the "thickets" of A. palmata fronds representing the reef-crest facies, and (3) that uncertainties in depth habitat proxies largely account for differences in Barbados and Tahiti sea level differences curves with A. palmata providing the most faithful proxy. Given the range in Tahiti paleodepth uncertainties at the cored sites, the most parsimonious explanation remains that Tahiti coralgal ridges did not keep up with the sea level rise of MWP-1B.

  20. Drastic increases in overweight and obesity from 1981 to 2010 and related risk factors: results from the Barbados Children's Health and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Kubow, Stan; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Knight, JaDon; Gaskin, Pamela S

    2015-12-01

    To examine overweight and obesity (OWOB), changes in prevalence and potential risk factors in Barbadian children. A cross-section of students were weighed and measured. The WHO BMI-for-age growth references (BAZ), the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth percentiles were used to determine OWOB prevalence. Harvard weight-for-height-for-age growth standards were used to estimate differences in OWOB prevalence from 1981 to 2010. Samples of parents and students were interviewed to describe correlates of OWOB. Barbados. Public-school students (n 580) in class 3. Based on WHO BAZ, the overall prevalence of OWOB was 34·8 % (95 % CI 30·9, 38·7 %). A trend of higher OWOB prevalence was seen for girls across cut-offs, with significant sex differences noted using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. According to Harvard growth standards, OWOB has increased dramatically, from 8·52 % to 32·5 %. Children were more likely to be OWOB when annual household income was below BBD 9000 (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·21, 5·99). Eating dinner with the family every night was associated with a lower prevalence of OWOB (OR=0·56; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·87). The sharp increase of OWOB rates in Barbados warrants attention. Sex disparities in OWOB prevalence may emerge at a young age. Promoting family meals may be a feasible option for OWOB prevention. Understanding familial and sociodemographic factors influencing OWOB will be useful in planning successful intervention or prevention programmes in Barbados.

  1. CD4 cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Barbados Recuentos de células CD4 en adultos con diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH en Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R. Kilaru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the absolute CD4 cell counts of all the newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons who presented at the Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU, which serves as the national HIV/AIDS referral and treatment center for the country of Barbados. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study group was comprised of HIV-infected adults who had been diagnosed with HIV infection and referred to the LRU between January and December 2002. All the patients referred to the LRU had a CD4 cell count done at their first visit to the unit, as part of the routine workup to assess their disease status and need for antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the 106 newly diagnosed adults, 62 of them (58.5% were males, who had a median age at presentation of 40 years; the other 44 of them (41.5% were females, and their median age at presentation was 36 years. Nearly one-fifth (18.2% of the females were aged 16-25 years, whereas only 8.1% of the males were in this age group. The majority (57.6% of the study group were diagnosed because they presented with an HIV/AIDS-related illness. Overall, the median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis was 183/µL; 52 of 103 adults (50.5% with a newly diagnosed HIV infection had a CD4 cell count that was OBJETIVO: Evaluar los recuentos de células CD4 de toda persona con un diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH que acudió a la Unidad de Remisión Ladymeade (URL, que es el centro nacional de Barbados para la remisión y el tratamiento de casos de infección por VIH y sida. MÉTODOS: El grupo de estudio se compuso de adultos con infección por VIH en quienes el diagnóstico y la remisión a la URL se habían hecho entre enero y diciembre de 2002. A todos los pacientes remitidos a la URL se les había efectuado un recuento de células CD4 en su primera consulta a la unidad como parte de la serie habitual de pruebas realizadas para determinar en qué estado se encontraba la enfermedad y si había necesidad de administrar antirretrov

  2. Protecting the fabric of society? Heterosexual views on the usefulness of the anti-gay laws in Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mahalia

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which people living in Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago believe that the anti-gay laws currently in place: (1) reflect moral standards; (2) stop the spread of homosexuality; (3) are important from a public health perspective; and (4) protect young people from abuse. Analysis reveals that demographics, religion, interpersonal contact and beliefs about the origin of homosexuality all influenced an individual's views on the usefulness of the anti-gay laws in these states, but the significance of their impacts varied substantially across the arguments.

  3. They called it the 'abominable crime': an analysis of heterosexual support for anti-gay laws in Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mahalia

    The aim of this study was to evaluate support for current buggery/sodomy laws in three Caribbean countries-Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. To complete this task, data from the 2013 Caribbean Development Research Services (CADRES) 'Attitudes towards homosexuals' surveys were employed. The data analysis revealed that a majority of heterosexuals in the sample generally supported the maintenance and enforcement of the anti-gay laws, and the main predictors of said support were race, country of residence, religiosity, interpersonal contact and beliefs about the origins of homosexuality.

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus in an African Caribbean population: incidence, clinical manifestations, and survival in the Barbados National Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Cindy; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Nicholson, George D; Liang, Matthew H

    2012-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the predominantly African Caribbean population of Barbados. A national registry of all patients diagnosed with SLE was established in 2007. Complete case ascertainment was facilitated by collaboration with the island's sole rheumatology service, medical practitioners, and the lupus advocacy group. Informed consent was required for inclusion. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, there were 183 new cases of SLE (98% African Caribbean) affecting 172 women and 11 men for unadjusted annual incidence rates of 12.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 10.46-14.18) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.42-1.51) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Excluding pediatric cases (ages <18 years), the unadjusted incidence rate among women was 15.14 per 100,000 person-years. The principal presenting manifestations were arthritis (84%), nephritis (47%), pleuritis (41.5%), malar rash (36.4%), and discoid lesions (33.1%). Antinuclear antibody positivity was 95%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 79.9% (95% CI 69.6-87.1), decreasing to 68% in patients with nephritis. A total of 226 persons with SLE were alive at the end of the study for point prevalences of 152.6 (95% CI 132.8-174.5) and 10.1 (95% CI 5.4-17.2) per 100,000 among women and men, respectively. Rates of SLE in Barbadian women are among the highest reported to date, with clinical manifestations similar to African American women and high mortality. Further study of this population and similar populations of West African descent might assist our understanding of environmental, genetic, and health care issues underpinning disparities in SLE. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Radioprotective effect of the Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) against radiopharmaceutical iodine-131 in Wistar rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, Elisângela; Berti, Alessandra Paim; Mariucci, Rosinete Gonçalves; Lopes, Nilson Benedito; Tonin, Lilian Tatiani Düsman; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-31

    The increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables has contributed to the improvement of populational health, due in part, to the abundance of antioxidants in these foods. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damage to DNA caused by free radicals and ionizing radiation, including the radioisotope iodine-131 (131I). This isotope is used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid injuries, such as hyperthyroidism and cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective and cytotoxic activity of acute and subchronic treatments with Barbados Cherry (BC) (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit juice (5 mg), which is rich in potent antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids and its activity against the mutagenic activity of the therapeutic dose of 25 μCi of radioiodine for hyperthyroidism. The test system used was the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were treated in vivo by gavage. BC showed radioprotective activity in acute treatments, which is most likely due to the joint action of its antioxidant components. In subchronic treatments, the continuous treatment presented an effective radioprotective activity, which was significantly different from treatment with the radiopharmaceutical only. Treatment with BC prior to (PRE) and simultaneous with (SIM) ionizing radiation decreased the number of induced chromosomal alterations, while post-treatment produced no protective effect. In addition, BC exhibited no cytotoxic activity. These data serve as evidence that BC can be used as a preventive health measure to improve public health quality by countering the action of inevitable exposure to mutagens, such as 131I.

  6. U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Fairbanks, R.G. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

    1990-08-02

    The study of the sea level record during the last glacial cycle has primarily proceeded indirectly by means of oxygen isotope measurements on foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. The direct approach of dating sea level indicators stagnated during the past decade, mainly because the samples required to complete our knowledge of the past glaciations are below the present-day sea level. Using the {sup 14}C ages of Acropora palmata samples collected by drilling offshore the island of Barbados, we report the first detailed chronology for the last deglaciation. This radio-carbon chronology is limited to the past 30 kyr because of the short half-life of {sup 14}C (5,730 yr); we must therefore rely on other dating methods to obtain information for the whole last glacial cycle. During the past four years {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U dating of corals by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry has been shown to be significantly more precise and accurate than the classical {alpha}-counting method. We have used this technique to measure U-Th ages in coral samples from the Barbados collection and from subaerially exposed outcrops. Here we present results bearing on the sea level record for the past 130,000 years; we conclude that the last deglaciation started 3,000 years earlier than previously thought and confirm that there were two surges in melt water at about 11 kyr and 14 kyr BP (before present). (author).

  7. U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Fairbanks, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The study of the sea level record during the last glacial cycle has primarily proceeded indirectly by means of oxygen isotope measurements on foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. The direct approach of dating sea level indicators stagnated during the past decade, mainly because the samples required to complete our knowledge of the past glaciations are below the present-day sea level. Using the 14 C ages of Acropora palmata samples collected by drilling offshore the island of Barbados, we report the first detailed chronology for the last deglaciation. This radio-carbon chronology is limited to the past 30 kyr because of the short half-life of 14 C (5,730 yr); we must therefore rely on other dating methods to obtain information for the whole last glacial cycle. During the past four years 230 Th- 234 U dating of corals by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry has been shown to be significantly more precise and accurate than the classical α-counting method. We have used this technique to measure U-Th ages in coral samples from the Barbados collection and from subaerially exposed outcrops. Here we present results bearing on the sea level record for the past 130,000 years; we conclude that the last deglaciation started 3,000 years earlier than previously thought and confirm that there were two surges in melt water at about 11 kyr and 14 kyr BP (before present). (author)

  8. De Barbados a Samoa: repaso de los principales hitos de los pequeños estados insulares en desarrollo desde 1994 hasta 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario José Gallego

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo precisaban de una voz común que se pudo escuchar por primera vez en Barbados, en 1994, durante la primera Conferencia celebrada para tratar los asuntos propios de estos espacios vulnerables por su tamaño y condición insular. El despegue posterior de este grupo de Estados en la arena internacional hasta la recientemente celebrada tercera Conferencia, en septiembre de 2014 en Samoa, es el tema central del artículo. El repaso a los diferentes momentos clave sucedidos durante estas dos décadas permite constatar los asuntos prioritarios para este grupo de países en cada contexto y sus avances hacia la completa institucionalización de sus asuntos por parte de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers reported by patients receiving diabetes and hypertension primary health care in Barbados: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams O Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados that might contribute to these deficiencies. Methods Five structured focus groups were conducted for randomly selected people with diabetes and hypertension. Results Twenty-one patients (5 diabetic, 5 hypertensive, and 11 with both diseases with a mean age of 59 years attended 5 focus group sessions. Patient factors that affected care included the difficulty in maintaining behaviour change. Practitioner factors included not considering the "whole person" and patient expectations, and not showing enough respect for patients. Health care system factors revolved around the amount of time spent accessing care because of long waiting times in public sector clinics and pharmacies. Society related barriers included the high cost and limited availability of appropriate food, the availability of exercise facilities, stigma of disease and difficulty taking time off work. Attendees were not familiar with guidelines for diabetes and hypertension management, but welcomed a patient version detailing a place to record results, the frequency of tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose targets. Appropriate education from practitioners during consultations, while waiting in clinic, through support and education groups, and for the general public through the schools, mass media and billboards were recommended. Conclusions Primary care providers should take a more patient centred approach to the care of those with diabetes and hypertension. The care system should provide better service by reducing waiting times. Patient self-management could be encouraged by a patient version of care guidelines and greater educational efforts.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers reported by patients receiving diabetes and hypertension primary health care in Barbados: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O Peter; Carter, Anne O

    2011-12-02

    Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados that might contribute to these deficiencies. Five structured focus groups were conducted for randomly selected people with diabetes and hypertension. Twenty-one patients (5 diabetic, 5 hypertensive, and 11 with both diseases) with a mean age of 59 years attended 5 focus group sessions.Patient factors that affected care included the difficulty in maintaining behaviour change. Practitioner factors included not considering the "whole person" and patient expectations, and not showing enough respect for patients. Health care system factors revolved around the amount of time spent accessing care because of long waiting times in public sector clinics and pharmacies. Society related barriers included the high cost and limited availability of appropriate food, the availability of exercise facilities, stigma of disease and difficulty taking time off work.Attendees were not familiar with guidelines for diabetes and hypertension management, but welcomed a patient version detailing a place to record results, the frequency of tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose targets. Appropriate education from practitioners during consultations, while waiting in clinic, through support and education groups, and for the general public through the schools, mass media and billboards were recommended. Primary care providers should take a more patient centred approach to the care of those with diabetes and hypertension. The care system should provide better service by reducing waiting times. Patient self-management could be encouraged by a patient version of care guidelines and greater educational efforts.

  11. Historical and current predictors of self-reported health status among elderly persons in Barbados Sucesos del pasado y del presente que determinan el estado de salud, según autonotificación, de las personas de edad en Barbados

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    Ian R. Hambleton

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the relative contribution of past events and of current experiences as determinants of health status among the elderly in the Caribbean nation of Barbados, in order to help develop timely public health interventions for that population. METHODS: The information for this prevalence study was collected in Barbados between December 1999 and June 2000 as part of the "SABE project," a multicenter survey in seven urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean that evaluated determinants of health and well-being in elderly populations (persons 60 and older. We used ordinal logistic regression to model determinants of self-reported health status, and we assessed the relative contribution of historical socioeconomic indicators and of three current modifiable predictor groups (current socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle risk factors, and disease indicators, using simple measures of association and model fit. RESULTS: Historical determinants of health status accounted for 5.2% of the variation in reported health status, and this was reduced to 2.0% when mediating current experiences were considered. Current socioeconomic indicators accounted for 4.1% of the variation in reported health status, lifestyle risk factors for 7.1%, and current disease indicators for 33.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Past socioeconomic experience influenced self-reported health status in elderly Barbadians. Over half of this influence from past events was mediated through current socioeconomic, lifestyle, and disease experiences. Caring for the sick and reducing lifestyle risk factors should be important considerations in the support of the current elderly. In addition, ongoing programs for poverty reduction and increased access to health care and education should be considered as long-term strategies to improve the health of the future elderly.OBJETIVO: Determinar la contribución relativa de sucesos del pasado y experiencias del presente al estado de salud de las

  12. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C; Guell, Cornelia

    2016-06-15

    Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and 'cascading.' Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of individuals needing to take

  13. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  14. Plant survival of barbados cherry genotypes after frost injury in northern Parana State/ Recuperação de plantas de genótipos de aceroleira afetadas por geada no norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbados cherry is a tropical fruit that when cultivated in subtropical areas is exposed to frosts which cause considerable damages to the leaves and can kill plants. The frosts of July 2000 in Northern Paraná State made possible the evaluation of 19 Barbados cherry genotypes propagated through cuttings. A minimum air temperature of –1,3°C was recorded on 17 July at the meteorological station; the minimum ground temperature was around –5,4°C. All plants were severely injured in 100% of leaves. The evaluation was made the following year to the frost, through sprouts status. It was observed that Barbados cherry genotypes present differences in cold hardiness. Some genotypes were killed and others survived, with good vegetation on the next year. The following genotypes presented the best recovery: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ and ‘Lígia.’ The findings are discussed in relation to temperature limits reported in the literature.A aceroleira é uma planta de clima tropical que também tem sido cultivada em áreas subtropicais, ficando com isso sujeita à ocorrência de geadas, que causam danos consideráveis à folhagem e podem levar as plantas à morte. As geadas de julho de 2000 no Norte do Paraná possibilitaram a avaliação de 19 genótipos de acerola, propagados vegetativamente. A temperatura mínima foi de –1,3° C no abrigo meteorológico em 17 de julho, que corresponde a – 5,4 °C na relva. Todas as plantas tiveram danos em 100% das folhas. No ano seguinte à geada, avaliou-se a recuperação das plantas com base na brotação apresentada. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que os genótipos de aceroleira apresentam respostas diferentes à geada, sendo que alguns são levados à morte e outros conseguem se recuperar na estação de crescimento seguinte. Os genótipos que apresentaram melhor recuperação foram: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ e ‘Lígia’. Os resultados são discutidos em rela

  15. Agreement of 14 August 1996 between the Government of Barbados and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of Barbados to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  16. Comprimento de estacas e parte do ramo na formação de mudas de aceroleira Size and part of the branch to be used as barbados cherry cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade rizogênica, a brotação e o vigor de estacas caulinares de aceroleira foram avaliados em condições de casa de vegetação na Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Fortaleza-CE, no período de novembro de 2000 a janeiro de 2001, objetivando determinar a parte do ramo e o tamanho mais apropriado para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 3x3, correspondendo a três posições no ramo (apical, mediano e basal e três comprimentos de estacas (10; 15 e 20 cm, com três repetições de 10 estacas por parcela. As estacas, colhidas de plantas com 2,5 anos de idade, foram plantadas em tubetes de 288cm³ contendo uma mistura de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermicomposto, na proporção volumétrica de 2:3, e cultivadas por um período de 60 dias sob condições de nebulização intermitente. Avaliaram-se a percentagem de estacas enraizadas, o peso da matéria seca do sistema radicular e parte aérea, o número de folhas, de gemas sem brotação e as ramificações emitidas por estaca. Os resultados indicaram que estacas caulinares com 10 centímetros de comprimento e colhidas da porção mediana dos ramos são mais apropriadas para a produção de mudas de aceroleira por estaquia, sob condições de casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The rhizogenic capacitity, sprouting and vigor of cuttings from barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C were evaluated in greenhouse conditions at the EMBRAPA - National Center for Research of Tropical Agroindustry, Fortaleza-CE, from November 2000 to January 2001, aiming to identify the best branch part and size for cuttings preparation. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme, corresponding to three positions on the branch (apical, median and basal and three length (10, 15 and 20 cm, with three replications composed by 10 cuttings each, and cultured on tubets of 288 cm³, filled wich a misture

  17. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  18. Variação sazonal da concentração de macronutrientes em folhas de diferentes genótipos de aceroleira Seasonal changes of nutrient concentration in leaves of different barbados cherry genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A aceroleira produz durante o ano inteiro, e seus frutos são ricos em vitaminas e sais minerais. Para a obtenção de produções elevadas e frutos de boa qualidade, é necessário conhecer as necessidades nutricionais e as épocas mais apropriadas para a adubação das plantas. Este trabalho, conduzido em área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus, Ceará, de dezembro de 1999 a outubro de 2000, teve por objetivo estudar a variação sazonal dos teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S e determinar a época mais indicada para a análise foliar de seis genótipos (P 52, P 66, P 78, P 91, P 93 e P 97 de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C.. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com 4 repetições e uma planta por unidade experimental. Existem poucas diferenças no teor de macronutrientes das folhas de distintos genótipos de aceroleiras. O mês de dezembro é a época mais apropriada para diagnosticar os teores de macronutrientes em genótipos de aceroleira no Estado do Ceará, pois é o período menos influenciado pela falta ou excesso de chuva ou pela demanda dos órgãos em formação na planta.Plants of Barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata produces all over the year, and its fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals. In order to obtain good production and high fruit quality it is necessary to know the nutritional need and the suitable season for plant fertilization. Thus, it was carried out an experiment at the EMBRAPA-National Center for Research of Tropical Agro-industry, from December 1999 to October 2000, aiming to study the seasonal changes nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S levels, and the suitable period for leaves mineral diagnosis, in six genotypes P 52, P 66, P 78, P 91, P 93 and P 97 and six distinct sampling times. All the 36 treatments (six genotypes evaluated in six harvest times were conducted in a Randomized Completed Block (RCB design with

  19. Deep Cenezoic Sediments in Front of the Barbados Ridge Complex, Odp Site 672: Hemipelagites, Turbidites, and Possible Contourites in Western Central Atlantic Ocean Sédiments cénozoïques au front du complexe de la Barbade, site ODP 672 : hémipélagites, turbidites, et possibles contourites dans l'Atlantique central occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascle A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The cenozoic sediments cover of western central Atlantic oceanic floor was cored at about 5 000 m depth, close to the deformation front of the Barbados Accretionary Prism. Good preservation of sedimentary structures and high recovery rate allowed the recognition and study of hemipelagic calcareous or siliceous clays and muds, with or without interbedded airfall volcanic ash beds, and with or without interbedded coarser deposits coming from lateral inputs. The latters are either calcareous fine-grained turbidites coming from local shallower oceanic areas, or terrigenous and calcareous (more hypothetical contourites (reworking turbidites related to bottom currents running along the South-America margin. Fluid-escape veinstructures, related to dewatering process - upward, vertical to almost horizontal advection - were identified, especially in relation with the beginning of offscraping stress in early Miocene incipient décollementhorizon. Twenty-four color print photos of splitted cores are presented; the macroscopic features they show are commented and discussed. La couverture sédimentaire cénozoïque du plancher océanique de l'Atlantique Central occidental a été carottée à environ 5000 m de profondeur, à proximité du front de déformation du prisme d'accrétion de la Barbade. Une bonne préservation des structures sédimentaires et un taux de récupération élevé ont permis la reconnaissance et l'étude d'argilites et shales hémipélagiques, calcaires ou siliceuses, localement intercalées de lits de cendres volcaniques, et auxquelles s'ajoutent des niveaux plus grossiers attribués à des apports latéraux. Ces derniers consistent, soit en turbidites calcareuses à grain fin provenant de hauts-fonds océaniques proches, soit en (plus hypothétiques contourites calcareuses et terrigènes (remaniant des turbidites attribuées à l'activité de courants profonds longeant la marge sud-américaine. Des veinesd'échappement de fluides

  20. Effect of replacing maize with pride of barbados ( Delonix regia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of Delonix regia seed meal (DRSM) for maize in a completely randomized design experiment. The parameters investigated during the study were: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost. At the end of the feeding trial, ...

  1. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina A.; Chenery, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test t...

  2. Multibeam collection for AT21-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2012-06-21 to 2012-07-09, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Interpersonal violence in three Caribbean countries: Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago Violencia interpersonal en tres países del Caribe: Barbados, Jamaica y Trinidad y Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Le Franc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of two types of interpersonal violence (IPV (sexual and physical and one type of aggression (psychological in three low-to-middle-income Caribbean countries. It examines IPV among adolescents and young adults as both victims and perpetrators. METHODS: This population-based study compares the experiences of 15-30 year olds in countries at different levels of socioeconomic development. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 and other behavioral instruments were used to assess the level and characteristics of IPV. RESULTS: Out of 3 401 respondents, 70.9% reported victimization by some form of violence, which was most commonly perpetrated by a relationship partner (62.8%. Sexual violence victimization was reported more commonly by women, and was highest in Jamaica. Significant between-country differences in overall levels of reported physical violence, and psychological aggression, were evident when stratifying by perpetrator type. CONCLUSIONS: The very high levels of reported IPV indicate very high levels of tolerance among victims, and suggest a culture of violence and of adversarial intimate relationships may be well entrenched. The findings support the view that co-occurrence of general interpersonal violence and partner violence may be limited, and that one may not necessarily be a predictor of the other. They also reveal that, among partners, not only are there no gender differentials in victimization by physical violence, but more women than men are self-reporting as perpetrators of this type of IPV.OBJETIVOS: Se informa la prevalencia de dos formas de violencia interpersonal (VIP -la sexual y la física- y de un tipo de agresión -la psicológica- en tres países del Caribe de bajo a mediano ingresos. Se analiza la VIP entre adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, ya sea como víctimas o agresores. MÉTODOS: En este estudio basado en la población se comparan las experiencias de personas de 15 a 30 años de países con diferentes niveles de desarrollo socioeconómico. Se utilizó la escala revisada de tácticas de conflicto (CTS2 y otros instrumentos de análisis conductual para evaluar el nivel y las características de la VIP. RESULTADOS: De las 3 401 personas que respondieron, 70,9% informó haber sido víctima de alguna forma de violencia, más frecuentemente ejercida por sus parejas (62,8%. Las mujeres informaron con mayor frecuencia haber sido víctimas de violencia sexual, y esta fue más frecuente en Jamaica. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los países en cuanto a la violencia física y la agresión psicológica, que se hicieron notables al estratificar por el tipo de agresor. CONCLUSIONES: Los muy elevados niveles informados de VIP indican un alto grado de tolerancia entre las víctimas e indican que se puede estar arraigando una cultura de violencia y de relaciones íntimas basadas en el enfrentamiento. Estos resultados confirman que la ocurrencia simultánea de la violencia interpersonal en general y la violencia de pareja puede ser limitada y que una forma no necesariamente es un factor de predicción de la otra. En las parejas no se observaron diferencias en la victimización según el género y más mujeres que hombres se declararon agresoras en esta forma de VIP.

  4. Multibeam collection for KN197-08: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-05-22 to 2010-06-24, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for MV1110: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-09-03 to 2011-10-08, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for AT21-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2012-07-13 to 2012-07-29, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for AT21-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-17, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. The Barbados Insulin Matters (BIM study: Barriers to insulin therapy among a population-based sample of people with type 2 diabetes in the Caribbean island of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Taylor, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Multiple factors related to patient beliefs and attitudes need to be considered and addressed when initiating insulin in order to minimise psychological insulin resistance and delay. Patients using insulin had less negative perceptions than those not on insulin.

  9. Copepoda (Siphonostomatoida) associated with Ophiuroidea in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Three new siphonostomatoid copepods are associated with Ophiuroidea in the tropical western Atlantic. Collocheres vervoorti spec. nov., from Ophiothrix angulata in Jamaica, has an elongate, gently tapered genital double-somite in the female and the second segment of leg 5 has a distal outer notch.

  10. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED IN BARBADOS CHERRY ‘BRS-366 JABURÚ’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In foods, the flavor and aroma are very important attributes, thus the main objective of this study was to identify the volatile compounds (VC of the "BRS-366 Jaburú" acerola variety, for which we used the solid phase microextraction method (SPE. The separation and identification of volatile compounds was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Three fibers were evaluated, Polydimethylsiloxane / Divinylbenzene (PDMS / DVB, 65 micrometres Divinylbenzene / Carboxen / Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB / CAR / PDMS 50/30 m and polyacrylate (PA 85 uM to compare the extraction of its components. Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified and classified into eight chemical classes: carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. The peak areas of each of the extracted compounds were expressed as percentages to indicate the relative concentration of each, of which ethyl acetate is distinguished by being responsible for the fruity aroma notes. Thus, the fiber PDMS / DVB was the best as it enabled to extract a greater amount of volatile compounds

  11. Causes of visual loss and their risk factors: an incidence summary from the Barbados Eye Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Hennis, Anselm

    2010-04-01

    To summarize incidence and risk factors for each main cause of visual loss in an African-Caribbean population and discuss the implications of these data from a public health perspective. A nationally representative cohort (n = 4 709; ages 40-84 years at baseline) had ophthalmic and other examinations over 9 years. Incidence rates were estimated by the product-limit approach. Risk factors were evaluated from Cox regression models. Average incidence was ~ 0.1% per year for blindness (visual impairment was high and significantly affected quality of life. Age-related cataract and OAG caused ~ 75% of blindness, indicating the need for public health action to increase appropriate cataract surgery and early OAG detection and treatment. Controlling DM and hypertension would help prevent DR-related complications and could lower cataract risk, further decreasing visual loss.

  12. Business culture in the Caribbean region: differences and similarities between Jamaica, Barbados and Bermuda.

    OpenAIRE

    MUJURU, SHEPHERD

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to the creation of extensive business networks and collaboration around the world, which business organizations should not ignore if they are to survive and grow in these volatile markets of the 21st century. However, cultural diversity is one of many barriers limiting the smooth foreign market entry for business organizations, executive managers and other in-ternational employees. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate specific business cultural elements of thr...

  13. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...

  14. Fruit quality of barbados cherry trees cv. Olivier in two stages of maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Elisa; Leonel, Sarita; Evangelista, Regina Marta

    2011-01-01

    A acerola é um fruto de grande potencial econômico e nutricional devido ao seu alto teor de vitamina C, destacando-se como alimento funcional. É comercializada principalmente na forma de polpa congelada e fruto in natura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade dos frutos da aceroleira cv. Olivier em dois estádios de maturação. Para tanto, foram colhidas amostras de frutos em um pomar comercial no município de Junqueirópolis-SP. Foram realizadas a determinação da cor externa dos fruto...

  15. Barbados Oxygen Isotope Data (delta 18O) for the Late Pleistocene

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral-based delta18O time-series derived from measurements made on submerged or drowned coral reef sequence. The core samples used have been described elsewhere (cf....

  16. Use of mobile phones by medical staff at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barbados: evidence for both benefit and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, J; Carter, A O; Campbell, M H; Gibbons, N; Powlett, C; Moseley, H; Lewis, D; Carter, T

    2008-10-01

    All members of medical staff, including students, were asked to participate in a self-administered questionnaire concerning patterns of mobile phone use and care. Participants' phones were cultured for micro-organisms. Healthcare professionals working in close proximity to sensitive equipment were surveyed concerning adverse events associated with mobile phones. Telephone operators were asked to monitor time elapsed as they attempted to contact medical staff by various methods. Of 266 medical staff and students at the time of the study, 116 completed questionnaires (response rate=44%). Almost all (98%) used mobile phones: 67% used their mobile phones for hospital-related matters; 47% reported using their phone while attending patients. Only 3% reported washing their hands after use and 53% reported never cleaning their phone. In total, 101 mobile phones were cultured for micro-organisms; 45% were culture-positive and 15% grew Gram-negative pathogens. The survey of staff working in close proximity to sensitive equipment revealed only one report of minor interference with life-saving equipment. Telephone operators were able to contact medical staff within 2 min most easily by mobile phone. Mobile phones were used widely by staff and were considered by most participants as a more efficient means of communication. However, microbial contamination is a risk associated with the infrequent cleaning of phones. Hospitals should develop policies to address the hygiene of mobile phones.

  17. An analysis of the subtypes of dengue fever infections in Barbados 2003–2007 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gittens-St Hilaire M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with IgM antibodies to dengue fever infection to determine the serotypes present by molecular techniques. A representative sample (~20%/per year of patients diagnosed with dengue fever infection were selected based on the detection of IgM antibodies in the acute phase serum sample. RNA was extracted from each sample and reverse transcribed. Following this, the amplicons were electrophoresed and serotyped based on band sizes. Results This study consisted of 71 males and 101 females ranging in age from 0 – 50+ yrs giving a total of 172 persons with an average of 34.4 patients per year. Onset averaged 6.9 days ranging from 0–90 days. Common symptoms were as follows: fever (69%, headache (52%, arthralgia (36%, ocular pain (32%, emesis (15% and lumbar pain (15%. All patients investigated with the exception of one, were infected with DENV-3. Conclusion DENV-3 is currently circulating on the island and not DENV-1 or DENV-2 as in previous years. This has implications for the enhancement of clinical, laboratory and environmental surveillance systems.

  18. Isotope and trace element geochemistry of sediments from the Barbados Ridge-Demarara Plain region, Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.M.; Dupre, Bernard; Vidal, P.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four piston core sediment samples and 13 sediments and 3 basalts from DSDP Leg 78 Site 543 were analyzed for Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions. The results show sediment with highly radiogenic Pb ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb up to 19.8) and rather radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd has been deposited in the region since the Cretaceous. The source of this sediment is probably the Archean Guiana Highland, which is drained by the Orinoco River. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions and sediment thickness decrease and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd increases northward due to a decrease in turbiditic component. This decrease is partly due to the damming action of basement ridges. Rare earth concentrations in the sediments are somewhat low, due to the abundance of detrital and biogenic components in the sediment and rapid sedimentation rates. Both positive and negative Ce anomalies occur in the surface sediments, but only positive Ce anomalies occur in the Site 543 sediments. Isotopic compositions of Site 543 basalts show some effect of contamination by seawater-basalt reaction products and sediments. (author)

  19. Prevalence and correlates of serostatus disclosure in HIV-infected adults attending the follow up and treatment clinic in Barbados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Forde

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the extent of disclosure and factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners, we interviewed HIV infected adults attending the centralized HIV clinics seeking medical care for HIV. Methods: The subjects were patients who attended the LRU for primary care and treatment of their HIV infection during the three months period of this study enrolment. Patients were asked to participate in this study after initial clinical care was performed, in a 30-minute standardized interview concerning behavioral, medical, and social history. Results: The study patients had the following characteristics: female, 42.7%; male, 57.3%; singles, 84.5%; married, 11.8%. The median age of respondents was 35 years, and 66.4% were employed. Seventy nine percent were sexually active, and of these 72% had a steady sex partner and 61% had one or more casual partners. Over all 64 (58.2% of those interviewed, had disclosed their HIV status to significant others. Of the sixty three persons who had a steady partner 71.4% had self disclosed their HIV status to one or more steady partners. Of the fifty three persons who had one or more casual partners, 26.4% had self-disclosed their status to one or more casual partners. The most common reasons listed for nondisclosure to spouse or significant other were stigma/discrimination, fear of spread of information, rejection. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that both the knowing and unknowing sexual partners of HIV-infected persons continue to be at risk for HIV transmission.

  20. Estudio morfométrico de los epidídimos durante el desarrollo postnatal de corderos Barbados Blackbelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahy Danae Vargas-Velázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar el desarrollo de los epidídimos, se castraron corderos Blackbelly al nacimiento y cada tres semanas hasta la 21 (n=4 a 6 por grupo. Se registró el peso de los epidídimos y de las tres regiones anatómicas y se tomaron muestras para morfometría. Se calculó el porcentaje de tejido tubular, el diámetro tubular, el grosor y área de la capa muscular, la altura y área del epitelio, y el diámetro y área de la luz tubular. El mayor crecimiento del epidídimo se observó entre las semanas 9 y 18; la cola comenzó a desarrollarse antes que las otras regiones; el peso de ésta fue mayor entre el nacimiento y la semana 12, pero de la semana 15 a la 21 no difirió de la cabeza. En general, el diámetro tubular, el grosor y área de la capa muscular y el diámetro y área de la luz fueron mayores en la cola. La altura del epitelio fue mayor en la cola hasta la semana 9, pero la situación se invirtió a partir de la semana 12. De acuerdo a lo que se conoce de esta raza, la cola comenzó a desarrollarse antes de aparecer la luz de los túbulos seminíferos y del aumento de las concentraciones de testosterona, mientras que el desarrollo de la cabeza y el cuerpo coincidió con el aumento de la capacidad esteroidogénica y la secreción del fluido tubular. Tales hallazgos sugieren diferentes requerimientos de estimulación endocrina y lumicrina para el desarrollo normal de las diferentes regiones del epidídimo.

  1. Multibeam collection for EW9404: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1994-04-09 to 1994-04-14, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for EW9901: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-01-30 to 1999-02-24, Norfolk, VA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Análisis del crecimiento predestete de corderos Barbados Barriga Negra en clima cálido húmedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel González-Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, los problemas de Optimización Combinatoria (COP, tal como el Problema de Calendarización de horarios (CTTP, se puede resolver utilizando técnicas Investigación Operativa (IO; sin embargo, cuando el problema aumenta de tamaño, la búsqueda de una solución se vuelve más compleja. Este tipo de problema es NP-duro por lo que requiere de procedimientos como métodos metaheurísticos con el fin de resolver el problema. Este trabajo aborda un Problema real en una Institución de Educación Superior Mexicana acerca de la Calendarización de horarios basada en la Curricula (CB-CTT. Cada institución tiene sus propias reglas operacionales, por lo tanto la modelación del problema es único ya que conserva sus propias características. Primero como parte de la aportación a la solución del problema, se elaboró un Software de Mediación (MS con el fin de organizar los datos en bruto y eliminar la restricción dura en relación con los planes de estudio. Posteriormente, el problema se dividió en cinco instancias, de acuerdo a los cursos que comparten el mismo espacio físico, los cuales fueron resueltos mediante el algoritmo tradicional de Recocido Simulado (SA.El problema fue resuelto de manera satisfactoria, obteniendo la asignación de 9620 sesiones en 174.5 horas aproximadamente, aportando una solución sin particionar el problema en dos subproblemas, impactando positivamente la reducción del tiempo de elaboración de los horarios, proporcionando un horario factible y sin errores para toda la universidad.

  4. Multibeam collection for EW0308: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-10-02 to 2003-10-18, Bergen, Norway to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for RB1103: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2011-11-29 to 2011-11-29, Bridgetown, Barbados to Charleston, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for KN189-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-04-15 to 2007-04-22, Woods Hole, MA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for KN189-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-05-28 to 2007-06-11, Bridgetown, Barbados to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for EW0309: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-10-22 to 2003-11-09, Bridgetown, Barbados to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for EW9206: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-05-27 to 1992-05-31, Cristobal, Panama to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for EW9902: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-02-28 to 1999-03-05, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for EW9304: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1993-08-01 to 1993-08-09, Woods Hole, MA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for EW9802: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1998-02-15 to 1998-03-12, Honolulu, HI to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for EW9803: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1998-03-15 to 1998-04-06, Bridgetown, Barbados to Norfolk, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for RB0703: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2007-05-02 to 2007-05-29, Bridgetown, Barbados to Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for RB0601: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2006-02-15 to 2006-03-05, Charleston, SC to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for MV1111: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-10-10 to 2011-10-31, Bridgetown, Barbados to Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Changing the game or dropping the ball? : sport as a human capability development for at risk youth in Barbados and St. Lucia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schmidt Zipp (Sarah)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe field of sport for development and peace (SDP) has flourished in recent decades, with development programmes around the world using sport as a mechanism to support social, economic and health-related development efforts. However, the academic literature on SDP is limited in

  18. Multibeam collection for KN197-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-02-19 to 2010-03-12, Bridgetown, Barbados to Fortaleza, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for RC2605: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert D. Conrad from 1985-04-03 to 1985-05-05, Bridgetown, Barbados to Panama City, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E.H.; Kennaway, T.A.; Pedreros, D.H.; Clark, M.L.; Marcano-Vega, H.; Tieszen, L.L.; Ruzycki, T.R.; Schill, S.R.; Carrington, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius, testing a more detailed classification than earlier work in the latter three islands. Secondly, we estimate the extents of land cover and protected forest by formation for five islands and ask how land cover has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The image interpretation approach combines image mosaics and ancillary geographic data, classifying the resulting set of raster data with decision tree software. Cloud-free image mosaics for one or two seasons were created by applying regression tree normalization to scene dates that could fill cloudy areas in a base scene. Such mosaics are also known as cloud-filled, cloud-minimized or cloud-cleared imagery, mosaics, or composites. The approach accurately distinguished several classes that more standard methods would confuse; the seamless mosaics aided reference data collection; and the multiseason imagery allowed us to separate drought deciduous forests and woodlands from semi-deciduous ones. Cultivated land areas declined 60 to 100 percent from about 1945 to 2000 on several islands. Meanwhile, forest cover has increased 50 to 950%. This trend will likely continue where sugar cane cultivation has dominated. Like the island of Puerto Rico, most higher-elevation forest formations are protected in formal or informal reserves. Also similarly, lowland forests, which are drier forest types on these islands, are not well represented in reserves. Former cultivated lands in lowland areas could provide lands for new reserves of drier forest types. The land-use history of these islands may provide insight for planners in countries currently considering lowland forest clearing for agriculture. Copyright 2008 College of Arts and Sciences.

  1. Multibeam collection for EW9305: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1993-08-11 to 1993-09-07, Bridgetown, Barbados to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for KN162L19: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2001-06-25 to 2001-07-22, Las Palmas, Spain to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for EW9210: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-09-29 to 1992-11-09, Bridgetown, Barbados to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for KN145L18: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 1996-05-20 to 1996-06-19, Montevideo, Uruguay to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Causes of visual loss and their risk factors: an incidence summary from the Barbados Eye Studies Causas de la pérdida visual y sus factores de riesgo: resumen de la incidencia a partir de los Estudios de Oftalmología de Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Leske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To summarize incidence and risk factors for each main cause of visual loss in an African-Caribbean population and discuss the implications of these data from a public health perspective. METHODS: A nationally representative cohort (n = 4 709; ages 40-84 years at baseline had ophthalmic and other examinations over 9 years. Incidence rates were estimated by the product-limit approach. Risk factors were evaluated from Cox regression models. RESULTS: Average incidence was ~ 0.1% per year for blindness (OBJETIVO: Presentar un resumen de la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de cada causa principal de pérdida de la visión en una población afrocaribeña y examinar las implicaciones de estos datos desde una perspectiva de salud pública. MÉTODOS: En una cohorte representativa al nivel nacional (n = 4 709; edades de 40 a 84 años al inicio se hicieron exploraciones oftálmicas y de otros tipos durante nueve años. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia mediante el método del producto-límite. Los factores de riesgo se evaluaron mediante modelos de regresión de Cox. RESULTADOS: La incidencia promedio fue ~ 0,1% al año para la ceguera (< 6/120 y de 0,7% al año para la visión deficiente (< 6/18 a 6/120, que aumentó de manera pronunciada con la edad (P < 0,05 y afectó a la calidad de vida relacionada (P < 0,05. Las cataratas y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto relacionados con la edad representaron 73,2% de los casos de ceguera, y 8,9% de los casos de retinopatía diabética; las cataratas causaron dos tercios de los casos de visión deficiente. La incidencia media fue de 5,1% al año en todos los cambios del cristalino (opacidades graduables o no graduables o afaquia, y de 0,4% al año en la cirugía de cataratas. La incidencia del glaucoma de ángulo abierto definitivo fue de 0,5% al año (0,9% en el caso de la sospecha o la probabilidad; 53% de los pacientes afectados no era conciente. Las personas que padecían diabetes tenían una incidencia de retinopatía diabética de 4,4% al año. La degeneración macular relacionada con la edad fue muy infrecuente (0,08% al año. Los principales factores de riesgo de las cataratas fueron la edad y la diabetes. La incidencia de glaucoma de ángulo abierto aumentó con la edad, la presión intraocular, los antecedentes familiares, las presiones bajas de perfusión ocular y el grosor más fino de la córnea. El riesgo de retinopatía diabética aumentó con la diabetes de inicio temprano, la duración de la diabetes, el tratamiento con antidiabéticos orales o insulina, el aumento de la presión sistólica o diastólica, y la hiperglucemia. El tratamiento hipotensor redujo el riesgo de retinopatía diabética a la mitad. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de trastornos visuales fue alta y afectó de manera significativa a la calidad de vida. Las cataratas relacionadas con la edad y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto causaron aproximadamente 75% de los casos de ceguera, lo que indica la necesidad de adoptar medidas de salud pública destinadas a aumentar la cirugía de cataratas adecuada y la detección y el tratamiento tempranos del glaucoma de ángulo abierto. El control de la diabetes y la hipertensión ayudaría a prevenir complicaciones relacionadas con la retinopatía diabética y podría reducir el riesgo de cataratas, lo que disminuirá aún más la pérdida de la visión.

  6. Multibeam collection for EW9208: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-07-14 to 1992-08-18, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Agricultural diversification strategies in small island states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, I.; Gayle, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Across the small island states of the Caribbean, the need for greater agricultural diversification is a constant policy concern, as exemplified by the case of Barbados. Although the cane sugar industry in Barbados remains one of the more cost-efficient in the world, the structures of both the

  8. : tous les projets | Page 403 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LABOUR MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, RETURN MIGRATION, TOURISM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Economic and social development. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, United States, South America, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  9. A Predictive Logistic Regression Model of World Conflict Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    statistically significant (Menard, 2001). Variance Inflation Factors (VIFs) are important multicollinearity diagnostics (Menard, 2001). The equation for...Latin America - 27 Nations Namibia Australia Antigua and Barbuda Niger Austria Argentina Nigeria Belgium Bahamas Rwanda Canada Barbados Sao Tome and

  10. What we do | Page 58 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Water Management under Climate Change in Small Island States of the Caribbean. In the Caribbean islands, climate change is affecting freshwater availability and other ecosystem services in complex ways. Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad And Tobago, West Indies. PROJECT ...

  11. Caracterização físico-química de filmes comestíveis de amido adicionado de acerola (Malphigia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Guimarães Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Edibles films are an alternative to synthetic materials used for packing food products. Barbados cherry is rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. The aim of this study was to characterize and develop films by casting from cassava starch, lyophilized Barbados cherry pulp and glycerol. The films were characterized with respect to thickness, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility, vitamin C, carotene and mechanical properties. The interaction of pulp and glycerol reduced film thickness. An increase in pulp concentration up to 60% increased WVP but beyond this concentration reduced both WVP and solubility leading to an increased level of vitamin C and β carotene in the films.

  12. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  13. Environmental Education Manual. Teacher's Guide to Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Stafford; Williams, Eugenie

    This five-unit volume is intended for use principally as a guide to the teaching of environmental education in upper secondary schools in Barbados. Topic areas of units include: (1) the environment and environmental conservation; (2) erosion/conservation and land use/misuse; (3) destruction/protection of wildlife and the importance, destruction,…

  14. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    . Clin Immunol. 2005, 112(3):290-5. 14. Kilaru KR, Kumar A, Sippy N. CD4+ cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection in. Barbados. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2004; 16(5):302-7. 15. Prins M, Robertson JR, Brettle RP, Aguado IH, ...

  15. Haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels of raw pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherima) seedmeal. Seventy two day old Marshal broiler chicks obtained from Obasanjo Farms, Igboora, Oyo state, Nigeria were randomly assigned into four treatments, each ...

  16. Three Essays on Terrorism, its Relationship with Natural Disasters, and its Effect on Female Labor Force Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    number injured, homeless , and requiring immediate assistance following a disaster. Rather than incidence, we chose to use disaster deaths as our...18 Bangladesh L Yes 19 Macedonia FRY M Yes 2 Barbados H Yes 5 Madagascar L Yes 7 Belarus M Yes 5 Malawi L Yes 22 Belgium H Yes 16 Malaysia M Yes

  17. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  18. [The use of information on residence of relatives to measure international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1987-12-01

    The author discusses progress made in measuring international migration and proposes a method based on the use of information from censuses of countries of origin, with emphasis on the geographic location of relatives' residence. This method is evaluated using data for migration from Barbados and Colombia to Venezuela and the United States. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

    Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…

  20. Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados, whenever collected, Should be consumed immediately or stored appropriately in pods for as long as 7 days at - 21°C for the preservation of the ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content and to avert the health hazard of contamination by pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  1. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 71. Australia, 4. Austria, 4. Bangladesh, 4. Barbados, 2. Benin, 1. Bolivia, 1. Botswana, 1. Brazil, 6. Brunei Darussalam, 1. Burkina Faso, 2. Cameroon, 1. Canada, 3. Chile, 3. China, 25. Colombia, 3. Côte d'Ivoire, 3. Denmark, 2. Ecuador, 1. Egypt, Arab Rep. 13. Ethiopia, 2. Finland, 1. France, 7. Gabon, 1. Germany, 5.

  2. In Their Own Words: Stakeholder Perceptions of the Golf World Cup, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sealy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the formulation of a sport tourism event policy for the island of Barbados. Although some research has been conducted on the residents’ perceptions of major sporting events including the Olympic Games, smaller but globally significant events such as the Golf World Cup have received little attention from researchers. Less attention has been given to sport events in the Caribbean. This dearth in knowledge has inspired the direction of this study, which is, to explore the stakeholder perceptions of the Golf World Cup which was hosted in Barbados in December 2006. The data collection process adopted included semi-structured interviews with the Barbados tourism private sector. The 65 participants in this study highlighted a diversity of mainly congruent views. Private sector participants contend that the Golf World Cup was socially exclusive and perpetuated social divisions rather than ameliorated them. Many stakeholders felt that the event was culturally alienating and highlighted the failure of the organisers to undertake stakeholder consultations. The findings in this study can make a worthwhile contribution to the marketing, management and design of future events and the direction of policy formulation for sport events on the island of Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

  3. Intertidal and shallow water Cirripedia of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southward, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some 22 taxa of barnacles, including 19 Balanomorpha, are recorded from a large number of Caribbean localities, ranging from S. Florida to Trinidad, and from the Panama Canal Zone to Barbados. Balanus reticulatus Utinomi is recorded for the first time from the region and its morphology compared with

  4. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  5. Mosquito Information Management Project (MIMP): Application of a Computerized Genral Purpose Information Management System (Selgem) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    ominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands. 6. Lesser Antilles-includes Anguilla, Antigua , Barbados, Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada...USAF, OEHL/ECQ, Brooks AFB, TX; 8) Nucleo de Medicina Tropical e Nutricao, Universidad de Brazilia, Brazil; 9) USAMRU-Kenya; 10) London School of

  6. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola

  7. Networks for Development : Caribbean Information and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second component, Rethinking ICT Policy and Regulation, will examine policymaking and regulation formulation and their implementation across four jurisdictions: Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. All these jurisdictions have implemented ICT reforms with ...

  8. Sharing Time and the Poetic Patterning of Caribbean Independence: The Narrative Architecture of Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Jef

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the narrative architecture and interactional uptake of a school child's story about independence in Barbados during sharing time. It is found that an institutional focus on standard resources impacts both teachers' and children's sociolinguistic behavior. Ethnopoetic analysis brings out the child's patterned use of narrative…

  9. 78 FR 69755 - International Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Federal Regulations. See 39 CFR 20.1. List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations, International... Austria VIE 12 Azerbaijan BAK 19 Bahamas NAS 17 Bahrain BAH 19 Bangladesh DAC 19 Barbados BGI 17 Belarus... RAI 19 Cayman Islands GCM 17 Central African Republic BGF 19 Chad NDJ 19 Chile SCL 17 China BJS 14...

  10. Haematology and Serum Indices of Weaner Pigs Fed Raw Pride of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen (16) weaner pigs with an average weight of 3-6kg were used in an 8th weeks feeding trial to evaluate the haematological and serological response of the pigs to four levels of raw pride of barbados based diets. The animals were alloted into four treatments groups comprising four animals per group and two animals ...

  11. Analysis of genetic diversity in pigeon pea germplasm using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANEESHA

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Asia and Africa. It is normally considered to have a low degree of genetic diversity, an impediment in undertaking crop improvement programmes. ... of environmental conditions. ..... Th, Thailand; It, Italy; B, Barbados; Ta, Taiwan; J, Jamaica; V, Venezuela; UK, United Kingdom; My, Myanmar; U, Uganda; G,.

  12. Enhancing the Effectiveness of ICT Applications and Tools for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 420,000. Country(s). North and Central America, South America, West Indies, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago. Project Leader. Elizabeth Riley. Institution. Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency. Institution Country. Barbados.

  13. Collection d'entretiens avec des chercheurs participant à des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    El Centro Interdisciplinario para Manejo Costero Integrado del Cono Sur - Universidad de la República de Uruguay (Brazil and Uruguay). Adrian Cashman Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies - University of the West Indies (Barbados, Guyana, Grenada, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago.

  14. Technical Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helena Fonseca

    2013-05-31

    May 31, 2013 ... redesigning the current graph Public Portal for publications, notifications and submission of bids by bidders. • Paraguay obtained the validation of the assessment of the National Procurement. System. Link. • The Cabinet Committee on Governance of Barbados approved the draft Procurement. Bill, and has ...

  15. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seroconversion in U.S. Navy Personnel Following Visits to Foreign Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    Overall, there were no ports with a statistically signif- of HIV infection reported to be associated with homosexual icant excess risk of HIV...104. St. Georges, Grenada 40 154. Abidjan, Ivory Coast 22 105. Talcahuano, Chile 40 155. Antwerp, Belgium 22 106. Taranto, Italy 40 156. Barbados

  16. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community-wide...

  17. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science - Vol 14, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Anti-Nutritional and Mineral Contents of Extra-Cotyledonous Deposit of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina Pulcherrima) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T P Prohp, I G Ihimire, A O Madusha, J O Erebor, M B Aruna, S C Uzoaru, H O Okpala, 19-22.

  18. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Heidrun; Hindle, David; Klaeschen, Dirk; Oncken, O.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the décollement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados...

  19. Linkage for Education and Research in Nursing (LEARN), une ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linkage for Education and Research in Nursing (LEARN), une initiative de TIC-D dans les Caraïbes. Les infirmières représentent le plus important groupe de professionnels de la santé pouvant influer sur la qualité des soins dans les services de santé. Les efforts pour ... Barbados Community College. Pays d' institution.

  20. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  1. Family narratives and migration dynamics : Barbadians to Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Chamberlain

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Uses life-story interviews of Barbadian migrant families in both Barbados and the UK to study the family as the tool and the material which creates and shapes historical mentalities and identities. The author shows how the links between family and migration continue to play a role in the motivation of migrants. Also published in Immigrants & Minorities 14(2 1995, p. 153-169

  2. Impacts of Dry Atmospheric Deposition on Aquatic Systems - Nutrients, Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Chia-Te

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a source of new N, P and trace metals to the ocean and water bodies on land. Nutrient and trace metal inputs from atmospheric deposition have been shown to induce phytoplankton growth and impact water chemistry. The three chapters presented in this thesis examine dry atmospheric deposition impacts on phytoplankton and water chemistry including: (1) How African dust impact phytoplankton growth at the low nutrient low chlorophyll (LNLC) ocean off Barbados; (2) Evaluate...

  3. The Cost of Treating Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases: Does it Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Daren A.; Webb, Marquitta C.

    2012-01-01

    Heart disease and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are among the two leading causes of death in the CARICOM member states with HIV/AIDS a distant sixth. Attention is now being paid to non-communicable diseases which have outpaced communicable diseases as the major cause of death. This paper investigated the link between the public medical cost of treating chronic non-communicable diseases, namely heart disease and diabetes, on national output in Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. ...

  4. A Report of Archaeological Testing at Site 3CT263 Within the Proposed Edmondson Wastewater Pond, Crittendon County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. Publications and Major Manuscripts Foster, Lee A., and Guy G. Weaver 1990 A Cultural...Harrisburg, Illinois. Garrow & Associates, Inc., Atlanta. Weaver, Guy G. 1989 Archaeological Data Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site P0-39...34 In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by Brian Butler, pp. 255-278. Micronesian Archaeological Survey Report

  5. A Cultural Resources Survey of the River Trace Permit Area Marion, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Virgin Islands, as well as Derbyshire, U.K., Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. Publications and Major Manuscripts I Foster...Archaeological Data Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site PO-39), Ponce, Puerto Rico: Phase I Report. Garrow & Associates, Inc. Draft report 1......J,4- Jc...Garrow & Associates, Inc., Atlanta. 3 1988b "Stone and Coral Tools." In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by

  6. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from Site 3CT271, Randolph Estate Development, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    U.K., Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. I Publications and Major Manuscripts Weaver, Guy G., and John L. Hopkins 1991 Data...Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site P0-39), Ponce, Puerto Rico: Phase I Report. Garrow & Associates, Inc. Report submitted to the Jacksonville...Inc., Atlanta. 1988b "Stone and Coral Tools." In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by Brian Butler, pp. 255

  7. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Regions (ODINCARSA): Report of Activities 2005-2006 and Proposed Work Plan 2007-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Güingla, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, ...

  8. ORCHIDACEAE NOVAE VEL MINUS COGNITAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. JONES

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper contains notes on four interesting species ofthe family Orchidaceae, one of which is described as new to science.The two Asiatic species turned up among a small collection of Indianorchids, which were imported from that country by the author in 1960,and subsequently flowered under cultivation in Barbados. The notes onthe two tropical American species have resulted from preliminary studiesundertaken for the purpose of preparing taxonomic revisions of the twogenera to which these species belong.

  9. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief ...

  10. MATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN CHILDHOOD AND OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE IN ADULTHOOD*

    OpenAIRE

    GALLER, JANINA R.; BRYCE, CYRALENE P.; WABER, DEBORAH P.; ZICHLIN, MIRIAM L.; FITZMAURICE, GARRETT M.; COSTA, PAUL T.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of maternal depressive symptoms reported during childhood as a predictor of an important personality trait, Openness to Experience (O), in middle adulthood. Participants were 95 adults (38 previously malnourished, 57 control, mean age 42.1 years) who had been followed longitudinally since childhood by the Barbados Nutrition Study. Maternal depressive symptoms had been measured when the participants were 5–11 years of age by the General Adjustment and Morale...

  11. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Policy in Jamaica: The Absence of a National Sexual Harassment Policy, and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...

  12. : tous les projets | Page 166 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans les îles des Caraïbes, les changements climatiques ont des effets complexes sur l'accès à l'eau potable et sur d'autres services écosystémiques. Région: Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Programme: Climate Change. Financement total : CA$ 1,499,900.00. Gestion durable de l'eau et ...

  13. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  14. Sex Feel Good: Enjoyment of Sexual Intercourse by Some Barbadian Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Caribbean societies and Barbados in particular issues on human sexuality are approached from a pathological, controlling, and judgmental perspective. These views resist an acknowledgment that children are sexual beings which manifestations are more evident during the teen years. Despite societal resistance, teenage pregnancies and sexual abuse forced societies to deal even if reluctantly with teenage sexuality. Based on Caribbean conservative approach to matters around sexuality it comes as no surprise that concerns around teenage sexuality is concentrated within discussions, discourses and scholarship about reproductive health, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. Based on the literature researched for Barbados and the rest of the Caribbean teenage sexual desire, and pleasurable sexual intercourses are virtually none-existent. It is the intention with this paper to contribute to scholarship on teenage sexual pleasure within Barbadian society. For its analysis the paper will utilize data collected from a teen sexuality research done during 2011-2012 among two secondary schools in Barbados. The main objective is to demonstrate that Barbadian teenagers are involved and enjoying sexual intercourse and other sexually related activities despite hegemonic discourses of sexual repression and control.

  15. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  16. Report on the CSC project group meeting on alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Under its coordinated R and D programme the Commonwealth Science Council in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados, organized a meeting to identify suitable projects for inter-country collaboration. Specifically the meeting had three aims: 1. Review present state of activities in alternative energy resources and assess small scale energy needs in the region. 2. Identify specific projects for inter-country collaboration. 3. Draft joint project proposals for such collaboration. A small group of experts (Annex VII) from Britain, Canada, USA and CSC secretariat staff made detailed plans for the Barbados meeting. With a view to assessing real energy needs locally, the Group recommended that a study be undertaken in Barbados prior to the meeting. A report on such a study was presented at the meeting. Member countries were also invited to prepare country papers. In addition, following the planning Group's recommendation, several technical papers were prepared. These covered subjects ranging from conceptual aspects to clarify objectives, assumptions and criteria to a review of all alternative energy technologies

  17. Application of analytic hierarchy process for measuring and comparing the global performance of intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Seetharaman; Dey, Prasanta K; Chen, Deryk R; Moseley, Harley S L; Kumar, Areti Y

    2005-06-01

    To develop a model for the global performance measurement of intensive care units (ICUs) and to apply that model to compare the services for quality improvement. Analytic hierarchy process, a multiple-attribute decision-making technique, is used in this study to evolve such a model. The steps consisted of identifying the critical success factors for the best performance of an ICU, identifying subfactors that influence the critical factors, comparing them pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative performance according to the attributes of a given ICU. Every step in the model was derived by group discussions, brainstorming, and consensus among intensivists. The model was applied to 3 ICUs, 1 each in Barbados, Trinidad, and India in tertiary care teaching hospitals of similar setting. The cumulative performance rating of the Barbados ICU was 1.17 when compared with that of Trinidad and Indian ICU, which were 0.82 and 0.75, respectively, showing that the Trinidad and Indian ICUs performed 70% and 64% with respect to Barbados ICU. The model also enabled identifying specific areas where the ICUs did not perform well, which helped to improvise those areas. Analytic hierarchy process is a very useful model to measure the global performance of an ICU.

  18. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fluid and Heat Transport in an Accretionary Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, C. A.; Ge, S.; Screaton, E. J.

    2001-12-01

    As sediments are scraped off of the subducting oceanic crust and accreted to the overriding plate, the rapid loading causes pore pressures in the underthrust sediments to increase. The change in pore pressure drives fluid flow and heat transport within the accretionary complex. Fluid is channeled along higher permeability faults and fractures and expelled at the seafloor. In this investigation, we examined the effects of sediment loading on fluid flow and thermal transport in the decollement at the Barbados Ridge subduction zone. Both the width and thickness of the Barbados Ridge accretionary complex increase from north to south. The presence of mud diapers south of the Tiburon Rise and an observed southward decrease in heat flow measurements indicate that the increased thickness of the southern Barbados accretionary prism affects the transport of chemicals and heat by fluids. The three-dimensional geometry and physical properties of the accretionary complex were utilized to construct a three-dimensional fluid flow/heat transport model. We calculated the pore pressure change due to a period of sediment loading and added this to steady-state pressure conditions to generate initial conditions for transient simulations. We then examined the diffusion of pore pressure and possible perturbation of the thermal regime over time due to loading of the underthrust sediments. The model results show that the sediment-loading event was sufficient to create small temperature fluctuations in the decollement zone. The magnitude of temperature fluctuation in the decollement was greatest at the deformation front but did not vary significantly from north to south of the Tiburon Rise.

  19. Cross-country differences in the association between diabetes and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Reza Moghani; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2014-01-06

    This study tested possible cross-country differences in the associations between diabetes and activities of daily living (ADLs), and possible confounding / mediating effects of socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise. Data came from Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The study included a total number of 25,372 community sample of adults who were 40 years or older. We used data from community based surveys in seven countries including China, Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay. Demographics (age and gender), socio-economic status (education and income), obesity, exercise, and ADL (bath, dress, toilet, transfer, heavy, shopping, meals) were measured. Self-reported data on physician diagnosis of diabetes was the independent variable. We tested if diabetes is associated with ADL, before and after adjusting for socio-economics, obesity, and exercise in each country. Based on Model I (age and gender adjusted model), diabetes was associated with limitation in at least one ADL in Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay, but not China. Based on Model II that also controlled for education and income, education explained the association between diabetes and limitation in ADL in Mexico and Uruguay. Based on Model III that also controlled for exercise and obesity, in Cuba and Brazil, exercise explained the link between diabetes and limitation in performing ADLs. Thus, the link between diabetes and ADL was independent of our covariates only in Chile and Barbados. There are cross-country differences in the link between diabetes and limitation in ADL. There are also cross-country differences in how socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise explain the above association.

  20. Nivel de infección por estróngilos digestivos de padrotes ovinos y de sus hijas como criterio de selección de ovinos helmintorresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Morales-Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis multivariado de correspondencia lineal simple, se evaluó laasociación entre los niveles de infección por nemátodos gastrointestinales, expresados en recuentos de huevos por gramo de heces (h.p.g. y categorizados como Negativo, Leve, Moderado y Alto, tanto de las hijas agrupadas por padrote, como de los padrotes. El padrote de raza Bergamasca se asoció con hijas con niveles de infección leves o moderados, mientras que uno de los padrotes de la raza Barbados Barriga Negra, el BBN 1, se asoció con hijas negativas a la infección por estróngilos digestivos, y el otro (BBN 2, con niveles altos de infección de sus hijas. Al analizar cada padrote con sus respectivos niveles de infección se ve que el padrote Bergamasca se asocia con niveles moderados de infección, mientras que el Barbados Barriga Negra 1 (BBN 1 lo hizo con niveles de infección que oscilan entre leves y moderados. El padrote Barbados Barriga Negra 2 (BBN 2 mostró buena correspondencia con niveles de infección altos. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian una buena asociación entre los niveles de infección observados en los padrotes y el de cada lote de hijas separadas por cada padre. Conociendo que el recuento de h.p.g es una expresión fenotípica de resistencia frente a la infección por estróngilos digestivos, característica de índole genética y, por consiguiente heredable, concluimos que el padrote que expresó mejor capacidad helmintorresistente fue el BBN 1.

  1. Role of the convergence zone over West Africa in controlling Saharan mineral dust load and transport in the boreal summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M. Doherty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During summer, large amounts of mineral dust are emitted and transported from North Africa over the tropical North Atlantic towards the Caribbean with the exact quantity varying greatly from year to year. Much effort has been made to explain the variability of summer season mineral dust load, for example, by relating dust variability to teleconnection indices such as ENSO and the NAO. However, only weak relationships between such climate indices and the abundance of mineral dust have been found. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the near-surface convergence zone over West Africa in controlling dust load and transport of mineral dust. We apply the ‘Center of Action’ approach to obtain indices that quantify the movement and strength of the convergence zone using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The latitudinal position of the convergence zone is significantly correlated with the quantity of mineral dust at Barbados over the period 1965–2003 (r=−0.47. A southward displacement of the convergence zone is associated with both increased near-surface flow and decreased precipitation over the dust source regions of the southern Saharan desert, Sahel and Lake Chad. This in turn reduces soil moisture and vegetation, furthering the potential for dust emission. In contrast, the intensity of the convergence zone is not correlated with dust concentration at Barbados. We conclude that the coupling of changes in near-surface winds with changes in precipitation in source regions driven by a southward movement of the convergence zone most directly influence dust load at Barbados and over the tropical North Atlantic during summer.

  2. A Multiproxy Approach to Calibrating Speleothem Paleoclimate Reconstructions using Modern Isotopic and Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J.; Hall, V.; Ouellette, G., Jr.; Durkee, J.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical island nations, such as Barbados, are particularly vulnerable to extreme event impacts as changes in interannual storm frequency and intensity could influence groundwater supplies and their climatic resilience. Creating high resolution paleoclimate records for these areas aids in determining the intensity and cyclicity of possible future climate extremes. This study presents a high-resolution, isotopic hydroclimatological analysis of Barbados' rainfall and groundwater in relation to atmospheric influences during storms. Through this calibration of interannual precipitation variability under a modern climatic regime, we can better understand the climatic influences driving our interpretation of paleoclimate reconstructions from speleothems. Weekly samples of dripwater, rainfall, groundwater, and 10-minute precipitation amounts were collected from July, 2012 to October, 2013 at Harrison's Cave in Barbados. These samples underwent isotopic analysis for oxygen and deuterium isotopes. Weekly to monthly rainfall totals were compiled from Harrison's Cave and several island wide stations. In addition, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were used to compare against oxygen isotope values to provide a multiproxy approach at reconstructing rainfall variability used in the calibration model. At a weekly resolution, the amount effect is not represented at the study site; however, using weather station and remotely sensed data, at an island wide scale the amount effect signal is strongest at monthly timescales. TRMM data accurately reflect the influence of the amount effect at this resolution, thus providing the possibility of a new proxy for rainfall amount when calibrating speleothem paleoclimate records. The amount-weighted precipitation and groundwater values indicate homogenization of the aquifer indicate speleothem record changes in interannual variability. When compared to data from previous studies, the average annual dripwater oxygen

  3. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adesiyun

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  4. Death, Memory, text: reading the landscape of remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Simon

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Victorian cemeteries are landscapes which can be 'read' both literally and metaphorically. In this paper, one particular Victorian cemetery, the Barbadoes St Cemetery in Christchurch, New Zealand is considered for the different meanings that can be found in its location, layout, vegetation, tombstones and written inscriptions. The discussion focuses on how these elements of the cemetery landscape relate to the burial traditions of Western Europe, how they expressed particular concerns about death and remembrance in the Victorian era, and how they can be 'read' in the present, in order to explore the relationship between interpretation and transformation in this highly symbolic landscape.

  5. Estudios Entomológicos "EL GUSANO DE LAS HOJAS DE LA YUCA "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego M. F. Luis

    1950-06-01

    Full Text Available Se le conocen muchas denominaciones, siendo las más comunes entre nosotros las de "gusano primavera". "gusano cachón", "gusano de temporadas". "gusano comedor de las hojas" y "gusano pintado", debido a que las larvas se presentan con colores muy variados. Es una mariposa crepuscular de la familia de los Sphingidae, sub-familia Sesiinae (Holland. Abunda en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales, continentales e insulares de América, es decir, desde el Brasil, hasta el Canadá y California, incluyendo las Antillas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, San Cristóbal y Barbados.

  6. The Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keechang

    1994-03-01

    This book reports the Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993. The first part introduces domestic pavilions such as government pavilion, resources utilization pavilion, electric energy pavilion, currency culture pavilion, residential environmental pavilion, imagination pavilion and nature and life pavilion. The second part has abstract of the international pavilions such as Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Sweden, French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Portugal, Republic of Austria, Holy See of the Roman Pontiff, Azerbaijan Republic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Republic of Bolivia, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and European Community.

  7. Legislación y Control de Riesgos de Salud en América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Bolis

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio analiza la legislación en Latín América y el Caribe con el propósito de determinar en qué medida contribuyen, o no, a la eliminación de riesgos para la salud. Los países incluidos son: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belice, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Trinidad y Tobago, Uruguay y Venezuela. La investigación se centró en las áreas de medicam...

  8. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouza Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  9. Understanding tourist beaches as eco-social landscapes: seeking sustainability through integration of human and non-human wealth production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Baldwin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNow coral reefs are not merely pretty, ...of much greater consequence is their vital importance of protecting our shores, this may not be generally realised. We had a nice example of this in Barbados recently when a certain hotel, in order to improve its beach facilities, bulldozed a certain piece of inshore reef to make a “white hole” for bathing. Although the area removed was perhaps only 20 x 30 yards, the consequent change in wave action resulted not only in the removal of the...

  10. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  11. Nursing--a new tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, D N

    1989-01-01

    This year's recipient of the prestigious Christiane Reimann Award, the "Nobel Prize of Nursing", was Dame Nita Barrow, Ambassador to the UN from Barbados, who was recognized for her distinguished accomplishments in nursing and health care over decades and continents. She was also the keynote speaker at ICN's 19th Quadrennial Congress in Seoul, Korea, 28 May-2 June 1989, described by Korean Prime Minister Kang Young Hoon in his address at the opening ceremonies as the "festival of peace and friendship for nurses the world over". Below, her keynote address.

  12. Curvularia microspora sp. nov. associated with leaf diseases of Hippeastrum striatum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An undescribed Curvularia sp. was isolated from the leaf spot disease of Barbados Lily (Hippeastrum striatum (Lam. Moore. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, 28S, GPD1 and TEF1 sequence data place nine strains of this species in the trifolii-clade, but they clustered together as an independent lineage with strong support. This species was morphologically compared with related species in the trifolii-clade. Based on differences in morphology and phylogeny, it is concluded that this species is a new taxon, introduced as Curvularia microspora sp. nov. Pathogenicity testing determined the new species to be pathogenic on H. striatum.

  13. Risk Management Practices by Barbadian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Wood

    2013-07-01

    The main findings of the paper are: risk managers perceive risk management as critical to their banks’ performance; the types of risks causing the greatest exposures are credit risk, operational risk, country/sovereign risk, interest rate risk and market risk; there was a high level of success with current risk management practices and these practices have evolved over time in line with the changing economic environment and regulatory updates. Overall, the findings suggest strongly that in light of the current depressed economic climate, banks operating in Barbados are indeed risk-focused or might we say “risk intelligent”.

  14. Does Multi-morbidity Mediate the Effect of Socioeconomics on Self-rated Health? Cross-country Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    This study explored cross-country differences in how multi-morbidity explains the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on self-rated health. The study borrowed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects. Participants were 44,530 individuals (age > 65 years) who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. United States, China, India, Russia, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, Ghana and South Africa). Multi-morbidity was measured as number of chronic medical conditions. In Model I, main effects of socioeconomic factors on self-rated health were calculated using country-specific logistic regressions. In Model II, number of chronic conditions were also added to the models to find changes in coefficients for demographic and socioeconomic factors. In the United States, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of income on subjective health. In Puerto Rico, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of marital status on subjective health. In Costa Rica, Argentina, Barbados, Cuba, and Uruguay, number of chronic medical conditions explained gender disparities in subjective health. In China, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, Chile, India, Ghana and South Africa, number of chronic medical conditions did not explain the effect of demographic or socioeconomic factors on subjective health. Multi-morbidity explains the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on subjective health in some but not other countries. Further research is needed.

  15. Does Multi-morbidity Mediate the Effect of Socioeconomics on Self-rated Health? Cross-country Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study explored cross-country differences in how multi-morbidity explains the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on self-rated health. Methods: The study borrowed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects. Participants were 44,530 individuals (age > 65 years) who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. United States, China, India, Russia, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, Ghana and South Africa). Multi-morbidity was measured as number of chronic medical conditions. In Model I, main effects of socioeconomic factors on self-rated health were calculated using country-specific logistic regressions. In Model II, number of chronic conditions were also added to the models to find changes in coefficients for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results: In the United States, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of income on subjective health. In Puerto Rico, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of marital status on subjective health. In Costa Rica, Argentina, Barbados, Cuba, and Uruguay, number of chronic medical conditions explained gender disparities in subjective health. In China, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, Chile, India, Ghana and South Africa, number of chronic medical conditions did not explain the effect of demographic or socioeconomic factors on subjective health. Conclusions: Multi-morbidity explains the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on subjective health in some but not other countries. Further research is needed. PMID:26445632

  16. Dispersal of deep-sea larvae from the intra-American seas: simulations of trajectories using ocean models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig M; He, Ruoying; Emlet, Richard B; Li, Yizhen; Qian, Hui; Arellano, Shawn M; Van Gaest, Ahna; Bennett, Kathleen C; Wolf, Maya; Smart, Tracey I; Rice, Mary E

    2012-10-01

    Using data on ocean circulation with a Lagrangian larval transport model, we modeled the potential dispersal distances for seven species of bathyal invertebrates whose durations of larval life have been estimated from laboratory rearing, MOCNESS plankton sampling, spawning times, and recruitment. Species associated with methane seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and/or Barbados included the bivalve "Bathymodiolus" childressi, the gastropod Bathynerita naticoidea, the siboglinid polychaete tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi, and the asteroid Sclerasterias tanneri. Non-seep species included the echinoids Cidaris blakei and Stylocidaris lineata from sedimented slopes in the Bahamas and the wood-dwelling sipunculan Phascolosoma turnerae, found in Barbados, the Bahamas, and the Gulf of Mexico. Durations of the planktonic larval stages ranged from 3 weeks in lecithotrophic tubeworms to more than 2 years in planktotrophic starfish. Planktotrophic sipunculan larvae from the northern Gulf of Mexico were capable of reaching the mid-Atlantic off Newfoundland, a distance of more than 3000 km, during a 7- to 14-month drifting period, but the proportion retained in the Gulf of Mexico varied significantly among years. Larvae drifting in the upper water column often had longer median dispersal distances than larvae drifting for the same amount of time below the permanent thermocline, although the shapes of the distance-frequency curves varied with depth only in the species with the longest larval trajectories. Even species drifting for >2 years did not cross the ocean in the North Atlantic Drift.

  17. Productive performance lambs on grazing supplemented with concentrates containing fruit processing by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonfim Manera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of sheep kept in irrigated Tifton 85 pastures receiving concentrate supplementation containing different fruits processing by-products. The pasture area corresponded to 0.58 ha, divided in 24 paddocks, under rotational grazing with 20 days of interval of grazing and four days of grazing. 24 male sheep, castrated with 26.9±2.4 of initial body weight and ten months like testers animals, were used. Three fruit processing by-products (guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry including in 30% of dry matter basis in supplements, besides the treatment “control” containing traditional ingredients (dry ground corn, soybean meal and wheat bran, were compared. The experimental design was a completely randomized with six replicates by treatments. The concentrates evaluated containing fruit processing by-products did not affect the daily weight gain, the total weight gain and the final body weight of sheep kept in irrigated pastures. The stoking rate of pastures, an average was 90.96 lambs/ha and estimative of meat production by area of 2,756.50 kg/ha/year. Thus, guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry by-products may substitute 30% of dry matter the traditional ingredients in concentrate without harming the productive performance of animals and area.

  18. Corporal punishment in elementary education: views of Barbadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Payne, M A

    1994-04-01

    Most previous research has suggested that children often express little unconditional disapproval of the use of corporal punishment in schools. However, this might be expected to change when pupils become aware that such treatment is no longer permitted in many countries, or hear it labelled as "abuse." This paper reports on research conducted in elementary schools in the Caribbean island of Barbados, where head teachers (or their authorized deputies) are still permitted by law to use corporal punishment. Findings indicated that approximately three-quarters of pupils surveyed still approved use of corporal punishment with their own age group, although their comments also suggested that a considerable amount of routine (and illegal) "flogging" or "lashing" by regular classroom teachers occurred, which many wished to see stopped. The growing risk of clashes between parents and schools was also identified. While this and other recent studies in Barbados provide little evidence of support for the total abolition of corporal punishment within the educational system, it is hoped that research may have some role to play in exerting pressure on schools to eliminate some of their more ritualized and pedagogically counterproductive practices.

  19. Disease and intercolonial relations: small pox in the British Caribbean, 1902-1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pemberton, Rita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of epidemic small pox in the Caribbean at the beginning of the 20th century aggravated the problems inherited from the 19th century posing further challenges for these territories. This study discusses the bitter controversy that it stimulated between Barbados and Trinidad and examines the course of and response to, the disease in both colonies. It is argued that the underlying economic and social implications of the epidemic underscore the relationship between trade and health and demonstrate how regional cooperation was possible even in the midst of rivalry.El brote de la epidemia de viruela en el Caribe a principios del siglo XX intensificó los problemas heredados del siglo XIX, el cual conllevó nuevos retos para estos territorios antillanos. Este ensayo considera la difícil controversia que surgió entre Barbados y Trinidad en relación a dicha epidemia y aborda el transcurso y las maneras en que enfrentaron dicha enfermedad ambas colonias. Se argumenta que las consecuencias económicas y sociales subyacentes a la epidemia revela el carácter de las relaciones comerciales y sanitarias y demuestra cómo aún en medio de rivalidades entre los territorios surgió una colaboración regional entre sus autoridades.

  20. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O DESPERTAR DE UMA PROPOSTA CRÍTICA PARA A FORMAÇÃO DO SUJEITO ECOLÓGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira DA SILVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O córrego Barbado, em Cuiabá-MT, a exemplo de outros córregos urbanos, tem sofrido todos os tipos de ações antrópicas, desde obras de canalizações e desvios de seu leito natural, quanto despejos de efluentes domésticos, lixos, destruição de sua mata ciliar e assoreamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da problemática hidroambiental deste córrego, de sua nascente até a sua foz, usando o monitoramento da qualidade de suas aguas por parâmetros físico-químicos, e por meio da análise da percepção dos moradores do seu entorno. Concluiu-se que o córrego Barbado necessita de projetos de recuperação que incluam desde a conscientização dos moradores do seu entorno sobre a sua importância para o meio ambiente, quanto de investimentos no setor de saneamento básico que priorize a coleta e tratamento de efluentes e a coleta de resíduos sólidos dos bairros que o circundam.

  1. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  2. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  3. Sr/Ca-Sea surface temperature calibration in the branching Caribbean coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Christina D.; Olson, Donna M.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Gruhn, Leah M.; Winter, Amos; Taylor, Frederick W.

    2006-02-01

    We measured Sr/Ca ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in radial and axial growth of modern Caribbean Acropora palmata corals. Comparison of our results with sea surface temperature (SST) allows radial and axial Sr/Ca-SST calibrations of Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.30 - 0.07072 × SST (°C) and Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.32 - 0.06281 x SST (°C), respectively. Application of the calibrations to fossil Acropora palmata from the last glacial maximum in Barbados (Guilderson et al., 1994) imply ~7°C cooler conditions than the present, much larger than the 1-1.5° cooling suggested by modern analog technique foraminifera-based estimates (Trend-Staid and Prell, 2002). If the foraminifera-based estimates are correct, then the excess cooling suggested by the Barbados corals could be explained by a 5% shift in the marine Sr/Ca ratio or an addition of ~20% abiotic secondary aragonite.

  4. The social relations of bereavement in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ronald; Sutherland, Patsy

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the various types of behaviors associated with grief and bereavement, and to examine the relationships, consequences, and outcomes of bereavement practices among the various religious and ethnic groups in the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados. The rituals associated with death and grief differs across cultures and is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and traditions. How these rituals are played out depend on the culture of origin and level of acculturation of the various groups into mainstream society. In the Caribbean region, expressions of grief represent religious and cultural traditions that may have a significant impact on social relations, particularly in multi-ethnic and multicultural societies. In the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados, mourning follows the patterns of traditional religious practices which have remained consistent over time. While families and friends may offer social support before and after burial or cremation, the social aspects of bereavement may also have implications for inter-group relations. Insights into bereavement practices and what it holds for ethnic and religious groups in contemporary Caribbean are presented.

  5. Glaucoma in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, D; Hennis, A

    2011-07-01

    The Barbados Eye Studies have provided the most comprehensive information on the major eye diseases in African origin populations to date. Black Barbadians have among the highest rates of primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) reported to date in a population-based study (7.0%). Incidence rates of OAG over a nine-year follow-up period were 0.5% per year, and two to five times higher than reported in predominantly Caucasian populations. Risk factors for OAG included older age, male gender higher intraocular pressure, positive glaucoma family history, in addition to lean body mass and a positive cataract history. Low blood pressure to intraocular pressure relationships were also found to increase OAG risk, suggesting an aetiologic role for low vascular perfusion of the optic nerve. Recent analyses revealed a region on chromosome 2 associated with increased OAG risk, which has potential implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Approximately 50% of Barbadians with OAG were unaware of having the disease in the baseline study and this situation remained unchanged nine years later open-angle glaucoma causes painless, irreversible loss of vision and there are clear reasons why screening may be of particular public health importance in high risk African descent populations, given the benefits of early detection and appropriate treatment. There are data that suggest that it would be cost-effective to conduct open-angle glaucoma screening in Barbados and this has implications for policy and care, with the ultimate aim of reducing glaucoma-related blindness.

  6. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  7. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V

    2015-01-01

    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance.

  8. Animal leptospirosis in small tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars, A; Cardinale, E; Michault, A

    2011-02-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Humans become infected through contact with the urine of carrier animals, directly or via contaminated environments. This review reports available data on animal leptospirosis in ten tropical islands: Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Grenada, Trinidad, New Caledonia, Hawaii, French Polynesia, La Réunion and Mayotte. Leptospirosis is endemic in these insular wild and domestic fauna. Each island presents a specific panel of circulating serovars, closely linked with animal and environmental biodiversity, making it epidemiologically different from the mainland. Rats, mongooses and mice are proven major renal carriers of leptospires in these areas but dogs also constitute a significant potential reservoir. In some islands seroprevalence of leptospirosis in animals evolves with time, inducing changes in the epidemiology of the human disease. Consequently more investigations on animal leptospirosis in these ecosystems and use of molecular tools are essential for prevention and control of the human disease.

  9. TEWS'98. Final report [5th annual International Science Camp: The Earth We Share 1998, Golden, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae C. Jemison

    1999-04-06

    The fifth annual International Science Camp The Earth We Share 1998 (TEWS'98) was held at the Colorado School of Mines located in Goldez Colorado. TEWS98 was a four week residential program which focused on providing a meaningful science education experience while developing critical thinking skills. Thirty three students, three teachers, four college interns and the camp administrator lived and worked together while developing solutions to several worldwide problems. These problems are called the Discovery Topics and they are: (1) design the worlds perfect house; (2) how many people can the world hold; and (3) predict the hot stocks for the year 2030. The participants, both students and staff came from different countries all over the world The following countries were represented: The United Kingdom, Sierra Leone (West Africa), Ireland, USA Nigeria, West Indies and Barbados.

  10. Observations of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and Implications for Regional Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L.; Einaudi, Franco

    2001-01-01

    Massive quantities of dust aerosol, originating at source locations in the Saharan desert are frequently transported westward across the Atlantic. Saharan dust has been frequently identified at ground-based stations in South America, on Barbados, in Florida and in Texas. Recently, in July of 2000, the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRiDE), consisting of researchers from the U.S. Navy, NASA, the University of Miami and the University of Puerto Rico joined together to study this important phenomenon. Numerical forecast models tracked each dust event as the dust left the African continent and transversed the Atlantic. Ground-based, ship-based, airborne and satellite sensors were used to characterize the physical and radiative properties of the dust aerosol. The dust plays an important role in terms of radiative forcing of regional climate. Satellite sensors such as NASA's EOS-MODIS aboard the Terra satellite will provide important continuing information on the dust aerosol and its climatic effects.

  11. STRENGTHENING THE REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING CAPACITIES OF PARENTS WHO HAVE A CHILD WITH A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY THROUGH A BRIEF, RELATIONSHIP-FOCUSED INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Julie; Glovinsky, Ira P

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the reflective functioning capacities of caregivers who have a child with a neurodevelopmental disorder between the ages of 2 years 0 months and 6 years 11 months. Children with a neurodevelopmental disorder receive a range of diagnoses, including sutism; however, they all exhibit social communication challenges that can derail social relationships. Forty parent-child dyads in Barbados were randomly assigned to either a developmental individual-difference, relationship-based/floortime(DIR/FT) group (n = 20), or a psychoeducational (wait-list) group (n = 20) with parental reflective functioning measured before and after a 12-week DIR/FT treatment intervention. Results revealed significant gains in parental reflective functioning in the treatment group, as compared to the psychoeducational (wait-list) group, after the 12-week relationship-focused intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. [Family planning. A survey of United Nations around the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Responses to the second worldwide survey of 80 nations on their population policy can be divided into 3 categories. First are countries with large official programs of family planning in existence: Egypt, Kenya, Tunisia, Barbados, Colombia, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, China, India, Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Viet-nam, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia, Canada, and Fiji. Madagascar and New Zealand are starting programs. The second category is countries that encourage private family planning programs: Tanzania, Mexico, Israel, Cambodia, Bahrain, Jordan, Laos, Syria, Austria, France, West Germany, Finland, and Norway. Third are listed countries that do not officially support, or that forbid contraception: Gabon, Malawi, Zambia, Greece, Italy, and Spain. Thus Asia and North Africa have the most ambitious programs, but Europe and North America practice contraception universally.

  13. Hyperdiagnostics: postcolonial utopics of race-based biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Ian

    2009-07-01

    The expansion of biomedical research into countries outside the United States and Western Europe is positing new biological links between populations based on race. This expansion includes six international projects occurring in Barbados, premised on the idea that the population is genetically representative of other black people. Based on ethnographic research tracking one such study, a genetics of asthma project, this article explores the ways Caribbean meanings of ethnicity and illness are reworked as Barbadian state medical practitioners become involved in facilitating the international genetics research on race and disease. As the state attempts to participate in an imagined future of genetic medicine, the hyperspecificity of genetic technologies create new medical meanings of race and disease. These changes rely on a paradoxical response by medical practitioners toward the high technology American genetic research as both authoritative and inapplicable, creating unexpected etiologies of illness and ethnicity.

  14. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  15. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  16. Intimate partner violence in the Caribbean: State, activist and media responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Halimah A F; Haynes, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    Violence in the Caribbean is a major public health and criminal justice problem. In some Caribbean countries, women's share of morbidity and mortality due to violence outstrips men's, which demonstrates a reversal in how gender and violence have been typically and globally understood. This morbidity and mortality among women is frequently a consequence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Using qualitative analysis and feminist discourse and narrative analysis on data from Guyana, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Barbados, the authors of this paper contribute to the growing research on IPV. The central organising questions are how do state, activist and media responses reproduce and/or challenge asymmetrical relations of power and gender, and what does this mean for women's agency in the context of violent relationships. State, activist and media responses reveal how assumptions about gender and IPV contribute to a contradictory context in which women navigate their desired outcomes.

  17. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  18. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean Islands: A Cure for Economies in Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Connell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small island states have increasingly sought new means of economic diversification. Several Caribbean states have begun to develop medical tourism, partly building on existing tourist-oriented economies. Medical tourism has boomed in this century in several states in Asia and in Central America. The Bahamas, Barbados and the Cayman Islands exemplify different strategies for medical tourism, in order to generate foreign exchange and new employment, and reduce costs from overseas referrals. Most medical tourism projects have been developed by overseas corporations and are oriented to a US market. Business principles rather than health care dominate development strategies, notably of emerging transnational medical corporations, and raise ethical issues. Success will be difficult to achieve in a crowded and competitive market.

  19. Project Update: RLA/9/081 ''Strengthening Cradle-to-Grave Control of Radioactive Sources in the Caribbean Region''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Why are we concerned about sources? Security, Safety & Health: Security - With sources under control the world is a safer place; Safety - Of people and environment for preservation of economies; Including Health - Sources are invaluable part of modern technological medical treatments. Goiania 1987: Cs-137 Source Small capsule (93 grams of powder); 112,800 people required monitoring; 271 people found contaminated; 4 dead; 7 houses demolished. Objectives and Outcomes - Objective: To protect the people and the environment from potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation while enabling and fostering the safe and secure use of radioactive sources to promote sustainable socioeconomic development. Outcome: Have a national inventory in place in every MS of all (disused) sealed radioactive sources. IAEA Member States participating: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago

  20. MATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN CHILDHOOD AND OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE IN ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Janina R; Bryce, Cyralene P; Waber, Deborah P; Zichlin, Miriam L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Costa, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of maternal depressive symptoms reported during childhood as a predictor of an important personality trait, Openness to Experience (O), in middle adulthood. Participants were 95 adults (38 previously malnourished, 57 control, mean age 42.1 years) who had been followed longitudinally since childhood by the Barbados Nutrition Study. Maternal depressive symptoms had been measured when the participants were 5-11 years of age by the General Adjustment and Morale Scale; O was measured in adulthood by the Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for childhood household standard of living, showed a significant main effect on O of maternal depressive symptoms ( p creativity.

  1. Should cryptocurrencies be included in the portfolio of international reserves held by central banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Moore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, the central bank is required to hold reserve assets as a means of providing credibility for the value of the fiat currency. These assets can be in the form of gold, foreign exchange or some other internationally recognised reserve asset and are held to permit the country to engage in international transactions. Within recent years, cryptocurrencies have been increasingly utilised for international transactions, and it is possible that the use of these cryptocurrencies might expand in the future. This paper therefore examines the potential role of digital currency balances as part of the portfolio of external assets held by a central bank. Using the case of Barbados, the paper also provides a simulation of the effect holding some proportion of their asset-base would have had on the stability of the foreign reserves as well as the return on the portfolio of assets.

  2. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  3. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.

  4. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  5. Seasonal radiogenic isotopic variability of the African dust outflow to the tropical Atlantic Ocean and across to the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J. G.; Singh, Satinder Pal; Fomba, K. W.; Prospero, J. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of mineral dust on climate and biogeochemistry, it is paramount to identify the sources of dust emission. In this regard, radiogenic isotopes have recently been used successfully for tracing North African dust provenance and its transport across the tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean. Here we present two time series of radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Sr and Nd) in dusts collected at the Cape Verde Islands and Barbados in order to determine the origin of the dust and examine the seasonality of westerly dust outflow from Northern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected daily during two campaigns - February 2012 (winter) and June-July 2013 (summer) - at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente (16.9°N, 24.9°W). A one-year-long time series of aerosols from Barbados (13.16°N, 59.43°W) - a receptor region in the Caribbean - was sampled at a lower, monthly resolution. Our results resolve a seasonal isotopic signal at Cape Verde shown by daily variations, with a larger radiogenic isotope variability in winter compared to that in summer. This summer signature is also observed over Barbados, indicating similar dust provenance at both locations, despite different sampling years. This constrains the isotope fingerprint of Saharan Air Layer (SAL) dust that is well-mixed during its transport. This result provides unequivocal evidence for a permanent, albeit of variable strength, long-range transport of African dust to the Caribbean and is in full agreement with atmospheric models of North African dust emission and transport across the tropical Atlantic in the SAL. The seasonal isotopic variability is related to changes in the dust source areas - mainly the Sahara and Sahel regions - that are active all-year-round, albeit with variable contributions in summer versus the winter months. Our results provide little support for much dust contributed from the Bodélé Depression in Chad - the "dustiest" place on Earth

  6. Rb-Sr, 87Sr/86Sr isotope system as an index of provenance of continental dusts in the open Atlantic ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Chesselet, Roger; Prospero, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    The Rb-Sr, Sr-isotope system technique was applied to samples of water-insoluble atmospheric dust to test its utility in answering two questions: 1) the continental provenance of the dust, and 2) the relative importance of eolian versus other contributions to deep-sea sediments. Samples of atmospheric dust were taken on Whatman filters during two Atlantic cruises: a north-south section from May to October 1971 (Dakar-Walvis Bay-Azores) and an east-west section from September to October 1972 (Barbados-Dakar). In addition several other filter samples from the Equatorial Atlantic and mesh samples from Barbados were analyzed. The overall pattern of dust concentrations is consistent with the well-known strong Saharan plume at 10-15 deg N latitude and extends westward to the Caribbean with average concentrations in excess of 10 μg/m 3 . The north-south track was relatively near the African coast but permitted some definition of the decrease of dust concentrations north (to about 1 μg/m 3 ) and south (to 3 ) of the main plume. From the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios we distinguish the dusts from the Saharan and a second plume, probably from the Kalahari Desert of southwestern Africa. The ratios of dusts in the Saharan plume are indistinguishable from deep-sea sediments in this latitude band. Adding Rb/Sr to the Sr-isotope ratios in an isochronous plot, however, permits distinction between the dusts and deep-sea sediments east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and from the sediments underlying the Saharan plume but west of the Ridge. The authors conclude that, west of the Ridge, the colian dust contribution to the sediments is strongly diluted by non-eolian sediment sources, confirming with an independant provenance characteristic conclusions derived from sediment mineralogical data [fr

  7. Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: year-end update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasek, P; Goree, L J

    1993-12-21

    A brief description is given of the background behind the Small Island States Global Conference scheduled for March 1994. Preliminary meetings led to the formation of a draft program of action pertaining to climatic change and sea level increases, natural and environmental disasters, freshwater resources, management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, land and energy resources, tourism and biodiversity resources, regional institutions and technical cooperation, and a variety of other topics. Little agreement was reached on implementation, monitoring, and review among member states, which called for additional meetings. The World Coast Conference, held in November 1993, focused on progressive sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). Participants agreed on the necessity to 1) strengthen state's capabilities for ICZM, 2) identify priorities, 3) set up comprehensive and flexible assessment mechanisms, 4) coordinate activities at all levels, and 5) address longterm concerns. Only two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) sent reports on donor activities. Host country meetings were held in Barbados in preparation for the planned 1994 Conference and settlement of logistics. CNN will provide television coverage of the Conference and produce documentaries on small island states. General Assembly highlights included summary statements by Belgium, Vanuatu, Maldives, the Caribbean community, Korea, and Australia members. The Barbados Declaration, which is in process and will be adopted in some form at the 1994 Conference, may incorporate elements from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Ecojournalism workshop scheduled for Jamaica in January 1994 is aiming to instill awareness of the 1994 Conference and small island issues. 157 NGOs have received accreditation for the 1994 Conference, of which 50 are from small island states, 50 from developed countries, and 53 from nonisland developing countries. The NGO Liaison Committee

  8. Kaiso is highly expressed in TNBC tissues of women of African ancestry compared to Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I; Hercules, Shawn M; Rayner, Lyndsay G A; Skeete, Desiree H A; Smith Connell, Suzanne P; Brain, Ian; Daramola, Adetola; Banjo, Adekunbiola A F; Byun, Jung S; Gardner, Kevin; Dushoff, Jonathan; Daniel, Juliet M

    2017-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most prevalent in young women of African ancestry (WAA) compared to women of other ethnicities. Recent studies found a correlation between high expression of the transcription factor Kaiso, TNBC aggressiveness, and ethnicity. However, little is known about Kaiso expression and localization patterns in TNBC tissues of WAA. Herein, we analyze Kaiso expression patterns in TNBC tissues of African (Nigerian), Caribbean (Barbados), African American (AA), and Caucasian American (CA) women. Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) TNBC tissue blocks from Nigeria and Barbados were utilized to construct a Nigerian/Barbadian tissue microarray (NB-TMA). This NB-TMA and a commercially available TMA comprising AA and CA TNBC tissues (AA-CA-YTMA) were subjected to immunohistochemistry to assess Kaiso expression and subcellular localization patterns, and correlate Kaiso expression with TNBC clinical features. Nigerian and Barbadian women in our study were diagnosed with TNBC at a younger age than AA and CA women. Nuclear and cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was observed in all tissues analyzed. Analysis of Kaiso expression in the NB-TMA and AA-CA-YTMA revealed that nuclear Kaiso H scores were significantly higher in Nigerian, Barbadian, and AA women compared with CA women. However, there was no statistically significant difference in nuclear Kaiso expression between Nigerian versus Barbadian women, or Barbadian versus AA women. High levels of nuclear Kaiso expression were detected in patients with a higher degree of African heritage compared to their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting a role for Kaiso in TNBC racial disparity.

  9. On the propagation and decay of North Brazil Current rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Rhein, Monika; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; BöNing, Claus W.

    2010-10-01

    Near the western boundary of the tropical North Atlantic, where the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflects into the North Equatorial Countercurrent, large anticyclonic rings are shed. After separating from the retroflection region, the so-called NBC rings travel northwestward along the Brazilian coast, until they reach the island chain of the Lesser Antilles and disintegrate. These rings contribute substantially to the upper limb return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by carrying South Atlantic Water into the northern subtropical gyre. Their relevance for the northward transport of South Atlantic Water depends on the frequency of their generation as well as on their horizontal and vertical structure. The ring shedding and propagation and the complex interaction of the rings with the Lesser Antilles are investigated in the ? Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments (FLAME) model. The ring properties simulated in FLAME reach the upper limit of the observed rings in diameter and agree with recent observations on seasonal variability, which indicates a maximum shedding during the first half of the year. When the rings reach the shallow topography of the Lesser Antilles, they are trapped by the island triangle of St. Lucia, Barbados and Tobago and interact with the island chain. The model provides a resolution that is capable of resolving the complex topographic conditions at the islands and illuminates various possible fates for the water contained in the rings. It also reproduces laboratory experiments that indicate that both cyclones and anticyclones are formed after a ring passes through a topographic gap. Trajectories of artificial floats, which were inserted into the modeled velocity field, are used to investigate the pathways of the ring cores and their fate after they encounter the Lesser Antilles. The majority of the floats entered the Caribbean, while the northward Atlantic pathway was found to be of minor importance. No prominent

  10. The association of nutrition behaviors and physical activity with general and central obesity in Caribbean undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melecia Wright

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related factors in a crosssectional, observational study of Caribbean students using the results of three recent surveys of health behavior among undergraduates in Barbados, Grenada, and Jamaica. METHODS: A total of1 578 Caribbean undergraduate students from Barbados, Grenada, and Jamaica (ages 18-30 years completed questionnaires and had physical measurements recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs for the association of nutrition behaviors with prevalence of obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m² ; elevated waist-to-height ratio (W/ht (> 0.50; and high waist circumference (WC (> 88 cm in females, > 102 cm in males. Models were adjusted for age, year in university, socioeconomic status, and sex. RESULTS: There was a higher prevalence of obesity (13% versus 10%, high WC (21% versus 7%, and high W/ht (35% versus 25% in females relative to males. Compared to females, males had reduced odds of obesity (OR 0.46, high WC (OR 0.22, and high W/ht (OR 0.61 (P < 0.05 for all. Both females (46% and males (24% reported high levels of physical inactivity. Fruit and vegetable consumption was low (approximately two servings per day. Many students reported avoiding fatty foods (40%; this behavior was associated with high W/ht (OR 1.68, obesity (OR 1.90, and high WC (OR 1.82 (P < 0.05 for all. Irregular breakfast consumption, age, and year of study were also positively associated with obesity. Physical activity was not significantly associated with any obesity measure. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low prevalence of healthy behaviors and a high prevalence of obesity in this sample of Caribbean young adults.

  11. Reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglaciation. IODP Expedition 310 'Tahiti Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoin, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    The last deglaciation has been characterized by a rapid sea-level rise and coeval abrupt environmental changes. The Barbados coral reef record suggested that this period has been punctuated by two brief intervals of accelerated melting (Melt Water Pulses), occurring at 14,000 and 11,300 cal. yr. BP, superimposed on a smooth and continuous rise of sea level. Although their timing, their magnitude, or even their existence have been actively debated, those catastrophic sea-level rises are thought to have induced distinct reef drowning events. The reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglacial sea-level rise at Tahiti is reconstructed based on a chronological, sedimentological and paleobiological study of cores drilled through the relict reef features occurring on the modern fore-reef slopes during the IODP Expedition 310. Changes in the composition of coralgal assemblages coincide with abrupt variations in reef growth rates and characterize the response of the upward-growing reef pile to a non-monotonous sea-level rise and coeval environmental changes. No major break in reef development occurred between 16,000 and 10,000 cal. yr. BP. Reefs accreted mostly through aggradational processes at growth rates averaging 10 mm yr-1, thus precluding any catastrophic impact on reef development such as the temporary cessation of reef growth as it was reported in the Barbados record. An incipient drowning and a general backstepping of the reef complex have been evidenced during the 14,600-13,900 cal. yr. BP time window implying that reef growth gradually lagged behind sea-level rise.

  12. NRC (2001 equations to predict the energy value of agroindustry byproducts in Brazilian northeast Equações do NRC (2001 para predição do valor energético de co-produtos da agroindústria no nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bernardo Selaive Villarroel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractions of carbohydrates and protein, and energy value estimative based in NRC (2001 equations, of agroindustry byproducts of cashew, passion fruit, melon, anatto seeds, pineapple and barbados cherry were evaluated. NRC (2001 equations were used to predict the energy value of the passion fruit, pineapple and barbados cherry using “in vivo” data. Carbohydrates fraction A + B1 ranged from 20.00 to 52.21% of the total carbohydrates, for melon and anatto seeds, respectively. Cashew and barbados cherry presented close values for the fraction B2 (11.88 and 14.25% and C (52.69 and 59.45% and, approximately three times lower of fraction B2 than the passion fruit and the pineapple (47.93 and 45.38%. It was concluded that the analyses of the fractions of carbohydrates and protein should be a laboratorial routine, since it consists in a simple analysis, inexpensive and allows the establishment of mechanicists parameters for feed evaluations. The observed values of TDN of ingredients and those predicted by NRC (2001 equations were similar, being appropriate to predict the energy value of feeds in Brazilian conditions.Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar as frações de carboidratos e proteínas, e estimar o valor energético a partir das equações do NRC (2001 dos co-produtos da agroindústria do caju, maracujá, melão, urucum, abacaxi e acerola. Foi realizada a avaliação das equações do NRC (2001 para predição do valor energético do maracujá, abacaxi e acerola, a partir de dados in vivo. A fração A + B1 dos carboidratos variou de 20,00 a 52,21% dos carboidratos totais, para melão e urucum, respectivamente. O caju e a acerola apresentaram valores próximos para a fração B2 (11,88 e 14,25% e C (52,69 e 59,45% e, aproximadamente, três vezes menos fração B2 que o maracujá e o abacaxi (47,93 e 45,38%. O valor A da fração protéica (NNP variou de 5,01 a 33,02% para melão e urucum, respectivamente. A fração C da proteína foi menor

  13. An epidemiological study of rates of illness in passengers and crew at a busy Caribbean cruise port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Ann Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean has one of the largest cruise ship industries in the world, with close to 20 million visitors per year. The potential for communicable disease outbreaks on vessels and the transmission by ship between countries is high. Barbados has one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean. Our aim was to describe and analyse the epidemiology of illnesses experienced by passengers and crew arriving at the Bridgetown Port, Barbados between 2009 and 2013. Methods Data on the illnesses recorded were extracted from the passenger and crew arrival registers and passenger and crew illness logs for all ships and maritime vessels arriving at Barbados’ Ports and passing through its territorial waters between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were entered into an Epi Info database and most of the analysis undertaken using Epi Info Version 7. Rates per 100,000 visits were calculated, and confidence intervals on these were derived using the software Openepi. Results There were 1031 cases of illness from over 3 million passenger visits and 1 million crew visits during this period. The overall event rate for communicable illnesses was 15.7 (95 % CI 14.4–17.1 per 100,000 passengers, and for crew was 24.0 (21.6–26.6 per 100, 000 crew. Gastroenteritis was the predominant illness experienced by passengers and crew followed by influenza. The event rate for gastroenteritis among passengers was 13.7 (12.5–15.0 per 100,000 and 14.4 (12.6, 16.5 for crew. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses was 3.4 per 100,000 passengers with myocardial infarction being the main diagnosis. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses among crew was 2.1 per 100,000, the leading cause being injuries. Conclusions The predominant illnesses reported were gastroenteritis and influenza similar to previous published reports from around the world. This study is the first of its type in the Caribbean and the data provide a baseline for future surveillance

  14. Establishing national noncommunicable disease surveillance in a developing country: a model for small island nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Rose

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the surveillance model used to develop the first national, population-based, multiple noncommunicable disease (NCD registry in the Caribbean (one of the first of its kind worldwide; registry implementation; lessons learned; and incidence and mortality rates from the first years of operation. Methods Driven by limited national resources, this initiative of the Barbados Ministry of Health (MoH, in collaboration with The University of the West Indies, was designed to collect prospective data on incident stroke and acute myocardial infarction (MI (heart attack cases from all health care facilities in this small island developing state (SIDS in the Eastern Caribbean. Emphasis is on tertiary and emergency health care data sources. Incident cancer cases are obtained retrospectively, primarily from laboratories. Deaths are collected from the national death register. Results Phased introduction of the Barbados National Registry for Chronic NCDs (“the BNR” began with the stroke component (“BNR–Stroke,” 2008, followed by the acute MI component (“BNR–Heart,” 2009 and the cancer component (“BNR–Cancer,” 2010. Expected case numbers projected from prior studies estimated an average of 378 first-ever stroke, 900 stroke, and 372 acute MI patients annually, and registry data showed an annual average of about 238, 593, and 349 patients respectively. There were 1 204 tumors registered in 2008, versus the expected 1 395. Registry data were used to identify public health training themes. Success required building support from local health care professionals and creating island-wide registry awareness. With spending of approximately US$ 148 per event for 2 200 events per year, the program costs the MoH about US$ 1 per capita annually. Conclusions Given the limited absolute health resources available to SIDS, combined surveillance should be considered for building a national NCD evidence base. With prevalence

  15. Reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglaciation. IODP Expedition 310 "Tahiti Sea Level".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoin, G.; Seard, C.; Deschamps, P.; Webster, J.; Abbey, E.; Braga, J. C.; Durand, N.; Bard, E.; Hamelin, B.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The last deglaciation have been characterized by a rapid sea-level rise and coeval abrupt environmental changes. The Barbados coral reef record suggested that this period has been punctuated by two brief intervals of accelerated melting (Melt Water Pulses), occurring at 14,000 and 11,300 cal-yr-BP, superimposed on a smooth and continuous rise of sea level. Although the timing, the amplitude or even the realities of those periods of accelerated sea-level rise have been actively debated, those catastrophic sea-level rises are thought to have induced reef drowning events. The reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglacial sea-level rise at Tahiti is reconstructed based on a chronological, sedimentological and paleobiological study of cores drilled through the relict reef features occurring on the modern fore-reef slopes during the IODP Expedition 310. Changes in the composition of coralgal assemblages coincide with abrupt variations in reef growth rates and characterize the response of the upward-growing reef pile to a non-monotonous sea-level rise and coeval environmental changes. No major break in reef development occurred during between 16,000 and 10,000 cal-yr-BP when reefs accreted mostly through aggradational processes at growth rates averaging 10mm.yr-1, thus precluding any catastrophic impact on reef development such as the temporary cessation of reef growth as it was reported in the Barbados record. An incipient drowning and a general backstepping of the reef complex have been evidenced during the 14,600-13,900 cal-yr-BP time window implying that reef growth gradually lagged behind sea-level rise. Acknowlegments This work has been made possible thanks to the support both from the European Science Foundation (ESF) under the EUROCORES Programme EuroMARC (contract No. ERAS-CT-2003-980409 of the European Commission, DG Research, FP6) and from the CNRS-INSU through the « ECLIPSE » Programme.

  16. Late Pleistocene Sea level on the New Jersey Margin: Implications to eustasy and deep-sea temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.D.; Sheridan, R.E.; Miller, K.G.; Uptegrove, J.; Cramer, B.S.; Browning, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the New Jersey margin and compared it with published records from fossil uplifted coral reefs in New Guinea, Barbados, and Araki Island, as well as a composite sea-level estimate from scaling of Red Sea isotopic values. Radiocarbon dates, amino acid racemization data, and superposition constrain the ages of large (20-80??m) sea-level falls from New Jersey that correlate with Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 2, 3b, 4, 5b, and 6 (the past 130??kyr). The sea-level records for MIC 1, 2, 4, 5e, and 6 are similar to those reported from New Guinea, Barbados, Araki, and the Red Sea; some differences exist among records for MIC 3. Our record consistently provides the shallowest sea level estimates for MIC3 (??? 25-60??m below present); it agrees most closely with the New Guinea record of Chappell (2002; ??? 35-70??m), but contrasts with deeper estimates provided by Araki (??? 85-95??m) and the Red Sea (50-90??m). Comparison of eustatic estimates with benthic foraminiferal ??18O records shows that the deep sea cooled ??? 2.5????C between MIC 5e and 5d (??? 120-110??ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15??ka). Sea-level variations between MIC 5b and 2 (ca. 90-20??ka) follow a well-accepted 0.1???/10??m linear variation predicted by ice-growth effects on foraminiferal ??18O values. The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a previously established hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130??kyr punctuated only by two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e). We link these variations to changes in Northern Component Water (NCW). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biogeography and potential exchanges among the atlantic Equatorial belt cold-seep faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Olu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Like hydrothermal vents along oceanic ridges, cold seeps are patchy and isolated ecosystems along continental margins, extending from bathyal to abyssal depths. The Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Guinea, was one focus of the Census of Marine Life ChEss (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems program to study biogeography of seep and vent fauna. We present a review and analysis of collections from five seep regions along the AEB: the Gulf of Mexico where extensive faunal sampling has been conducted from 400 to 3300 m, the Barbados accretionary prism, the Blake ridge diapir, and in the Eastern Atlantic from the Congo and Gabon margins and the recently explored Nigeria margin. Of the 72 taxa identified at the species level, a total of 9 species or species complexes are identified as amphi-Atlantic. Similarity analyses based on both Bray Curtis and Hellinger distances among 9 faunal collections, and principal component analysis based on presence/absence of megafauna species at these sites, suggest that within the AEB seep megafauna community structure is influenced primarily by depth rather than by geographic distance. Depth segregation is observed between 1000 and 2000 m, with the middle slope sites either grouped with those deeper than 2000 m or with the shallower sites. The highest level of community similarity was found between the seeps of the Florida escarpment and Congo margin. In the western Atlantic, the highest degree of similarity is observed between the shallowest sites of the Barbados prism and of the Louisiana slope. The high number of amphi-atlantic cold-seep species that do not cluster according to biogeographic regions, and the importance of depth in structuring AEB cold-seep communities are the major conclusions of this study. The hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR did not appear as "stepping stones" for dispersal of the AEB seep fauna, however, the south MAR and off axis regions

  18. Fluid pressure, sediment compressibility, and secular and transient strain in subduction prisms: Results from ODP CORK borehole hydrologic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.

    2005-12-01

    Instruments for long-term hydrogeological monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program boreholes have been installed in five subduction zone settings, including Cascadia, Barbados, Mariana, Costa Rica, and Nankai. Pressure records reveal a wide range of average formation states that are consistent with formation permeability and proximity to sources of formation fluid. For example, near-hydrostatic pressures (excess pore-pressure ratio λ* ~ 0) are observed in the silty parts of the Nankai accretionary prism and in the upper oceanic crust beneath the Costa Rica prism, where well-drained conditions are inferred to be present, and elevated pressures (λ* up to 0.5) have been recorded in finer-grained sedimentary sections near the toe of prisms (e.g., at the level of the decollement in the fine-grained part of the Barbados accretionary prism). In no instances have high pressures (approaching lithostatic, λ* = 1) been observed, although operational difficulties have thus far precluded installations in underthrust sediment sequences where the highest average pressures are expected to be maintained. Records often reveal non-steady behavior, with variations occurring over a broad frequency range. Tidal-frequency variations present in all records are the consequence of oceanographic loading at the seafloor. The amplitude of these signals provide constraints on formation compressibility. Estimated values vary with depth and consolidation state, and range from 5 x 10-9 to 3.5 x 10-10 Pa-1. Once these signals are removed, other transients can be observed, including ones correlated with both seismic and aseismic deformation. Secular strain has been seen in hydrologically isolated parts of the formations at several sites. At the Mariana forearc site, seismic-frequency pressure variations and persistent positive pressure changes were observed at the time of two large (Mb ~ 7.0) deep (~ 70 km) earthquakes located roughly 200 km away; these signals are inferred to reflect local formation

  19. Detailed Tropical Sea Level Record Spanning the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in sea level is a fundamental measure of past changes in continental ice volume and provides an important benchmark to test climate change hypotheses. Records of the most recent deglaciation show two pulses of accelerated sea-level rise (Meltwater Pulses 1A and 1B) separated by an interval of slower sea level rise. The Younger Dryas chronozone falls within the interval between MWP 1A and 1B. It was first described over 100 years ago and remains one of the most studied periods in Earth’s history. The Younger Dryas was originally constrained with 14C dating to the interval between 11,000 and 10,000 14C years BP, which converts to 13,000 to 11,640 calendar years BP. The climatic expression of the Younger Dryas was most pronounced in the circum North Atlantic where climate proxies returned in some regions to near glacial values. Interpretations of the Younger Dryas’ significance range from a catastrophic global cooling event accompanied by Northern hemisphere ice sheet growth to simply regional changes in ocean and air mass mixing zones confined mainly to the North Atlantic. A detailed sea level record containing the interval from the end of MWP 1A to the beginning of MWP 1B (~14,000 to 11,300 years BP) was generated using 26 new U/Th dates from our 2007 Barbados offshore drilling expedition combined with our 1988 expedition measurements. 16 of these dates fall within the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Younger Dryas sea level positions were based on Acropora palmata samples from 3 overlapping and contemporaneous offshore drill cores (RGF 12 and BBDS 9 & 10) and corrected for minor tectonic uplift. From 14,000 to 11,300 years BP, sea level rose from ~81 to 56.5 m below present sea level with an initial rate of 10 m/kyr that decreased smoothly to <5 m/kyr at the base of MWP 1B. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, sea level was at 69 m below present and rose 8 m by the end of this interval. In the context of the Barbados sea level record, the Younger Dryas

  20. Cross-country variation in additive effects of socio-economics, health behaviors, and comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-02-21

    This study explored cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and medical comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes. The study analyzed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The participants were 9,179 adults with diabetes who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. China, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, India, Ghana, South Africa, and Russia). We fitted three logistic regressions to each country. Model I only included socio-economic characteristics (i.e. age, gender, education and income). In Model II, we also included health behaviors (i.e. smoking, drinking, and exercise). Model III included medical comorbidities (i.e. hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis), in addition to the previous blocks. Our models suggested cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities on perceived health of patients with diabetes. Comorbid heart disease was the only condition that was consistently associated with poor subjective health regardless of country. Countries show different profiles of social and behavioral determinants of subjective health among patients with diabetes. Our study suggests that universal programs that assume that determinants of well-being are similar across different countries may be over-simplistic. Thus instead of universal programs that use one protocol for health promotion of patients in all countries, locally designed interventions should be implemented in each country.

  1. Qualitative assessment of silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis in various plants: a photobiological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Usha Rani, Pathipati; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2010-06-01

    The development of rapid and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the extracellular production of Ag and Au nanoparticles was carried out from the leaves of the plants, Tridax procumbens L. (Coat buttons), Jatropa curcas L. (Barbados nut), Calotropis gigantea L. (Calotropis), Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant), Datura metel L. (Datura), Carica papaya L. (Papaya) and Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter orange) by the sunlight exposure method. Qualitative comparisons of the synthesized nanoparticles between the plants were measured. Among these T. procumbens, J. curcas and C. gigantea plants synthesized <20 nm sized and spherical-shaped Ag particles, whereas C. papaya, D. metel and S. melongena produced <20 nm sized monodispersed Au particles. The amount of nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for structural confirmation. Further analysis carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), provided evidence for the presence of amino groups, which increased the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  2. Qualitative assessment of silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis in various plants: a photobiological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Usha Rani, Pathipati; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2010-01-01

    The development of rapid and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the extracellular production of Ag and Au nanoparticles was carried out from the leaves of the plants, Tridax procumbens L. (Coat buttons), Jatropa curcas L. (Barbados nut), Calotropis gigantea L. (Calotropis), Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant), Datura metel L. (Datura), Carica papaya L. (Papaya) and Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter orange) by the sunlight exposure method. Qualitative comparisons of the synthesized nanoparticles between the plants were measured. Among these T. procumbens, J. curcas and C. gigantea plants synthesized <20 nm sized and spherical-shaped Ag particles, whereas C. papaya, D. metel and S. melongena produced <20 nm sized monodispersed Au particles. The amount of nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for structural confirmation. Further analysis carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), provided evidence for the presence of amino groups, which increased the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  3. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-11-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the décollement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous décollement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous décollement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the décollement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity.

  4. Bajan Birds Pull Strings: Two Wild Antillean Species Enter the Select Club of String-Pullers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    String-pulling is one of the most popular tests in animal cognition because of its apparent complexity, and of its potential to be applied to very different taxa. In birds, the basic procedure involves a food reward, suspended from a perch by a string, which can be reached by a series of coordinated pulling actions with the beak and holding actions of the pulled lengths of string with the foot. The taxonomic distribution of species that pass the test includes several corvids, parrots and parids, but in other families, data are much spottier and the number of individuals per species that succeed is often low. To date, the association between string-pulling ability and other cognitive traits was never tested. It is generally assumed that string-pulling is a complex form of problem-solving, suggesting that performance on string-pulling and other problem-solving tasks should be correlated. Here, we show that individuals of two innovative species from Barbados, the bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris, pass the string-pulling test. Eighteen of the 42 bullfinches tested succeeded, allowing us to correlate performance on this test to that on several other behavioral measurements. Surprisingly, string-pulling in bullfinches was unrelated to shyness, neophobia, problem-solving, discrimination and reversal learning performance. Only two of 31 grackles tested succeeded, precluding correlational analyses with other measures but still, the two successful birds largely differed in their other behavioral traits.

  5. Problem-solving and learning in Carib grackles: individuals show a consistent speed-accuracy trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, S; Audet, J N; Lefebvre, L

    2015-03-01

    The generation and maintenance of within-population variation in cognitive abilities remain poorly understood. Recent theories propose that this variation might reflect the existence of consistent cognitive strategies distributed along a slow-fast continuum influenced by shyness. The slow-fast continuum might be reflected in the well-known speed-accuracy trade-off, where animals cannot simultaneously maximise the speed and the accuracy with which they perform a task. We test this idea on 49 wild-caught Carib grackles (Quiscalus lugubris), a tame opportunistic generalist Icterid bird in Barbados. Grackles that are fast at solving novel problems involving obstacle removal to reach visible food perform consistently over two different tasks, spend more time per trial attending to both tasks, and are those that show more shyness in a pretest. However, they are also the individuals that make more errors in a colour discrimination task requiring no new motor act. Our data reconcile some of the mixed positive and negative correlations reported in the comparative literature on cognitive tasks, suggesting that a speed-accuracy trade-off could lead to negative correlations between tasks favouring speed and tasks favouring accuracy, but still reveal consistent strategies based on stable individual differences.

  6. Structural features and oil-and-gas bearing of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of the Caribbean region testifies to the extremely unstable condition of the terrestrial crust of this intercontinental and simultaneously interoceanic area. In the recent geological epoch, the Caribbean region is represented by a series of structural elements, the main of which are the Venezuelan and Colombian deep-sea suboceanic depressions, the Nicaraguan Rise, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles bordering the Caribbean Sea in the north and east. There are 63 sedimentary basins in the entire Caribbean region. However, only the Venezuelan and Colombian basins, the Miskito Basin in Nicaragua, and the northern and eastern shelves of the Antilles, Paria Bay, Barbodos-Tobago, and Grenada basins are promising in terms of oil-and-gas bearig. In the Colombian Basin, the southwestern part, located in the rift zone of the Gulf of Uraba, is the most promising. In the Venezuelan Basin, possible oil-and-gas-bearing basins showing little promise are assumed to be in the northern and eastern margins. The main potential of the eastern Caribbean region is attributed to the southern margin, at the shelf zone of which are the Tokuyo-Bonaire, Tuy-Cariaco, Margarita, Paria Bay, Barbados-Tobago, and Grenada oil-and-gas-bearing basins. The rest of the deepwater depressions of the Caribbean Sea show little promise for hydrocarbon research due to the small thickness of the deposits, their flat bedding, and probably a lack of fluid seals.

  7. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the d??collement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous d??collement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous d??collement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the d??collement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Major energy plants and their potential for bioenergy development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  9. Direct determination of the timing of sea level change during termination II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Christina D; Cheng, H; Taylor, F W; Edwards, R L

    2002-01-11

    An outcrop within the last interglacial terrace on Barbados contains corals that grew during the penultimate deglaciation, or Termination II. We used combined 230Th and 231Pa dating to determine that they grew 135.8 +/- 0.8 thousand years ago, indicating that sea level was 18 +/- 3 meters below present sea level at the time. This suggests that sea level had risen to within 20% of its peak last-interglacial value by 136 thousand years ago, in conflict with Milankovitch theory predictions. Orbital forcing may have played a role in the deglaciation, as may have isostatic adjustments due to large ice sheets. Other corals in the same outcrop grew during oxygen isotope (delta18O) substage 6e, indicating that sea level was 38 +/- 5 meters below present sea level, about 168.0 thousand years ago. When compared to the delta18O signal in the benthic V19-30/V19-28 record at that time, the coral data extend to the previous glacial cycle the conclusion that deep-water temperatures were colder during glacial periods.

  10. Milankovitch hypothesis supported by precise dating of coral reefs and deep-sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, W S; Thurber, D L; Goddard, J; Ku, T L; Matthews, R K; Mesolella, K J

    1968-01-19

    Barbados provides a possibly unique opportunity for reconstruction of the times and elevations of late-Pleistocene high stands of the sea. The island appears to be rising from the sea at a uniform rate that is fast enough to separate in elevation coral-reef tracts formed at successive high stands of the sea. Unaltered coral found in the lower terraces enables high-precision Th(230): U(234) and Pa(231): U(235) dating. Three distinct high stands of the sea are found about 122,000, 103,000, and 82,000 years ago. New Pa(231) and Th(230) dates from a deep-sea core also indicate that Ericson's W-X cold-to-warm climatic change occurred close to 126,000 years ago. These data show a parallelism over the last 150,000 years between changes in Earth's climate and changes in the summer insolation predicted from cycles in the tilt and precession of Earth's axis.

  11. Qualitative assessment of silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis in various plants: a photobiological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Usha Rani, Pathipati, E-mail: purani@iict.res.i [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Biology and Biotechnology Division (India); Sreedhar, Bojja [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory (India)

    2010-06-15

    The development of rapid and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the extracellular production of Ag and Au nanoparticles was carried out from the leaves of the plants, Tridax procumbens L. (Coat buttons), Jatropa curcas L. (Barbados nut), Calotropis gigantea L. (Calotropis), Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant), Datura metel L. (Datura), Carica papaya L. (Papaya) and Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter orange) by the sunlight exposure method. Qualitative comparisons of the synthesized nanoparticles between the plants were measured. Among these T. procumbens, J. curcas and C. gigantea plants synthesized <20 nm sized and spherical-shaped Ag particles, whereas C. papaya, D. metel and S. melongena produced <20 nm sized monodispersed Au particles. The amount of nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for structural confirmation. Further analysis carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), provided evidence for the presence of amino groups, which increased the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  12. Increasing Public Access to University Qualifications: Evolution of The University of the West Indies Open Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution of The University of the West Indies’ Open Campus (UWIOC, which is expected to expand service and increase access to the underserved communities of the Eastern Caribbean. At present, UWI, which caters to the needs of the 16 far flung countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, has not been able to fully serve these countries, the UWI-12, in a way that is commensurate with their developmental needs. Historically, the institution has been dominated by campus-based education, and its three campuses have been poles of attraction for scholars and scholarship to the significant advantage of the countries in which they are located: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados. The University’s creation of an open campus, a fourth campus, enables it to expand its scope, enhance its appeal, and improve the efficiency of its services to individuals, communities, and countries. This new campus, a merger of UWI’s Outreach sector, which comprises the School of Continuing Studies, the Tertiary Level Institute Unit, and The UWI Distance Education Centre, will have a physical presence in each contributing country and will function as a network of real and virtual modes to deliver education and training to anyone with access to Internet facilities.

  13. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Schaefer, Hanno; Amorim, André M.; Sugumaran, M.; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Endress, Peter K.; Matthews, Merran L.; Stevens, Peter F.; Mathews, Sarah; Davis, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    The angiosperm order Malpighiales includes ∼16,000 species and constitutes up to 40% of the understory tree diversity in tropical rain forests. Despite remarkable progress in angiosperm systematics during the last 20 y, relationships within Malpighiales remain poorly resolved, possibly owing to its rapid rise during the mid-Cretaceous. Using phylogenomic approaches, including analyses of 82 plastid genes from 58 species, we identified 12 additional clades in Malpighiales and substantially increased resolution along the backbone. This greatly improved phylogeny revealed a dynamic history of shifts in net diversification rates across Malpighiales, with bursts of diversification noted in the Barbados cherries (Malpighiaceae), cocas (Erythroxylaceae), and passion flowers (Passifloraceae). We found that commonly used a priori approaches for partitioning concatenated data in maximum likelihood analyses, by gene or by codon position, performed poorly relative to the use of partitions identified a posteriori using a Bayesian mixture model. We also found better branch support in trees inferred from a taxon-rich, data-sparse matrix, which deeply sampled only the phylogenetically critical placeholders, than in trees inferred from a taxon-sparse matrix with little missing data. Although this matrix has more missing data, our a posteriori partitioning strategy reduced the possibility of producing multiple distinct but equally optimal topologies and increased phylogenetic decisiveness, compared with the strategy of partitioning by gene. These approaches are likely to help improve phylogenetic resolution in other poorly resolved major clades of angiosperms and to be more broadly useful in studies across the Tree of Life. PMID:23045684

  14. Correlates of healthy fruit and vegetable diet in students in low, middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey from 17,789 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 82.8% of the university students consumed less than the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables. The mean fruit and vegetable consumption varied by country, ranging from ≤ 2.5 mean daily servings in Jamaica, Philippines and Barbados to ≥ 3.9 mean daily servings in Mauritius, Tunisia and Ivory Coast. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, and behavioural factors (inadequate dietary behaviours, binge drinking and physical inactivity) were associated with low prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake. Findings stress the need for intervention programmes aiming at increased consumption of fruit and vegetables considering the identified sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors.

  15. 1980 rates of emigration to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, M D

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents, in tabular form, the rate of legal immigration to the US in 1980 per 1 million inhabitants of the emigrant nation. In that year, the US accepted 118 immigrants for every 1 million world population. This rate reached a peak of over 700 in 1907 and rose above 200 for the last time in 1924; however, the emigration rate began to rise again during the 1970s. There is wide variation in rates, from a low of 1/million in Mali, Central African Republic, and Chad to a high of 11,558/million in Antigua. The countries most likely to send large proportions of their populations to the US in 1980 were small, densely populated nations, often English-speaking former island colonies near the US. For Example, Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Belize, and Guyana all had 1980 emigration rates exceeding 6000. Of those countries with populations over 20 million, only Canada, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, and Vietnam had rates greater than 500. In Europe, only Greece, Portugal, and Iceland have rates above 400. It is noted that since the number of illegal immigrants to the US cannot be ascertained, the actual rates for some countries are undoubtedly higher than those presented in this article.

  16. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe’s classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing “snappy answers to stupid questions,” in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. Methods We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). Results We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users’ current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Conclusion Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated. PMID:19969574

  17. Holiday review. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J

    2009-12-08

    Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe's classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing "snappy answers to stupid questions," in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users' current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated.

  18. Intercontinental Transport and Climatic Impact of Saharan and Sahelian Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Datchoh Evelyne Touré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa are important sources of dust particles into the atmosphere. Dust particles from these regions are transported over the Atlantic Ocean to the Eastern American Coasts. This transportation shows temporal and spatial variability and often reaches its peak during the boreal summer (June-July-August. The regional climate model (RegCM 4.0, containing a module of dust emission, transport, and deposition processes, is used in this study. Saharan and Sahelian dusts emissions, transports, and climatic impact on precipitations during the spring (March-April-May and summer (June-July-August were studied using this model. The results showed that the simulation were coherent with observations made by the MISR satellite and the AERONET ground stations, within the domain of Africa (Banizoumba, Cinzana, and M’Bour and Ragged-point (Barbados Islands. The transport of dust particles was predominantly from North-East to South-West over the studied period (2005–2010. The seasonality of dust plumes’ trajectories was influenced by the altitudes reached by dusts in the troposphere. The impact of dusts on climate consisted of a cooling effect both during the boreal summer and spring over West Africa (except Southern-Guinea and Northern-Liberia, Central Africa, South-America, and Caribbean where increased precipitations were observed.

  19. Uroptychus nitidus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880) and related species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary K

    2017-01-17

    Eight species of squat lobsters of the genus Uroptychus are reported from the western Atlantic based on the collections of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, the Smithsonian Institution and Texas A&M University. Uroptychus nitidus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880) is reviewed and redescribed, with a syntype taken at Blake Station 200 off Martinique designated as the lectotype. Uroptychus alphonsei n. sp. is named for U. nitidus variety C Chace, 1942, U. fenneri n. sp. for U. nitidus variety A Chace, 1942, and U. janiceae n. sp. for U. nitidus variety B Chace, 1942; U. lindae n. sp. is described on the basis of specimens collected by the Alaminos in the Caribbean Sea off northern Columbia; U. rafai n. sp. is described based on a sole specimen taken from the Straits of Florida; U. reedae n. sp. is described from among the syntypes of U. nitidus; and U. uncifer (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880) is redescribed to elaborate on its specific status, with the designation of lectotype from Blake Station 299 off the coast of Barbados. The number of species of Uroptychus from the western Atlantic now stands at 21. A key to these species is provided.

  20. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  1. North American Tropospheric Ozone Profiles from IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study, 2004, 2006): Ozone Budgets, Polution Statistics, Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cooper, O. R.; Tarasick, D. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Taubman, B. F.; Joseph, E.; Baumgardner, D.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G. A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Lefer, B.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Leblanc, T.; Dubey, M.; Minschwaner, K.

    2007-12-01

    During INTEX-B (both Milagro and IMPEX phases in Spring 2006) and during the summer TEXAQS- 2006/GOMACCS period, the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06) coordinated ozonesonde launches over North America for Aura overpasses. IONS-06 supported aircraft operations and provided profiles for ozone budgets and pollution transport, satellite validation and evaluation of models. In contrast to IONS-04, IONS-06 had a greater range (all but one 2004 IONS site plus a dozen in California, New Mexico, Mexico City, Barbados and southwestern Canada), yielding more than 700 profiles. Tropospheric pollution statistics to guide Aura satellite retrievals and contrasts in UT-LS (upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric) ozone between 2004 and 2006 are presented. With IONS-04 dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America, UT ozone originated 25% from the stratosphere [Thompson et al., 2007a,b] with significant amounts from aged or relatively fresh pollution and lightning [Cooper et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006]. Both IONS-04 and IONS-06 summer periods displayed a persistent UT ozone maximum [Cooper et al., 2007] over the south-central US. March 2006 IONS sondes over Mexico manifested persistent UT/LS gravity wave influence and more sporadic pollution. Regional and seasonal contrasts in IONS-06 ozone distributions are described. intexb/ions06.html

  2. Definición de medicamento genérico: ¿un fin o un medio? Análisis de la regulación en 14 países de la Región de las Américas Defining generic drugs: an end or a means? Analysis of regulations in 14 countries in the Region of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Vacca González

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar la situación y las tendencias regulatorias relacionadas con los medicamentos competidores en 14 países de América Latina y el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Entre julio de 2004 y abril de 2005 se colectó la información sobre las regulaciones y políticas nacionales que establecían o contenían la definición de medicamento genérico y de los términos asociados en 14 países de América Latina y el Caribe (Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú y Venezuela. Además, se recabó información sobre los incentivos para registrar y producir medicamentos competidores, la promoción del uso de la denominación común internacional (DCI, la regulación de los estudios de bioequivalencia y la sustitución de los medicamentos prescritos por alternativas de menor precio al público. RESULTADOS: Se observaron tres tendencias regulatorias: los países que favorecen la financiación de medicamentos competidores, la promoción extendida del uso de la DCI y no ponen restricciones a la sustitución de medicamentos innovadores por competidores (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Paraguay; los que cuentan con un esquema orientado a la demostración de la equivalencia terapéutica, es decir, los países restringen la sustitución de los medicamentos originales mediante una lista de medicamentos competidores autorizados que deben prescribirse bajo su DCI y llevar rótulos distintivos (Brasil, México, Panamá y Venezuela; y los que se encuentran en una etapa incipiente de su proceso de regulación (Barbados, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Perú. Esta variedad ocasiona dificultades en la caracterización de los mercados farmacéuticos y puede generar segmentaciones ficticias. CONCLUSIONES: Los esfuerzos de armonización deberán tomar en cuenta la posible relación entre las definiciones adoptadas por los países, el desarrollo de los mercados farmac

  3. Contraception and induced abortion in the West Indies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, A A; de Bruijn, J G M

    2011-10-01

    Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion, prevalence, methods and juridical aspects of induced abortion and prevention policies. Articles were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychlNFO and Soclndex (1999 to 2010) using as keywords contraception, induced abortion, termination of pregnancy, medical abortion and West Indies. Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 18 on contraception, 17 on induced abortion and two on both subjects. Main results indicated that healthcare providers' knowledge of emergency contraception was low. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception, but counselling increased its effective use. Exact numbers about prevalence of abortion were not found. The total annual number of abortions in the West Indies is estimated at 300 000; one in four pregnancies ends in an abortion. The use of misoprostol diminished the complications of unsafe abortions. Legislation of abortion varies widely in the different islands in the West Indies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe and St Martin have legal abortions. Barbados was the first English-speaking island with liberal legislation on abortion. All other islands have restrictive laws. Despite high estimated numbers of abortion, research on prevalence of abortion is missing. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception and low use among adolescents. Most West Indian islands have restrictive laws on abortion.

  4. Boron desorption and fractionation in Subduction Zone Fore Arcs: Implications for the sources and transport of deep fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Demian M.; Kopf, Achim J.

    2016-12-01

    At many subduction zones, pore water geochemical anomalies at seafloor seeps and in shallow boreholes indicate fluid flow and chemical transport from depths of several kilometers. Identifying the source regions for these fluids is essential toward quantifying flow pathways and volatile fluxes through fore arcs, and in understanding their connection to the loci of excess pore pressure at depth. Here we develop a model to track the coupled effects of boron desorption, smectite dehydration, and progressive consolidation within sediment at the top of the subducting slab, where such deep fluid signals likely originate. Our analysis demonstrates that the relative timing of heating and consolidation is a dominant control on pore water composition. For cold slabs, pore water freshening is maximized because dehydration releases bound water into low porosity sediment, whereas boron concentrations and isotopic signatures are modest because desorption is strongly sensitive to temperature and is only partially complete. For warmer slabs, freshening is smaller, because dehydration occurs earlier and into larger porosities, but the boron signatures are larger. The former scenario is typical of nonaccretionary margins where insulating sediment on the subducting plate is commonly thin. This result provides a quantitative explanation for the global observation that signatures of deeply sourced fluids are generally strongest at nonaccretionary margins. Application of our multitracer approach to the Costa Rica, N. Japan, N. Barbados, and Mediterranean Ridge subduction zones illustrates that desorption and dehydration are viable explanations for observed geochemical signals, and suggest updip fluid migration from these source regions over tens of km.

  5. Telepresence-enabled research and developing work practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmalek, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, a group of scientists and students conducted two weeks of telepresence-enabled research from the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with the Exploration Vessel Nautilus, which was at sea studying the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano and Barbados Mud Volcanoes. The way that they conducted their work was not so different from other telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration. As a group, they spanned geographic distance, science expertise, exploration experience, and telepresence-enabled research experience. They were connected through technologies and work culture (e.g., shared habits, values, and practices particular to a community). Uniquely, their project included an NSF-sponsored cultural study on the workgroups' own use of technologies and social processes. The objective of the cultural study was, in part, to identify social and technical features of the work environment that present opportunities to better support science exploration via telepresence. Drawing from this case, and related research, I present some analysis on the developing work culture of telepresence-enabled research and highlight potential adjustments.

  6. Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulitza, Stefan; Heslop, David; Pittauerova, Daniela; Fischer, Helmut W; Meyer, Inka; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Zabel, Matthias; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Collins, James A; Kuhnert, Henning; Schulz, Michael

    2010-07-08

    The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world. Emissions of African dust increased sharply in the early 1970s (ref. 2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought in the Sahara/Sahel region caused by changes in the global distribution of sea surface temperature. The human contribution to land degradation and dust mobilization in this region remains poorly understood, owing to the paucity of data that would allow the identification of long-term trends in desertification. Direct measurements of airborne African dust concentrations only became available in the mid-1960s from a station on Barbados and subsequently from satellite imagery since the late 1970s: they do not cover the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region approximately 170 years ago. Here we construct a 3,200-year record of dust deposition off northwest Africa by investigating the chemistry and grain-size distribution of terrigenous sediments deposited at a marine site located directly under the West African dust plume. With the help of our dust record and a proxy record for West African precipitation we find that, on the century scale, dust deposition is related to precipitation in tropical West Africa until the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a sharp increase in dust deposition parallels the advent of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Our findings suggest that human-induced dust emissions from the Sahel region have contributed to the atmospheric dust load for about 200 years.

  7. Development and testing of a high-resolution model for tropospheric sulfate driven by observation-derived meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Chemistry Div.

    1994-05-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional Eulerian transport and transformation model has been developed to simulate concentrations of tropospheric sulfate for specific times and locations; it was applied over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions during October and November, 1986. The model represents emissions of anthropogenic SO{sub 2} and sulfate and of biogenic sulfur species, horizontal and vertical transport, gas-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} and dimethylsulfide, aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2}, and wet and dry deposition of SO{sub 2}, sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA). The meteorological driver is the 6-hour output from the forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Calculated sulfate concentrations and column burdens, examined in detail for October 15 and October 22 at 6Z, are related to existing weather patterns. These results exhibit rich temporal and spatial structure; the characteristic (1/e) temporal autocorrelation time for the sulfate column burdens over the central North Atlantic averages 20 hours; 95% of the values were 25 hours or less. The characteristic distance of spatial autocorrelation over this region depends on direction and averages 1,600 km; with 10{sup th} percentile value of 400 km and 90{sup th} percentile value of 1,700 km. Daily average model sulfate concentrations at the lowest vertical accurately represent the spatial variability, temporal episodicity, and absolute magnitudes of surface concentrations measured by monitoring stations in Europe, Canada and Barbados.

  8. Late Pleistocene and Holocene meltwater events in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.; Osterman, L.; Curry, W.B.; Phillips, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometer 14C dated stable isotope data from Neogloboquadrina pachyerma in cores raised from the Mendeleyev Ridge and slope provide evidence for significant influx of meltwater to the western Arctic Ocean during the early part of marine oxygen isotope stage 1 (OIS 1) and during several intervals within OIS 3. The strongest OIS 3 meltwater event occurred before ca. 45 ka (conventional radiocarbon age) and was probably related to the deglaciation at the beginning of OIS 3. Major meltwater input to the western Arctic Ocean during the last deglaciation coincides closely with the maximum rate of global sea-level rise as determined from the Barbados sea-level record, demonstrating a strong link between the global record and changes in the central Arctic Ocean. OIS 2, which includes the last glacial maximum, is very condensed or absent in the cores. Abundance and ??13C values for N. pachyderma in the middle part of OIS 3 are similar to modern values, indicating high productivity and seasonal ice-free areas along the Arctic margin at that time. These records indicate that the Arctic Ocean was a source of heat and moisture to the northern polar atmosphere during parts of OIS 3.

  9. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  10. The relationship between diver experience levels and perceptions of attractiveness of artificial reefs - examination of a potential management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2013-01-01

    Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers' perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a 'good dive'. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization.

  11. The relationship between diver experience levels and perceptions of attractiveness of artificial reefs - examination of a potential management tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Kirkbride-Smith

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers' perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a 'good dive'. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization.

  12. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts : hospitality, tradition, environmental stewardship and energy savings go hand in hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, K. [Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Toronto, ON (Canada). Design and Construction

    2003-06-01

    Headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc. operates 81 world-class luxury hotels and resorts in Canada, United States, Mexico, Bermuda, Barbados and the United Arab Emirates. In 1990, Fairmont Hotels launched a green program for all its Canadian hotels as part of its commitment to become a world leader in establishing environmental practices for the hotel industry. Fairmont's policies for energy efficiency, water conservation, purchasing and waste minimization have won international awards. The energy efficiency measures benefit both the company and society through savings in operating costs and reducing carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping Canada meets its international obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Electricity makes up the greatest part of the hotel chain's huge energy bills, costing more than $29 million annually. The remainder of the energy bill consists of natural gas, propane, water, steam and kitchen fuel costs. Many of Fairmont's hotels are historic properties whose physical layout present greater challenges than retrofitting new construction. The retrofits so far have included improvements in lighting fixtures, laundry facilities, HVAC systems, parking garages and boiler rooms. Since 1998, energy retrofits at Fairmont hotels across Canada have resulted in substantial energy savings. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Histórico da expansão urbana e ocorrência de inundações na cidade de Cuiabá-MT / History of urban expansion and occurrence of flooding in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Carlos Martins de Menezes Filho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined documents that recorded floods in the municipality of Cuiabá between 1970 and 2010. The steps of research encompassed printed and digital media, municipal civil defense and the collection of the Central Library of the municipality of Cuiabá. The main goal of this study was to establish a relationship between urban sprawl and incidence of floods in the municipality. Fifty-one flood events were recorded, concentrated in the months from December to April, with an average of 1.28 occurrences per year in the period analyzed. The expansion of the urban area in the early 60’s has favored the disordered occupation of land use and the increase of urban floods, either by the intense waterproofing as well as by channeling of urban streams, as observed in the Prainha and Barbado streams. The results revealed that the urbanization of the capital of Mato Grosso State has influenced in increasing the frequency of floods and their impacts have caused in losses of material and human nature.

  14. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  15. Submarine groundwater discharge as an integral environmental "currency" limiting population and development within the ecosphere of small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ruth

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from oceanic islands has been estimated to contribute over a third of the global SGD due to orographic precipitation, short aquifer pathways and poorly developed surface drainage. This seepage of groundwater across the sea floor connects land and coastal ocean resources, and is hereby proposed as a parameter to evaluate the interconnections between coastal environmental quality and coastal populations and development. Relatively few islands have been studied, but SGD is typically found to be an important, and often the only, source of nutrients to coastal waters. Freshwater and its pollutant load are delivered to the coastal zone via SGD with consequent impacts on tourism and fisheries thus linking the land-based and marine economic sectors. The characteristics of SGD were investigated on Barbados, Guam and Bimini, islands all of, at least partly, carbonate origin, This study evaluates the similarities and differences between these islands and assesses the applicability of using SGD as a parameter within a population--development--environment model. Model scenarios can be used to explore the integrated coastal impacts of wastewater treatment practices and changes in seasonal rainfall due to climate change. This study also presents novel analytical methods for SGD field data.

  16. BICARBONATE STIMULATION OF CALCIFICATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN TWO HERMATYPIC CORALS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Thake, Brenda; Taubner, Isabelle

    2008-02-01

    A wide range of bicarbonate concentrations was used to monitor the kinetics of bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) use in both photosynthesis and calcification in two reef-building corals, Porites porites and Acropora sp. Experiments carried out close to the P. porites collection site in Barbados showed that additions of NaHCO3 to synthetic seawater proportionally increased the calcification rate of this coral until the concentration exceeded three times that of seawater (6 mM). Photosynthetic rates were also stimulated by HCO3 (-) addition, but these became saturated at a lower concentration (4 mM). Similar experiments on aquarium-acclimated colonies of Indo-Pacific Acropora sp. showed that calcification and photosynthesis in this coral were enhanced to an even greater extent than P. porites, with calcification continuing to increase above 8 mM HCO3 (-) , and photosynthesis saturating at 6 mM. Calcification rates of Acropora sp. were also monitored in the dark, and, although these were lower than in the light for a given HCO3 (-) concentration, they still increased dramatically with HCO3 (-) addition, showing that calcification in this coral is light stimulated but not light dependent. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Exploring the boundary-layer cloud-climate feedback through Single-Column Model in Radiative-Advective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Gesso, Sara; Neggers, Roel

    2017-04-01

    Boundary-layer clouds remain the major contributor to the inter-model spread in future climate predictions. Although light has been shed on the low-level cloud feedback, much remains to be understood about the physical mechanisms at the basis of the response of these clouds to climate warming. In the present study, EC-EARTH Single Column Model (SCM) is used to explore the boundary-layer cloud-climate feedback by imposing a Radiative-Advective Equilibrium, namely a balance between the radiative cooling and the advection of warm air. 30-year simulations are performed with the SCM forced by high-frequency cfSites outputs of the CMIP5 simulations of the host General Circulation Model (GCM) for both the AMIP and AMIP4K experiments. As this study exclusively focuses on marine low-level cloud regimes, the simulations are performed at the Barbados Cloud Observatory in the so-called "dry period", when the large-scale forcing are representative of subtropical marine trade-wind conditions. A first step is to assess how representative long-term SCM simulations are of their host GCM. Subsequently, the SCM is forced by different GCMs within the same framework. In this way, the contribution of the physical parameterization to the boundary-layer cloud feedback is isolated from the dynamics, and systematically evaluated. Finally, a procedure to integrate Large-Eddy Simulations and observations into this framework is discussed.

  18. Basic ESR studies on recent corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Ralf; Barabas, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    Experiments on recent corals ( Acropora palmata, Barbados) were carried out to study the dating relevant properties of the characteristic ESR signals. Highly resolved signal growth curves (55 aliquots of a sieve fraction 125-250 μm) were obtained by γ-irradiation in small steps up to 20 kGy. The signal growth curve of the 'dating signal' at g = 2.0006 can only be approximated by a single exponential saturation function in a certain dose range. Thus, ADs derived with this function tend to be overestimated. A better analytical description by two different functions was tested. Isothermal annealing experiments were carried out at various temperatures before and after irradiation with a definite γ-dose respectively. The thermal decay of the dating signal is not 1st order. Furthermore, the decay process is strongly influenced by the decay of the traps themselves. The behaviour of the signals at g = 2.0057 and g = 2.0031 was compared with that of the dating signal. A surprising result was the growth of the signal at g = 2.0057 with γ-irradiation.

  19. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults.

  20. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  1. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  2. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  3. Turning coo-coo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The pairing of commeal and okra, which pops up everywhere in the Caribbean, nicely captures the amalgam of African and American resources that has produced so much of the region's cultures, and bears witness to the earliness of culinary creolization - on both sides of the Atlantic. Corn(maize is, of course, native to the New World, and okra (gumbo to the Old. The Dictionary of Jamaican English includes back-to-back entries on oka and okra - the former from a Yoruba word for corn, though in Jamaica it refers to a cassava mush served with an okra sauce (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:328. And while the Ewe word kukü means "corn dumpling" (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:135, its Caribbean cognates generally signal the presence of okra - as in Bahamian cuckoo soup (Holm 1982: 55. Just to the north in the United States, that classic of southern cuisine, fried okra, is made by coating the pods in cornmeal before dropping them in the bacon drippings. At the southern end of the Caribbean, the Brazilian dish called angu (from Yoruba - see Schneider 1991:14 is made with cornmeal (or cassava-flour; its Saramaka namesake (angu, though made with rice- or banana-flour, is usually served with an okra sauce. And in Barbados, cornmeal and okra comprise the essential ingredients of a national culinary tradition, which we will spell coo-coo.2

  4. Challenges and strategies for climate change adaptation among Pacific Island nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahany, Mollie J; Keim, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    Few regions of the world are at higher risk for environmental disasters than the Pacific Island countries and territories. During 2004 and 2005, the top public health leadership from 19 of 22 Pacific Island countries and territories convened 2 health summits with the goal of developing the world's first comprehensive regional strategy for sustainable disaster risk management as applied to public health emergencies. These summits followed on the objectives of the 1994 Barbados Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and those of the subsequent Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World. The outputs of the 2004 and 2005 Pacific Health Summits for Sustainable Disaster Risk Management provide a detailed description of challenges and accomplishments of the Pacific Island health ministries, establish a Pacific plan of action based upon the principles of disaster risk management, and provide a locally derived, evidence-based approach for many climate change adaptation measures related to extreme weather events in the Pacific region. The declaration and outputs from these summits are offered here as a guide for developmental and humanitarian assistance in the region (and for other small-island developing states) and as a means for reducing the risk of adverse health effects resulting from climate change.

  5. Checklist of fossil decapod crustaceans from tropical America. Part I: Anomura and Brachyura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Luque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of fossil crustaceans from the tropics has increased considerably during recent decades, thanks to novel findings and the re-examination of museum specimens. However, several previous records have been misidentified, numerous museum specimens have never been reported, and many new discoveries are yet to be published. Here, we present a detailed, up-to-date, and revised checklist for every marine, terrestrial, or freshwater fossil decapod crustacean occurrence from tropical America known to us, including their age, geographic occurrences, and related literature. We recognize the occurrence of at least 32 superfamilies, 69 families, 190 genera, and 415 species of brachyurans (‘true’ crabs, and anomurans (‘false’ crabs, hermit crabs, squat lobsters, and allies, several of them previously unknown. The checklist comprises records from three main geographic regions: 1 northern South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela; 2 Central America and southern North America (Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, southern and central Florida; and 3 the Caribbean Islands + Bermuda (Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bonaire, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, The Grenadines, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Bartélemy, Saint Martin, Trinidad. Previous findings, new occurrences, and the revised systematic placement for several problematic/misidentified records, indicate that the fossil record of anomurans and brachyurans in tropical America is more diverse than previously envisioned, with a considerable degree of endemism at the genus- and species-levels.

  6. Isotopic provenance analysis and terrane tectonics: a warning about sediment transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    temporary storage. Sediment from the Amazon River can be found in the Barbados trench. transported ∼2000 km northward by near shore currents after more than 2500 km by the Amazon River from source. It's interesting to note that while large fluvial systems are helpful for transporting sediment very large distances, it is also possible by other mechanisms. Both the Bengal fan and the Barbados sediment have been transported at least 1500 km by purely marine sediment transport mechanisms. Similar transport distances occur in the Hikurangi submarine channel off the eastern coast of New Zealand (Lewis, 1999). There fine sands are transported ∼2000 km northward into the Kermadec trench by sediment gravity flow and deep water currents. Such modern examples of long distance sediment transport should be kept in mind when interpreting details of terrane translation. The possibility that the fine grained fraction may have been transported 2000-3000 km from their source makes their provenance of very little use when attempting to resolve controversies where distances of tectonic translation are on the same order of magnitude (Insular and Torlesse Superterranes). Thus detailed histories of terrane translation are best developed using coarse rather than fine size tractions. Gravels are transported over 10s to 100s of kilometers rather than the 1000s of kilometers possible for fine grained sediments. In addition, more detailed isotopic and geochemical provenance analysis is possible due to the larger grain size available allowing more specific characterization of the source area. However, truly effective characterization of sediment source rocks can only be accomplished as part of multidisciplinary research projects that would include provenance analysis by a variety of methods combined with basin analysis to understand facies relations and sediment dispersal paths. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  7. “De Beach Belong to We!” Socio-economic Disparity and Islanders’ Rights of Access to the Coast in a Tourist Paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Toppin-Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean islands share a history of plantation economy in which the "1%" not only controlled the natural resources and economies of the region, but also owned the majority of the "99%" who were enslaved. This disparity in wealth approximated a racial divide in the society, as the wealthy minority was predominantly "white" while the dispossessed majority was mainly non-whites. While the coastlands were always of importance in these export-oriented agricultural colonies, beach and backshore lands unsuitable for agriculture were less so, often being utilized for boatyards/fishing depots, cemeteries and "tenantries" or squatter settlements housing the landless. Since World War II, and particularly since the Cuban revolution in 1960, beach-oriented tourism has become the leading economic activity in most Caribbean countries. Competition for coastal resources has generally been resolved in favour of foreign currency, transferring much coastal property to foreign ownership and increasingly shutting off the local population's access to the sea. As the majority of foreign investors and tourists are white, this also has racial connotations. This paper examines the legal and administrative responses to the challenges that this situation presents which have been adopted by the Anglo-Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS, with particular reference to the islands of Jamaica, Barbados, Tobago and some of the member countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS. Las islas del Caribe comparten una historia de economía basada en plantaciones, en el que el 1% de la población controlaba los recursos naturales y la economía de la región, y al 99% restante, que vivía esclavizado. Esta diferencia en la riqueza traía consigo una división racial en la sociedad, ya que la minoría rica era principalmente "blanca", mientras que la mayoría desposeía era principalmente "no blanca". Mientras que las tierras costeras tenían siempre

  8. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans Las caídas en ancianos de América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (the "SABE project" (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9 765 subjects and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE (1 483 subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de caídas y de sus factores de riesgo en ancianos que habitan en el seno de la comunidad en América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses que viven en la zona sudoeste de Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Los datos usados para el estudio procedieron del proyecto Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (proyecto "SABE" (encuestas en siete ciudades que abarcaron a un total de 9 765 personas y de las Poblaciones Hispanas Establecidas para Estudios

  9. Encuesta Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE: metodología de la encuesta y perfil de la población estudiada The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE" survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Albala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento reseña la metodología de la encuesta SABE y los desafíos que impone a la sociedad en general y a los servicios de salud en particular el rápido envejecimiento de la población en América Latina y el Caribe. La Región esta envejeciendo a un ritmo que no se ha observado en el mundo desarrollado, y la evaluación de problemas de salud y discapacidad indica que los adultos mayores están envejeciendo con más limitaciones funcionales y peor salud que sus semejantes en países desarrollados. Además, las redes familiares están cambiando rápidamente y tienen menos capacidad de suplir la falta de protección social institucional. El estudio multicéntrico SABE se creó con el objetivo de evaluar el estado de salud de las personas adultas mayores de siete ciudades de América Latina y el Caribe: Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bridgetown, Barbados; La Habana, Cuba; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; México, D.F., México y São Paulo, Brasil. La encuesta SABE establece el punto de partida para la investigación sistemática del envejecimiento en zonas urbanas de la Región de América Latina y el Caribe. Se recomienda que estudios de estas características y con este ánimo comparativo se extiendan a otros países, zonas y regiones, para enriquecer el conocimiento sobre las personas adultas mayores.This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (known as the "SABE survey", and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than

  10. Family planning costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  11. Genetic variants demonstrating flip-flop phenomenon and breast cancer risk prediction among women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Qian, Frank; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Nathanson, Katherine L; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the performance of existing breast cancer risk prediction models among women of African ancestry. In replication studies of genetic variants, a change in direction of the risk association is a common phenomenon. Termed flip-flop, it means that a variant is risk factor in one population but protective in another, affecting the performance of risk prediction models. We used data from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in the African diaspora (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants of African ancestry from Nigeria, USA, and Barbados. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed from the published odds ratios (ORs) of four sets of susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Discrimination capacity was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Flip-flop phenomenon was observed among 30~40% of variants across studies. Using the 34 variants with consistent directionality among previous studies, we constructed a PRS with AUC of 0.531 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.512-0.550), which is similar to the PRS using 93 variants and ORs from European ancestry populations (AUC = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.506-0.544). Additionally, we found the 34-variant PRS has good discriminative accuracy in women with family history of breast cancer (AUC = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.532-0.640). We found that PRS based on variants identified from prior GWASs conducted in women of European and Asian ancestries did not provide a comparable degree of risk stratification for women of African ancestry. Further large-scale fine-mapping studies in African ancestry populations are desirable to discover population-specific genetic risk variants.

  12. Organic matter cracking: A source of fluid overpressure in subducting sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Thiéry, Régis; Vacelet, Maxime; Famin, Vincent; Ramboz, Claire; Boussafir, Mohammed; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Yamaguchi, Asuka

    2017-11-01

    The pressure of deep fluids in subduction zones is a major control on plate boundary strength and earthquake genesis. The record, by methane-rich fluid inclusions, of large ( 50-100 MPa) and instantaneous pressure variations in the Shimanto Belt (Japan) points to the presence of large fluid overpressure at depth (300-500 MPa, 250 °C). To further analyze the connection between methane and fluid overpressure, we determined with Rock-Eval the potential for a worldwide selection of deep seafloor sediments to produce methane as a result of organic matter (OM) cracking due to temperature increase during subduction. The principal factor controlling the methanogenesis potential of sediments is OM proportion, while OM nature is only a subordinate factor. In turn, OM proportion is mainly controlled by the organic terrigenous input. Considering a typical sediment from ocean-continent subduction zones, containing 0.5 wt% of type III OM, cracking of OM has two major consequences: (1) Methane is produced in sufficient concentration as to oversaturate the pore-filling water. The deep fluid in accretionary prisms is therefore a mechanical mixture of water-rich and methane-rich phases; (2) CH4 production can generate large fluid overpressure, of the order of several tens of MPa, The conditions for these large overpressure are a low permeability of the upper plate (z > 10 km) where OM thermal cracking occurs. At these depths, OM thermal cracking appears as a source of overpressure larger than the last increments of smectite-to-illite reaction. Such large overpressures play potentially a role in facilitating slip along the plate interface. Conversely, the scarcity of earthquakes in ocean-ocean subduction zones such as Marianna or Barbados may be related to the low influx of detrital OM and the limited methane/overpressure generation at depth.

  13. Providers' perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O; Flores, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion agencies and the private health sector seeking

  14. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprinting of transatlantic dust derived from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wancang; Balsam, William; Williams, Earle; Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    Long-range transport of African dust plays an important role in understanding dust-climate relationships including dust source areas, dust pathways and associated atmospheric and/or oceanic processes. Clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions can be used as geochemical fingerprints to constrain dust provenance and the pathways of long-range transported mineral dust. We investigated the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of surface samples along four transects bordering the Sahara Desert. The transects are from Mali, Niger/Benin/Togo, Egypt and Morocco. Our results show that the Mali transect on the West African Craton (WAC) produces lower εNd (εNd-mean = -16.38) and εHf (εHf-mean = -9.59) values than the other three transects. The Egyptian transect exhibits the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (87Sr/86Srmean = 0.709842), the highest εHf (εHf-mean = -0.34) and εNd values of the four transects. Comparison of the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values from our North African samples to transatlantic African dust collected in Barbados demonstrates that the dust's provenance is primarily the western Sahel and Sahara as well as the central Sahel. Summer emission dust is derived mainly from the western Sahel and Sahara regions. The source of transatlantic dust in spring and autumn is more varied than in the summer and includes dust not only from western areas, but also south central areas. Comparison of the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprints between the source and sink of transatlantic dust also suggests that a northwestward shift in dust source occurs from the winter, through the spring and into the summer. The isotopic data we develop here provide another tool for discriminating changes in dust archives resulting from paleoenvironmental evolution of source regions.

  15. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Fleischer, Shelby; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  16. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney N Nagoshi

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  17. Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  18. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.

  19. Satellites as Shared Resources for Caribbean Climate and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.

  20. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  1. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  2. Coral ages and island subsidence, Hilo drill hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Ingram, B.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Clague, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25.8-m-thick sedimentary section containing coral fragments occurs directly below a surface lava flow (the ???1340 year old Panaewa lava flow) at the Hilo drill hole. Ten coral samples from this section dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon and five by thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) 230Th/U methods show good agreement. The calcareous unit is 9790 years old at the bottom and 1690 years old at the top and was deposited in a shallow lagoon behind an actively growing reef. This sedimentary unit is underlain by a 34-m-thick lava flow which in turn overlies a thin volcaniclastic silt with coral fragments that yield a single 14C date of 10,340 years. The age-depth relations of the dated samples can be compared with proposed eustatic sea level curves after allowance for island subsidence is taken. Island subsidence averages 2.2 mm/yr for the last 47 years based on measurements from a tide gage near the drill hole or 2.5-2.6 mm/yr for the last 500,000 years based on the ages and depths of a series of drowned coral reefs offshore from west Hawaii. The age-depth measurements of coral fragments are more consistent with eustatic sea levels as determined by coral dating at Barbados and Albrolhos Islands than those based on oxygen isotopic data from deep sea cores. The Panaewa lava flow entered a lagoon underlain by coral debris and covered the drill site with 30.9 m of lava of which 11 m was above sea level. This surface has now subsided to 4.2 m above sea level, but it demonstrates how a modern lava flow entering Hilo Bay would not only change the coastline but could extensively modify the offshore shelf.

  3. Evaluation of 19 susceptibility loci of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2012-04-01

    Multiple breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European and Asian ancestry using array chips optimized for populations of European ancestry. It is important to examine whether these loci are associated with breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We evaluated 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 19 loci in a pooled case-control study of breast cancer, which included 1509 cases and 1383 controls. Cases and controls were enrolled in Nigeria, Barbados and the USA; all women were of African ancestry. We found significant associations for three SNPs, which were in the same direction and of similar magnitude as those reported in previous fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry. The allelic odds ratios were 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.47; P = 0.018] for the rs2981578-G allele (10q26/FGFR2), 1.34 (95% CI: 1.10-1.63; P = 0.0035) for the rs9397435-G allele (6q25) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.25; P = 0.04) for the rs3104793-C allele (16q12). Although a significant association was observed for an additional index SNP (rs3817198), it was in the opposite direction to prior GWAS studies. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity of applying current GWAS findings across racial/ethnic groups, as none of GWAS-identified index SNPs could be replicated in women of African ancestry. Further fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry will be needed to reveal additional and causal variants for breast cancer.

  4. The things they carried: The pathogenic effects of old and new parasites following the intercontinental invasion of the Australian cane toad (Rhinella marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Selechnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brought to Australia in 1935 to control agricultural pests (from French Guiana, via Martinique, Barbados, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hawai'i, repeated stepwise translocations of small numbers of founders enabled the cane toad (Rhinella marina to escape many parasites and pathogens from its native range. However, the infective organisms that survived the journey continue to affect the dynamics of the toad in its new environment. In Australia, the native-range lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala decreases its host's cardiac capacity, as well as growth and survival, but not rate of dispersal. The lungworm is most prevalent in long-colonised areas within the toads' Australian range, and absent from the invasion front. Several parasites and pathogens of Australian taxa have host-shifted to cane toads in Australia; for example, invasion-front toads are susceptible to spinal arthritis caused by the soil bacterium, Ochrobactrum anthropi. The pentastome Raillietiella frenata has host-shifted to toads and may thereby expand its Australian range due to the continued range expansion of the invasive toads. Spill-over and spill-back of parasites may be detrimental to other host species; however, toads may also reduce parasite loads in native taxa by acting as terminal hosts. We review the impact of the toad's parasites and pathogens on the invasive anuran's biology in Australia, as well as collateral effects of toad-borne parasites and pathogens on other host species in Australia. Both novel and co-evolved pathogens and parasites may have played significant roles in shaping the rapid evolution of immune system responses in cane toads within their invaded range. Keywords: Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, Ecoimmunology, Invasion, Enemy release hypothesis, Immune function, Bufo, Pathogen-mediated selection 1

  5. Estudios Entomológicos-El Gusano de las Hojas de la Yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego M. F. Luis

    1950-12-01

    Full Text Available Se le conocen muchas denominaciones, siendo las más comunes entre nosotros las de "gusano primavera", "gusano cachón", "gusano de temporadas", "gusano comedor de las hojas" y "gusano pintado", debido a que las larvas se presentan con colores muy variados. El insecto es conocido desde el año de 1750, en que Linneo lo presentó a la ciencia en su "Systema Natura" (109 edición con e_ nombre de Dilophonota ello. Gundlach da muy buenos datos sobre él en su "Contribución a la Entomología Cubana -Lepidópteros", publicada en 1881; posteriormente, en 1907, fue pasado por Rothschild & Jordán, al género Erinnyis, siendo hoy conocido como Erinnyis ellow Rothschild & Jordán. Es una mariposa crepuscular de la familia de los Sphingidae, sub-familia Sesiinae (Holland. Abunda en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales, continentales e insulares de América, es decir, desde el Brasil hasta el Canadá y California, incluyendo las Antillas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, San Cristóbal y Barbados. Según algunos autores parece ser oriundo del continente y probablemente del Brasil, de donde también tiene origen su principal huésped, la yuca. De su aparición en Colombia no podemos afirmar con precisión desde qué tiempo viene ocasionando estragos, aunque nuestros viejos campesinos aseguran que el "gusano pintado de la yuca, es tan viejo en nuestros campos como lo es el mismo cultivo".

  6. Dry versus wet marine particle optical properties: RH dependence of depolarization ratio, backscatter, and extinction from multiwavelength lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haarig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the depolarization ratio and the backscatter coefficient of marine aerosol as a function of relative humidity (RH are presented with a 5 min time resolution. The measurements were performed at Barbados (13° N, 59° W during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud interaction Experiment (SALTRACE winter campaign in February 2014. The phase transition from spherical sea salt particles to cubic-like sea salt crystals was observed with a polarization lidar. The radiosonde and water-vapor Raman lidar observations show a drop in RH below 50 % in the marine aerosol layer simultaneously with a strong increase in particle linear depolarization ratio, which reaches values up to 0.12 ± 0.08 (at 355 nm, 0.15 ± 0.03 (at 532 nm, and 0.10 ± 0.01 (at 1064 nm. The lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio increased from 19 and 23 sr for spherical sea salt particles to 27 and 25 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, respectively for cubic-like particle ensembles. Furthermore the scattering enhancement due to hygroscopic growth of the marine aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions was measured. Extinction enhancement factors from 40 to 80 % RH of 1.94 ± 0.94 at 355 nm, 3.70 ± 1.14 at 532 nm, and 5.37 ± 1.66 at 1064 nm were found. The enhanced depolarization ratios and lidar ratios were compared to modeling studies of cubic sea salt particles.

  7. Healing results in meniscus and articular cartilage photochemically welded with 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Loyd, John D.; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1997-05-01

    Meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage do not heal spontaneously. In this paper results are described of studies of a procedure for evoking the healing response in such lesions by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Fifteen essentially mature Barbados sheep 40 - 60 pounds in weight received a 2 - 3 mm flap tear by incision in the red white zone of the medial meniscus oriented parallel to the table of the tibia. The animals were divided into four groups; Group I, no treatment; Group II, treatment by laser activated photoactive dyes; Group III, treatment by suturing; Group IV, treatment by laser irradiation only; Group V, treatment by photoactive dyes only. In another group of 12 sheep partial thickness flap tear was created by incision in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyle. These were divided into four groups as for the meniscus study, omitting the sutured control. Welds were made using the dimeric dye MBM Gold BW 012-012-012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9 nm argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes (360 J/cm2) with approximately 2 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hr, 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Gross appearance of menisci and cartilage in all welded knees was normal and all welds resisted deformation or loosening under forceful probing. Histology of studies of both tissues out to 6 moths disclosed close bonding of welded area, continuing healing response in the form of cellular recruitment and protein deposition and the absence of inflammatory response. Tissue erosion and arthritic changes were evident in all unwelded controls.

  8. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  9. A focus on the consumer: social marketing for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaire, L E

    1985-01-01

    Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources

  10. Dry versus wet marine particle optical properties: RH dependence of depolarization ratio, backscatter, and extinction from multiwavelength lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Gasteiger, Josef; Kandler, Konrad; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Radenz, Martin; Farrell, David A.

    2017-11-01

    Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the depolarization ratio and the backscatter coefficient of marine aerosol as a function of relative humidity (RH) are presented with a 5 min time resolution. The measurements were performed at Barbados (13° N, 59° W) during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) winter campaign in February 2014. The phase transition from spherical sea salt particles to cubic-like sea salt crystals was observed with a polarization lidar. The radiosonde and water-vapor Raman lidar observations show a drop in RH below 50 % in the marine aerosol layer simultaneously with a strong increase in particle linear depolarization ratio, which reaches values up to 0.12 ± 0.08 (at 355 nm), 0.15 ± 0.03 (at 532 nm), and 0.10 ± 0.01 (at 1064 nm). The lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) increased from 19 and 23 sr for spherical sea salt particles to 27 and 25 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, respectively) for cubic-like particle ensembles. Furthermore the scattering enhancement due to hygroscopic growth of the marine aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions was measured. Extinction enhancement factors from 40 to 80 % RH of 1.94 ± 0.94 at 355 nm, 3.70 ± 1.14 at 532 nm, and 5.37 ± 1.66 at 1064 nm were found. The enhanced depolarization ratios and lidar ratios were compared to modeling studies of cubic sea salt particles.

  11. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Cross Croix (SC. Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%. Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene.

  12. Potential of polarization/Raman lidar to separate fine dust, coarse dust, maritime, and anthropogenic aerosol profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Ansmann, Albert

    2017-09-01

    We applied the recently introduced polarization lidar-photometer networking (POLIPHON) technique for the first time to triple-wavelength polarization lidar measurements at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. The lidar observations were performed at Barbados during the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in the summer of 2014. The POLIPHON method comprises the traditional lidar technique to separate mineral dust and non-dust backscatter contributions and the new, extended approach to separate even the fine and coarse dust backscatter fractions. We show that the traditional and the advanced method are compatible and lead to a consistent set of dust and non-dust profiles at simplified, less complex aerosol layering and mixing conditions as is the case over the remote tropical Atlantic. To derive dust mass concentration profiles from the lidar observations, trustworthy extinction-to-volume conversion factors for fine, coarse, and total dust are needed and obtained from an updated, extended Aerosol Robotic Network sun photometer data analysis of the correlation between the fine, coarse and total dust volume concentration and the respective fine, coarse, and total dust extinction coefficient for all three laser wavelengths. Conversion factors (total volume to extinction) for pure marine aerosol conditions and continental anthropogenic aerosol situations are presented in addition. As a new feature of the POLIPHON data analysis, the Raman lidar method for particle extinction profiling is used to identify the aerosol type (marine or anthropogenic) of the non-dust aerosol fraction. The full POLIPHON methodology was successfully applied to a SALTRACE case and the results are discussed. We conclude that the 532 nm polarization lidar technique has many advantages in comparison to 355 and 1064 nm polarization lidar approaches and leads to the most robust and accurate POLIPHON products.

  13. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  14. Qualitative Research in an International Research Program: Maintaining Momentum while Building Capacity in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Mill RN, PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are knowledgeable about issues that affect quality and equity of care and are well qualified to inform policy, yet their expertise is seldom acknowledged and their input infrequently invited. In 2007, a large multidisciplinary team of researchers and decision-makers from Canada and five low- and middle-income countries (Barbados, Jamaica, Uganda, Kenya, and South Africa received funding to implement a participatory action research (PAR program entitled “Strengthening Nurses' Capacity for HIV Policy Development in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.” The goal of the research program was to explore and promote nurses' involvement in HIV policy development and to improve nursing practice in countries with a high HIV disease burden. A core element of the PAR program was the enhancement of the research capacity, and particularly qualitative capacity, of nurses through the use of mentorship, role-modeling, and the enhancement of institutional support. In this article we: (a describe the PAR program and research team; (b situate the research program by discussing attitudes to qualitative research in the study countries; (c highlight the incremental formal and informal qualitative research capacity building initiatives undertaken as part of this PAR program; (d describe the approaches used to maintain rigor while implementing a complex research program; and (e identify strategies to ensure that capacity building was locally-owned. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities and provide an informal analysis of the research capacity that was developed within our international team using a PAR approach.

  15. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-04

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  16. Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Associated with African Dust Air Masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mohammed, Azad; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-01-01

    Every year, billions of tons of fine particles are eroded from the surface of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel of West Africa, lifted into the atmosphere by convective storms, and transported thousands of kilometers downwind. Most of the dust is carried west to the Americas and the Caribbean in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Dust air masses predominately impact northern South America during the Northern Hemisphere winter and the Caribbean and Southeastern United States in summer. Dust concentrations vary considerably temporally and spatially. In a dust source region (Mali), concentrations range from background levels of 575 micrograms per cubic meter (mu/u g per m3) to 13,000 mu/u g per m3 when visibility degrades to a few meters (Gillies and others, 1996). In the Caribbean, concentrations of 200 to 600 mu/u g per m3 in the mid-Atlantic and Barbados (Prospero and others, 1981; Talbot and others, 1986), 3 to 20 mu/u g per m3 in the Caribbean (Prospero and Nees, 1986; Perry and others, 1997); and >100 mu/u g per m3 in the Virgin Islands (this dataset) have been reported during African dust conditions. Mean dust particle size decreases as the SAL traverses from West Africa to the Caribbean and Americas as a result of gravitational settling. Mean particle size reaching the Caribbean is human lungs. A large body of literature has shown that increased PM2.5 concentrations are linked to increased cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality (for example, Dockery and others, 1993; Penn and others, 2005).

  17. Reported cases of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The number of reported cases of measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough for the period of January 1, 1994 to the date of the last report is presented in tabular form by country with a comparison for the same epidemiological period in 1993. The countries included are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, and the US. The figures for measles are given as reported and as confirmed. In some countries, the reported number of cases of measles decreased from 1993 figures (Venezuela 5275 vs. 6060, Paraguay 26 vs. 958, Brazil 272 vs. 958, Canada 30 vs. 38), but, in others, the figure increased from 1993 (Mexico 47 vs. 21, the US 155 vs. 86). There were no reported cases of poliomyelitis for either year in any country. The figures for tetanus are divided into nonneonatal and neonatal. In Brazil the number of nonneonatal cases decreased to 360 from 371 in 1993, and the number of neonatal cases decreased to 28 from 65. In Mexico, nonneonatal cases decreased to 28 from 45, but neonatal cases increased to 23 from 20 in 1993. The number of cases of diphtheria cases in Brazil decreased to 28 from 65 in the same period of 1993. The number of cases of whooping cough decreased to 431 from 1651 in Brazil and to 51 from 70 in Mexico. However, the number of cases in Canada increased to 1047 from 784.

  18. Metatheatre and representation of the indiano in a Suarez de Deza's mojiganga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This work is part of the research we are doing on the metatheatre’s proceedings and its relationship with the social imaginary in the Spanish brief theatre of the 17th. This theatre, because of its location on the boundaries of fiction, has many times a concentration of metatheatrical elements, such as occurs with the mojiganga The weddings, for Palace, by Vicente Suárez de Deza. The metatheatrical perspective of three handsome men, who play roles and simulate to come from Indias, joins other grotesque components: the old man, la dueña and specially the brides played by three bearded ones. We’ll make relation between those metatheatrical components and social representations, circulating in Spanish society of the 17th, about the Other, el indiano, notorious behind the superficial effect of humor. Resumen:Este trabajo se enmarca en la investigación que estamos realizando sobre las variantes del metateatro y su relación con el imaginario social en el teatro breve español del siglo XVII.  Este, por su emplazamiento en los bordes de la ficción, posee frecuentemente una concentración de elementos metateatrales, como ocurre con la mojiganga Los casamientos, para Palacio de Vicente Suárez de Deza. La perspectiva teatral de los tres galanes, quienes componen roles y fingen provenir de las Indias, se une a otros componentes grotescos: el vejete, la dueña y particularmente, las novias desempeñadas por tres barbados. Vincularemos dichos componentes metateatrales con las representaciones sociales que se tenían en la metrópoli española del siglo XVII de ese «otro», el indiano, perceptibles al trasluz del epidérmico efecto de comicidad. 

  19. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  20. Properties of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Kristensen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud optical properties in the trade winds over the eastern Caribbean Sea have been shown to be sensitive to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the CCN properties in the marine boundary layer (MBL in the tropical western North Atlantic, in order to assess the respective roles of inorganic sulfate, organic species, long-range transported mineral dust and sea-salt particles. Measurements were carried out in June–July 2013, on the east coast of Barbados, and included CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and offline analysis of sampled particulate matter (PM and sampled accumulation mode particles for an investigation of composition and mixing state with transmission electron microscopy (TEM in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. During most of the campaign, significant mass concentrations of long-range transported mineral dust was present in the PM, and influence from local island sources can be ruled out. The CCN and particle number concentrations were similar to what can be expected in pristine marine environments. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was inferred, and values in the range 0.2–0.5 were found during most of the campaign, with similar values for the Aitken and the accumulation mode. The accumulation mode particles studied with TEM were dominated by non-refractory material, and concentrations of mineral dust, sea salt and soot were too small to influence the CCN properties. It is highly likely that the CCN were dominated by a mixture of sulfate species and organic compounds.

  1. Calidad de los datos de salud ocupacional en América Latina y el Caribe The quality of occupational health data in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Work-related accidents and illnesses cause significant economic and social losses in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the lack of reliable and systematized data on that situation makes it harder for health authorities and business operators to make decisions and for workers and the general public to take steps to improve working conditions, reduce risks, and prevent those accidents and illnesses. To address that concern, the Program on Workers' Health of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO coordinated the Project on Systematizing Basic Data on Workers' Health in the Countries of the Americas. A report on the project issued in August 1998 contains results, conclusions, and recommendations based on data collected from 10 countries of the Region: Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. The data were systematized and presented in 42 tables that allowed comparisons among the countries and evaluations of the situation in any one of the countries. Data from countries with adequate record keeping made it clear that many persons work in sectors with high rates of accidents and chronic disease. The research also found it is often hard to analyze trends and changes in labor mortality and morbidity and the conditions that increase the frequency of accidents and occupational diseases. That is because countries and institutions use a variety of approaches to classify, diagnose, and report diseases and occupational injuries, and also frequently modify their criteria. As a follow-up to this research, PAHO is working to compile more specific information on occupational health in the countries of the Region, through an approach that would improve the quality of the information and make it easier to compare the data that is collected.

  2. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  3. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion

  4. The New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty organized by CIMA Research Foundation and University of Genova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, G.

    2009-04-01

    CIMA is a Research Foundation which aim is to advance science and engineering in environmentally related fields, focusing on public health and safety, civil protection and the preservation of terrestrial and water-related ecosystems. This aim is accomplished through scientific research, technology transfer and high level training services. Here we present the "New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty" jointly managed by CIMA Foundation, and the University of Genova. The school is organized to provide to international students, professionals and government officials, mainly from poor or developing countries, formation for the management, prediction and prevention of natural and man made disasters. The expertise of the teachers, mainly CIMA's researchers, comes from a long term support of CIMA Foundation to the Italian Civil Protection in developing the advanced national system for risk prediction, prevention and management. The school is organized in two levels. The first level includes an international master of science degree in "Environmental Engineering: Sustainable Development and Risk Management", which classes are given in English, and a master for professional and government officials in "Disasters, food and poverty". The second level includes an international Ph.D. programme in "Information sciences and technologies for system monitoring and environmental risk management". Short training courses for international government official are periodically organized. At present the school is organizing short courses for officials of Civil Protections of Venezuela, Barbados and Mozambique. The philosophy underlying the teaching activities is to promote a multi-disciplinary approach to disaster mitigation, prevention and prediction. Special focus is on the potential of high-tech low-cost technologies for rapid communication and disaster monitoring, such as satellite based technologies. Such technologies are seen as the best way to support the development

  5. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Johnston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public

  6. Diabetes in the English-speaking Caribbean La diabetes en el Caribe de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Hennis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.Las tasas de diabetes mellitus en los países del Caribe de habla inglesa se han venido incrementando en los últimos años y se espera que continúen aumentando en el nuevo milenio. Las tasas de prevalencia en los países receptores de la diáspora africana reflejan los niveles

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available -Gesa Mackenthun, Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions: The wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ix + 202 pp. -Peter Redfield, Peter Hulme ,Wild majesty: Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the present day. An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. x + 369 pp., Neil L. Whitehead (eds -Michel R. Doortmont, Philip D. Curtin, The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xi + 222 pp. -Roderick A. McDonald, Hilary McD.Beckles, A history of Barbados: From Amerindian settlement to nation-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xv + 224 pp. -Gertrude J. Fraser, Hilary McD.Beckles, Natural rebels; A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press and Zed Books, 1990 and 1989. ix + 197 pp. -Bridget Brereton, Thomas C. Holt, The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1991. xxxi + 517 pp. -Peter C. Emmer, A. Meredith John, The plantation slaves of Trinidad, 1783-1816: A mathematical and demographic inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xvi + 259 pp. -Richard Price, Robert Cohen, Jews in another environment: Surinam in the second half of the eighteenth century. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991. xv + 350 pp. -Russell R. Menard, Nigel Tattersfield, The forgotten trade: comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725. London: Jonathan Cape, 1991. ixx + 460 pp. -John D. Garrigus, James E. McClellan III, Colonialism and science: Saint Domingue in the old regime. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xviii + 393 pp. -Lowell Gudmundson, Richard H. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean: The Panama canal, the Monroe doctrine, and the Latin American context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University

  8. Use of TOMS data to quantify the respective impacts of Sahel drought and North Atlantic Oscillation on African dust sources and export over the last two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, C.; Chiapello, I.

    2003-04-01

    Atmospheric wind-blown dust from arid regions of Africa affects the radiative budget over Africa and tropical Atlantic (Li et al., 1996) and likely modifies the regional climate (Alpert et al., 1998). Former studies based on surface measurements (Middleton, 1985; Prospero and Nees, 1986) have shown that emission and transport of African dust have been dramatically increased during the two severe Sahel droughts in early 1970's and 1980's. More recently, Meteosat images have revealed the impact of meteorological conditions, defined by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the inter-annual variability of dust export over the tropical North Atlantic (Moulin et al., 1996). Here we use the TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index archive to monitor dust optical thicknesses over Atlantic and Africa during the last 20 years and to relate its variability to changes in NAO and Sahel drought. The drought impact on dust sources in semi-arid regions of western Sahel is shown to be the primary cause of variability in dust export to the tropical North Atlantic during both winter and summer. The NAO impact on African dust export cannot however be neglected, mainly in summer when it controls the intensity of the largest dust sources in arid regions. Li, X., Maring, H., Savoie, D., Voss, K., and Prospero, J.M., Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic Trade Winds. Nature, 380, 416-419 (1996). Alpert, P., Kaufman, Y.J., Shay-El, Y., Tanré, D., Da Silva, A., Schubert, S., and Joseph, Y.H., Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere. Nature, 395, 367-370 (1998). Prospero, J.M. and Nees, R.T., Impact of the North African drought and El-Nino on the mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds. Nature, 320, 735-738 (1986). Middleton, N. J. Effect of drought on dust production in the Sahel. Nature, 316, 431-434 (1985). Moulin, C., Lambert, C.E., Dulac, F., and Dayan, U., Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic

  9. New Geochronology and Radiometric Age Dates Improve the Definition and Continuity of Accreted Tectonic Terranes of Northern Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, M.; Mann, P.; Audemard, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    arc and flanking Aves ridge to the west and Tobago-Barbados ridge to the east. Previous models to explain the extension along the GAC-South America suture in western Venezuela invoke slab breakoff following the collision. In the Lesser Antilles the purposed model is slab rollback that led to abandonment of the Aves Ridge as a remnant arc and formation of the modern Lesser Antilles arc.

  10. Information Seeking in Social Media: A Review of YouTube for Sedentary Behavior Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily; Intzandt, Brittany; MacDougall, Alicia; Saunders, Travis J

    2015-01-20

    The global prevalence of sedentary lifestyles is of grave concern for public health around the world. Moreover, the health risk of sedentary behaviors is of growing interest for researchers, clinicians, and the general public as evidence demonstrates that prolonged amounts of sedentary time increases risk for lifestyle-related diseases. There is a growing trend in the literature that reports how social media can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Social sites like YouTube facilitate the sharing of media content between users. The purpose of this project was to identify sedentary behavior content on YouTube and describe features of this content that may impact the effectiveness of YouTube for knowledge translation. YouTube was searched on a single day by 3 independent reviewers for evidence-based sedentary behavior content. Subjective data (eg, video purpose, source, and activity type portrayed) and objective data (eg, number of views, comments, shares, and length of the video) were collected from video. In total, 106 videos met inclusion criteria. Videos were uploaded from 13 countries around the globe (ie, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Kenya, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States). The median video length was 3:00 minutes: interquartile range (IQR) 1:44-5:40. On average, videos had been on YouTube for 15.0 months (IQR 6.0-27.5) and had been viewed 239.0 times (IQR 44.5-917.5). Videos had remarkably low numbers of shares (median 0) and comments (median 1). Only 37.7% (40/106) of videos portrayed content on sedentary behaviors, while the remaining 66 videos portrayed physical activity or a mix of behaviors. Academic/health organizations (39.6%, 42/106) and individuals (38.7%, 41/106) were the most prevalent source of videos, and most videos (67.0%, 71/106) aimed to educate viewers about the topic. This study explored sedentary behavior content available on YouTube. Findings demonstrate that

  11. Níveis de mercúrio em peixes consumidos pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza na Reserva Munduruku, Município de Jacareacanga, Estado do Pará, Brasil Mercury levels in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza indigenous community, Munduruku Reservation, Jacareacanga County, State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson da Silva Brabo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo consiste em avaliar os níveis de mercúrio no pescado consumido pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza (Reserva Munduruku no Estado do Pará, e associá-los com os hábitos de consumo da população. Um total de oitenta espécimes de peixes foram capturados. As determinações de Hg foram realizadas por absorção atômica. A concentração média de Hg nas espécies carnívoras foi de 0,293 µg/g (DP = 0,104 enquanto nas não carnívoras foi de 0,112 µg/g (DP = 0,036. As espécies referidas como de maior consumo ente os 330 indivíduos entrevistados foram: tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã e caratinga. As espécies com concentrações mais elevadas de Hg foram tucunaré e traíra, que estão entre os peixes mais consumidos. A freqüência de consumo constitui-se num fator importante na avaliação de risco de contaminação por mercúrio em comunidades que não têm outras alternativas de alimentação.This study evaluated fish consumption and mercury levels in fish consumed by an indigenous community in the State of Pará. Eighty fish samples were collected (barbado, surubim, traíra, tucunaré, piranha, aruanã, caratinga, aracu, mandiá, jandiá, and pacu. Mercury analysis was performed using a Mercury Analyzer HG-3500. Average mercury concentration in carnivorous species was 0.293 µg/g (SD = 0.104, while in non-carnivorous species it was 0.112 µg/g (SD = 0.036. Brazilian legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit of 0.5 µg/g for fish consumption. No significant correlation was found between fish length or weight and mercury concentration. Types of fish most frequently consumed by the community were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. Carnivorous species, especially tucunaré and traíra, amongst the most frequently eaten, had higher mercury levels than non-carnivorous species. Frequency of consumption is crucial to assess the risk of mercury contamination in

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Frederick H. Smith; Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History (Franklin W. Knight Stephan Palmié; Wizards and Scientists: Explorations in Afro-Cuban Modernity and Tradition (Julie Skurski Miguel A. De la Torre; The Quest for the Cuban Christ: A Historical Search (Fernando Picó L. Antonio Curet, Shannon Lee Dawdy & Gabino La Rosa Corzo (eds.; Dialogues in Cuban Archaeology (David M. Pendergast Jill Lane; Blackface Cuba, 1840-1895 (Arthur Knight Hal Klepak; Cuba’s Military 1990-2005: Revolutionary Soldiers during Counter-Revolutionary Times (Antoni Kapcia Lydia Chávez (ed.; Capitalism, God, and a Good Cigar: Cuba Enters the Twenty-First Century (Ann Marie Stock Diane Accaria-Zavala & Rodolfo Popelnik (eds.; Prospero’s Isles: The Presence of the Caribbean in the American Imaginary (Sean X. Goudie Alexandra Isfahani-Hammond (ed.; The Masters and the Slaves: Plantation Relations and Mestizaje in American Imaginaries (Danielle D. Smith David J. Weber; Bárbaros: Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment (Neil L. Whitehead Larry Gragg; Englishmen Transplanted: The English Colonization of Barbados, 1627-1660 (Richard S. Dunn Jon F. Sensbach; Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World (Aaron Spencer Fogleman Jennifer L. Morgan; Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery (Verene A. Shepherd Jorge Luis Chinea; Race and Labor in the Hispanic Caribbean: The West Indian Immigrant Worker Experience in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, 1800-1850 (Juan José Baldrich Constance R. Sutton (ed.; Revisiting Caribbean Labour: Essays in Honour of O. Nigel Bolland (Mary Chamberlain Gert Oostindie; Paradise Overseas: The Dutch Caribbean: Colonialism and its Transatlantic Legacies (Bridget Brereton Allan Pred; The Past Is Not Dead: Facts, Fictions, and Enduring Racial Stereotypes (Karen Fog Olwig James C. Riley; Poverty and Life Expectancy: The Jamaica

  13. Basement blocks and basin inversion structures mapped using reprocessed Gulfrex 2D seismic data, Caribbean-South American oblique collisional zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, A.; Sena, A.; Mann, P.

    2003-12-01

    We have reprocessed and reinterpreted more than 10,000 km of "Gulfrex" multi-channel 2D seismic reflection lines collected by Gulf Oil Corporation in 1972 along the northern margin of South America (offshore Venezuela and Trinidad). These digital data were donated to the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and represent the largest single, digital reflection survey of the region. Reprocessing of these data included: format correction, filtering, post-stack multiple suppression, and fk migration. Reprocessed data were loaded and interpreted on a workstation. The data straddle a 2,000,000 km2 zone of Paleocene-Recent, time-transgressive, oblique collision between the Caribbean arc system and the passive continental margin of northern South America. Free-air, satellite gravity data shows the remarkable 1000-km-scale continuity of four basement ridges between the uncollided part of the Caribbean arc system (NS-trending Lesser Antilles arc) and the EW-trending collisional area north of Venezuela. The basement ridges involved in the Venezuelan collisional zone include: 1) Aruba-Bonaire-Curacao ridge that can be traced as a continuous feature to the Aves ridge remnant arc of the Lesser Antilles; 2) the partially inverted Blanquilla-Bonaire basin that can be traced into the Grenada back-arc basin; 3) Margarita-Los Testigos platform that can be traced to the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc; and 4) foreland basins and fold-thrust belts of eastern Venezuela (Serrania del Interior and Maturin basin) that can be traced to the Tobago forearc basin and Barbados accretionary prism. Gulfrex data document the progressive change of basinal fault systems from NS-striking normal faults formed in extensional, Lesser Antilles intra-arc settings to rotated and inverted, NE and EW-striking normal faults deformed in the collisional area north of Venezuela. Age of initial shortening of basinal areas and inversion of normal faults setting does not follow the simple, expected pattern of

  14. Investigation of aerosol effects on shallow marine convection - Lidar measurements during NARVAL-I and NARVAL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Gutleben, Manuel; Ewald, Florian; Kiemle, Christoph; Kölling, Tobias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Clouds and aerosols have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation. Furthermore aerosols can modify cloud properties and distribution. Up to now no sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and in climate feedback of clouds is achieved. Especially shallow marine convection in the trade wind regions show large uncertainties in climate feedback. Thus a better understanding of these shallow marine convective clouds and how aerosols affect these clouds, e.g. by changing the cloud properties and distribution, is highly demanded. During NARVAL-I (Next-generation airborne remote-sensing for validation studies) and NARVAL-II a set of active and passive remote sensing instruments, i.e. a cloud radar, an aerosol and water vapor lidar system, microwave radiometer, a hyper spectral imager (NARVAL-II only) and radiation measurements, were installed on the German research aircraft HALO. Measurements were performed out of Barbados over the tropical North-Atlantic region in December 2013 and August 2016 to study shallow trade wind convection as well as its environment in the dry and wet season. While no or only few aerosol layers were observed above the marine boundary layer during the dry season in December 2013, part of the measurement area was influenced by high aerosol load caused by long-range transport of Saharan dust during the NARVAL-II measurements in August 2016. Measurement flights during NARVAL-II were conducted the way that we could probed aerosol influenced regions as well as areas with low aerosol load. Thus the measurements during both campaigns provide the opportunity to investigate if and how the transported aerosol layers change the distribution and formation of the shallow marine convection by altering their properties and environment. In our presentation we will focus on the lidar measurements performed during NARVAL-I and NARVAL-II. We will give an overview of the measurements

  15. Seismological Insights into the Structure of the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J.; Bastow, I. D.; Baptie, B.

    2012-12-01

    Due to an overall eastwards drift of the Caribbean plate of around 2cm/year relative to the Atlantic plate, the type of the subduction along the eastern part of the Caribbean changes. Compared to the simple subduction of the Atlantic plate in the east, the northern plate boundary zone is far more complex, predominantly characterised by a left-lateral east-west strike-slip motion that includes an oblique convergence of the Bahamas carbonate banks and a pull apart basin in the Mona Passage, the sea gate between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The island of Hispaniola is decoupled from the Caribbean plate, which leads to a second subduction zone south of Hispaniola where the Caribbean plate subducts beneath the Hispaniola micro plate. Strictly speaking, the arc only extends to the east of the island of Puerto Rico but since most of the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone is directly linked to it the results become more directly comparable. Fed by the Orinoco River the southern part of the Lesser Antilles is a sediment-rich subduction zone, which becomes sediment-poor towards the north as the sediments get blocked by several banks, including the accretionary prism containing the island of Barbados. Here we investigate the crustal and mantle structure variation along the Antilles Arc using measurements of seismic anisotropy and receiver functions. We use data from three component broadband stations that are located from the southern end of the arc to Hispaniola in the north. Seismic anisotropy refers to directional variations in wave speeds and their polarisations. The observation of two independently propagating shear waves (splitting) is the least ambiguous indication of anisotropy. Such observations can be used to constrain mantle flow beneath subduction regions, offering insights into slab dynamics. We generally observed trench parallel orientations around the plate boundary. However, we see significant local deviations in the inferred flow pattern, for example, in

  16. Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre DeGeorges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses land-sourced pollution with an emphasis on domestic sewage in the Caribbean in relation to similar issues in the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Starting on a large-scale in the 1980s, tropical Atlantic coastlines of Florida and Caribbean islands were over-developed to the point that traditional sewage treatment and disposal were inadequate to protect fragile coral reefs from eutrophication by land-sourced nutrient pollution. This pollution caused both ecological and public health problems. Coral reefs were smothered by macro-algae and died, becoming rapidly transformed into weedy algal lawns, which resulted in beach erosion, and loss of habitat that added to fisheries collapse previously caused by over-fishing. Barbados was one of the first countries to recognize this problem and to begin implementation of effective solutions. Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, and South East Asia, are now starting to develop their coastlines for ecotourism, like the Caribbean was in the 1970s. Tourism is an important and increasing component of the economies of most tropical coastal areas. There are important lessons to be learned from this Caribbean experience for coastal zone planners, developers, engineers, coastal communities and decision makers in other parts of the world to assure that history does not repeat itself. Coral reef die-off from land-sourced pollution has been eclipsed as an issue since the ocean warming events of 1998, linked to global warming. Addressing ocean warming will take considerable international cooperation, but much of the land-sourced pollution issue, especially sewage, can be dealt with on a watershed by watershed basis by Indian Ocean and Pacific countries. Failure to solve this critical issue can adversely impact both coral reef and public health with dire economic consequences, and will prevent coral reef recovery from extreme high temperature events. Sewage treatment, disposal options

  17. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an

  18. Understanding attitudes, barriers and challenges in a small island nation to disease and partner notification for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O Peter; Carter, Anne O; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda

    2015-05-02

    In Barbados sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV are not notifiable diseases and there is not a formal partner notification (PN) programme. Objectives were to understand likely attitudes, barriers, and challenges to introducing mandatory disease notification (DN) and partner notification (PN) for HIV and other STIs in a small island state. Six key informants identified study participants. Interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and analysed for content using standard methods. Participants (16 males, 13 females, median age 59 years) included physicians, nurses, and representatives from governmental, youth, HIV, men's, women's, church, and private sector organisations. The median estimated acceptability by society of HIV/STI DN on a scale of 1 (unacceptable) to 5 (completely acceptable) was 3. Challenges included; maintaining confidentiality in a small island; public perception that confidentiality was poorly maintained; fear and stigma; testing might be deterred; reporting may not occur; enacting legislation would be difficult; and opposition by some opinion leaders. For PN, contract referral was the most acceptable method and provider referral the least. Contract referral unlike provider referral was not "a total suspension of rights" while taking into account that "people need a little gentle pressure sometimes". Extra counselling would be needed to elicit contacts or to get patients to notify partners. Shame, stigma and discrimination in a small society may make PN unacceptable and deter testing. With patient referral procrastination may occur, and partners may react violently and not come in for care. With provider referral patients may have concerns about confidentiality including neighbours becoming suspicious if a home visit is used as the contact method. Successful contact tracing required time and effort. With contract referral people may neither inform contacts nor say that they did not. Strategies to overcome barriers to DN and PN

  19. A cross-sectional study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in a Caribbean population: combining objective and questionnaire data to guide future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Christina; Brage, Soren; Hambleton, Ian R; Westgate, Kate; Samuels, T Alafia; Rose, Angela Mc; Unwin, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Current understanding of population physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25-54 years), using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ) and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors. The RPAQ collects information on recalled activity in 4 domains: home, work, transport, and leisure. Physical inactivity was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines; sedentary lifestyle was defined as being sedentary for 8 h or more daily; PA overestimation was defined as perceiving activity to be sufficient, when classified as 'inactive' by objective measurement. According to objective estimates, 90.5 % (95 % CI: 83.3,94.7) of women and 58.9 % (48.4,68.7) of men did not accumulate sufficient activity to meet WHO minimum recommendations. Overall, 50.7 % (43.3,58.1) of the population was sedentary for 8 h or more each day, and 60.1 % (52.8,66.9) overestimated their activity levels. The prevalence of inactivity was underestimated by self-report in both genders by 28 percentage points (95 % CI: 18,38), but the accuracy of reporting differed by age group, education level, occupational grade, and overweight/obesity status. Low PA was greater in more socially privileged groups: higher educational level and higher occupational grade were both associated with less objectively measured PA and more sedentary time. Variation in domain-specific self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) by educational attainment was observed: higher education level was associated with more leisure activity and less occupational activity. Occupational PA was the main driver of PAEE for women and men according to self-report, contributing 57 % (95 % CI: 52,61). The most

  20. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrellasp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorumsp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manzasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panamasp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarcasp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorumsp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barbasp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavellasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorumsp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostrasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbressp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salixsp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorumsp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolatasp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of

  1. Government and private rights and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, E N; Elias, E

    1983-08-01

    In most English speaking Caribbean countries the process of integrating family planning into their public health services has been underway for the past 10 years, prompted for the most part by concern for maternal and child health. Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago are primarily concerned about demographic factors. Regardless of the basis for intervention the question arises as to what responsibility does the state have to provide family planning services. The rights of the individual to determine the number and spacing of children and to have access to family planning services were debated for several years before they were acknowledged by governments in international agreements such as the 1968 UN International Conference on Human Rights. Caribbean governments also acknowledged these rights in the 1981 declaration of the Caribbean Community Ministers of Health Conference. Caribbean governments stand on solid ethical ground when they incorporate family planning services within their maternal and child health programs, because they have an obligation to protect individual family planning rights. Recognition would suffice if the private sector of the society enabled those who want to practice family planning to do so. The problem is that in the Caribbean, the private sector health system is inadequate (in terms of numbers of physicians) or inappropriate (in terms of cost) for the provision of family planning services to all who want them. Another ethical basis for government intervention is the state's obligation to improve the welfare of the community at large. The ethical justification is more complicated for governments which operate family planning programs out of a demographic concern. Yet, for the most part, justification still rests on the state's obligation to enhance the welfare of the community. Under the political systems found in Caribbean countries, the obligation of the government to provide family planning services does not suggest an

  2. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs sources characteristics are retrieved from numerical simulation using an hydraulic equations-based code (Volc

  3. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Thomassen Hestetun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism (BAP, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ13C and δ15N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰ compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5-10.5‰. We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ13C and δ15N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non

  4. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon T; Dahle, Håkon; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Olsen, Bernt R; Rapp, Hans T

    2016-01-01

    As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF) at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ 13 C and δ 15 N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰) compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5 to 10.5‰). We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ 13 C and δ 15 N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non-methanotrophic Cladorhiza

  5. Shallow Cumulus Sensitivity to Aerosol within a Fixed Meteorology Framework (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigel, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow cumulus clouds are critically important to the global energy budget and the general circulation of the earth. These clouds occupy up to a quarter of the global cloud fraction and they play a crucial role in mixing boundary layer properties with the free troposphere. As such, shallow cumulus clouds have a large effect on the vertical thermodynamic structure of the lower atmosphere, which then directly impacts larger scale circulations. Therefore, changes to the vertical mixing rates of cumulus clouds by forcing mechanisms such as aerosol loading can result in significant consequences for the general circulation of the Earth. This study aims to isolate changes in cumulus vertical mixing by a single forcing mechanism - aerosol loading. In order to isolate aerosol induced changes in cumulus mixing that are solely due to microphysical-dynamical interactions and not from mean-state thermodynamic instability changes caused by aerosol-cloud-precipitation feedbacks, this study uses a new approach of forcing shallow cumulus clouds in large eddy simulations (LESs). Nine (9) LESs with systematic variations in aerosol concentration and model domain size are initialized with the well-studied trade cumulus regime of the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX). However, rather than using the standard BOMEX forcing functions for each of the nine (9) simulations, which can result in different mean thermodynamic states when variations in aerosol concentration are imposed, the horizontal mean states of the following four (4) model prognosed variables are held fixed: liquid potential temperature (θl), total water (qt), zonal wind (u) and meridional wind (v). This guarantees that all variations of the cloud populations and their role in mixing are strictly the result of local microphysical-dynamical changes that result from changes in aerosol concentrations and not from changes to bulk conditional instability. Results from the nine (9) simulations show

  6. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  7. Boron desorption in subduction forearcs: Systematics and implications for the origin and transport of deeply-sourced fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Kopf, A.

    2015-12-01

    -tracer approach to the Costa Rica, N. Japan, N. Barbados, and Mediterranean Ridge subduction zones illustrates that clay dehydration and B desorption are viable mechanisms for the generation of observed geochemical signatures, including pore water freshening of over 50%, [B] up to 10x seawater values, and δ11B as low as 17‰.

  8. The Açu Reef morphology, distribution, and inter reef sedimentation on the outer shelf of the NE Brazil equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Luzia Liniane; Gomes, Moab Praxedes; Vital, Helenice

    2018-05-01

    Submerged reefs, referred to as the Açu Reefs, have been newly observed on both sides of the Açu Incised Valley on the northeastern equatorial Brazilian outer shelf. This study aims to understand the roles of shelf physiography, its antecedent morphologies, and its inter reef sedimentation on the different development stages of the biogenic reef during last deglacial sea-level rise. The data sets consist of side-scan sonar imagery, one sparker seismic profile, 76 sediment samples, and underwater photography. Seven backscatter patterns (P1 to P7) were identified and associated with eleven sedimentary carbonate and siliciclastic facies. The inherited relief, the mouth of the paleo incised valley, and the interreef sediment distribution play major controls on the deglacial reef evolution. The reefs occur in a depth-limited 25-55 m water depth range and in a 6 km wide narrow zone of the outer shelf. The reefs crop out in a surface area over 100 km2 and occur as a series of NW-SE preferentially orientated ridges composed of three parallel ridge sets at 45, 35, and 25 m of water depth. The reefs form a series of individual, roughly linear ridges, tens of km in length, acting as barriers in addition to scattered reef mounds or knolls, averaging 4 m in height and grouped in small patches and aggregates. The reefs, currently limited at the transition between the photic and mesophotic zones, are thinly covered by red algae and scattered coral heads and sponges. Taking into account the established sea-level curves from the equatorial Brazilian northeastern shelf / Rochas Atoll and Barbados, the shelf physiography, and the shallow bedrock, the optimal conditions for reef development had to occur during a time interval (11-9 kyr BP) characterized by a slowdown of the outer shelf flooding, immediately following Meltwater Pulse-1B. This 2 kyr short interval provided unique conditions for remarkable reef backstepping into distinct parallel ridge sets. Furthermore, the Açu Reefs

  9. PRODUÇÃO DE TEXTOS E CARTAZES COMO FERRAMENTA PARA APRENDIZAGEM SIGNIFICATIVA SOBRE A ÁGUA COM ALUNOS DO 6º ANO DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edman Weverton do Prado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O construtivismo se diferencia do ensino tradicional e conta com várias ferramentas que são apresentadas para a efetivação do processo de ensino-aprendizagem de forma significativa, entre eles podemos citar a utilização de organizadores prévios, construção de cartazes e elaboração de textos. O trabalho tem o objetivo de abordar a temática água e seus aspectos ambientais e sociais dentro de uma perspectiva da aprendizagem significativa de Ausubel (1976. A pesquisa tem caráter qualitativo e foi realizada na Escola Municipal Dr. Orlando Nigro, Cuiabá, MT, com uma amostra total de setenta e nove estudantes do sexto ano do ensino fundamental. A escola atende alunos dos bairros Pedregal, Renascer, Leblon e entorno. Esses bairros encontram-se na Microbacia do Córrego Barbado. O córrego citado está diretamente ligado a 21 bairros, e está degradado devido a intensa ocupação urbana de suas margens, assim, a escolha da temática está relacionada ao contexto ambiental e social em que a escola está inserida. Os aspectos metodológicos consistiram na aplicação de um questionário inicial, problematização e organizador prévio que resultou na produção de textos e confecção de cartazes. Os resultados do questionário inicial apresentaram pouca reflexão e criticidade nos aspectos relacionados ao desperdício e conservação dos recursos hídricos.  Após a aplicação metodológica foi percebido a produção e aprofundamento de conceitos onde os estudantes demonstraram argumentos consistentes muito além do que foi disponibilizado no organizador prévio.

  10. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2014-05-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected discrete air samples in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7% per year, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 years since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in recent years, most likely

  11. Orientation damage in the Christchurch cemeteries generated during the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Perez-Lopez, Raul; Rodrigez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Martin-Velazquez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The intensity scales determined the damage caused by an earthquake. However, a new methodology takes into account not only the damage but the type of damage "Earthquake Archaeological Effects" EAE's, and its orientation (e.g. displaced masonry blocks, impact marks, conjugated fractures, fallen and oriented columns, dipping broken corners, etc.). It focuses not only on the amount of damage but also in its orientation, giving information about the ground motion during the earthquake. In 2010 an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 took place in Christchurch (New Zealand) (22-2-2010), 185 casualties, making it the second-deadliest natural disaster in New Zealand. Due to the magnitude of the catastrophe, the city centre (CBD) was closed and the most damaged buildings were closed and later demolished. For this reason it could not be possible to access to sampling or make observations in the most damaged areas. However, the cemeteries were not closed and a year later still remained intact since the financial means to recover were used to reconstruct infrastructures and housing the city. This peculiarity of the cemeteries made measures of the earthquake effects possible. Orientation damage was measured on the tombs, crosses and headstones of the cemeteries (mainly on falling objects such as fallen crosses, obelisks, displaced tombstones, etc.). 140 data were taken in the most important cemeteries (Barbadoes, Addington, Pebleton, Woodston, Broomley and Linwood cemeteries) covering much of the city area. The procedure involved two main phases: a) inventory and identification of damages, and b) analysis of the damage orientations. The orientation was calculated for each element and plotted in a map and statistically in rose diagrams. The orientation dispersion is high in some cemeteries but damage orientation S-N and E-W is observed. However, due to the multiple seismogenic faults responsible for earthquakes and damages in Christchurch during the year after the 2010 earthquake, a

  12. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly transported to the remote islands before they would reach equilibrium (i.e., desorption completed). Because POPs concentrations in the other media are at trace

  13. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  14. Airborne Lidar Observations of Water Vapor Variability in the Northern Atlantic Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemle, Christoph; Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Bugliaro, Luca

    2017-04-01

    During the NARVAL (Next Generation Aircraft Remote Sensing for Validation Studies) field experiments in December 2013 and August 2016 the DLR lidar WALES (Water vapor Lidar Experiment in Space) was operated on board the German research aircraft HALO. The lidar simultaneously provided two-dimensional curtains of atmospheric backscatter and humidity along the flight track with high accuracy and spatial resolution, in order to help improve our knowledge on the coupling between water vapor, clouds, and circulation in the trades. The variability of water vapor, ubiquitous in our measurements, poses challenges to climate models because it acts on the small-scale low-cloud cover. Aloft, the very dry free troposphere in the subsiding branch of the Hadley cell acts as an open window in a greenhouse, efficiently cooling the lower troposphere. Secondary circulations between radiatively heated and cooled regions are supposed to occur, adding complexity to the situation. After recently having identified them to be mainly responsible for the uncertainty in global climate sensitivity, such interactions between shallow convection, circulation and radiation are at the heart of present scientific debate, endorsed by the WCRP (World Climate Research Programme) "Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity". Out of the wealth of about 30 winter and 60 summer flight hours totaling 75000 km of data over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, several representative lidar segments from different flights are presented, together with Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) images and dropsonde profiles. All observations indicate high heterogeneity of the humidity in the lowest 5 km, as well as high variability of the depth of the cloud layer (1 - 2 km thick) and of the sub-cloud boundary layer ( 1 km thick). Layer depths and partial water vapor columns within the layers may vary by up to a factor of 2, and on a large range of horizontal scales. Occasionally, very dry, up

  15. The Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Southern Shelf of the Strait of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Abuş, Eren

    2013-04-01

    The sea level changes in the northern shelf (Istanbul) of the Sea of Marmara and the sources of sedimentary packages at the southern exist of the Strait of Istanbul have been an ongoing debate the past decade. This study aims to enlighten both the sea level oscillations since ~125 ky before present and the structure of aforesaid sedimentary sequence, Unit 2, near Kurbaǧalı River observed in high resolution sparker seismic sections using global sea level change curves. Contary to Hiscott et al. (2002), Gökaşan et al. (2005), and Eriş et al. (2007) preferring the global sea level change curve in Fairbanks (1989) so as to explain the age interval of the sequence, we introduced the curve in Bard et al. (1990) presented the 230Th - 234U ages of Acropora palmata samples collected from the offshore of the island of Barbados, where Fairbanks (1989) submits the first chronology using the limited 14C ages. Therefore, the deposition of the Unit 2 was considered as 10 - 9 ky before present by Hiscott et al. (2002), as 12 - 11±1.1 ky BP by Gökaşan et al. (2005), and as 6.4 - 3.2 ky BP by Eriş et al. (2007). Having applied this calibration to our study, the age interval of the Unit 2 was calculated as 11.5 ky before present. In previous studies, Unit 2 was presented as prograding deltaic deposits of the Kurbaǧalı River yet our studies illustrates that the stream current of Kurbaǧalı River is not capable of supporting adequate sediment input, which is about 1.5 x 8.5 kilometers when the thickness and rate of propagation of Unit 2 are considered. Thanks to high resolution seismic sections and bathymetry, we firstly introduce that the Unit 2 is a point-bar structure forming as a product of the meandering regime at the southern exit of the Bosphorus.

  16. The role of skeletal micro-architecture in diagenesis and dating of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiak, P. J.; Andersen, M. B.; Hendy, E. J.; Potter, E. K.; Johnson, K. G.; Penkman, K. E. H.

    2016-06-01

    . Significantly, the best-preserved material in the fossil specimen yields a U-series age of 165 ± 8 ka, recording a paleo sea-level of -35 ± 7 msl during the MIS 6.5 interstadial on Barbados.

  17. A data-calibrated distribution of deglacial chronologies for the North American ice complex from glaciological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.; Neal, Radford M.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Past deglacial ice sheet reconstructions have generally relied upon discipline-specific constraints with no attention given to the determination of objective confidence intervals. Reconstructions based on geophysical inversion of relative sea level (RSL) data have the advantage of large sets of proxy data but lack ice-mechanical constraints. Conversely, reconstructions based on dynamical ice sheet models are glaciologically self-consistent, but depend on poorly constrained climate forcings and sub-glacial processes. As an example of a much better constrained methodology that computes explicit error bars, we present a distribution of high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial histories for the North American ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL, marine limit, and geodetic data. The history is derived from ensemble-based analyses using the 3D MUN glacial systems model and a high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM5a viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with artificial neural networks trained to the model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modeled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that takes data uncertainty into account. Final ensemble results also account for fits between computed and observed strandlines and marine limits. Given the model (including choice of calibration parameters), input and constraint data sets, and VM5a earth rheology, we find the North American contribution to mwp1a was likely between 9.4 and 13.2 m eustatic over a 500 year interval. This is more than half of the total 16 to 26 m meltwater pulse over 500 to 700 years (with lower values being more probable) indicated by the Barbados coral record (Fairbanks, 1989; Peltier and Fairbanks, 2006) if one assumes a

  18. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  19. [Chronic diseases and functional limitation in older adults: a comparative study in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Jesús; Guevara, Adialys; Arcia, Néstor; León Díaz, Esther María; Marín, Clara; Alfonso, Juan C

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship between selected chronic diseases and the presence of disability in inhabitants 60 years old or older in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2000 and 2001 a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 10 891 persons 60 or older in seven cities: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. This research was part of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) project (known as the "SABE project"). The dependent variables in the study were difficulty in performing basic activities of daily living, and difficulty in performing instrumental activities of daily living. Compiled from self-reports, the independent variables were: age, sex, educational level, living alone or with other person(s), self-assessed health, and the presence or not of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and osteoarthritis. The presence of depression and cognitive impairment in the participants was evaluated, and body mass index was also calculated. To compare the degree of influence of the different variables on disability, a standardized coefficient for each association was calculated. In the seven cities studied, the variables that showed a direct association with difficulty in carrying out basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were: suffering from a higher number of noncommunicable diseases, from cerebrovascular diseases, from osteoarthritis, or from depression; being older; being female; rating one's own health as bad; and experiencing cognitive impairment. In general the strongest associations were between difficulty in carrying out instrumental activities of daily living and depression, being older, reporting one's health as bad, and the presence of cerebrovascular diseases

  20. [Self-reported general health in older adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: usefulness of the indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca; Peláez, Martha; Palloni, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate self-reported general health (SRGH) as a health indicator and to analyze its covariates in people 60 years old or older living in private homes in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, or "SABE survey"), which was carried out in 1999 and 2000 in Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The survey looked at the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the participants, several health indicators (self-reported chronic diseases, depression, and cognitive features), the social and family support network, the use of health services, reported and observed functionality, the respondent's income, and the durable consumer goods in the household. In probit regression models, self-reported fair or poor health was used as the dependent variable. The marginal effect of each categorical explanatory variable was used to indicate the difference between the probability of reporting poor health by persons who did or did not have a given characteristic. In all the cities studied the self-reporting of "excellent" health was very low (6% or less). The results of the multivariate analysis of the relationships between SRGH and covariates showed: (1) the relative importance of several health indicators as covariates of SRGH, (2) the association between sociodemographic characteristics and SRGH, and (3) the differences or similarities found among the seven cities with respect to the relationships studied. The level of self-rated good health was highest in Buenos Aires and Montevideo (60%), followed by Bridgetown and São Paulo (around 50%) and Havana, Santiago, and Mexico City (between 30% and 40%). The respondents' evaluation of their memory was the factor that was most strongly related to SRGH, followed by satisfaction

  1. Quantitative Estimation of Terrigenous Supply in the Gulf of Mexico during the Meltwater Pulse 1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Sionneau, T.; Meunier, G.; Montero Serrano, J.

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the sea-level rise associated with the Meltwater Pulse-1A (MWP1A) through its southern outlet (Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River) is still questioning, especially because the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation does not show any evidence of freshwater discharge out flowing from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) (McManus et al., 2004). A recent study helps refining both the chronology of the MWP1A and the amplitude of the associated sea level rise (Deschamps et al., 2012). Moreover, comparison of data established respectively in Tahiti and Barbados, in agreement with isostatic adjustment models (Clark, 2002; Bassett, 2005; 2007) suggests an important contribution of Antarctica ice sheet without excluding a contribution from northern ice-sheets (Peltier, 2006; Carlson, 2009). Mineralogical characteristics of terrigenous sediments deposited in the northwestern GOM during the major deglacial meltwater spike give some new insights on these questions (Montero et al., 2009; 2010; 2011; Sionneau et al., 2008; 2010). The compilation of data from a series of cores along a West-East transect across the northern GOM allows constraining the origin and propagation of the detrital supply associated with the most prominent freshwater discharge. Our results suggest that the detrital plume may have propagated eastward as hyperpycnal flow(s) but did not extend westward whereas the isotopic signal reached the western part of the basin via buoyancy processes or hypopycnal flows. Comparison of these sedimentary evidences with modeled freshwater flows in the GOM allows evaluating the consistency between modeling and observations (Peltier, 2005; Stanford et al., 2006; Meckler et al., 2008; Montero et al., 2009; Sionneau et al., 2010). The reconstructed freshwater flux associated with the MWS flowing through the southern outlet is one order of magnitude higher than present-day averaged annual flow of the Mississippi River (Licciardi et

  2. A cross-sectional study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in a Caribbean population: combining objective and questionnaire data to guide future interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Howitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of population physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. Methods PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25–54 years, using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors. The RPAQ collects information on recalled activity in 4 domains: home, work, transport, and leisure. Physical inactivity was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines; sedentary lifestyle was defined as being sedentary for 8 h or more daily; PA overestimation was defined as perceiving activity to be sufficient, when classified as ‘inactive’ by objective measurement. Results According to objective estimates, 90.5 % (95 % CI: 83.3,94.7 of women and 58.9 % (48.4,68.7 of men did not accumulate sufficient activity to meet WHO minimum recommendations. Overall, 50.7 % (43.3,58.1 of the population was sedentary for 8 h or more each day, and 60.1 % (52.8,66.9 overestimated their activity levels. The prevalence of inactivity was underestimated by self-report in both genders by 28 percentage points (95 % CI: 18,38, but the accuracy of reporting differed by age group, education level, occupational grade, and overweight/obesity status. Low PA was greater in more socially privileged groups: higher educational level and higher occupational grade were both associated with less objectively measured PA and more sedentary time. Variation in domain-specific self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE by educational attainment was observed: higher education level was associated with more leisure activity and less occupational activity. Occupational PA was the main driver of PAEE for women and men according to self

  3. Optimal Estimation of Sulfuryl Fluoride Emissions on Regional and Global Scales Using Advanced 3D Inverse Modeling and AGAGE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressent, A.; Muhle, J.; Rigby, M. L.; Lunt, M. F.; Ganesan, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Harth, C. M.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Maione, M.; Arduini, I.; Lunder, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used increasingly as a fumigant to replace methyl bromide (CH3Br), which was regulated under the Montreal Protocol (1986). Mühle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009) showed that SO2F2 had been accumulating in the global atmosphere with a growth rate of 5±1% per year from 1978 to 2007. They also determined, using the 2D AGAGE box model, that SO2F2 has a total atmospheric lifetime of 36±11 years mainly driven by the oceanic uptake. In addition, the global warming potential of SO2F2 has been estimated to be ≈4780 for a 100-year time horizon (Papadimitriou et al., J. Phys. Chem., 2008), which is similar to the CFC-11 (CCl3F) GWP. Thus it is a potent greenhouse gas and its emissions are expected to continue to increase in the future. Here we report the first estimations of the SO2F2 emissions and its ocean sink from January 2006 to the end of 2015 on both the global scale using a 3D Eulerian chemical transport model (MOZART-4) solving a Main Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion, and on the regional scale using a 3D Lagrangian dispersion model (NAME) via the reversible-jump trans-dimensional MCMC approach (Lunt et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 2016). The mole fractions calculated on the global scale are used as boundary conditions for emission calculations over the NAME regions in North America, Europe, East Asia and Australia. For this 10-year inversion we use observations from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) starting with six stations in 2006, which are La Jolla (California), Mace Head (Ireland), Cape Grim (Australia), Ragged Point (Barbados), Trinidad Head (California) and Cape Matatula (Samoa). We then add observations from Gosan (South Korea) in 2007, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) in 2008, Shandiangzi (China) and Ny-Alesund (Norway) in 2010, and Monte Cimone (Italy) in 2011, reducing the uncertainty associated with the regions located close to these stations. Results are compared to (i) the total global SO2F2 emissions

  4. Tools for tracking progress. Indicators for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Aslanian, G.

    2000-01-01

    pollution; wastes; land use; accident risks; energy resources depletion; and deforestation. The provisional full set comprises 28 driving force indicators, 13 state indicators and 29 response action indicators. The provisional core list of ISED was presented at the International Workshop on CSD Indicators of Sustainable Development held in Barbados in December 1999. While the effort to improve upon the provisional full and core lists of ISED will continue for some time, it is planned to subject them to country testing on a limited scale. This is planned with the help of national teams engaged in formulating their sustainable energy strategies in collaboration with the IAEA. It is hoped that this work will help the Agency, on the one hand, in making useful contribution to the CSD work on energy-related issues and, on the other, in modifying its own databases and methodological tools so as to make them more responsive to sustainable energy development issues

  5. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean Estimación de la esperanza de vida con y sin diabetes en México y siete ciudades importantes de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Andrade

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. METHODS: Data from the Survey on Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (n = 10 602 and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953 on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. RESULTS: Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years and Bridgetown (3.4 years, and lowest in Havana (1.3 years. Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years and São Paulo (14.3 years. For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years, followed by Mexico City and Havana; but these three cities also had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years, and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercise as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes.OBJETIVO: Estimar la esperanza de vida en personas con y sin diabetes en siete ciudades importantes de América Latina y el Caribe y en México. MÉTODOS: Para América Latina y el Caribe se tomaron los datos del estudio Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE (n = 10602 y para México se utilizaron los datos del Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento (n = 6953 en personas de 60

  6. On relationship between aerosols and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko

    2015-04-01

    Since aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a key parameter of aerosols and description of the Earth's radiation budget, it is widely measured from ground sun photometer network NASA/AERONET [Holben et al., 1998] and from satellite. Fine and surface level aerosol particle called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 μ m or less, is a well-known parameter for understanding polluted level of air. Smirnov et al. reported a good agreement between ground based AERONET AOT (870 nm) and dust concentrations at Barbados [Smirnov et al., 2000]. Wang and Christopher founded a good correlation between satellite based MODIS AOT product and PM2.5 in Alabama area [Wang and 2003]. Long range transported dusts, particularly Asian dust events, are easy to change the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The vertical profile is important to estimate PM information because both AOT information measured from ground or satellite are integrated value of aerosol extinction from ground to space, i.e. columnar AOT. Thus, we have also proposed correlations between ground level PM2.5 and AERONET AOT (670 nm) in two cases of ordinary air condition and dusty days [Sano et al., 2010]. In this work, we investigate the relationship between PM2.5 and AERONET AOT considering LIDAR measurements. Note that all of instruments are set up at the roof of the University building (50 m) and collocated in 10 m area. Surface-level AOT is derived from AERONET AOT multiplied by an averaged vertical aerosol extinction given by LIDAR. Note that the definition of surface-level AOT in this work is assumed as AOT up to 500 m height. Introduction of surface-level AOT enables to avoid the contamination of dusty aerosol signal existing at high altitude from columnar AOT. The cloud aerosol imager (CAI) on GOSAT satellite has four observing wavelengths, 380, 670, 870 nm, and 1.6 μ m. In this work three channels are selected to estimate aerosol information. Look-up table (LUT) method is applied to estimate the optical properties

  7. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean Intoxicaciones infantiles accidentales en el Caribe

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    Thomas C. Martin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess accidental poisoning in children in the Caribbean country of Antigua and Barbuda, including the incidence, the types of substances ingested, the age of the children involved, and the clinical outcomes. The results from Antigua and Barbuda were compared with the results of other reports from the English-speaking Caribbean and from the United States of America. Design and Methods. We performed a retrospective review of the charts of all patients less than 13 years old admitted to the Children's Ward at Holberton Hospital in Antigua for accidental poisoning between March 1989 and March 1999. Those data were compared with data from earlier reports from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and the United States of America. Results. In Antigua and Barbuda there were 255 hospital admissions for accidental poisoning among children below 13 years old over that 10-year period. Of the 255 ingestions, 115 of them (45% were in 1-year-old children, 69 (27% were in 2-year-old children, and 26 (10% were in 3-year-old children. These proportions in Antigua and Barbuda are similar to the age patterns seen in the other countries with which we made comparisons. In Antigua and Barbuda there was an annual average of 26 hospital admissions for poisoning for the roughly 20 000 children below 13 years of age, for a rate of 1.3 per 1 000. In comparing the patterns of childhood poisoning in all the countries we studied, we found that, as economic levels rose, there was a shift in the substances ingested, with hydrocarbon and plant ingestions decreasing and chemical and medication ingestions increasing. Conclusions. There is an increasing variety and complexity of poisonous substances ingested as economic conditions improve. This trend would make the establishment of a poison control center for the English-speaking Caribbean a logical step.Objetivos. Investigar las intoxicaciones accidentales de niños en Antigua y Barbuda desde el punto de vista de la

  8. Enfermedades crónicas y limitación funcional en adultos mayores: estudio comparativo en siete ciudades de América Latina y el Caribe Chronic diseases and functional limitation in older adults: a comparative study in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Menéndez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la relación entre determinadas enfermedades crónicas y la presencia de discapacidad en habitantes de 60 años o más de siete centros urbanos de América Latina y el Caribe que participaron en el estudio multicéntrico Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE. MÉTODOS: En 2000 y 2001 se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 10 891 personas de 60 años o más que residían en siete ciudades de la Región: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; México, D.F., México; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile, y São Paulo, Brasil. Las variables dependientes fueron la dificultad para realizar actividades básicas y actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria (ABVD y AIVD, respectivamente. Las variables independientes, recopiladas mediante autoinforme, fueron la edad, el sexo, el nivel educacional, el vivir solo o acompañado, la evaluación de la propia salud y la presencia o no de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, cáncer, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, cardiopatía isquémica (CI, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (ECV y artrosis. Se evaluó la presencia de depresión y deterioro cognoscitivo en los participantes y se calculó su índice de masa corporal. Para comparar el grado de influencia de las diferentes variables sobre la discapacidad, se calculó un coeficiente estandarizado para cada caso. RESULTADOS: Las variables que mostraron una asociación directa con dificultades para realizar ABVD y AIVD en las ciudades estudiadas fueron: padecer de un mayor número de enfermedades no transmisibles, de ECV o de artrosis, así como tener mayor edad, ser mujer, evaluar la salud propia como mala, tener deterioro cognoscitivo y padecer de depresión. En general, las asociaciones más fuertes se encontraron entre la dificultad para realizar AIVD, por un lado, y por el otro la depresión, mayor edad, la evaluación de la salud propia como mala y la

  9. Autoinforme de salud general en adultos mayores de América Latina y el Caribe: su utilidad como indicador Self-reported general health in older adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: usefulness of the indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Wong

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el autoinforme de salud general (ASG como indicador de salud y analizar sus covariables en personas de 60 años de edad o más que residían en hogares privados en siete centros urbanos de América Latina y el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal basado en los datos de la encuesta Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE realizada entre 1999 y 2000 en: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; México, D.F., México; Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; y São Paulo, Brasil. Se exploraron las características demográficas y socioeconómicas de los participantes, algunos indicadores de salud (autoinforme de enfermedades crónicas, padecimiento de depresión y elementos cognoscitivos, la red social y familiar de apoyo, el uso de los servicios de salud, la funcionalidad informada y observada, los ingresos del encuestado y los bienes de consumo duraderos en su vivienda. En los modelos de regresión (probit se utilizó una salud regular o mala según el autoinforme como variable dependiente. Se empleó el efecto marginal de cada variable explicativa categórica para indicar la diferencia entre la probabilidad de informar mala salud de las personas que tenían y de las que no tenían una característica dada. RESULTADOS: En todas las ciudades estudiadas fue muy baja la propensión a informar salud "excelente" (6% o menos. Los resultados del análisis con múltiples variables de la relación entre el ASG mala o regular y las covariables mostraron: 1 la importancia relativa de varios indicadores de salud como covariables del ASG; 2 la asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y el ASG; y 3 las diferencias o similitudes encontradas entre los siete centros urbanos con respecto a las relaciones estudiadas. La proporción de autoinforme de buena salud fue mayor en Buenos Aires y Montevideo (60%, seguidas de Bridgetown y São Paulo (alrededor de 50% y de Ciudad de La Habana

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available -Charles V. Carnegie, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the age of sail. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1997. xiv + 310 pp. -Stanley L. Engerman, Wim Klooster, Illicit Riches: Dutch trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998. xiv + 283 pp. -Luis Martínez-Fernández, Emma Aurora Dávila Cox, Este inmenso comercio: Las relaciones mercantiles entre Puerto Rico y Gran Bretaña 1844-1898. San Juan: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1996. xxi + 364 pp. -Félix V. Matos Rodríguez, Arturo Morales Carrión, Puerto Rico y la lucha por la hegomonía en el Caribe: Colonialismo y contrabando, siglos XVI-XVIII. San Juan: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico y Centro de Investigaciones Históricas, 1995. ix + 244 pp. -Herbert S. Klein, Patrick Manning, Slave trades, 1500-1800: Globalization of forced labour. Hampshire, U.K.: Variorum, 1996. xxxiv + 361 pp. -Jay R. Mandle, Kari Levitt ,The critical tradition of Caribbean political economy: The legacy of George Beckford. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1996. xxvi + 288., Michael Witter (eds -Kevin Birth, Belal Ahmed ,The political economy of food and agriculture in the Caribbean. Kingston: Ian Randle; London: James Currey, 1996. xxi + 276 pp., Sultana Afroz (eds -Sarah J. Mahler, Alejandro Portes ,The urban Caribbean: Transition to the new global economy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997. xvii + 260 pp., Carlos Dore-Cabral, Patricia Landolt (eds -O. Nigel Bolland, Ray Kiely, The politics of labour and development in Trinidad. Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago: The Press University of the West Indies, 1996. iii + 218 pp. -Lynn M. Morgan, Aviva Chomsky, West Indian workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, 1870-1940. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996. xiii + 302 pp. -Eileen J. Findlay, Maria del Carmen Baerga, Genero y trabajo: La industria de la aguja en Puerto Rico y el Caribe hispánico. San Juan

  11. Género, equidad y acceso a los servicios de salud: una aproximación empírica Gender, equity, and access to health services: an empirical approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gómez Gómez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el marco conceptual y los objetivos que orientaron la iniciativa regional de investigación "Género, equidad y acceso a servicios de salud", patrocinada en 2001 por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS. Su propósito no es resumir los resultados de los estudios desarrollados, algunos de los cuales no han concluido la etapa de análisis, sino discutir los fundamentos de tal iniciativa y servir como introducción general a los estudios de país. Los países participantes fueron Barbados/Jamaica, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. El objetivo central de la iniciativa fue estimular la utilización de información cuantitativa ya existente en los países, con el fin de iniciar un proceso de documentación sistemática de las desigualdades injustas, innecesarias y evitables entre hombres y mujeres en el acceso a la atención de la salud, así como de la interacción entre estas desigualdades y otros factores socioeconómicos. El concepto de equidad de género que orientó el examen de la atención de la salud no fue el que frecuentemente se asocia con la igualdad en la distribución de recursos, sino el que designa que los recursos se asignen y reciban diferencialmente según las necesidades particulares de cada sexo y que los servicios se paguen según la capacidad económica de las personas, y no su nivel riesgo. Se partió de la hipótesis de que las inequidades de género en la utilización y el financiamiento de la atención son producto de las asimetrías de género en los niveles macroeconómico y microeconómico de distribución de los recursos. Se concluye que el logro de metas de equidad en el acceso a la atención exige mayor comprensión de las necesidades y barreras de género ligadas a la estructura social y al sistema de salud.This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity

  12. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-06-01

    (reviewed by Anthony R. Stevens-Acevedo Chanting Down the New Jerusalem: Calypso, Christianity, and Capitalism in the Caribbean, by Francio Guadeloupe (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Once Jews: Stories of Caribbean Sephardim, by Josette Capriles Goldish (reviewed by Aviva Ben-Ur Black and White Sands: A Bohemian Life in the Colonial Caribbean, by Elma Napier (reviewed by Peter Hulme West Indian Slavery and British Abolition, 1783-1807, by David Beck Ryden (reviewed by Justin Roberts The Children of Africa in the Colonies: Free People of Color in Barbados in the Age of Emancipation, by Melanie J. Newton (reviewed by Olwyn M. Blouet Friends and Enemies: The Scribal Politics of Post/Colonial Literature, by Chris Bongie (reviewed by Jacqueline Couti Nationalism and the Formation of Caribbean Literature, by Leah Reade Rosenberg (reviewed by Bénédicte Ledent Signs of Dissent: Maryse Condé and Postcolonial Criticism, by Dawn Fulton (reviewed by Florence Ramond Jurney The Archaeology of the Caribbean, by Samuel M. Wilson (reviewed by Frederick H. Smith Crossing the Borders: New Methods and Techniques in the Study of Archaeological Materials from the Caribbean, edited by Corinne L. Hofman, Menno L.P. Hoogland & Annelou L. van Gijn (reviewed by Mark Kostro

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available -Lennox Honychurch, Robert L. Paquette ,The lesser Antilles in the age of European expansion. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. xii + 383 pp., Stanley L. Engerman (eds -Kevin A. Yelvington, Gert Oostindie, Ethnicity in the Caribbean: Essays in honor of Harry Hoetink. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1996. xvi + 239 pp. -Aisha Khan, David Dabydeen ,Across the dark waters: Ethnicity and Indian identity in the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1996. xi + 222 pp., Brinsley Samaroo (eds -Tracey Skelton, Ralph R. Premdas, Ethnic conflict and development: The case of Guyana. Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 1995. xi + 205 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Basdeo Mangru, A history of East Indian resistance on the Guyana sugar estates, 1869-1948. Lewiston NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996. xiv + 370 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Clem Seecharan, 'Tiger in the stars': The anatomy of Indian achievement in British Guiana 1919-29. London: Macmillan, 1997. xxviii + 401 pp. -Brian Stoddart, Frank Birbalsingh, The rise of Westindian cricket: From colony to nation. St. John's, Antigua: Hansib Publishing (Caribbean, 1996. 274 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Peter van Koningsbruggen, Trinidad Carnival: A quest for national identity. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1997. ix + 293 pp. -Peter van Koningsbruggen, John Cowley, Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xv + 293 pp. -Olwyn M. Blouet, George Gmelch ,The Parish behind God's back : The changing culture of rural Barbados. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997. xii + 240 pp., Sharon Bohn Gmelch (eds -George Gmelch, Mary Chamberlain, Narratives of exile and return. London: Macmillan, 1997. xii + 236 pp. -Michèle Baj Strobel, Christiane Bougerol, Une ethnographie des conflits aux Antilles: Jalousie, commérages, sorcellerie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1997. 161 pp. -Abdollah Dashti, Randy Martin, Socialist ensembles: Theater and state in Cuba and

  14. Bookreviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Afro-Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the Diaspora, edited by Kevin A. Yelvington (reviewed by Aisha Khan Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660, by Linda M. Heywood & John K. Thornton (reviewed by James H. Sweet An Eye for the Tropics: Tourism, Photography, and Framing the Caribbean Picturesque, by Krista A. Thompson (reviewed by Carl Thompson Taíno Indian Myth and Practice: The Arrival of the Stranger King, by William F. Keegan (reviewed by Frederick H. Smith Historic Cities of the Americas: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, by David F. Marley (reviewed by Richard L. Kagan Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age, edited by Christopher Leslie Brown & Philip D. Morgan (reviewed by James Sidbury Sweet Negotiations: Sugar, Slavery, and Plantation Agriculture in Early Barbados, by Russell R. Menard (reviewed by Kenneth Morgan Jamaica in 1850 or, The Effects of Sixteen Years of Freedom on a Slave Colony, by John Bigelow (reviewed by Jean Besson Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism, by Christopher Leslie Brown (reviewed by Cassandra Pybus Caribbean Journeys: An Ethnography of Migration and Home in Three Family Networks, by Karen Fog Olwig (reviewed by George Gmelch Afro-Caribbean Immigrants and the Politics of Incorporation: Ethnicity, Exception, or Exit, by Reuel R. Rogers (reviewed by Kevin Birth Puerto Rican Arrival in New York: Narratives of the Migration, 1920-1950, edited by Juan Flores (reviewed by Wilson A. Valentín-Escobar The Conquest of History: Spanish Colonialism and National Histories in the Nineteenth Century, by Christopher Schmidt-Nowara (reviewed by Aline Helg Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World, edited by Pamela Scully & Diana Paton (reviewed by Bernard Moitt Gender and Democracy in Cuba, by Ilja A. Luciak (reviewed by Florence E. Babb The “New Man” in Cuba: Culture and Identity in the

  15. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  16. Characterization and quantification of bioaerosols in Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Ditas, Florian; Klimach, Thomas; Prass, Maria; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Blades, Edmund; Holanda, Bruna; Pöhlker, Mira; Maurus, Isabel; Kopper, Gila; Farrell, David; Stevens, Bjorn; Prospero, Joseph M.; Ulrich, Pöschl; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöhlker, Christopher; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Primary biological aerosols (bioaerosols), forming a subset of atmospheric particles, are directly released from the biosphere into the atmosphere. They comprise living and dead organisms (e.g., algae, bacteria, archaea), reproduction units (e.g., pollen, seeds, spores) as well as organism fragments and excretions. They play a key role in the dispersal of otherwise mostly sessile organisms (e.g. plants), but also in the spread of pathogens and diseases. Recently, also soil dust has been described to frequently occur in a close connection with biological particles (Conen et al., 2011). Bioaerosols can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets and ice crystals and may influence the radiative properties of the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2016). It has been well described that dust masses are transported across the Atlantic comprising a large variety of bacteria and fungi, but the origin of the biological material remained largely unknown (Prospero et al., 2005). In the present study we aim to accomplish three major tasks, i.e., 1) Thorough identification and quantification of bioaerosol particles, 2) Characterization of ice nucleating (IN) properties of bioaerosols, and 3) Evaluation of similarities between bioaerosols and biological material in source regions of dust. For our field work we utilized filter techniques to collect aerosol samples of transatlantically transported dust at the easternmost site (Ragged Point) on the Caribbean island Barbados. Sampling took place from July to August 2016, when dust transport volumes were expected to reach peak amounts. Total suspended particles were collected ˜30 m above sea level using a high volume sampler (˜ 500 L min-1) and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI™) to obtain size-resolved samples. Directly after sampling at different time intervals (i.e. 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day samples) the filters were frozen until further analyses. In a

  17. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    than when IKONOS or Landsat imagery was hand-digitized, as it was for the Dominican Republic (7) and Barbados. 1. T. Kennaway, E. H. Helmer. (Intl Inst of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, 2006). 2. A. Areces-Mallea et al. (The Nature Conservancy, 1999). 3. E. H. Helmer, O. Ramos, T. Lopez, M. Quiñones, W. Diaz, Carib J Sci 38, 165-183 (2002). 4. C. Daly, E. H. Helmer, M. Quiñones, Int J Climatology 23, 1359-1381 (2003). 5. T. G. Farr, M. Kobrick, Eos Transactions 81, 583-585 (2000). 6. E. H. Helmer, B. Ruefenacht, Photogrammetric Eng Rem Sens 71, 1079-1089 (2005). 7. S. Hernández, M. Pérez. (Secretaría de Estado de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la República Dominicana, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2005).

  18. Heating systems of special solar-greenhouses; Calefaccion solar de invernaderos especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriarte, Adolfo; Bistoni, Silvia [Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Saravia, Luis [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    ambiente controlado (casa de vegetacion) y la segunda en un recinto protegido con media sombra. Debido al cambio de habitat de las estacas recien enraizadas (barbados) esta tecnica presenta el problema de bajos porcentajes de sobrevivencia. En el presente trabajo se describen las instalaciones y el funcionamiento de un invernadero rusticadero que tiene por finalidad controlar las condiciones ambientales asegurando un mayor nivel de sobrevivencia de las plantas. Este invernadero tiene doble cubierta de plastico, doble pared en los frontales y por debajo de la segunda cubierta una cortina desplazable de media - sombra aluminizada. El sistema de calefaccion tanto del invernadero como de las camas calientes se completa con colectores-intercambiadores de plastico colocados en los laterales norte y sur y un lecho de piedra. Se analiza el comportamiento termico del invernadero, y de los distintos elementos utilizados, como asi tambien las rutinas de funcionamiento de los mismos. El invernadero - rusticadero se comporto dentro de los niveles termicos previstos, destacandose la importante disminucion de perdidas convectivas y radiativas. Por otro lado, tanto el lecho de piedra como los colectores aportaron una cantidad apreciable de energia al sistema.

  19. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  20. Curso diário e sazonal das trocas gasosas e do potencial hídrico foliar em aceroleiras Daily and seasonal course of gas exchange and leaf water potential in acerola plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REJANE JUREMA MANSUR CUSTÓDIO NOGUEIRA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o curso diário e sazonal das trocas gasosas, da temperatura foliar e do potencial hídrico da acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., no campo. O experimento realizou-se no município de Paudalho, PE. Os valores da transpiração e do potencial da água foram, de modo geral, mais elevados no início da manhã e no final da tarde; os da resistência difusiva e temperatura foliar foram menores no início da manhã e no final da tarde. Houve uma limitação das trocas gasosas com o ambiente, em decorrência da redução da transpiração nas horas mais quentes do dia, sendo mais acentuada na estação seca e na matriz UFRPE 7. Os valores mínimos do potencial ocorreram na época seca, variando de -3,4 MPa (UFRPE 7 a -4,3 MPa (UFRPE 8, enquanto os valores máximos da resistência variaram de 16,30 s cm-1 (UFRPE 7 a 22,10 s cm-1 (UFRPE 8 na mesma estação. O potencial hídrico e a resistência difusiva mostraram forte correlação com o déficit de pressão de vapor. A maior capacidade fotossintética foi verificada em folhas maduras da matriz UFRPE 8. Os mecanismos fisiológicos apresentados pelas plantas demonstram que elas podem resistir a períodos de estresse hídrico quando estes se manifestam. A matriz UFRPE 8 é mais adaptada a períodos de estiagem do que a UFRPE 7.The daily and seasonal course of the gas exchanges, leaf temperature and water potential of Barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C. were evaluated under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Paudalho, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Measurements of photosynthetic capacity in the wet season were also made. Changes in daily and seasonal behavior of gas exchange, water potential, and leaf temperature were observed. The transpiration and water potential measurements were higher at the beginning of the morning and at the end of the afternoon, while those for diffusive resistance and leaf temperature were lower at these same periods of the day

  1. ICE-6G models of postglacial relative sea-level history applied to Holocene coral reef and mangrove records of the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M. A.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Gonzalez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil coral reefs and mangrove peat accumulations at western Caribbean sites along a latitudinal gradient from the Florida Keys through Belize and Panama provide dated and interpreted 8,000 year Holocene sea-level records for comparison with RSL predictions of the ICE-6G (VM5A, VM5B; L90) models of glacio-hydro-isostatic adjustment, with and without rotational feedback. These presumably passive continental margin sites provide the means to establish a N-S spatial trend in the varying influences of GIA, eustatic components of Holocene sea level, extent of forebulge collapse and influence of rotational feedback over a 20° latitudinal range. Previous ICE6G (VM5A) model-coral data comparisons for St Croix, USVI, Antigua, Martinique and Barbados (Toscano, Peltier and Drummond, 2011, QSR) along the eastern Caribbean plate and island arc illustrated the close model-data compatibility, the influence of rotational feedback acting as a significant factor in reducing misfits, and the need for high quality in situ data to confirm the extension of the proglacial forebulge into tropical latitudes. The gradient of western Caribbean continental shelf sites comprises a much more varied range of model-data relationships based on extensive combined Acropora palmata (reef crest coral) and Rhizophora mangle (microtidal mangrove) peat datasets in all cases. Starting at the northernmost region with the Florida Keys, there exist negative model misfits to the data, suggesting the possibility of a positive tectonic overprint upon expectations related to the glacial isostatic adjustment process acting alone, even though this region is normally believed to be tectonically stable. The largest multi-proxy database from Belize supports the likelihood of increasing rates of subsidence from north to south in the Belize Lagoon, which may account for numerous positive GIA model-data misfits. The southernmost site at Panama is most similar to Belize in the possible nature of tectonic influences on

  2. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Fascitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis: Fascitrishophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9’N, 85°42.5’W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet], F. carvalhorum sp.n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21’S, 44°55.6’W; beach], F. manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5’N, 61°01.5’W, bridge over Nariva River, F. panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04’N, 78°22’W], Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2’N, 59°34.7’W; swamp], P. arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5’N, 114°50.4’W], P. barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4’N, 80°01.4’W, 670 m], P. flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4’S, 48°40.9’W; mangal], P. rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24’N, 61°02’W], P. mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8’N, 107°52’W; 1665 m], P. salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1’N, 150°04.2’W; 50 m], P. sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4’N, 90°2.1’W; 98 m], P. prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45’N, 88°30’W]. All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution

  3. Sea-level history during the Last Interglacial complex on San Nicolas Island, California: implications for glacial isostatic adjustment processes, paleozoogeography and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Laurel, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    sea stands on New Guinea and Barbados. Numerical models of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process presented here demonstrate that these differences in the high stands are expected, given the variable geographic distances between the sites and the former Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Moreover, the numerical results show that the absolute and differential elevations of the observed high stands provide a potentially important constraint on ice volumes during this time interval and on Earth structure.

  4. Where in the World are Canadian Oil and Gas Companies? An Introduction to the Project

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    Niloo Hojjati

    2017-06-01

    activities abroad, it does not do so for the oil and gas sector. Statistics Canada collects information about Canadian direct investment abroad (CDIA1 in the energy sector, but for the purpose of answering the question posed in this paper, these numbers can be somewhat misleading, as CDIA data solely tracks the first destination of Canadian investment rather than the final destination of investment (which can often be different.2 Frequently, oil and gas companies (like others use international financial centres to conduct their business operations as part of their global value chain. This can prove problematic when seeking to identify sector-specific data on the final destination of investment. For instance, one of the challenges in using CDIA statistics is the existence of so-called tax-haven countries such as Barbados and the Cayman Islands. Tax-haven countries are low-tax jurisdictions that serve as conduits to the global economy.3 While the capital investment of a Canadian company can initially arrive in a tax-haven country, frequently the investment is ultimately bound for a third-market destination, for instance one in Latin America or the United States.3 The use of tax-haven countries as conduits in financing outbound investments distorts CDIA statistics, making it difficult to use these data to determine the presence of Canadian oil and gas companies around the globe. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the methodology used in the collection of data for the Where in the World (hereafter WIW project. It begins by presenting the definition of a Canadian oil and gas company (O&G within the context of the WIW project, followed by a description of the types of O&G companies considered in the analysis. It also provides a description of the data sources used in the extraction of financial and operating statistics, and outlines the various types of data used to determine the scope of O&G activities of Canadians companies abroad.

  5. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    warning system that serves regionally and delivers locally, saving lives and livelihoods, not only from tsunamis, but all coastal hazards. Through this and other platforms, physical and social scientists, emergency managers and elected officials have been working together via different mechanisms. Community based recognition programs, like the TsunamiReadyTM Program, regional tsunami exercises, sub-regional public education activities such as the Tsunami Smart campaigns, internet technologies, social media, meetings and conferences, identification of local and national champions, capitalization of news breaking tsunamis and earthquakes, economic resources for equipment and training have all been key to developing a tsunami safer Caribbean. Given these efforts, according to a 2013 survey, 93% of the countries covered by CARIBE EWS have tsunami response protocols in place, although much more work is required. In 2010 the US National Weather Service established the Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program as the first step towards a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center in the region. In 2013 the Caribbean Tsunami Information Center was established in Barbados. Both these institutions which serve the region play a key role for promoting both the warning and educational components of the warning system.

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ileana Rodríguez; Transatlantic Topographies: Islands, Highlands, Jungles (Stuart McLean Eliga H. Gould, Peter S. Onuf (eds.; Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World (Peter A. Coclanis Michael A. Gomez; Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora (James H. Sweet Brian L. Moore, Michele A. Johnson; Neither Led Nor Driven: Contesting British Cultural Imperialism in Jamaica, 1865-1920 (Gad Heuman Erna Brodber; The Second Generation of Freemen in Jamaica, 1907-1944 (Michaeline A. Crichlow Steeve O. Buckridge; The Language of Dress: Resistance and Accommodation in Jamaica, 1760- 1890 (Jean Besson Deborah A. Thomas; Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica (Charles V. Carnegie Carolyn Cooper; Sound Clash: Jamaican Dancehall Culture at Large (John D. Galuska Noel Leo Erskine; From Garvey to Marley: Rastafari Theology (Richard Salter Hilary McD Beckles; Great House Rules: Landless Emancipation and Workers’ Protest in Barbados, 1838?1938 (O. Nigel Bolland Woodville K. Marshall (ed.; I Speak for the People: The Memoirs of Wynter Crawford (Douglas Midgett Nathalie Dessens; Myths of the Plantation Society: Slavery in the American South and the West Indies (Lomarsh Roopnarine Michelle M. Terrell; The Jewish Community of Early Colonial Nevis: A Historical Archaeological Study (Mark Kostro Laurie A. Wilkie, Paul Farnsworth; Sampling Many Pots: An Archaeology of Memory and Tradition at a Bahamian Plantation (Grace Turner David Beriss; Black Skins, French Voices: Caribbean ethnicity and Activism in Urban France (Nadine Lefaucheur Karen E. Richman; Migration and Vodou (Natacha Giafferi Jean Moomou; Le monde des marrons du Maroni en Guyane (1772-1860: La naissance d’un peuple: Les Boni (Kenneth Bilby Jean Chapuis, Hervé Rivière; Wayana eitoponpë: (Une histoire (orale des Indiens Wayana (Dominique Tilkin Gallois Jesús Fuentes

  7. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2009-12-01

    : Cultural and Natural Change at Port St. Charles, Barbados, c. 1750 BC – AD 1850 (Frederick H. Smith Reinaldo Funes Monzote, From Rainforest to Cane Field in Cuba: An Environmental History since 1492 (Bonham C. Richardson Jean Besson & Janet Momsen (eds., Caribbean Land and Development Revisited (Michaeline A. Crichlow César J. Ayala & Rafael Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History since 1898 (Juan José Baldrich Mindie Lazarus-Black, Everyday Harm: Domestic Violence, Court Rites, and Cultures of Reconciliation (Brackette F. Williams Learie B. Luke, Identity and Secession in the Caribbean: Tobago versus Trinidad, 1889-1980 (Rita Pemberton Michael E. Veal, Dub: Soundscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae (Shannon Dudley Garth L. Green & Philip W. Scher (eds., Trinidad Carnival: The Cultural Politics of a Transnational Festival (Kim Johnson Jocelyne Guilbault, Governing Sound: The Cultural Politics of Trinidad’s Carnival Musics (Donald R. Hill Shannon Dudley, Music from Behind the Bridge: Steelband Spirit and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago (Stephen Stuempfle Kevin K. Birth, Bacchanalian Sentiments: Musical Experiences and Political Counterpoints in Trinidad (Philip W. Scher

  9. Improvement and implementation of a parameterization for shallow cumulus in the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotta, Francesco; Spichtinger, Peter; Lohmann, Ulrike; von Salzen, Knut

    2010-05-01

    Convection is a crucial component of weather and climate. Its parameterization in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is one of the largest sources of uncertainty. Convection redistributes moisture and heat, affects the radiation budget and transports tracers from the PBL to higher levels. Shallow convection is very common over the globe, in particular over the oceans in the trade wind regions. A recently developed shallow convection scheme by von Salzen and McFarlane (2002) is implemented in the ECHAM5-HAM GCM instead of the standard convection scheme by Tiedtke (1989). The scheme of von Salzen and McFarlane (2002) is a bulk parameterization for an ensemble of transient shallow cumuli. A life cycle is considered, as well as inhomogeneities in the horizontal distribution of in-cloud properties due to mixing. The shallow convection scheme is further developed to take the ice phase and precipitation in form of rain and snow into account. The double moment microphysics scheme for cloud droplets and ice crystals implemented is consistent with the stratiform scheme and with the other types of convective clouds. The ice phase permits to alter the criterion to distinguish between shallow convection and the other two types of convection, namely deep and mid-level, which are still calculated by the Tiedtke (1989) scheme. The lunching layer of the test parcel in the shallow convection scheme is chosen as the one with maximum moist static energy in the three lowest levels. The latter is modified to the ``frozen moist static energy'' to account for the ice phase. Moreover, tracers (e.g. aerosols) are transported in the updraft and scavenged in and below clouds. As a first test of the performance of the new scheme and the interaction with the rest of the model, the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological EXperiment (BOMEX) and the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean experiment (RICO) case are simulated with the single column model (SCM) and the results are compared with large eddy

  10. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1994-07-01

    Halebsky ,Cuba in transition: Crisis and transformation. With Carolee Bengelsdorf, Richard L. Harris, Jean Stubbs & Andrew Zimbalist. Boulder CO: Westview, 1992. xi + 244 pp., John M. Kirk (eds -Michiel Baud, Andrés L. Mateo, Mito y cultura en la era de Trujillo. Santo Domingo: Librería La Trinitario/Instituto del Libro, 1993. 224 pp. -Edgardo Meléndez, Andrés Serbin, Medio ambiente, seguridad y cooperacíon regional en el Caribe. Caracas: Editorial Nueva Sociedad, 1992. 147 pp. -Dean W. Collinwood, Michael Craton ,Islanders in the stream: A history of the Bahamian people. Volume One: From Aboriginal times to the end of slavery. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992. xxxiii + 455 pp., Gail Saunders (eds -Gary Brana-Shute, Alan A. Block, Masters of paradise: Organized crime and the internal revenue service in the Bahamas. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991. vii + 319 pp. -Michaeline Crichlow, Patrick Bryan, The Jamaican people 1880-1902. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1991. xiv + 300 pp. -Faye V Harrison, Lisa Douglass, The power of sentiment: Love, hierarchy, and the Jamaican family elite. Boulder CO: Westview, 1992. xviii + 298 pp. -Frank Jan van Dijk, Bob Marley, Songs of freedom: From 'Judge Not' to 'Redemption Song.' Kingston: Tuff Gong/Bob Marley Foundation / London : Island Records, 1992 (limited edition. 63 pp. + 4 compact discs. -Riva Berleant-Schiller, Veront M. Satchell, From plots to plantations: Land transactions in Jamaica, 1866-1900. Mona: University of the West Indies, 1990. xiii + 197 pp. -Hymie Rubenstein, Christine Barrow, Family, land and development in St. Lucia. Cave Hill, Barbados: Institute for social and economic studies (ISER, University of the West Indies, 1992. xii + 83 pp. -Bonham C. Richardson, Selwyn Ryan, Social and occupational stratification in contemporary Trinidad and Tobago. St. Augustine, Trinidad: ISER, 1991. xiv + 474 pp. -Bill Maurer, Roland Littlewood, Pathology and identity: The work of Mother Earth in Trinidad

  11. Intestinal digestibility of protein of adapted forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast by three-steps technique Digestão intestinal da proteína de forrageiras e co-produtos da agroindústria produzidos no Nordeste Brasileiro por intermédio da técnica de três estágios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Lousada Regadas Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to estimate the intestinal digestibility (ID of rumen-undegradable protein (RUDP of several feeds by a three-steps procedure. The evaluated forages were algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, canafístula (Pithecellobium multiflorum, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, jitirana (Ipomea sp., juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro, mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth, palma gigante (Opuntia ficus indica and xique-xique (Cereus gounellei, and the agroindustry byproducts were pineapple (Ananas comosus L., barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, coconut (Cocos nucifera L., melon (Cucumis melo, passion fruit (Passiflora eduli, grape (Vitis labrusca and anatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.. The feeds were incubated in rumen during 16 hours to determine the RUDP, and the residue was submitted to the digestion with pepsin solution during one hour, and pancreatic solution during 24 hours at 38ºC, those residues were analyzed for total nitrogen. The estimative of RUDP forage ranged from 13.37 to 83.6%, and the RUDP by-product ranged from 39.14 to 89.06%. The intestinal digestion of RUDP of the forages ranged from 26.09 to 80.68%, while for by-products varied from 22.26 to 76.82%. The sabiá was the forage that presented the highest intestinal digestibility and digestive rumen-undegradable protein (RUDPd, and the flor-de-seda, the lowest digestibility; while for by-products, melon and cashew presented, respectively, the highest values for DI and RUDP. The coconut presented the lowest values for ID and RUDPd. Although, some formulation systems of diets for ruminant consider that the RUDP present constant ID, the data obtained in this work suggest variation among the different feeds.A pesquisa objetivou estimar a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR de alimentos por intermédio da técnica de três estágios. As forragens avaliadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora

  12. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1995-01-01

    . Wickham-Crowley, Guerillas and Revolution in Latin America: A comparative Study of Insurgents and Regimes since 1956. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. xx + 424 pp. -Robert E. Millette, Patrick A.M. Emmanuel, Elections and Party Systems in the Commonwealth Caribbean, 1944-1991. St. Michael, Barbados: Caribbean Development Research Services, 1992. viii + 111 pp. -Robert E. Millette, Donald C. Peters, The Democratic System in the Eastern Caribbean. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. xiv + 242 pp. -Pedro A. Cabán, Arnold H. Liebowitz, Defining status: A comprehensive analysis of United States Territorial Relations. Boston & Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989. xxii + 757 pp. -John O. Stewart, Stuart H. Surlin ,Mass media and the Caribbean. New York: Gordon & Breach, 1990. xviii + 471 pp., Walter C. Soderlund (eds -William J. Meltzer, Antonio V. Menéndez Alarcón, Power and television in Latin America: The Dominican Case. Westport CT: Praeger, 1992. 199 pp.

  13. Estimative of the nutritional value of agroindustrial byproducts by using in vitro gas production techniqueEstimativa do valor nutricional de subprodutos agroindustriais pelo uso da técnica de produção de gás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the total carbohydrates fractions and to estimate the digestion rate of non-fibrous carbohydrates of agroindustrial byproducts by using the gas production technique. The agroindustrial byproducts evaluated were the following: cashew, passion fruit, pineapple, barbados cherry, annatto and melon, and each sample was incubated in quadruplicate. After mixing all contents thoroughly, the bottles were placed in an incubator at 39ºC, and connecting the lid of each bottle to a pressure sensitive switch, a solenoid valve and a vent stem connector. Gas pressure measurements were made at 0, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 40, 48, 60, 72, 96 e 120 hours post-inoculation. Blanks and an internal standard were included to enable adjustments in variation among readings. There was a high variation in nutritional composition of agroindustry byproducts, that cashew and annato presented the highest protein contents (159.3 and 135.3 g/kg of dry matter, respectively. Mellon and cashew presented the lowest values of total gas production (9.60 and 12.85 mL, respectively; and annato, pineapple and passion fruit presented highest gas volume (32.80; 28.16 and 22.54 mL, respectively, being the greatest percentages of phases from B2 fraction (64.27; 81.25 and 67.49%, respectively. Among the byproducts, pineapple and annatto stand out for the highest contribution of fibrous carbohydrate for total gas production, being B2 the main energy source for microbial growth, which is degraded at a slower rate than non-fibrous carbohydrate.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar as frações de carboidratos totais e estimar a taxa de digestão dos carboidratos não-fibrosos de subprodutos agroindustriais, utilizando a técnica de produção de gás. Os subprodutos agroindustriais avaliados foram: caju, maracujá, abacaxi, acerola, urucum e melão, sendo cada amostra incubada em quadriplicata. Após mistura minuciosa de todos os conte

  14. Book Reviews

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    2003-07-01

    , Glenford D. Howe ,The empowering impulse: The nationalist tradition of Barbados. Kingston: Canoe Press, 2001. xiii + 354 pp., Don D. Marshall (eds -Jean Stubbs, Alejandro de la Fuente, A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. xiv + 449 pp. -Sheryl L. Lutjens, Susan Kaufman Purcell ,Cuba: The contours of Change. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000. ix + 155 pp., David J. Rothkopf (eds -Jean-Germain Gros, Robert Fatton Jr., Haiti's predatory republic: The unending transition to democracy. Boulder CO: Lynn Rienner, 2002. xvi + 237 pp. -Elizabeth McAlister, Beverly Bell, Walking on fire: Haitian Women's Stories of Survival and Resistance. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. xx + 253 pp. -Gérard Collomb, Peter Hulme, Remnants of conquest: The island Caribs and their visitors, 1877-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 371 pp. -Chris Bongie, Jeannie Suk, Postcolonial paradoxes in French Caribbean Writing: Césaire, Glissant, Condé. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 216 pp. -Marie-Hélène Laforest, Caroline Rody, The Daughter's return: African-American and Caribbean Women's fictions of history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. x + 267 pp. -Marie-Hélène Laforest, Isabel Hoving, In praise of new travelers: Reading Caribbean migrant women's writing. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ix + 374 pp. -Catherine Benoît, Franck Degoul, Le commerce diabolique: Une exploration de l'imaginaire du pacte maléfique en Martinique. Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge, 2000. 207 pp. -Catherine Benoît, Margarite Fernández Olmos ,Healing cultures: Art and religion as curative practices in the Caribbean and its diaspora. New York: Palgrave, 2001. xxi + 236 pp., Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert (eds -Jorge Pérez Rolón, Charley Gerard, Music from Cuba: Mongo Santamaría, Chocolate Armenteros and Cuban musicians in the United States. Westport CT: Praeger, 2001. xi + 155 pp

  15. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    cemetery in Barbados, West Indies: a bioarcheological and ethnohistorical investigation, Carbondale IL: Center for archaeological investigations, Southern Illinois University, 1989. xviii + 125 pp., Michael D. Conner, Keith P. Jacobi (eds -Gert Oostindie, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/1942, Assen, Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Alfons Martinus Gerardus Rutten, Apothekers en chirurgijns: gezondheidszorg op de Benedenwindse eilanden van de Nederlandse Antillen in de negentiende eeuw, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989. xx + 330 pp. -Rene A. Römer, Luc Alofs ,Ken ta Arubiano? sociale integratie en natievorming op Aruba, Leiden: Department of Caribbean studies, Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. xi + 232 pp., Leontine Merkies (eds -Michiel van Kempen, Benny Ooft et al., De nacht op de Courage - Caraïbische vertellingen, Vreeland, the Netherlands: Basispers, 1990. -M. Stevens, F.E.R. Derveld ,Winti-religie: een Afro-Surinaamse godsdienst in Nederland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands: Academische Uitgeverij Amersfoort, 1988. 188 pp., H. Noordegraaf (eds -Dirk H. van der Elst, H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen ,The great Father and the danger: religious cults, material forces, and collective fantasies in the world of the Surinamese Maroons, Dordrecht, the Netherlands and Providence RI: Foris Publications, 1988. xiv + 451 pp. [Second printing, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1991], W. van Wetering (eds -Johannes M. Postma, Gert Oostindie, Roosenburg en Mon Bijou: twee Surinaamse plantages, 1720-1870, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris Publications, 1989. x + 548 pp. -Elizabeth Ann Schneider, John W. Nunley ,Caribbean festival arts: each and every bit of difference, Seattle/St. Louis: University of Washington Press / Saint Louis Art Museum, 1989. 217 pp., Judith Bettelheim (eds -Bridget Brereton, Howard S. Pactor, Colonial British Caribbean newspapers: a bibliography and directory, Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. xiii

  16. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1998-01-01

    , Volumen II (1937-1938. Santo Domingo: Fundación Cultural Dominicana, 1995. 427 pp. -Danielle Bégot, Elborg Forster ,Sugar and slavery, family and race: The letters and diary of Pierre Dessalles, Planter in Martinique, 1808-1856. Elborg & Robert Forster (eds. and trans.. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996. 322 pp., Robert Forster (eds -Catherine Benoit, Richard D.E. Burton, La famille coloniale: La Martinique et la mère patrie, 1789-1992. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 308 pp. -Roderick A. McDonald, Kathleen Mary Butler, The economics of emancipation: Jamaica & Barbados, 1823-1843. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. xviii + 198 pp. -K.O. Laurence, David Chanderbali, A portrait of Paternalism: Governor Henry Light of British Guiana, 1838-48. Turkeyen, Guyana: Dr. David Chanderbali, Department of History, University of Guyana, 1994. xiii + 277 pp. -Mindie Lazarus-Black, Brian L. Moore, Cultural power, resistance and pluralism: Colonial Guyana 1838-1900. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press; Mona, Kingston: The Press-University of the West Indies, 1995. xv + 376 pp. -Madhavi Kale, K.O. Laurence, A question of labour: Indentured immigration into Trinidad and British Guiana, 1875-1917. Kingston: Ian Randle; London: James Currey, 1994. ix + 648 pp. -Franklin W. Knight, O. Nigel Bolland, On the March: Labour rebellions in the British Caribbean, 1934-39. Kingston: Ian Randle; London: James Currey, 1995. viii + 216 pp. -Linden Lewis, Kevin A. Yelvington, Producing power: Ethnicity, gender, and class in a Caribbean workplace. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. xv + 286 pp. -Consuelo López Springfield, Alta-Gracia Ortíz, Puerto Rican women and work: Bridges in transnational labor. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. xi + 249 pp. -Peta Henderson, Irma McClaurin, Women of Belize: Gender and change in Central America. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. x + 218 pp. -Bonham C. Richardson, David M. Bush

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2000-07-01

    : The Press University of the West Indies, 1998. xviii + 152 pp. -Kris Lane, Hans Turley, Rum, sodomy, and the lash: Piracy, sexuality, and masculine identity. New York: New York University Press, 1999. lx + 199 pp. -Jonathan Schorsch, Eli Faber, Jews, slaves, and the slave trade: Setting the record straight. New York: New York University Press, 1998. xvii + 367 pp. -Bonham C. Richardson, Bridget Brereton ,The Colonial Caribbean in transition: Essays on postemancipation social and cultural history. Barbados: The Press University of the West Indies; Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999. xxiii + 319 pp., Kevin A. Yelvington (eds -Ransford W. Palmer, Thomas Klak, Globalization and neoliberalism: The Caribbean context. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. xxiv + 319 pp. -Susan Saegert, Robert B. Potter ,Self-help housing, the poor, and the state in the Caribbean. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997. xiv + 299 pp., Dennis Conway (eds -Peter Redfield, Michèle-Baj Strobel, Les gens de l'or: Mémoire des orpailleurs créoles du Maroni. Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge, 1998. 400 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Louis Regis, The political calypso: True opposition in Trinidad and Tobago 1962-1987. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999. xv + 277 pp. -A. James Arnold, Christiane P. Makward, Mayotte Capécia ou l'aliénation selon Fanon. Paris: Karthala, 1999. 230 pp. -Chris Bongie, Celia M. Britton, Edouard Glissant and postcolonial theory: Strategies of language and resistance. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999. xiv + 224 pp. -Chris Bongie, Anne Malena, The negotiated self: The dynamics of identity in Francophone Caribbean narrative. New York: Peter Lang, 1999. x + 192 pp. -Catherine A. John, Kathleen M. Balutansky ,Caribbean creolization: Reflections on the cultural dynamics of language, literature, and identity., Marie-Agnès Sourieau (eds -Leland Ferguson, Jay B. Haviser, African sites archaeology in the Caribbean. Princeton NJ: Markus

  18. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    collected in river mouths, and of sea-level rise as recorded in corals from Tahiti and Barbados. Various isotopic proxies of deep-sea ventilation have been used to identify variations during the H1 sub-phases of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), indicating that ocean heat transport was involved in the observed climate fluctuations. The various records documenting different climate parameters at many locations over the Earth can also be used in meaningful comparison with numerical model simulations performed in a transient mode. Collectively, these works allow to estimate the phase relationships between the causes (insolation and the greenhouse effect) and the often abrupt responses of the various components of the climate system, such as the atmosphere, oceans and ice sheets. Although these studies concern a naturally-occurring global warming that took place over a long time period, useful parallels will be drawn with the evolution of modern climate. In fact, the phase relationships between forcings (such as greenhouse gases and solar input) and changes in regional and global temperatures are also at the heart of modern global climate change. As for early deglaciation, the ocean can modulate warming regionally, thereby delaying, or even temporarily masking, long-term changes. Climate changes over the last century have been smaller in magnitude than those of the last deglaciation. Fortunately for us, there has been no recent collapse of gigantic ice masses such as the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, most climate models show a 20 to 40% reduction of the MOC during the 21st century. Even if this change exerts only a minor influence on the projected magnitude of global warming, such a slowdown in ocean circulation change is generally sufficient to reduce the simulated warming over the North Atlantic with a resulting impact on adjacent continents, including Europe.

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1997-01-01

    NJ: Africa World Press, 1993. xxv + 115 pp. -Sandra Burr, Gretchen Gerzina, Black London: Life before emancipation. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995. xii + 244 pp. -Carlene J. Edie, Trevor Munroe, The cold war and the Jamaican Left 1950-1955: Reopening the files. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1992. xii + 242 pp. -Carlene J. Edie, David Panton, Jamaica's Michael Manley: The great transformation (1972-92. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1993. xx + 225 pp. -Percy C. Hintzen, Cary Fraser, Ambivalent anti-colonialism: The United States and the genesis of West Indian independence, 1940-1964. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1994. vii + 233 pp. -Anthony J. Payne, Carlene J. Edie, Democracy in the Caribbean: Myths and realities. Westport CT: Praeger, 1994. xvi + 296 pp. -Alma H. Young, Jean Grugel, Politics and development in the Caribbean basin: Central America and the Caribbean in the New World Order. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. xii + 270 pp. -Alma H. Young, Douglas G. Lockhart ,The development process in small island states. London: Routledge, 1993. xv + 275 pp., David Drakakis-Smith, John Schembri (eds -Virginia Heyer Young, José Solis, Public school reform in Puerto Rico: Sustaining colonial models of development. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. x + 171 pp. -Carolyn Cooper, Christian Habekost, Verbal Riddim: The politics and aesthetics of African-Caribbean Dub poetry. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1993. vii + 262 pp. -Clarisse Zimra, Jaqueline Leiner, Aimé Césaire: Le terreau primordial. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1993. 175 pp. -Clarisse Zimra, Abiola Írélé, Aimé Césaire: Cahier d'un retour au pays natal. With introduction, commentary and notes. Abiola Írélé. Ibadan: New Horn Press, 1994. 158 pp. -Alvina Ruprecht, Stella Algoo-Baksh, Austin C. Clarke: A biography. Barbados: The Press - University of the West Indies; Toronto: ECW Press, 1994. 234 pp. -Sue N. Greene, Glyne A. Griffith, Deconstruction, imperialism and the West Indian novel

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available -Peter Hulme, Simon Gikandi, Writing in limbo: Modernism and Caribbean literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992. x + 260 pp. -Charles V. Carnegie, Alistair Hennessy, Intellectuals in the twentieth-century Caribbean (Volume 1 - Spectre of the new class: The Commonwealth Caribbean. London: Macmillan, 1992. xvii 204 pp. -Nigel Rigby, Anne Walmsley, The Caribbean artists movement, 1966-1972: A literary and cultural history. London: New Beacon Books, 1992. xx + 356 pp. -Carl Pedersen, Tyrone Tillery, Claude McKay: A black poet's struggle for identity. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. xii + 235 pp. -Simone Dreyfus, Irving Rouse, The Tainos: Rise and decline of the people who greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. xii + 211 pp. -Louis Allaire, Antonio M. Stevens-Arroyo, Cave of the Jagua: The mythological world of the Taino. Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988. xiii + 282 pp. -Irving Rouse, William F. Keegan, The people who discovered Columbus: The prehistory of the Bahamas. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1992. xx + 279 pp. -Neil L. Whitehead, Philip P. Boucher, Cannibal encounters: Europeans and Island Caribs, 1492-1763. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xii + 217 pp. -Peter Kloos, Kaliña, des amérindiens à Paris: Photographies du prince Roland. Présentées par Gérard Collomb. Paris: Créaphis, 1992. 119 pp. -Maureen Warner-Lewis, Alan Gregor Cobley ,The African-Caribbean connection: Historical and cultural perspectives. Bridgetown, Barbados: Department of History, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, 1990. viii + 171 pp., Alvin Thompson (eds -H. Hoetink, Jean-Luc Bonniol, La couleur comme maléfice: une illustration créole de la généalogie des 'Blancs' et des 'Noirs'. Paris: Albin Michel, 1992. 304 pp. -Michael Aceto, Richard Price ,Two evenings in Saramaka. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1991. xvi + 417 pp., Sally Price (eds -Jorge P

  1. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers,Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 2 of TOJDE! In this issue, 7 notes for Editor and 22 articles one book review of 57 authors from 12 different countries have been published. These published articles are from, Barbados, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe.In general, around 13 articles and 4 notes for editors have been published in TOJDE so far. I would like to explain, why this time 22 articles and 8 submissions published in the articles and in notes for Editor Section respectively. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from 3 TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it means that this submission can be published in TOJDE in the coming issue. However, since the publishing priority of the accepted papers belongs to the highest scored ones, submissions which receive a score between 4.5 and 5 or 6 may wait and be archived for publishing later on. TOJDE administration respected this publishing rule up to now. Therefore, some accepted submissions which obtained over 4.5 have not been published up to now. These submissions were waiting for publishing in TOJDE in the future. In this issue, we decided to give them a chance to be published. For this reason, the current issue includes more papers than the previous issues. The 1st Notes for editor arrived from Russia written by Galina ARTYUSHINA and Olga SHEYPAK on Impacting Motivation In The Virtual Classroom. They mentioned that teachers, educational managers and learners must realize that new opportunities are offered by modern on-line communication. A person with basic Internet and Web skills is open to a new world of knowledge, from free Web surfing and self-organized education - through on-line resources and familiarization with Internet culture, its places, sites, search engines etc. - up to a more structured approach. The 2nd notes for editor is titled as “Use Of Libraries In Open And

  2. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio

  3. From Editor vol 11, No.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Greetings Dear readers of TOJDE,TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 11, Number: 3. In this issue it is published 3 notes for Editor, 12 articles, 2 book reviews. And this time, 32 authors from 10 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Barbados, Ghana, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, UAE and USA.“Developing and Validation A Usability Evaluation Tools For Distance Education Websites:Persian Version” has sent as Notes for editor section of TOJDE from Iran and written by Soheila HAFEZI, Ahmad FARAHI from Payame Noor University and Soheil Najafi MEHRI, Hosein MAHMOODI from Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran.. Their paper involves that he content validity index was measured by set of ten experts, who evaluated each item individually. According to CVI, the final version of instrument was composed of 40 questions divided into 8 domains: Navigation, Functionality, Feedback, Control, Language, Consistency, Error prevention and correction, and Visual clarity. CVI score for each phrase was more than 0.75. According to our findings, this instrument has enough validity to apply in evaluation usability of educational websites of Persian distance education websites. However, instrument reliability can be measured in further study. The second notes for editor is titled as “A Critical Analysis Of Managerial Skills Competencies Of Secondary School Heads Trained Through Distance Mode of Allama Iqbal Open University” which is written by Muhammad AKHLAQ from Preston University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN and SHAZIA MUNAWAR SULEHRI from Ministry of Education, PAKISTAN. They mentioned in their paper to analyze the managerial skills competencies of secondary schools heads trained through distance mode of education in Pakistan. For this purpose a sample 300 secondary school teachers and 100 secondary schools head-teachers trained through distance mode and working in the Federal Government