WorldWideScience

Sample records for bar vijhegiha-ye physiologiki

  1. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  2. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  3. Estimated errors in vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from semileptonic D decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate statistical and systematic errors in the extraction of the CKM ratio vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from exclusive D-meson semileptonic decays using lattice QCD and anticipated new experimental results

  4. Dissecting brick into bars

    OpenAIRE

    Feshchenko, Ivan; Radchenko, Danylo; Radzivilovsky, Lev; Tantsiura, Maksym

    2008-01-01

    An $N$-dimensional parallelepiped will be called a bar if and only if there are no more than $k$ different numbers among the lengths of its sides (the definition of bar depends on $k$). We prove that a parallelepiped can be dissected into finite number of bars iff the lengths of sides of the parallelepiped span a linear space of dimension no more than $k$ over $\\QQ$. This extends and generalizes a well-known theorem of Max Dehn about partition of rectangles into squares. Several other results...

  5. Sports Season, Sports Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For foreigners in Beijing, the sports bar is a special place, a place to gather for watching matches and a place to feel the familiarity of home, while for some sports enthusiasts it serves as their second home.

  6. The bar instability revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodi, Filippo; Andreotti, Bruno; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relati...

  7. $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ molecular states

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Rong; Huang, Ming-Qiu(College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073, Hunan, China)

    2009-01-01

    Masses for $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ molecular states are systematically studied in QCD sum rules. The interpolating currents representing the related molecular states are proposed. Technically, contributions of the operators up to dimension six are included in operator product expansion (OPE). Mass spectra for molecular states with $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ configurations are obtained.

  8. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  9. The IPG BAR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, B.; Henriquez, L.; Van Niekerk, L.; Verheul, R.

    2013-01-01

    The booklets 'Making Patterns' and 'Using Patterns' describe two aspects of the the pattern method within the urban design process. The accompanying IPG BAR Pattern Library is a small pattern library of urban-airport symbiosis patterns. These documents are the result of the Interdisciplinary Projec

  10. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  11. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian; Hughes, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding of the...... morphodynamic processes and sediment transport pathways involved in bar decay is limited. In this paper, long-term, net offshore bar migration is investigated at Vejers Beach, located on the North Sea coast of Denmark where offshore bar migration rates are of the order of 45–55 m a-1. A wave height...... transformation model confirmed that the decay of the outer bar results in increased wave heights and undertow speeds at the more landward bar potentially causing this bar to speed up its offshore migration. The causes for outer bar decay were investigated through field measurements of sediment transport at the...

  12. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    OpenAIRE

    Govender R; Cloete T.; Curry R.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic na...

  13. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Michael S; Katz, Neal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the naive dynamical friction prediction, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nat...

  14. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  15. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 8000C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author)

  16. The bar instability revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...

  17. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  18. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassoula, E

    2005-01-01

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. Durin...

  19. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  20. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  1. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2005-01-01

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. During the evolution a bar structure forms in the inner parts of the halo as well. This bar is shorter and fatter than the disc bar and stays so all through the simulation, although its length grows considerably with time. Viewed edge-on, the bar in the disc component acquires a boxy or peanut shape. I describe the families of periodic orbits that explain such structures and review the observations showing that boxy/peanut `bulges' are in fact just bars seen edge-on.

  2. Niobium in engineering bar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of niobium as a microalloying addition to hot rolled and cold finished bars offers many opportunities to achieve enhanced mechanical properties in a very cost effective manner. By the addition of niobium (sometimes in combination with vanadium) to selected carbon steel grades, it is possible to produce hot rolled bars with minimum yield strengths up to 689 MPa (100 ksi) and cold finished bars with yield strengths up to 1035 MPa (150 ksi). These high-strength-low-alloy bars have a myriad of applications particularly for automotive parts such as shafts, stabilizer bars, tie rods, piston rods, fasteners such as U-bolts, brackets, and various transmission parts. Of particular value has been the specification of Nb-microalloyed steels for such hot forgings as connecting rods and caps, and weld yokes a situation which has permitted elimination of post-forging heat treatment (quenching and tempering). Significant reductions in cost and energy consumption have been realized

  3. Bars in Cuspy Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, John; Shlosman, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    We examine the bar instability in models with an exponential disk and a cuspy NFW-like dark matter (DM) halo inspired by cosmological simulations. Bar evolution is studied as a function of numerical resolution in a sequence of models spanning 10K to 100M DM particles - including a multi-mass model with an effective resolution of 10G. The goal is to find convergence in dynamical behaviour. We characterize the bar growth, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through resonant transfer of angular momentum, and possible destruction of the DM halo cusp. Overall, most characteristics converge in behaviour in detail for halos containing more than 10M particles. Notably, the formation of the bar does not destroy the density cusp in this case. These higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  5. Blurring in bar code signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    1997-10-01

    When a bar code symbol is passed over a scanner, it is struck across by a fast moving laser beam. The laser light is scattered by the bar code. The total scattered power is modulated by the reflectivity of the bars and spaces in the symbol. A fraction of the scattered light is collected and focused onto a photodetector that converts the light variation into an electronic signal. The electronic signal is then digitized for analysis by a computer. The scanning and detection process can be modeled by a convolution of the laser beam profile and the bar code reflectivity function. The switching between states in the digitized bar code signal, which represents transitions from a space to a bar or vice versa, is determined by a zero-crossing point in the second derivative of the analog signal. The laser profile acts like a smoothing function. It blurs the analog electronic signal. If the width of the laser profile is less than the minimum width of bars and spaces in the bar code reflectivity function, the transition point is not affected by the location of its neighboring edges. If the laser profile is wider than the minimum width in the bar code, the transition point can be shifted due to the locations of its neighboring edges. The behavior of the shift of transition is analyzed here for all cases in a UPC symbol. It is found that the amount of shift in the transition point is almost the same for several different cases within the depth of field of the scanner. The knowledge of the behavior of transition point shift can be used to accurately compensate printing errors in an over-printed bar code. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of bar code scanning is the Fourier transform of the marginal function of the scanning laser beam. The MTF through focus for a scanning system is presented. By using an aperture with central obscuration in the laser focusing system, the high frequency resolution of bar code scanning can be enhanced and the depth of field of the scanner can

  6. Valence band structure of the ZnO(1-bar 0-bar 1-bar -bar 0) surface studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic band structure of the ZnO(1-bar 0-bar 1-bar -bar 0) surface has been studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy-dependent measurements and K- and O2-adsorption studies revealed that the O 2p dangling-bond state exists at 3.7eV below the Fermi level at the Γ-bar point. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the state has dominant contribution of the O 2px orbital (x is parallel to the (1-bar 2-bar -bar 1-bar 0) direction) at the Γ-bar point. It is found that the O 2p dangling-bond band lies within the projected bulk bands along the ΓX-bar -bar and-bar ΓX'-bar axes in the surface Brillouin zone. This result settles a controversial issue on the energetic position of the O 2p dangling-bond band, which has been in dispute among theoretical studies. The dispersion widths are found to be 0.8 and 0.5eV along the ΓX-bar -bar and-bar ΓX'-bar directions, respectively

  7. Quasinuclear N bar N states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an interpretation of recent experimental results on nucleon-anti-nucleon annihilation reactions of the type N bar N → πX, which have yielded evidence for a new tensor meson AX (here called X2) with JπC(IG) = 2++(0+). The branching ratios for producing X2 from N bar N atomic states of orbital angular momentum L = 0,1, as well as its preference for decay into ρρ and ππ rather than K bar K channels, are consistent with the identifications of X2 as a 13P2-13F2 bound state of the N bar N potential. We suggest further key test of this interpretation. 21 refs

  8. Electromagnetic Compressive Split Hopkinson Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, P. A. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Silva, C. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for the compressive split Hopkinson bar that makes use of the intense pressure created in a transient magnetic field formed by the passage of a pulse of electric current through a series of coils. The proposed technology enables to characterize the behaviour of materials under high strain-rates with a small acceleration path length of the striker bar and, because propulsion is purely electromagnetic, the overall performance can be easily controlled and nearly ...

  9. Strength Degradation of Gfrp Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Bhise, Vikrant Sudhakar

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to examine the strength degradation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars at high temperature and alkalinity and determine if an Arrhenius type relationship can be used as a means of projecting life. The work done includes a thorough literature review, experiments and development of strength prediction models. The experimental work involves exposure of GFRP bars incased in cement mortar to lime-water solution at 30, 45 and 57°C. Overall 100 ...

  10. Multiprobe quantum spin Hall bars

    OpenAIRE

    Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED We analyze electron transport in multiprobe quantum spin Hall (QSH) bars using the B¨uttiker formalism and draw parallels with their quantum Hall (QH) counterparts. We find that in a QSH bar the measured resistance changes upon introducing side voltage probes, in contrast to the QH case. We also study four- and six-terminal geometries and derive the expressions for the resistances. For these our analysis is generalized from the single-channel to the multi-channel case...

  11. Barred disks in dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, I; Heiderman, A; Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Barden, M; Wolf, C; Peng, C Y; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Bell, E F; Bohm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Rix, H -W; Sanchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of bright (MV <= -18) barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z~0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. To identify and characterize bars, we use ellipse-fitting. We use visual classification, a Sersic cut, and a color cut to select disk galaxies, and find that the latter two methods miss 31% and 51%, respectively of disk galaxies identified through visual classification. This underscores the importance of carefully selecting the disk sample in cluster environments. However, we find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ~30% regardless of the method of disk selection. We study the relationship of the optical bar fraction to host galaxy properties, and find that the optical bar fraction depends strongly on the luminosity of the galaxy and whether it hosts a prominent bulge or is bulgeless. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the optical bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological ...

  12. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2014-01-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys - fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos - are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three co-planer flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be ...

  13. A note on the B*B-bar, B*B-bar*, D*D-bar, D*D-bar* molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the one-boson-exchange model, we have performed an extensive study of the possible B*B-bar, B*B-bar*, D*D-bar, D*D-bar* molecular states with various quantum numbers after considering the S-wave and D-wave mixing. We also discuss the possible experimental research of these interesting states. (authors)

  14. Modulation transfer function of bar code scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Milster, Tom D.

    1998-09-01

    Bar code scanners are ubiquitous in supermarkets. As a bar code is passed over a scanner, a laser beam scans across the bar code. The scattered light is modulated by the reflectivity of the bars and spaces of the bar code. The bar code scanning process can be described as a 1D convolution of the scanning laser profile and the bar code reflectivity function. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of bar code scanning is the Fourier transform of the marginal profile of the laser beam. The properties of the MTF of bar code scanning is similar to that of an incoherent imaging system. Measurements of the MTF of bar code scanning at one focus position are presented. The experimental results are then discussed.

  15. Gas flow in barred potentials II. Bar Driven Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

    2015-01-01

    Spiral arms that emerge from the ends of a galactic bar are important in interpreting observations of our and external galaxies. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanism that causes them. We find that these spiral arms can be understood as kinematic density waves generated by librations around underlying ballistic closed orbits. This is even true in the case of a strong bar, provided the librations are around the appropriate closed orbits and not around the circular orbits that form the basis of the epicycle approximation. An important consequence is that it is a potential's orbital structure that determines whether a bar should be classified as weak or strong, and not crude estimates of the potential's deviation from axisymmetry.

  16. Dynamically possible pattern speeds of double bars

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Witold

    2009-01-01

    The method to study oscillating potentials of double bars, based on invariant loops, is introduced here in a new way, intended to be more intelligible. Using this method, I show how the orbital structure of a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) changes with the variation of nuclear bar's pattern speed. Not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while high values of this speed lead to loops that are increasingly round. For values between these two extremes, loops supporting the inner bar extend further out as its pattern speed decreases, and they become more eccentric and pulsate more. These findings do not apply to counter-rotating inner bars.

  17. Bars in the Barkor Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In daytime,the Barkor Street is bustling with tourists,pious pilgrims and merchants crowded together.Only when darkness falls does the street become tranquil.Nevertheless,the area surrounding the Barkor Street(from Tibetan Hospital compound extending to east Beijing Road)is then revived by various kinds of bars.

  18. Bars in Beijing Old Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYUNZHANG

    2003-01-01

    It's seven pm on a summer's evening by Shichahao Lake,central Beijing.A welcome breeze whispers across the lake,and the ruddy vestiges of sunset linger on roofs and treetops.A low hum emanates from bars on the lakeshore packed with young people chatting,drinking and generally

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  20. Bar, Orliac-de-Bar, Beaumont, Saint–Augustin, Ussel

    OpenAIRE

    Simonnot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 2735 Date de l'opération : 2007 (PR) Inventeur(s) : Simonnot Bernard (BEN) La prospection sur les communes de Bar, Orliac-de-Bar, Beaumont et Saint-Augustin n’ayant pas donné pour le moment de nouveaux résultats satisfaisants, une reprise sera nécessaire lors de la prochaine campagne. Ceux découverts récemment demandent une étude plus approfondie. Cette année, la prospection s’est limitée à la partie ouest de la commune d’Ussel, dans la zone de renc...

  1. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  2. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core

  3. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skibba, Ramin A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Willett, Kyle W., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their

  7. Search for \\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^- decay at Belle

    OpenAIRE

    The Belle Collaboration; Abe, K

    2007-01-01

    We search for the doubly charmed baryonic decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-$, in a data sample of $520\\times10^6$ $B{\\bar B}$ events accumulated at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e^+e^- collider. We find no significant signal and set an upper limit of ${\\cal B}(\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-)

  8. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  9. Irradiation test of bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  10. Atomic simulations of (10 1-bar 2), (10 1-bar 1) twinning and (10 1-bar 2) detwinning in magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (10 1-bar 2) and (10 1-bar 1) twinning and (10 1-bar 2) detwinning for Mg were investigated from the viewpoint of mobility of twinning dislocations and atomic shuffling. First-principles calculations suggested that the twinning dislocations glide more readily for the (10 1-bar 1) twinning than for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning. However, this conflicts with the experimental fact of easier (10 1-bar 2) twin formation. On the other hand, molecular dynamics simulations showed that the atomic shuffling was more activated for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning than for the (10 1-bar 1) twinning, which corresponds to the experimental fact. Therefore, it is suggested that the rate-controlling process for the twin formation is the atomic shuffling. Moreover, the calculations and simulations showed that the twinning dislocations glide more readily for the (10 1-bar 2) detwinning than for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning, whereas the atomic shuffling is less activated for the detwinning, suggesting that the detwinning occurs easily but is unstable, resulting in easy repetition of twinning–detwinning. (paper)

  11. First observation of B-bars0→Ds2*+Xμ-ν-bar decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data collected with the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the semileptonic decays B-bars0→Ds+Xμ-ν-bar and B-bars0→D0K+Xμ-ν-bar are detected. Two structures are observed in the D0K+ mass spectrum at masses consistent with the known Ds1(2536)+ and Ds2*(2573)+ mesons. The measured branching fractions relative to the total B-bars0 semileptonic rate are B(B-bars0→Ds2*+Xμ-ν-bar)/B(B-bars0→Xμ-ν-bar)=(3.3±1.0±0.4)%, and B(B-bars0→Ds1+Xμ-ν-bar)/B(B-bars0→Xμ-ν-bar)=(5.4±1.2±0.5)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the first observation of the Ds2*+ state in B-bars0 decays; we also measure its mass and width.

  12. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  13. Results from bar pp colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results bar pp colliders are presented. From elastic scattering experiments at the Tevatron, an average value of σtot = 72.1±2 mb is reported, along with a new measurement of ρ = 0.13 ± 0.7. New measurements of jet direct photon and high pt W and Z production are compared to more precise, higher order predictions from perturbative QCD. Recently available data on the W mass and width give combined values for MW = 80.14±0.27 GeV/c2, and Γ(W) =2. 14 ± 0.08 GeV. From electroweak radiative corrections and MW, one finds Mtop = 130±40 GeV/c2, with a 95% C.L. upper limit at 210 GeV/c2. Current limits on Mtop are presented, along with a review of the prospects for top discovery. From jet data there is no evidence of quark substructure down to the distance scale of 1.4 x 10-17 cm, nor is there evidence for supersymmetry or heavy gauge bosons at bar pp colliders, allowing lower limits on MW, > 520 GeV/c2 and MZ 412 GeV/c2. 66 refs., 26 figs

  14. P{bar P} collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A brief introduction to {bar p}p collider physics is given. Selected results from the collider experiments at the CERN S{bar p}pS and the Tevatron collider are described. The emphasis is on experimental aspects of {bar p}p collisions. Minimum bias physics and the production of jets, Intermediate Vector Bosons and heavy flavors is reviewed. The outlook for physics at hadron colliders for the near future is briefly discussed.

  15. Predictions for $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau} $

    CERN Document Server

    Boubaa, D; Duraisamy, M; Khalil, S

    2012-01-01

    The observation of $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau} $ at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper we calculate this process in a 2HDM framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavour changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass $% \\sim 125 $ GeV then we get $BR(B_s \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-6}$ and $BR(B_d \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-7}$. We also calculate this process in minimal supersymmetric standard model and find $BR(B_s \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-11}$.

  16. PREDICTIONS FOR $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}$

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaa, Dris; Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2013-12-01

    The observation of B -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ } at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper, we calculate this process in an extended Higgs sector framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavor changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass 125 GeV then we find that, after imposing all experimental constraints, the BR(Bs -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-6 and BR (Bd -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-7. We also calculate this process in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and find the BR(Bs ->τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) is typically of the order 10-8.

  17. Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $\\bar B \\bar B$ Strong Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the potentials of the heavy (charmed or bottomed) pseudoscalar mesons up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$ with the heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We take into account the contributions from the football, triangle, box, and crossed diagrams with the 2$\\phi$ exchange and one-loop corrections to the contact terms. We notice that the total 2$\\phi$-exchange potential alone is attractive in the small momentum region in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=1}$, ${\\bar B_s \\bar B_s}^{I=0}$, or ${\\bar B \\bar B_s}^{I=1/2}$, while repulsive in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=0}$. Hopefully the analytical chiral structures of the potentials may be useful in the extrapolation of the heavy meson interaction from lattice QCD simulation.

  18. B-bar → πlν-bar at three lattice spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing accuracy of experimental results for the exclusive, semileptonic decay B-bar → πlν-bar requires a similarly accurate calculation of the hadronic matrix elements, to determine vertical bar Vub vertical bar. We present preliminary results for the form factors of the B to light meson decay mode. Using results from three lattices in the range 5.7 ≤ β ≤ 6.1 we study the dependence on the lattice spacing

  19. Orbital Support of Fast and Slow Inner Bars in Double Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e. pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar...

  20. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  1. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  2. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  3. Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an ...

  4. Impact resistance of bar glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J P; Huggett, R H; Kidner, G

    1993-12-01

    Bar glasses are often used as weapons in interpersonal violence. Violence often erupts spontaneously and assailants use objects close to hand as weapons. After an initial national Accident and Emergency Department study to identify glass designs most often implicated in interpersonal violence, the impact resistance of 1-pint beer glasses was tested in a materials laboratory with a Zwick 5102 pendulum impact tester. Both straight-sided (nonik) glasses (annealed and tempered) and handled tankards (annealed) were tested to destruction. The impact resistance of new glasses was compared with that of glasses subjected to wear. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks did not differ significantly although new glasses were significantly more resistant than worn glasses (p shards although the thicker bases remained intact. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks was 0.5 J, of worn annealed noniks 0.08 J, of tempered new noniks > 4 J, of worn tempered noniks 0.18 J, and of tankards, 1.7 J.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263994

  5. Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R J; Elmegreen, B G; Salo, H; Laurikainen, E; Elmegreen, D M; Puerari, I; Block, D L

    2009-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared K_s-band AAT IRIS2 observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0- to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is a only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their ...

  6. Barred Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Weinzirl, Tim; Balcells, Marc; Carter, David; Brok, Mark den; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hoyos, Carlos; Peletier, Reynier F; Huxor, Avon P; Peng, Erik; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2010-01-01

    We use ACS data from the HST Treasury survey of the Coma cluster (z~0.02) to study the properties of barred galaxies in the Coma core, the densest environment in the nearby Universe. This study provides a complementary data point for studies of barred galaxies as a function of redshift and environment. From ~470 cluster members brighter than M_I = -11 mag, we select a sample of 46 disk galaxies (S0--Im) based on visual classification. The sample is dominated by S0s for which we find an optical bar fraction of 47+/-11% through ellipse fitting and visual inspection. Among the bars in the core of the Coma cluster, we do not find any very large (a_bar > 2 kpc) bars. Comparison to other studies reveals that while the optical bar fraction for S0s shows only a modest variation across low-to-intermediate density environments (field to intermediate-density clusters), it can be higher by up to a factor of ~2 in the very high-density environment of the rich Coma cluster core.

  7. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Roland S. Moore

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to th...

  8. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  9. Star Formation Properties in Barred Galaxies(SFB). III. Statistical Study of Bar-driven Secular Evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend to be coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges towards stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the ...

  10. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China; Ji, Cheung-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Melnitchouk, Wally [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Wang, P. [Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  11. BARS DO DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Buta et al. examined the question 'Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?', an idea supported by theoretical studies and also from a preliminary observational analysis. They estimated maximum bar strengths Qb , maximum spiral strengths Qs , and maximum m = 2 arm contrasts A 2s for 23 galaxies with deep Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) Ks -band images. These were combined with previously published Qb and Qs values for 147 galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS) sample and with the 12 galaxies from Block et al. Weak correlation between Qb and Qs was confirmed for the combined sample, whereas the AAT subset alone showed no significant correlations between Qb and Qs , nor between Qb and A 2s. A similar negative result was obtained in Durbala et al. for 46 galaxies. Based on these studies, the answer to the above question remains uncertain. Here we use a novel approach, and show that although the correlation between the maximum bar and spiral parameters is weak, these parameters do correlate when compared locally. For the OSUBSGS sample, a statistically significant correlation is found between the local spiral amplitude, and the forcing due to the bar's potential at the same distance, out to ∼1.6 bar radii (the typical bar perturbation is then of the order of a few percent). Also for the sample of 23 AAT galaxies of Buta et al., we find a significant correlation between local parameters out to ∼1.4 bar radii. Our new results confirm that, at least in a statistical sense, bars do indeed drive spiral density waves.

  12. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    International audience Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar a...

  13. The DIRC detector at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dedicated particle identification system based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (DIRC) light will be used in the BaBar detector. We provide an overview of the DIRC concept, design, and expected performance of the production device and a status report on its construction and commissioning. The DIRC is expected to be operating in the BaBar detector on beam line at the PEP-II B Factory in late spring 1999

  14. The Influence of Bars on Nuclear Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    1997-01-01

    We test ideas on fueling of galactic nuclei by bar-driven inflow by comparing the detection rate and intensity of nuclear H II regions and AGNs among barred and unbarred galaxies in a sample of over 300 spirals selected from our recent optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. Among late-type spirals (Sc-Sm), but not early-type (S0/a-Sbc), we observe in the barred group a very marginal increase in the detection rate of H II nuclei and a corresponding decrease in the incidence of AGNs. The minor differences in the detection rates, however, are statistically insignificant, most likely stemming from selection effects and not from a genuine influence from the bar. The presence of a bar seems to have no noticeable impact on the likelihood of a galaxy to host either nuclear star formation or an AGN. The nuclei of early-type barred spirals do exhibit measurably higher star-formation rates than their unbarred counterparts, as indicated by either the luminosity or the equivalent width of H-alpha emission. By co...

  15. Hot Disks And Delayed Bar Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheth, Kartik; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Athanassoula, E; Weiner, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 $<$ z $\\leq$ 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local Universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep ($\\times$3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z=0 to z=0.84 in L$^*$ and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 $<$ log M$_{*}$(\\Msun)$<$ 11), later-type and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation ...

  16. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  17. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Yusupujiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Ji, Chueng -Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  18. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  19. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  20. Evidence for the existence of $u d \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and the non-existence of $s s \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and $c c \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagenbach, Björn; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We combine lattice QCD results for the potential of two static antiquarks in the presence of two quarks $q q$ of finite mass and quark model techniques to study possibly existing $q q \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks. While there is strong indication for a bound four-quark state for $q q = (ud-du) / \\sqrt{2}$, i.e. isospin $I=0$, we find clear evidence against the existence of corresponding tetraquarks with $q q \\in \\{ uu , (ud+du) / \\sqrt{2} , dd \\}$, i.e. isospin $I=1$, $q q = s s$ and $q q = c c$.

  1. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan fu...

  2. Heavy-flavored tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{Q}$ configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass spectrum of the tetraquark states composed of four heavy quarks with the $QQ\\bar Q\\bar Q$ configuration in this work. We also discuss their strong decay patterns, which shall be helpful to the experimental search for these exotic states.

  3. Bar Admission--Default on Student Loan Warrants Denial of Admission to Minnesota Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Mitchell Law Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld a decision that student loan default, and subsequent dismissal through bankruptcy, is sufficient reason to deny a law student's bar admission. The bar's requirement of good moral character was interpreted as financial integrity in the Gahan case. (MSE)

  4. B → Dlν form factors and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zero recoil limit of the B → Dlν form factors is calculated on the lattice, which provides a model-independent determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar. Considering a ratio of form factors, in which the bulk of statistical and systematic errors cancel, we obtain a precise result both for h+(1) and for h-(1)

  5. The influence of the environment on bar formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.; Sanchez-Janssen, R.; Corsini, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy mergers and interactions are mechanisms which could drive the formation of bars. Therefore, we could expect that the fraction of barred galaxies increases with the local density. Here we show the first results of an extensive search for barred galaxies in different environments. We conclude that the bar fraction on bright (L>L*) field, Virgo, and Coma cluster galaxies is compatible. These results point towards an scenario where the formation and/or evolution of bars depend mostly on in...

  6. CP Asymmetries in bar B -> bar K* (-> bar K pi) l+ l- and Untagged bar B_s,B_s -> phi (-> K+ K-) l+ l- Decays at NLO

    CERN Document Server

    Bobeth, Christoph; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay bar B -> bar K* (-> bar K pi) l+ l- offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b ->s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed \\lesssim 1 % in the Standard Model and its extensions where the CKM matrix is the only source of CP violation. Three CP asymmetries are T-odd, and can be O(1) in the presence of non-standard CP violation. The T-even asymmetries can reach O(0.1), limited by the small strong phases in the large recoil region. We furthermore point out an easy way to measure CP phases from time-integrated, untagged bar B_d, B_d -> K* (-> K0 pi0) l+ l- and bar B_s,B_s -> phi (-> K+ K-) l+ l- decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experim...

  7. Tidally induced bars of galaxies in clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, Ewa L; del Pino, Andres; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and an NFW dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger, longer and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit the properties of the bar are controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenters. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when th...

  8. Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.

  9. Bar code application to nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of efficient implementation of IAEA safeguards inspection, operators ought to prepare the information which is related to the strata for flow verification in a timely manner, such as physical inventory listing and summary of the fuel bundles. Today the use of bar code technique in tracing of products related data or counting number of items has been more and more applied to many facets of industry. From these points of view, the Japan Nuclear Fuel Company (NF) has been developing JNF Total Bar Code System. Now JNF has established an on-line input system of the fuel bundle accountability data by use of the bar code system to quickly prepare the information necessary for the inspection. As the first step, JNF implemented this bar code system at the flow verification to prepare physical inventory summary and location map of the fuel bundles in the storage. This paper reports that as a result of this, NF confirmed that this bar code system made it possible to input easily and quickly nuclear material accountancy information, and therefore this system is utilized as an effective and efficient measure of timely preparation for the inspection

  10. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  11. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  12. Warp evidences in precessing galactic bar models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Martin, Patricia; Masdemont, Josep J

    2016-01-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen from an edge-on point of view. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far and in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic, model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect produced by a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model is developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar keep being the skeleton of the inner system, even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we compute the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to get evidences of their warped shapes. As it is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these bu...

  13. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  14. Results from the KARMEN nu-bar submu -> nu-bar sub e neutrino oscillation search

    CERN Document Server

    Eitel, K

    1999-01-01

    The neutrino experiment KARMEN is situated at the beam stop neutrino source ISIS. It provides nu submu's, nu sub e 's and nu-bar's in equal intensities from the pi sup + -mu sup + -decay at rest (DAR). The oscillation channel nu-bar submu -> nu-bar sub e is investigated in the appearance mode with a 56 t liquid scintillation calorimeter at a mean distance of 17.7 m from the nu-source looking for p (nu-bar sub e , e sup +) n reactions. In the data collected through 1997 and 1998 no potential oscillation event was observed. Using a unified approach to small signals as recommended by the PDG, this leads to an upper limit for the mixing angle of sin sup 2 (2 THETA) nu-bar sub e evidence.

  15. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, David C. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shah, Amisha J. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  16. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  17. BAR-MOM Code and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    BAR-MOM [1,2] code to calculate the height of the fission barrier Bf, the energy of the ground state, the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum(the spin value) Lmax at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number and angular momentum L for 19BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z≥102[3] by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission

  18. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  19. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  20. Track Finding Efficiency in BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    Allmendinger, T; Brown, D N; Choi, H; Christ, S; Covarelli, R; Davier, M; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Hafner, A; Kowalewski, R; Long, O; Lutz, A M; Martinelli, M; Muller, D R; Nugent, I M; Pegna, D Lopes; Purohit, M V; Prencipe, E; Roney, J M; Simi, G; Solodov, E P; Telnov, A V; Varnes, E; Waldi, R; Wang, W F; White, R M

    2012-01-01

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using $\\tau$ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the $\\tau$ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of $K_S^0$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs BaBar running periods.

  1. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  2. Brouwer’s Real Thesis on Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    L.E.J. Brouwer made a mistake in the formulation of his famous bar theorem, as was pointed out by S.C. Kleene. By repeating this mistake several times, Brouwer has caused confusion. We consider the assumption underlying his bar theorem, calling it Brouwer’s Thesis. This assumption is not refuted by Kleene’s example and we use it to obtain a conclusion different from Brouwer’s. Thus we come to support a view first expressed and defended by E. Martino and P. Giaretta in [Martino 1981]. We also ...

  3. Fibered Multilinks and singularities $f \\bar g$

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon, Anne; Seade, José

    2005-01-01

    In this article we extend Milnor's fibration theorem for complex singularities to the case of singularities $f \\bar g:(X,P) \\to (C,0))$ defined on a complex analytic singularity germ $(X,P)$, with $f, g$ holomorphic and $f \\bar g$ having an isolated critical value at $0 \\in C$. This can also be regarded as a result for meromorphic germs. Then we strenghten this fibration theorem when $X$ has complex dimension 2, obtaining a fibration theorem for multilinks that extends previous work by Pichon...

  4. Forming Double-barred Galaxies From Dynamically Cool Inner Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P

    2015-01-01

    About one third of early-type barred galaxies host small-scale secondary bars. The formation and evolution of such double-barred galaxies remain far from being well understood. In order to understand the formation of such systems, we explore a large parameter space of isolated pure-disk simulations. We show that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady secondary bar while the outer disk forms a large-scale primary bar. The independent bar instabilities of inner and outer disks result in long-lived double-barred structures whose dynamical properties are comparable with observations. This formation scenario indicates that the secondary bar might form from the general bar instability, the same as the primary bar. Under some circumstances, the interaction of the bars and the disk leads to the two bars aligning or single, nuclear, bars only. Simulations that are cool enough of the center to experience clump instabilities may also generate steady double-barred ga...

  5. Observation of B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del, L; Buono; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of the b --> d penguin-dominated decays B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar in approximately 350 million Upsilon(4S) --> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector. We measure the branching fractions B(B+ --> K0bar K+) = (1.61 +/- 0.44 +/- 0.09) * 10^-6 and B(B0 --> K0 K0bar) = (1.08 +/- 0.28 +/- 0.11) * 10^-6, and the CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0bar K+) = 0.10 +/- 0.26 +/- 0.03. Using a vertexing technique previously employed in several analyses of all-neutral final states containing kaons, we report the first measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B0 --> K0 K0bar, obtaining S = -1.28 +0.80/-0.73 +0.11/-0.16 and C = -0.40 +/- 0.41 +/- 0.06. We also report improved measurements of the branching fraction B(B0 --> K0 pi+) = (23.9 +/- 1.1 +/- 1.0) * 10^-6 and CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0 pi+) = -0.029 +/- 0.039 +/- 0.010.

  6. Lectura en barómetro

    OpenAIRE

    Cháfer, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Elaboración de material digital y recursos en la red para el tercer curso de la titulación de Química y nuevos grados. El objetivo de este vídeo es aprender a medir la presión atmosférica en un barómetro.

  7. High quality joints of copper bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient joints in copper bus bar conductors can be made very simply by bolting and clamping. This paper proposes the method to maximize the jointing efficiency in order to eliminate hot spots in switchgears by optimizing the effect of spreading resistance and interface resistance.

  8. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  9. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  10. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils. PMID:27404117

  11. BaBar Explores CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent results obtained by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC on CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral and charged B decays are presented here. The analysis was performed on a data sample of ∼ 88 million Υ(4S) → B(bar B) decays collected between 1999 and 2002. Using b → c(bar c)s decays, we measure sin2β = 0.741 ± 0.067(stat) ± 0.034(syst). We also present sin2β measurements from, b → s(bar s)s and b → c(bar c)d processes. From neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons, we derive for the CP violating parameters, Sππ = 0.02 ± 0.34 ± 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and Cππ = -0.30 ± 0.25 ± 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12]. First results for B → π+π-π0 and K±π±π0 final states dominated by the ρ± resonance, are also presented

  12. Bar instability in disk-halo systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2016-01-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  13. Shooters:Mini Marvels of the Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2010-01-01

    No cocktail bar or mixer repertoire is complete unless it includes a short selection of shooters. Unfortunately in the past these miniature cocktails had a bad image due to poorly conceived promotions where the emphasis was too heavily weighted towards volume rather than delivering a unique taste experience for customers.

  14. Possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks from $\\Sigma_c^{(*)}\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi^{(',*)}_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In a one-boson-exchange model with one-pion and one-eta exchanges, we investigate possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks produced from the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$, $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$, and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ interactions with the S-D wave mixing. The Lagrangians with chiral symmetry, heavy quark symmetry, and/or hidden local symmetry are adopted to describe the interactions. With such Lagrangians, it is found that the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions are forbidden. For the $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is forbidden and only one-eta exchange survives, there exist three molecular candidates at cutoffs about 3 GeV, i.e., a $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ state with quantum number $I(J^P)=1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ states with $1(\\frac{1}{2}^-)$ and $1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$. For the $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$ and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is allow...

  15. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zmzhou@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  16. The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Bagley, Micaela; Quillen, Alice C

    2008-01-01

    The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down....

  17. CP asymmetry Relations Between $\\bar B^0\\rightarrow \\pi\\pi$ and $\\bar B^0\\rightarrow \\pi K$ Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang(INPAC, SKLPPC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China)

    1994-01-01

    We prove that CP violating rate difference $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) = \\Gamma (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) - \\Gamma ( B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^-\\pi^+)$ is related to $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+ K^-) = \\Gamma (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+K^-) - \\Gamma (B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^-K^+)$ in the three generation Standard Model. Neglecting small annihilation diagrams, and in the SU(3) symmetry limit, we show $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) = - \\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow ...

  18. Studies of bb-bar gluon and cc-bar vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on several new studies of bb-barg and cc-barg vertices using 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z0 decays by e+e- collision. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous bbg couplings. The parity violation in Z0 → bb-barg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A measurement of the probability of gluon splitting into cc-bar pairs finds gcc-bar = (2.45 ± 0.29 ± 0.53)%. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into bb-bar pairs yields gbb-bar = (2.84 ± 0.61 (stat.) ± 0.59(yst.)) x 10-3 (Preliminary). (author)

  19. Predictions for NDK, K-bar DN and ND D-bar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work baryon systems made of three hadrons which contain one nucleon and one D meson, and in addition another meson, D-bar , K or K-bar , are investigated using the Fixed Center Approximation to the Faddeev equations. In this work we use Λc(2595), X(3700) and D*s0(2317) bound states as a cluster and a third particle scattering form that clusters. In all cases we find bound states and quasibound states.

  20. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441. ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  1. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies: I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Aguerri, J A L; Falcón-Barroso, J; Amorin, A; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Fernandes, R Cid; García-Benito, R; García-Lorenzo, B; Delgado, R M González; Husemann, B; Kalinova, V; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Mast, D; Pérez, E; Sánchez, S F; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Backsmann, N; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; del Olmo, A; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Pérez, I; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Wisotzki, L; Ziegler, B

    2015-01-01

    The bar pattern speed ($\\Omega_{\\rm b}$) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine \\& Weinberg (1984; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. We measured $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problem...

  2. Rare kaon decays: $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bipul Bhuyan

    2004-03-01

    The experimental progress in the search for $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ will be presented in this paper. Also the physics potential of the proposed BNL experiment to search for $K_{L}^{0} → ^{0} \\bar{}$ (KOPIO) will be discussed.

  3. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego García

    2014-01-01

    We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups selected from the SDSS-DR7, with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on AGN and the role of the high density environment. We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups from SDSS-DR7 group catalog. To provide a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distribution...

  4. Initial magnetic field distribution around high rectangular bus bars

    OpenAIRE

    Cividjian Grigore A.

    2014-01-01

    The one-dimensional transient electromagnetic field in and around a system of two nonmagnetic homogenous rectangular high thin bars can be analytically evaluated if the ratio of average initial magnetic field on the two sides of thin bar, or of the ratio of initial magnetic fields in middle of the bar height is known. In this paper, using appropriate conformal mappings, an exact analytical solution for these ratios are proposed in the case of very thin bars...

  5. Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Mridula, D.; Singh, K. K.; Barnwal, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0–20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not af...

  6. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR dom...

  7. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  8. Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants

  9. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by...

  11. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  12. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  13. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  14. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the ability to be successful, productive members of the profession. Instead, the conventional wisdom is that the greatest obstacles to their success will come in the form of external barriers and institutional policies based on preconceived norms that do not acknowledge the divergent challenges faced by these group members.

  15. A Distinct Structure Inside the Galactic Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiyama, S; Baba, D; Haba, Y; Kadowaki, R; Kato, D; Kurita, M; Nagashima, C; Nagayama, T; Murai, Y; Nakajima, Y; Tamura, M; Nakaya, H; Sugitani, K; Naoi, T; Matsunaga, N; Tanabé, T; Kusakabe, N; Sato, S; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Sato, Shuji

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (J H Ks) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5deg < l < +10.5deg and b=+1.0deg, with the IRSF 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS camera. Ks vs. H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump (RC) stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=+10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the bar-like structure found in previous studies, but we find an additional inner structure at |l| < 4deg, where the longitude - apparent magnitude relation is distinct from the outer bar, and the apparent magnitude peak changes by only 0.1 mag over the central 8deg. The exact nature of this inner structure is as yet uncertain.

  16. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  17. Strangeness production in pp-bar collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study strangeness production reactions in the framework of a Chiral Constituent Quark Model. The model includes the coupling with the SU(3) pseudoscalar meson octet due to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. It also includes QCD perturbative effects through the coupling with the gluon field. In this way the two traditional mechanism of strangeness production, i.e., the kaon exchange and gluon annihilation, are introduce in the same framework. Two meson exchanges are parametrized through the exchange of scalar mesons, namely a sigma and a kappa exchange. The kappa exchange allows a better description of the polarization observables of the pp-bar →ΛΛ-bar production reaction. Other strangeness production reaction in the isospin 1 sector are also studied.

  18. Measuring K+ → π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K+ →π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar are ultra-rare kaon decay channels which offer unique opportunities for measuring Standard Model parameters relating to quark mixing and CP violation as well as searching for new physics. In this paper, the prospects for current and future progress on measuring K+ →π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar at the Brookhaven AGS are reported. (author)

  19. Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Rieppo, Jani

    2015-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Hotelli- ja ravintola-alan liikkeenjohdon koulutusohjelma Rieppo, Jani Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi Vuosi 2015 Sivumäärä 58 Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on liiketoimintasuunnitelman laatiminen uudelle rock-baarille, jonka avaaminen Joensuuhun on suunnitelman laatijan toimesta mahdollista joskus tulevaisuudessa. Tavo...

  20. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  1. The Expansion of Speakeasy Bar and Grill

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This strategic analysis makes recommendations on a course of action for Speakeasy Bar and Grill, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, with regards to growth of the brand. The comprehensive analysis determined that Speakeasy currently generates a competitive source of advantage in large part from the high level of direct involvement of its owners as managers, both in terms of cost and customer value advantages. Sustaining this advantage as the company grows with greater demands being placed...

  2. Sohio's L-Bar uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohio Petroleum Company's new L-Bar uranium mill near Grants, New Mexico, refines 2722 kilograms of yellowcake daily from 1360 metric tons of ore produced at Sohio's J.J. No. 1 mine and other nearby mines. This paper follows the ore from the mine through the various processing steps - semi-autogenous grinding, acid leaching, countercurrent decantation, solvent extraction, ammonium diuranate precipitation, washing and drying, and tailings disposal. (author)

  3. Dowel Bar Retrofit Mix Design and Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Yogini; Olek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with the issue of repair of concrete pavement repair using dowel bar retrofit technique, it is very desirable for the repair material to have high fluidity that can ensure good compaction and facilitate flow to tight spaces, preferably without the use of a vibrator. The focus of this project was on identifying critical properties that control long-term performance of repair concrete, especially rapid-setting materials extended using pea gravel (maximum size aggregate 9.5 mm). ...

  4. Ballymore Inn Restaurant Back Bar Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Ballymore Inn

    2014-01-01

    We opened the doors of the Ballymore Inn in Kildare over 16 years ago guided by our philosophy that the best food comes from carefully selected ingredients infused with an imaginative simplicity. The Ballymore Inn has evolved over those 16 years but this philosophy has remained the same. We grow our own seasonal fruit and vegetables and work with some of the country's best suppliers to ensure the finest dining experience for our customers. Our tastefully decorated restaurant and Back Bar crea...

  5. CP violation in p bar p colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simple calculation to investigate the possibility of studying CP violation in the B-environment at present p bar p colliders. The authors' conclusion, based on the comparison of CDF, as an example of a standard detector, with a proposed bottom collider detector (BCD), is that observation of CP violation seems to be possible, though very hard, only with specifically designed detectors and with a high integrated luminosity

  6. Bars do drive spiral density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Salo, H; Buta, R; Knapen, J H

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Buta etal. (2009) examined the question "Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?", an idea supported by theoretical studies and also from a preliminary observational analysis Block etal (2004). They estimated maximum bar strengths Q_b, maximum spiral strengths Q_s, and maximum m=2 arm contrasts A_2s for 23 galaxies with deep AAT K_s-band images. These were combined with previously published Q_b and Q_s values for 147 galaxies from the OSUBSGS sample and with the 12 galaxies from Block etal(2004). Weak correlation between Q_b and Q_s was confirmed for the combined sample, whereas the AAT subset alone showed no significant correlations between Q_b and Q_s, nor between Q_b and A_2s. A similar negative result was obtained in Durbala etal. (2009) for 46 galaxies. Based on these studies, the answer to the above question remains uncertain. Here we use a novel approach, and show that although the correlation between the maximum bar and spiral parameters is weak, these parameters do correlate when compared local...

  7. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  8. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  9. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are taken at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.

  10. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) Lmax at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  11. INFINITELY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION USING FOUR BAR MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N. ARUNKUMAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the continuously variable transmission systems in automobiles now-a-days are non-positive drives. This means that they cannot be used in heavy vehicles that require very high torque to be transmitted. This new type of infinitely variable transmission is aimed at transmitting high torques by making it a positive drive, thus making continuously variable transmission systems to be suitable for heavy vehicles. Infinitely variable transmission system and continuously variable transmission system are both the same except that there is an extra zero gear ratio in infinitely variable transmission system. This newly developed transmission system is basically a four bar mechanism with variable crank radius which makes it possible to have continuously variable mechanical advantage. The output lever which oscillates in the four bar mechanism is connected to a ratchet mechanism which turns the output shaft intermittently, two four bar mechanisms with a phase difference of 180 degrees is used to avoid the intermittent rotation of the output shaft. A flywheel is used in the output shaft to reduce the fluctuations in both speed and torque.

  12. Study of the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and its intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Vetere, M Lo; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Pegna, D Lopes; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voß, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Vasseur, G; Y\\`, Ch; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Sevilla, M Franco; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Puccio, E M T; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Villanueva-Perez, P; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2013-01-01

    We study the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, reconstructing the \\Lambda_{c}^{+} baryon in the $p K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ mode, using a data sample of $467\\times 10^{6}$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-2 storage rings at SLAC. We measure branching fractions for decays with intermediate $\\Sigma_{c}$ baryons to be ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(21.3 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 5.5) \\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(11.5\\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.5 \\pm 3.0)\\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]=(9.1 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 2.4)\\times10^{-5}$, and ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]= (2.2 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.1\\pm 0.6) \\times 10^{-5}$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty on the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\rightarrow\\proton\\Km\\pi^{+}$ branching fraction, respectively. For decays without $\\Sig...

  13. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  14. Initial magnetic field distribution around high rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cividjian Grigore A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional transient electromagnetic field in and around a system of two nonmagnetic homogenous rectangular high thin bars can be analytically evaluated if the ratio of average initial magnetic field on the two sides of thin bar, or of the ratio of initial magnetic fields in middle of the bar height is known. In this paper, using appropriate conformal mappings, an exact analytical solution for these ratios are proposed in the case of very thin bars. Obtained values are compared with FEM results for relatively thick bars.

  15. The influence of the environment on bar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Zarattini, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Corsini, E M

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy mergers and interactions are mechanisms which could drive the formation of bars. Therefore, we could expect that the fraction of barred galaxies increases with the local density. Here we show the first results of an extensive search for barred galaxies in different environments. We conclude that the bar fraction on bright (L>L*) field, Virgo, and Coma cluster galaxies is compatible. These results point towards an scenario where the formation and/or evolution of bars depend mostly on internal galaxy processes rather than external ones.

  16. On the spectrum of $\\bar{X}$-bounded minimal submanifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Salavessa, Isabel M. C.

    2009-01-01

    We prove, under a certain boundedness condition at infinity on the $(\\bar{X}^{\\top}, \\bar{X}^{\\bot})$-component of the second fundamental form, the vanishing of the essential spectrum of a complete minimal $\\bar{X}$-bounded and $\\bar{X}$-properly immersed submanifold on a Riemannian manifold endowed with a strongly convex vector field $\\bar{X}$. The same conclusion also holds for any complete minimal $h$-bounded and $h$-properly immersed submanifold that lies in a open set of a Riemannian man...

  17. Automated bar detection in local disc galaxies from the SDSS - The colors of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Consolandi, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of neither the images nor the ellipticity/P.A. radial profiles, at extracting a fairly pure sample of barred LTGs among thousands of optical images from the SDSS. The procedure relies on the methods described in Consolandi et al. (2016) to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their P.A. and ellipticity profiles. It has been run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local supercluster. The procedure extracted for each galaxy a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes. Examining automatically the profiles of 922 face-on late-type galaxies (B/A >0.7) the procedure found that ~ 36 % are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to constr...

  18. Slowly rotating bars-Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tsigaridi, L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a \\textit{barred-spiral} model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits we find a "bistable region". In the response model we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an "S" shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the "S" part of the characteristic we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from a x1-type to a x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientati...

  19. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  20. The relation between bar formation, galaxy luminosity, and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Aguerri, J A L; Zarattini, S

    2013-01-01

    We derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma cluster are statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on...

  1. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (Ln bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), gij;k = 0 and fji = eφ · gji (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((Vn bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V4-spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V4-spaces

  2. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

  3. Dependence of Barred Galaxy Fraction on Galaxy Properties and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Choi, Yun-Young

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than $M_{r}=-19.5+5$log$h$ at $0.02\\le z\\le0.05489$, drawn from the SDSS DR 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio $b/a>0.60$, we find 3,240 barred galaxies ($f_{bar}=30.4%$) which divide into 2,542 strong bars ($f_{SB1}=23.8%$) and 698 weak bars ($f_{SB2}=6.5%$). We find that $f_{SB1}$ increases as $u-r$ color becomes redder, and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ($\\sigma\\simeq$150 km s$^{-1}$). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with $\\sigma>150$ km s${}^{-1}$. We also find that $f_{bar}$ ...

  4. How can double-barred galaxies be long-lived?

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Herve

    2015-01-01

    Double-barred galaxies account for almost one third of all barred galaxies, suggesting that secondary stellar bars, which are embedded in large-scale primary bars, are long-lived structures. However, up to now it has been hard to self-consistently simulate a disc galaxy that sustains two nested stellar bars for longer than a few rotation periods. N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including star formation recipes have been performed. Their properties have been compared with the most recent observational data in order to prove that they are representative of double-barred galaxies, even SB0. Overlaps in dynamical resonances and bar modes have been looked for using Fourier spectrograms. Double-barred galaxies have been successfully simulated with lifetimes as long as 7 Gyr. The stellar population of the secondary bar is younger on average than for the primary large-scale bar. An important feature of these simulations is the absence of any resonance overlap for several Gyr. In particular, there is no overlap betw...

  5. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Sol; Lambas, Diego García

    2014-01-01

    We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups selected from the SDSS-DR7, with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on AGN and the role of the high density environment. We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups from SDSS-DR7 group catalog. To provide a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distributions was constructed. We found that the fraction of barred AGN galaxies in groups (~ 38 %) is higher than those in the total barred AGN sample ( ~ 28 %), indicating that AGN spiral galaxies in groups are more likely to be barred than those in the field. We also found that barred AGN galaxies are more concentrated towards the group centers than the other unbarred AGN group members. In addition, barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of population dominated by red colors suggesting that bars produce an importanteffect on gala...

  6. The Structure of the Milky Way's Bar Outside the Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Wegg, Christopher; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from UKIDSS, 2MASS, VVV, and GLIMPSE. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b|<9deg and |l|<40deg. We find: (1) The bar extends to l~25deg at |b|~5deg from the Galactic plane, and to l~30deg at lower latitudes. (2) The long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28-33)deg, consistent with studies of the bulge at |l|<10deg. (3) The scale-height of RCG stars smoothly transitions from the bulge to the thinner long bar. (4) There is evidence for two scale heights in the long bar. We find a ~180pc thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disk near the sun, and a ~45pc super-thin bar component which exists predominantly towards the bar end. (5) Constructing...

  7. Bars and secular evolution in disk galaxies: Theoretical input

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2012-01-01

    Bars play a major role in driving the evolution of disk galaxies and in shaping their present properties. They cause angular momentum to be redistributed within the galaxy, emitted mainly from (near-)resonant material at the inner Lindblad resonance of the bar, and absorbed mainly by (near-)resonant material in the spheroid (i.e., the halo and, whenever relevant, the bulge) and in the outer disk. Spheroids delay and slow down the initial growth of the bar they host, but, at the later stages of the evolution, they strengthen the bar by absorbing angular momentum. Increased velocity dispersion in the (near-)resonant regions delays bar formation and leads to less strong bars. When bars form they are vertically thin, but soon their inner parts puff up and form what is commonly known as the boxy/peanut bulge. This gives a complex and interesting shape to the bar which explains a number of observations and also argues that the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar in our Galaxy are, respectively, the thin and the thick p...

  8. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  9. Neutralino annihilation to q \\bar q g

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Logan, H; Shaughnessy, G; Barger, Vernon; Keung, Wai-Yee; Logan, Heather; Shaughnessy, Gabe

    2006-01-01

    We compute the cross section for \\chi\\chi \\to q \\bar q g at order \\alpha_s^2/M_{\\widetilde q}^6 arising from interference between the tree-level and loop-induced processes. This interference term is the same order in \\alpha_s as \\chi\\chi \\to gg; for mass degenerate squarks M_{\\widetilde q_R} = M_{\\widetilde q_L} = M_{\\widetilde q} we find v_{\\rm rel} \\sigma_{\\rm int} = [-2 m_{\\chi}^2/3 M_{\\widetilde q}^2] v_{\\rm rel} \\sigma (\\chi\\chi \\to gg).

  10. System analysis of bar code laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpu; Chen, Zhaofeng; Lu, Zukang

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses on realizing the three important aspects of bar code scanner: generating a high quality scanning light beam, acquiring a fairly even distribution characteristic of light collection, achieving a low signal dynamic range over a large depth of field. To do this, we analyze the spatial distribution and propagation characteristics of scanning laser beam, the vignetting characteristic of optical collection system and their respective optimal design; propose a novel optical automatic gain control method to attain a constant collection over a large working depth.

  11. Warp evidences in precessing galactic bar models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Martin, Patricia; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2016-01-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen from an edge-on point of view. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far and in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic, model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect produced by a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model is developed and considered, assuming t...

  12. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  13. A Distinct Structure Inside the Galactic Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (J H Ks) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5deg < l < +10.5deg and b=+1.0deg, with the IRSF 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS camera. Ks vs. H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump (RC) stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=+10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the bar-like structure found in previous studies, ...

  14. $B$--$\\bar B$ Mixing Results

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, M

    1999-01-01

    A review of B B-bar mixing results at the end of July 1999 is presented. Emphasis is put on recent measurements of Delta-Md and Delta-Ms. For Delta-Md, the new world average is Delta-Md = 0.473 +- 0.016 ps-1. For Delta-Ms, the new world average 95% CL limit is 12.4 ps-1, with a sensitivity of 14.2 ps-1. Other related results are covered very briefly.

  15. The Pattern Speed of the Galactic Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnen, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Most late-type stars in the solar neighborhood have velocities similar to the local standard of rest (LSR), but there is a clearly separated secondary component corresponding to a slower rotation and a mean outward motion. Detailed simulations of the response of a stellar disk to a central bar show that such a bi-modality is expected from outer-Lindblad resonant scattering. When constraining the run of the rotation curve by the proper motion of Sgr A* and the terminal gas velocities, the valu...

  16. BarLaurean mahdollisuudet saavuttaa Joutsenmerkki

    OpenAIRE

    Järveläinen, Tuomas; Paavola, Salme

    2009-01-01

    Joutsenmerkki on vapaaehtoinen yhteispohjoismainen Ympäristömerkki. Opinnäytetyö on osa kehittämistyötä, jonka tavoitteena on hakea Joutsenmerkintää BarLaurean toiminnalle. Joutsenmerkin anomiseen tähtäävät toimenpiteet on aloitettu keväällä 2009 tekemällä aiheesta alustava toimintasuunnitelma. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on soveltaa käytäntöön toimintasuunnitelmassa kuvattuja toimenpiteitä, jotka dokumentoidaan Joutsenmerkkikansioon osana Joutsenmerkki-hakemusta. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena ...

  17. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  18. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed. PMID:27062720

  19. The LHCb pentaquark as a $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c-\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c^*$ molecular state

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, L; Oset, E

    2015-01-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis of the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi K^- p$ reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a $\\Lambda(1405)$ contribution in the $K^- p$ spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the $J/\\psi\\,p$ spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and $J^P$ of the experiment, concretely some states built up from the $J/\\psi\\, N$, $\\bar D^* \\Lambda_c$, $\\bar D^* \\Sigma_c$, $\\bar D \\Sigma^*_c$ and $\\bar D^* \\Sigma^*_c$ coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the $K^- p$ mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the $J/\\psi\\,p$ distribution, with values of the $J/\\psi\\, p$ coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The non trivial matching of many properties gives support to a $J^P=3/2^-$ assignment to this state and to its nature as a ...

  20. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s-1 and β-bar 795.10-5, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons γ β-bar/β 1.23 and the generation time Λ 59.10-6s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Stainless steel for reinforcing bar concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where corrosion resisting reinforcing bar is required, stainless steel has been employed for many applications. The longest recorded use so far is over 75 years for a restoration project in the United Kingdom. Other areas are highway bridge decks, retaining walls, tunnels, pier and overpass structures all of which use stainless steel to prevent corrosion and extend structure life. Carbon steel rebar leads to premature failure via concrete spalling that results in excessive repair, high cost, traffic delay and commerce disruption. Selection of stainless steel is based on its corrosion resistance, strength and long life. Installed cost using stainless steel reinforcing barranges from one to fifteen percent depending on structure complexity. Life Cycle Cost calculations reveal when stainless steel reinforcing bar is factored into the design, with a life expectancy up to 125 years, the alloy is cost effective. Data will be exhibited relative to mechanical and physical properties of stainless steel compared to carbon steel rebar. Some stainless rebar applications around the World will be discussed in addition to laboratory and field test results with U-bent stainless steel specimens embedded in concrete. Comments will also be made relative to the environment, lengthened journeys, delivery delay, fuel burned as vehicles sit at idle, drilling, blasting, crushing and transport of aggregate, cement and the attendant power units to manufacture these items for reconstruction. (author)

  2. Orbital structure in barred spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harsoula, Maria; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14427.x

    2010-01-01

    We study the orbital structure in a series of self-consistent $N$-body configurations simulating rotating barred galaxies with spiral and ring structures. We perform frequency analysis in order to measure the angular and the radial frequencies of the orbits at two different time snapshots during the evolution of each $N$-body system. The analysis is done separately for the regular and the chaotic orbits. We thereby identify the various types of orbits, determine the shape and percentages of the orbits supporting the bar and the ring/spiral structures, and study how the latter quantities change during the secular evolution of each system. Although the frequency maps of the chaotic orbits are scattered, we can still identify concentrations around resonances. We give the distributions of frequencies of the most important populations of orbits. We explore the phase space structure of each system using projections of the 4D surfaces of section. These are obtained via the numerical integration of the orbits of test...

  3. Barómetro industrial LEON 50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Álvarez Martínez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Barómetro indusrial LEON 50 es un trabajo de investigación que tiene como objetivo esencial identificar características patrimoniales, financieras y económicas de una muestra de empresas que actúan dentro de la industria leonesa. El soporte de este estudio empírico es la información contable anual auditada que depositan en el Registro Mercantil las empresas integrantes de la muestra, recogida básicamente en el balance de situación, la cuenta de pérdidas y ganacias y el cuadro de finaciación referidos al bienio 2001-02. En esencia, el Barómetro Industrial LEON 50 pretende ser un avance en el análisis, diagnóstico y mejor conocimiento de la industria regional, aportando una visión actualizada sobre estrategias y pautas de actuación empresarial que serán objeto de observación en períodos

  4. Asymptotic Orbits in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harsoula, Maria; Contopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    We study the formation of the spiral structure of barred spiral galaxies, using an $N$-body model. The evolution of this $N$-body model in the adiabatic approximation maintains a strong spiral pattern for more than 10 bar rotations. We find that this longevity of the spiral arms is mainly due to the phenomenon of stickiness of chaotic orbits close to the unstable asymptotic manifolds originated from the main unstable periodic orbits, both inside and outside corotation. The stickiness along the manifolds corresponding to different energy levels supports parts of the spiral structure. The loci of the disc velocity minima (where the particles spend most of their time, in the configuration space) reveal the density maxima and therefore the main morphological structures of the system. We study the relation of these loci with those of the apocentres and pericentres at different energy levels. The diffusion of the sticky chaotic orbits outwards is slow and depends on the initial conditions and the corresponding Jaco...

  5. Anti-seismic behavior of HRB400 reinforced steel bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; SHENG Guang-min; GONG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    The properties of anti-seismic HRB400 steel bars with 25 mm diameter were systematically investigated. The results showed that the properties of the HRB400 reinforced steel bars had been greatly enhanced comparing with HRB335 steel bars, i.e. coordination of strength and ductility, strain-aging sensibility, low temperature impact toughness, weld ability and high strain low cycle fatigue. The ductile-brittle transit temperatures of hot-rolled and strain-aged steel bars were evaluated as -17℃ and-8℃ respectively, and the low temperature impact toughness of HRB400 steel bars remains to be improved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction showed little vanadium existed in ferrite as VN, most of which existed in pearlite as alloy cementite which resulted in the declination of impact toughness. Methods were suggested to improve the anti-seismic properties of steel bars.

  6. Shepherding Tidal Debris with the Galactic Bar: The Ophiuchus Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kohei; Sanders, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that g...

  7. Uncertainties in the Deprojection of the Observed Bar Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yanfei; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length ($a$) and ellipticity ($e$), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a 2D plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles ($i$). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing $i$. All the deprojection methods behave badly when $i$ is larger than $60^\\circ$, due to vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than $60^\\circ$. At moderate inclination angles ($i\\leq60^\\circ$), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching) and Fourier-based methods (Fourier de...

  8. The application of bar coding technology at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar coding at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) can be used to track waste containers within the facility, control transuranic (TRU) waste inventory flow, and reduce manpower and error in recording package identification or control parameters. By choosing where and when to bar code, precise timelines or time-and-motion studies can be conducted to aid in streamlining waste handling throughput at WIPP. Additionally, the use of bar codes as waste container identification (ID) numbers increases the accuracy of recording the ID numbers by four orders of magnitude. The bar code label can also be utilized for other functions, such as shipping labels. Also, the bar code is integrated with the waste management data base such that the entire data base can be accessed on a computer using a bar code

  9. Λ bar Λ production in two-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of Λ bar Λ, making the first observation of γγ→Λ bar Λ. We present the cross section for γγ→Λ bar Λ as a function of the γγ center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Fault bars and the risk of feather damage in cranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jovani, Roger; Blas, Julio; Stoffel, M.J.; Bortolotti, L.E.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Fault bars are translucent areas across feathers grown under stressful conditions. They are ubiquitous across avian species and feather tracts. Because fault bars weaken feather structure and can lead to feather breakage, they may reduce flight performance and lower fitness. Therefore, natural selection might prime mechan- isms aimed at reducing the cost of fault bars, penalizing their occurrence in those feathers more relevant for flight. Here, we tested one prediction of this ‘fault...

  11. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  12. The structure of the Milky Way's bar outside the bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Vista Variables in the Via Lactea and Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b| ≤ 9° and |l| ≤ 40°. We find (i) the bar extends to l ˜ 25° at |b| ˜ 5° from the Galactic plane, and to l ˜ 30° at lower latitudes; (ii) the long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28°-33°), consistent with studies of the bulge at |l| thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disc near the Sun, and a ˜45 pc superthin bar components which exist predominantly towards the bar end; (v) constructing parametric models for the red clump magnitude distributions, we find a bar half-length of 5.0 ± 0.2 kpc for the two-component bar, and 4.6 ± 0.3 kpc for the thin bar component alone. We conclude that the Milky Way contains a central box/peanut bulge which is the vertical extension of a longer, flatter bar, similar as seen in both external galaxies and N-body models.

  13. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, J. E.; Yackovich, F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginos...

  14. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  15. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  16. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B0-(B0)-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on Bd0-(Bd0)-bar and Bs0-(Bs0)-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  17. Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.

  18. Shanghai’s Bars:Urban Romance and Sadness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuSha

    2002-01-01

    When speaking of Shanghai’s bars, what comes to people’s minds first must be Hengshan Street, a road known for its variety of bars. For many people, Hengshan Street is a landmark. On this street, bars in bold and unrestrained styles appeal to visitors. In fact, the whole street is a large open bar: the hurly-burly of "Hello" permeates every corner of the street; the resonant singing of "Rainbow Potato" echoes in the night sky; the rock’n roll of "Full House" fascinates passers-by with the wildness of John Lennon; even

  19. Monitoring the laser marking of a bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar code label which has been laser marked onto the end of a nuclear fuel tube is tested for unacceptable depth penetration of the heat affected zone. The average gray level value of the bar code label is compared with a predetermined standard. The label is optically sensed by a video camera and a set of discrete digital values representative of the bar code label is generated. The average digital value representative of the bar code label is calculated and compared to a predetermined standard level derived from measurements of acceptable laser marked tubes. (author)

  20. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  1. Cosmic evolution of bars in simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Habe, Asao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of two bars formed in fully self-consistent hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way-mass galaxies. One galaxy shows higher central mass concentration and has a longer and stronger bar than the other at $z = 0$. The stronger bar evolves by transferring its angular momentum mainly to the dark halo. Consequently the rotation speed of the bar decreases with time, while the amplitude of the bar increases with time. While these features qualitatively agree with the results obtained by idealized simulations, our bars show some unusual behaviors. The pattern speed of the stronger bar largely goes up and down within a half revolution in its early evolutionary stage. This unsteady rotation occurs when the bar is misaligned with the $m = 4$ mode Fourier component. The amplitude of the weaker bar does not increase despite the fact that its rotation slows down with time. This result contradicts what is expected from idealized simulations and is caused by the decline of the cen...

  2. Measurement of the B-bar 0 to D^* l ^- nu-bar Branching Fraction with a Partial Reconstruction Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnek, Peter; /Mississippi U.

    2009-12-17

    Presented is a precise measurement of the {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} branching fraction using 81.47 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The measurement was performed by partially reconstructing the D*{sup +} meson from {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays using only the soft pion of the D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} decay to reconstruct its four vector. The branching fraction was measured to be {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = (4.91 {+-} 0.01{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst})%.

  3. Kondo effect of $\\bar{D}_{s}$ and $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ mesons in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    We study the Kondo effect for $\\bar{D}_{s}$ and $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ mesons as impurity particles in nuclear matter. The spin-exchange interaction between the $\\bar{D}_{s}$ or $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ meson and the nucleon induces the enhancement of the effective coupling in the low-energy scattering in the infrared region, whose scale of singularity is given by the Kondo scale. We investigate the Kondo scale in the renormalization group equation at nucleon one-loop level. We furthermore study the ground state with the Kondo effect in the mean-field approach, and present that the Kondo scale is related to the mixing strength between the $\\bar{D}_{s}$ or $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ meson and the nucleon in nuclear matter. We show the spectral function of the impurity when the Kondo effect occurs.

  4. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  5. CP violation in hyperon decays: the case p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the experimental status of CP violation and of the phenomenology of hyperon non-leptonic decays. Updated information on the estimate of CP-violating observable in these decays is presented. An experimental programme is outlined, which aims to pursue the search for direct CP violation in hyperon-antihyperon decays by means of the reaction p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-. The experiment as well as analysis methods are described. Alternative approaches employing hyperons are also discussed. 54 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  6. Investigation of the $X(5568)$ as a fully open-flavor $su\\bar b\\bar d$ tetraquark state

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Steele, T G; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the newly observed charged $X(5568)$ meson as an exotic open-flavor tetraquark state $su\\bar b\\bar d$ with $J^P=0^+/1^+$ in the framework of QCD sum rules. We use the color antisymmetric $[\\mathbf{\\bar 3_c}]_{su} \\otimes [\\mathbf{3_c}]_{\\bar{b}\\bar d}$ tetraquark currents in both scalar and axial-vector channels to perform evaluations and numerical analyses. Our results imply that the $X(5568)$ can be interpreted as both the scalar $su\\bar b\\bar d$ tetraquark state and the axial-vector one, which are in good agreement with the experiment observation. We also investigate the possible decay patterns of the $X(5568)$ and suggest to search for its neutral partner in the radiative decay into $B_s^0 \\gamma$ and $B_s^* \\gamma$, which can be used to determine its spin-parity quantum numbers. Moreover, we predict its charmed partner state around $2.55$ GeV with the quark content $su\\bar c\\bar d$ and $J^P=0^+/1^+$.

  7. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    OpenAIRE

    Lebed, Richard F.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-01-01

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\b...

  8. /bar p/p collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bars and spheroids in gravimetry problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sizikov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    The direct gravimetry problem is solved by dividing each deposit body into a set of vertical adjoining bars, whereas in the inverse problem, each deposit body is modelled by a homogeneous ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid). Well-known formulae for the z-component of gravitational intensity for a spheroid are transformed to a convenient form. Parameters of a spheroid are determined by minimizing the Tikhonov smoothing functional with constraints on the parameters, which makes the ill-posed inverse problem by unique and stable. The Bulakh algorithm for initial estimating the depth and mass of a deposit is modified. The proposed technique is illustrated by numerical model examples of deposits in the form of two and five bodies. The inverse gravimetry problem is interpreted as a gravitational tomography problem or, in other words, as "introscopy" of Earth's crust and mantle.

  10. A Distinct Structure inside the Galactic Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Sato, Shuji

    2005-03-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (JHKs) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5dSIRIUS camera. Ks versus H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the barlike structure found in previous studies, but we find an additional inner structure at |l|<~4deg, where the longitude-apparent magnitude relation is distinct from the outer bar and where the apparent magnitude peak changes by only ~0.1 mag over the central 8°. The exact nature of this inner structure is as yet uncertain.

  11. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  12. A high luminosity bar BB factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors discuss a proposal for the construction of a high luminosity, L ∼ 1034 cm-2 s-1, electron-positron collider, operating in the energy range of 10 to 15 GeV total center of mass energy. The motivation for such a bar B-B system, in particular the rare decay modes and the CP violation. In this paper the authors give only a preliminary estimate of the main parameters of this system, with the purpose of establishing its feasibility. The high luminosity required to study the B physics makes any collider extremely difficult, and pushes the beam characteristics to a region not yet explored. What we propose is no exception and will require a large amount of research and development of beam physics and technology before a more detailed proposal can be made

  13. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  14. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  15. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  16. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc--bulge--halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angula...

  17. Chiral perturbation theory for vertical bar ΔI vertical bar = (3(2)) hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the vertical bar ΔI vertical bar = (3(2)) amplitudes of hyperon non-leptonic decays of the form B → B'π in the context of chiral perturbation theory. The lowest-order predictions are determined in terms of only one unknown parameter and are consistent within errors with current data. We investigate the theoretical uncertainty of these predictions by calculating the leading non-analytic corrections. We also present an estimate for the size of the S-wave Λ and Ξ decays which vanish at leading order. We find that the corrections to the lowest-order predictions are within the expectations of naive power counting and, therefore, that this picture can be tested more accurately with improved measurements

  18. Study of the decays D0→K bar K, π bar π

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the CLEO detector we have observed the Cabibbo-suppressed decays D0→K0 bar K0, K+K-, and π+π-. We determine B(D0→K0 bar K0)= (0.13+0.07-0.05+0.02-0.02)%. Our measurement B(D0→K+K-)/B(D0→π+π-)=2.35±0.37±0.28 represents asubstantial improvement over previous results. We find no evidence for the decay D0→π0π0, and place a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of B(D0→π0π0)<0.46%

  19. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  20. Dynamics of deeply bound (K) over-bar states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, 2-3 (2007), s. 633-636. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : over-bar-nuclear bound states * over-bar-nuclear relativistic mean field calculations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2007

  1. Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridi, L.; Patsis, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a barred-spiral model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits, we find a `bistable region'. In the response model, we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an `S'-shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the `S' part of the characteristic, we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from an x1-type to an x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientation when reaching the lowest energy of the `S'. The spirals of the model follow a standard `precessing ellipses flow' and the orbits building them have energies beyond the `S' region. The bar is structured mainly by sticky orbits from regions around the stability islands of the central family. This leads to the appearance of X features in the bars on the galactic plane. Such a bar morphology appears in the unsharp-masked images of some moderately inclined galaxies.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  3. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  4. Stellar population constraints on the ages of galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    James, Phil A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the stellar populations within the central regions of four nearby barred galaxies, and use a novel technique to constrain the duration of bar activity. We focus on the star formation 'desert', a region within each of these galaxies where star formation appears to have been suppressed by the bar. New H beta spectroscopic data are presented, and used to produce spectroscopic line indices which are compared with theoretical predictions from population synthesis models for simple stellar populations and temporally truncated star formation histories. This analysis shows that the dearth of star formation activity in these regions appears to have been continuing for at least 1 Gyr, with timescales of several Gyr indicated for two of the galaxies. This favours models in which strong bars can be long-lived features of galaxies, but our results also indicate a significant diversity in stellar population ages, and hence in the implied histories of bar activity in these four galaxies.

  5. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle;

    2011-01-01

    in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big......High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first...

  6. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  7. Bar code technology improves positive patient identification and transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G; Langeberg, A; Dohnalek, L

    2005-01-01

    As a result of human error, an estimated 1 in 12,000 blood transfusions is given to the wrong patient. The cause of nearly all of these errors is failure of hospital personnel to identify positively intended transfusion recipients, their blood samples for cross-matching, or their correct blood components. We describe our experience using a point-of-care bar code transfusion safety system that links patients' bar-coded wristbands, with bar-coded labels on blood sample tubes, blood component bags, and nurses' identification badges. The result was 100 % accuracy of matching patients, their blood samples, and components for transfusions. For verifying information before starting blood transfusions, nurses preferred bar code "double checks" to conventional visual "double checks" by a second nurse. Methods are needed to reinforce nurses' proficiency with technological approaches to transfusion safety, such as software-driven bar code scanning, in situations where transfusions are administered infrequently. PMID:16050151

  8. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    net cross shore suspended sediment transport flux as a function of either of the variables $\\zeta_0$, $\\Omega$, or $\\Omega_{HK}$. Secondly, the bed is allowed to evolve under the influence of the sediment transport processes. The development of breaker bars in both laboratory scale settings and...... prototype scale settings is considered. The temporal development of the cross shore profile is simulated for several combinations of wave forcing and sediment grain diameters. The variation is described with emphasis on the development of the crest level of the breaker bar, the variation in the bed shear...... stress on the crest of the breaker bar, and its migration speed. Additionally, a net onshore current over a breaker bar is considered, where this current mimics the presence of a horizontal circulation cell. The development of the breaker bar is described for different values of the net onshore current...

  9. Characterizing Barred Galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, I; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    In dense clusters, higher densities at early epochs as well as physical processes, such as ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions become important, and can have direct consequences for the evolution of bars and their host disks. To study bars and disks as a function of environment, we are using the STAGES ACS HST survey of the Abell 901/902 supercluster (z~0.165), along with earlier field studies based the SDSS and the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS). We explore the limitations of traditional methods for characterizing the bar fraction, and in particular highlight uncertainties in disk galaxy selection in cluster environments. We present an alternative approach for exploring the proportion of bars, and investigate the properties of bars as a function of host galaxy color, Sersic index, stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, and morphology.

  10. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    perpendicular to the reinforcement bar) was reduced for SFRC compared to plain concrete, whereas there was no clear impact on the slip at the concrete/steel-bar (displacement discontinuity parallel to the reinforcement bar) caused by the steel fibres. Additional experimental and numerical studies concerning......Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...

  11. Near-infrared surface photometry of barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a number of theoretical studies, it must be concluded that bar-like stellar structures are a preferred dynamical form in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. The objective of the observational research reported in this paper is to study by surface photometry parameters which describe the radial and azimuthal luminosity distributions of the bars of barred spiral galaxies. Such information is important for a comparison with theoretical models. The observational data are discussed, taking into account the photographic material, the reduction of data, and the decomposition of the radial luminosity profiles. Attention is also given to the structure of the bars, a comparison with the Miller and Smith models, and a discussion of the results. The considered study has provided near-infrared surface photometry for the stellar bars of a number of barrel spiral galaxies. 53 references

  12. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  13. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  14. Lawyers for Literacy. A Bar Leadership Manual. A Special Service Publication of the American Bar Association's Task Force on Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to provide materials to help state and local bar associations become involved with the literacy issue. Chapter 1 provides an overview of illiteracy as a very serious problem. Chapter 2 describes major public and private efforts to combat illiteracy. Chapter 3 explains why the bar associations should be involved. Chapter 4…

  15. The $K \\bar K \\pi$ decay of the $f_1(1285)$ and its nature as a $K^* \\bar K -cc$ molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Aceti, F.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the decay of $f_1(1285) \\to \\pi K \\bar K$ with the assumption that the $f_1(1285)$ is dynamically generated from the $K^* \\bar{K} - cc$ interaction. In addition to the tree level diagrams that proceed via $f_1(1285) \\to K^* \\bar{K} - cc \\to \\pi K \\bar K$, we take into account also the final state interactions of $K \\bar K \\to K \\bar K$ and $\\pi K \\to \\pi K$. The partial decay width and mass distributions of $f_1(1285) \\to \\pi K \\bar K$ are evaluated. We get a value for the part...

  16. Role of $Y(4630)$ in the $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ reaction near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the charmed baryon production reaction $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ in an effective Lagrangian approach. Besides the $t$-channel $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons exchanges, the $s$-channel $Y(4630)$ meson exchange is taken into account. For the total cross sections, the $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons provide minor background contributions, while the $Y(4630)$ state gives a clear peak structure with the magnitude of 10 $\\mu$b at center of mass energy 4.63 GeV. Basing on the results, we suggest that the reaction of $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ can be used to search for the $1^{--}$ charmonium-like $Y(4630)$ state, and our predictions can be tested in future by the $\\rm{\\bar PANDA}$ facility.

  17. Variation of Galactic Bar Length with Amplitude and Density as Evidence for Bar Growth over a Hubble Time

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Knapen, Johan H; Buta, Ronald J; Block, David L; Puerari, Ivanio

    2007-01-01

    K_s-band images of 20 barred galaxies show an increase in the peak amplitude of the normalized m=2 Fourier component with the R_25-normalized radius at this peak. This implies that longer bars have higher $m=2$ amplitudes. The long bars also correlate with an increased density in the central parts of the disks, as measured by the luminosity inside 0.25R_25 divided by the cube of this radius in kpc. Because denser galaxies evolve faster, these correlations suggest that bars grow in length and amplitude over a Hubble time with the fastest evolution occurring in the densest galaxies. All but three of the sample have early-type flat bars; there is no clear correlation between the correlated quantities and the Hubble type.

  18. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zeki Karakus

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement.

  19. Spitzer reveals what's behind Orion's Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; O'Dell, C R; McNabb, Ian A; Colgan, Sean W J; Zhuge, Scott Y; Ferland, Gary J; Hidalgo, Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 11 regions SE of the Bright Bar in the Orion Nebula, along a radial from the exciting star theta1OriC, extending from 2.6 to 12.1'. Our Cycle 5 programme obtained deep spectra with matching IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) aperture grid patterns. Most previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the ISM particularly for elemental abundances. Spitzer observations provide a unique perspective on the Ne and S abundances by virtue of observing the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) in Orion and H II regions in general. The Ne/H abundance ratio is especially well determined, with a value of (1.01+/-0.08)E-4. We obtained corresponding new ground-based spectra at CTIO. These optical data are used to estimate the electron temperature, electron density, optical extinction, and the S+/S++ ratio at each of our Spitzer positions. That permits an adjustment for the total gas-phase S abundan...

  20. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-surface mounted (NSM fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm.

  1. Shepherding Tidal Debris with the Galactic Bar: The Ophiuchus Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally-disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  2. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  3. Shepherding tidal debris with the Galactic bar: the Ophiuchus stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis, respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  4. Formation and evolution of bars in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2002-01-01

    I follow a bar from its formation, via its evolution, to its destruction and, perhaps, regeneration. I discuss the main features at each stage and particularly the role of the halo. Bars can form even in sub-maximum discs. In fact, such bars can be stronger than bars which have grown in maximum discs. This is due to the response of the halo and, in particular, to the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the disc particles constituting the bar and the halo particles at resonance with it. The bar slowdown depends on the initial central concentration of the halo and the initial value of the disc Q. Contrary to the halo mass distribution, the disc changes its radial density profile considerably during the evolution. Applying the Sackett criterion, I thus find that discs become maximum in many simulations in which they have started off as sub-maximum. I briefly discuss the evolution if a gaseous component is present, as well as the destruction and regeneration of bars.

  5. The nature and nurture of bars and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Aguerri, J A L; Corsini, E M; Zarattini, S

    2012-01-01

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma cluster are statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at $M_r\\,\\simeq\\,-20.5$ in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to $M_r\\,\\simeq\\,-19$ in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that b...

  6. Fourier Dissection of Early-Type Galaxy Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R; Salo, H; Block, D L; Knapen, J H

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a near-infrared survey of early-type galaxies designed to provide information on bar strengths, bulges, disks, and bar parameters in a statistically well-defined sample of S0-Sa galaxies. Early-type galaxies have the advantage that their bars are relatively free of the effects of dust, star formation, and spiral structure that complicate bar studies in later type galaxies. We describe the survey and present results on detailed analysis of the relative Fourier intensity amplitudes of bars in 26 early-type galaxies. We also evaluate the symmetry assumption of these amplitudes with radius, used recently for bar-spiral separation in later-type galaxies. The results show a wide variety of radial Fourier profiles of bars, ranging from simple symmetric profiles that can be represented in terms of a single gaussian component, to both symmetric and asymmetric profiles that can be represented by two overlapping gaussian components. More complicated profiles than these are also found, often due to ...

  7. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, J E; Yackovich, F

    1988-08-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to give mean total survival levels of 4.4 X 10(5) c.f.u. per bar which was 70-fold higher than those reported on used soap bars. Sixteen panelists were instructed to wash with the inoculated bars using their normal handwashing procedure. After washing, none of the 16 panelists had detectable levels of either test bacterium on their hands. Thus, the results obtained using our new method were in complete agreement with those obtained with the previously published method even though the two methods differ in a number of procedural aspects. These findings, along with other published reports, show that little hazard exists in routine handwashing with previously used soap bars and support the frequent use of soap and water for handwashing to prevent the spread of disease. PMID:3402545

  8. Search for B→l bar νl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We search for the decays B-→l-bar νl in a sample of 2.2x106 charged B decays using the CLEO detector. We see no evidence for a signal in any channel and set upper limits on the branching fractions of B(B-→τ-bar ντ)-3, B(B-→μ-ν2;mμ)-5, and B(B-→e-bar νe)-5 at the 90% confidence level

  9. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi; Shen, Juntai; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pa...

  10. The mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is described which enables the mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars to be predicted after several years irradiation. The model is physically based, and includes the effects of thermal and irradiation induced changes in the microstructure of the bars, and macroscopic wear. The predictions of the model, both in the failure time of stressed tie-bar samples and other results such as proof strength, have been verified against the results of an extensive post-irradiation programme carried out by the CEGB and the UKAEA. (author)

  11. When physics takes over: BAR proteins and membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mijo; Voth, Gregory A.; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Bassereau, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes become highly curved during membrane trafficking, cytokinesis, infection, immune response or cell motion. Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain proteins with their intrinsically curved and anisotropic shape are involved in many of these processes, but with a large spectrum of modes of action. In vitro experiments and multiscale computer simulations have contributed in identifying a minimal set of physical parameters, namely protein density on the membrane, membrane tension, and membrane shape, that control how bound BAR domain proteins behave on the membrane. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted coupling of BAR proteins to membrane mechanics and propose a simple phase diagram that recapitulates the effects of these parameters. PMID:26519988

  12. Torsion of elliptical composite bars containing neutral coated cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using complex variable methods and conformal mapping techniques, we establish the existence of coated cavities of various shapes that do not disturb the warping function in a host elliptical bar. These cavities are known as ‘partly neutral cavities’. Our results show that the two axes corresponding to the neutral elliptical coating are parallel to those of the host elliptical bar and that the centre of the elliptical coating can be located arbitrarily on the major axis of the host bar. Examples of neutral coated non-elliptical cavities are provided.

  13. Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law

    OpenAIRE

    Magzamen, S.; Charlesworth, A.; Glantz, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law in the state of California.
DESIGN—Content analysis of newspaper, trade journal, and magazine items.
SUBJECTS—Items regarding the smokefree bar law published seven months before and one year following the implementation of the smokefree bar law (June 1997 to December 1998). Items consisted of news articles (n = 446), opinion editorials (n = 31), editorials (n = 104), letters to the editor (n = 240), and cartoons (n...

  14. Influence of laser treatment on the fatigue of notched bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHui; LingWeiye; JiangShouwei

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue cutting is a new approach for separating material. Man-made fatigue can be realized by applying a rotating bending load to a notched bar. To better utilize the new method, laser treatment is adopted in this study. After laser radiation at the notch root, the fatigue cycle of the bar drops dramatically. Based on the experimental result, we draw the conclusion that the fatigue of the bar is influenced by the shape of the hardened area. A hardened area that has a small axial dimension and a relatively large radial dimension facilitates the fatigue. The desirable hardened area can be obtained by controlling the laser treatment parameters.

  15. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of double-barred galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Moiseev

    2002-01-01

    We describe the results of our spectroscopy for a sample of barred galaxies whose inner regions exhibit an isophotal twist commonly called a secondary bar. The line-of-sight velocity fields of the ionized gas and stars and the light-of-sight velocity dispersion fields of the stars were constructed from two-dimensional spectroscopy with the 6m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. We detected various types of non-circular motions of ionized gas: radial flows within large-scale bars, cou...

  16. Temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe River mouth bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zuosheng; ZHANG Yong; LIU Zhan; WEI Helong; HE Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the bathymetric records of 371 survey sections in the present Huanghe mouth area from 1996 to 2001, the temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe mouth bars were studied by using GIS technology. The variation of the mouth bars is closely related to the water and sediment discharges from the Huanghe River to the sea that has been decreasing drastically in recent years, and to coastal hydrodynamic regimes. The characteristics of the mouth bars are unique in contrast with those of other estuaries in the world (1) The mouth bars of the Huanghe River consist of many small sandbars. Usually the sandbars are of ellipse-shape with the long axis of about 1~6 km, and short axis of about 1~4 kin. The long axis is parallel to the principal direction of tidal current, and the short axis is variable, depending on the local dynamics. The crest of the sandbars is only about 0.4 m below the water surface at low tide. They are distributed within an area of 20 km2, not far from the river mouth area. The present mouth bars are in small-medium size, quite different from the large one formed during the 1970s and 1980s, when the river sediment discharge was several times larger than that after 1996. (2) The scale of a river mouth bar is related to the river discharge of that year. In 1997 sediment discharge from the Huanghe River was 42 Mt, and the mouth bar consisted of several small scattered sandbars. In 1998 the size of mouth bars was much larger thar that in 1997, as the sediment discharge from the Huanghe River increased to 363 Mt. Variation of the mouth bars largely depends on the sediment discharge with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. The calculation of the volume of the mouth bar area shows that about 30%~40% of the river's into-sea sediment is deposited in the mouth bar area. (3) Compared with other large estuaries in the world, the Huanghe mouth bars have three unique features in responding to its high sediment concentration: small size, steep

  17. Study of $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R B; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M B; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A C; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S P; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ulrich, M U; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M W; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A Z; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    The decays $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$ have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 million $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII $e^+e^-$ collider. The branching fractions are determined to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p})=(2.112\\pm0.004\\pm0.031)\\times10^{-3}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n})=(2.07\\pm0.01\\pm0.17)\\times10^{-3}$. Distributions of the angle $\\theta$ between the proton or anti-neutron and the beam direction are well described by the form $1+\\alpha\\cos^2\\theta$, and we find $\\alpha=0.595\\pm0.012\\pm0.015$ for $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $\\alpha=0.50\\pm0.04\\pm0.21$ for $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the $J/\\psi\\to N\\bar{N}$ decay.

  18. B-bar0, B- and B-bars0 decays into J/ψ and KK-bar or πη

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the B-bars0→J/ψK+K-, B-bar0→J/ψK+K-, B-→J/ψK0K-, B-bar0→J/ψπ0η and B-→J/ψπ-η decays and compare their mass distributions with those obtained for the B-bars0→J/ψπ+π- and B-bar0→J/ψπ+π-. The approach followed consist in a factorization of the weak part and the hadronization part into a factor which is common to all the processes. Then what makes the reactions different are some trivial Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix elements and the weight by which the different pairs of mesons appear in a primary step plus their final state interaction. These elements are part of the theory and thus, up to a global normalization factor, all the invariant mass distributions are predicted with no free parameters. Comparison is made with the limited experimental information available. Further comparison of these results with coming LHCb measurements will be very valuable to make progress in our understanding of the meson–meson interaction and the nature of the low lying scalar meson resonances, f0(500),f0(980) and a0(980)

  19. Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code

    OpenAIRE

    Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle formation is accompanied by dramatic changes in membrane geometry. The role of the BAR domain proteins in membrane shaping—with a focus on how their structural features are optimized for this function—is explained here.

  20. The Semileptonic Decay Modes {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow Ds ell bar{ν}}: A New Analysis in Potential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Rahmani, S.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the Schrödinger equation with a combination of Deng-Fan-type and harmonic terms. To solve the corresponding differential equation, we split the equation to two parts: the parent and the perturbation terms. We use the Nikiforov-Uvarov technique to solve the parent part. For the perturbation part, we apply the series expansion method. Next, using the calculated wave function, we investigate some bottom and charm mesons within the Isgur-Wise function formalism. We present especially semileptonic {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow D_s ell bar{ν }} decay widths, branching ratios and {|V_{cb}|} (element of the CKM matrix). Masses of some pseudoscalar mesons are also indicated. Comparisons of our results with experimental values and other approaches are included.

  1. Constant of heat conduction and stabilization of bus bar conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of heat conduction is given bringing about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  2. DIRC - A particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic-ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs

  3. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  4. Kinematics of t bar t events at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinematic properties of t bar t events are studied in the W+multijet channel using data collected with the CDF detector during the 1992 - 1995 runs at the Fermilab Tevatron collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 109 pb-1. Distributions of a variety of kinematic variables chosen to be sensitive to different aspects of t bar t production are compared with those expected from Monte Carlo calculations. A sample of 34 events rich in t bar t pairs is obtained by requiring at least one jet identified by the silicon vertex detector (SVX) as having a displaced vertex consistent with the decay of a b hadron. The data are found to be in good agreement with predictions of the leading order t bar t matrix element with color coherent parton shower evolution. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Visual mining geo-related data using pixel bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Keim, Daniel A.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wright, Peter; Schneidewind, Joern

    2005-03-01

    A common approach to analyze geo-related data is using bar charts or x-y plots. They are intuitive and easy to use. But important information often gets lost. In this paper, we introduce a new interactive visualization technique called Geo Pixel Bar Charts, which combines the advantages of Pixel Bar Charts and interactive maps. This technique allows analysts to visualize large amounts of spatial data without aggregation and shows the geographical regions corresponding to the spatial data attribute at the same time. In this paper, we apply Geo Pixel Bar Charts to visually mining sales transactions and Internet usage from different locations. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique for providing data distribution and exceptions from the map.

  6. Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

    1987-04-01

    Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

  7. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  8. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  9. Confirmation of an End-On Bar in NGC-6503

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Emily; Chomiuk, Laura; Keenan, Ryan; Nelson, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    The nearby isolated galaxy NGC 6503 features several characteristics that suggest the possible presence of a strong bar. These include a star-forming inner ring, circumnuclear disk, central stellar velocity dispersion decrease (σ-drop), and a surface brightness profile with a quasi-exponential central peak followed by a plateau at moderate radii. In Freeland et al. (2009, submitted) we propose the existence of a strong end-on bar in NGC 6503 as an explanation for these observables. Bureau & Athanassoula (2005) demonstrate through simulations that a strong end-on bar in a highly inclined galaxy such as NGC 6503 (incl. 74 degrees) would be hidden from view morphologically (appearing as a round bulge), but should show a strong ``double-humped'' signature in its stellar rotation curve. We propose long-slit spectroscopic observations along the major axis of the NGC 6503 to determine stellar kinematics and search for the signature of a strong end-on bar.

  10. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  11. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Berrier, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced ...

  12. $\\mathbf{\\bar{C}_{n,n-1}}$ revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make $\\bar{C}_{n,n-1}$, which is the main theorem of [Ka1] Y.Kawamata, Addition formula of logarithmic Kodaira dimensions for morphisms of relative dimension one, more accessible.

  13. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempotabu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  14. Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Benxia; YU Xiping

    2009-01-01

    Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars are investigated by a previously developed numerical model. First, the computed free surface displacements of regular waves at various locations are compared with the available experimental data to confirm the validity of the numerical model, and satisfactory agreements are obtained. In addition, variations of decomposition characteristics with incident wave parameters and the change of energy spectrum for regular waves are also studied. Then the spectrum evolution of irregular waves over submerged bars, as well as the influence of incident peak wave period and the steepness of the front slope of the bar on spectrum evolution, is investigated. Wave decomposition and spectral shape are found to be significantly influenced by the incident wave conditions. When the upslope of the bar becomes 1:2, the length of the slope becomes shorter and will not benefit the generation of high frequency energy, so spectrum evolution is not significant.

  15. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream-bar

  16. Angular distributions in J / ψ → p p bar π0 (η) decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Milstein, A. I.; Salnikov, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes J / ψ → p p bar π0 and J / ψ → p p bar η close to the p p bar threshold are calculated with the help of the N N bar optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of ψ (2 S). We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of N N bar scattering together with N N bar and six pion production in e+e- annihilation close to the p p bar threshold. The p p bar invariant mass spectrum is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the N N bar interaction, is predicted close to the p p bar threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of N N bar interaction.

  17. Kokum Fruit Bar Development via Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    OpenAIRE

    Pritam Bafna; Mrs. N. Manimehalai

    2014-01-01

    A response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum ingredients level to prepare kokum fruit bar. Kokum pulp was extracted using water extraction method at temperature (24.97ºC) and time (30.42 min). The effects of ingredients levels on sensory parameters like texture, overall acceptability and calcium content of the prepared fruit bar were studied by employing a Box- Behnken Design (BBD). During the experimental trials the pulp quantity is kept fixed...

  18. ANATOMY OF THE BAR INSTABILITY IN CUSPY DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the bar instability in galactic models with an exponential disk and a cuspy dark matter (DM) halo with a Navarro-Frenk-White cosmological density profile. The equilibrium models are constructed from a three-integral composite distribution function but subject to the bar instability. We generate a sequence of models with a range of mass resolution from 1.8 K to 18 M particles in the disk and 10 K to 100 M particles in the halo along with a multimass model with an effective resolution of ∼1010 particles. We describe how mass resolution affects the bar instability, including its linear growth phase, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through the resonant transfer of angular momentum to the DM halo, and the possible destruction of the halo cusp. Our higher resolution simulations show a converging spectrum of discrete resonance interactions between the bar and DM halo orbits. As the pattern speed decays, orbital resonances sweep through most of the DM halo phase space and widely distribute angular momentum among the halo particles. The halo does not develop a flat density core and preserves the cusp, except in the region dominated by gravitational softening. The formation of the bar increases the central stellar density and the DM is compressed adiabatically increasing the halo central density by 1.7 times. Overall, the evolution of the bar displays a convergent behavior for halo particle numbers between 1 M and 10 M particles, when comparing bar growth, pattern speed evolution, the DM halo density profile and a nonlinear analysis of the orbital resonances. Higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting the angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  19. The final log canonical model of $\\bar{M}_6$

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the birational model of $\\bar{M}_6$ given by quadric hyperplane sections of the degree 5 del Pezzo surface. In the spirit of the genus 4 case treated by Fedorchuk, we show that it is the last non-trivial space in the log minimal model program for $\\bar{M}_6$. We also obtain a new upper bound for the moving slope of the moduli space.

  20. Configuration Database for BaBar On-line

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoldus, R.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.; Kolomensky, Y.; Salnikov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The configuration database is one of the vital systems in the BaBar on-line system. It provides services for the different parts of the data acquisition system and control system, which require run-time parameters. The original design and implementation of the configuration database played a significant role in the successful BaBar operations since the beginning of experiment. Recent additions to the design of the configuration database provide better means for the management of data and add ...

  1. Quarkonium Spectroscopy and New States from BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, L.; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste

    2007-06-08

    We review results on charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. More space is reserved to the new results like the observation of hadronic non-B{bar B} {Upsilon}(4S) decays and the investigation on the production and decay properties of the recently discovered charmonium-like states X(3872) and Y (4260). These results are preliminary, unless otherwise specified.

  2. Hercules and Wolf 630 Stellar Streams and Galactic Bar Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V

    2016-01-01

    We have identified the four most significant features in the UV velocity distribution of solar neighborhood stars: H1, H2 in the Hercules stream and W1, W2 in the Wolf 630 stream. We have formulated the problem of determining several characteristics of the central Galactic bar independently from each of the identified features by assuming that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams are of a bar-induced dynamical nature. The problem has been solved by constructing 2:1 resonant orbits in the rotating bar frame for each star in these streams. Analysis of the resonant orbits found has shown that the bar pattern speed is 45-55 km/s/kpc, while the bar angle lies within the range 40-60 degrees. The results obtained are consistent with the view that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams could be formed by a long-term influence of the Galactic bar leading to a characteristic bimodal splitting of the UV velocity plane.

  3. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  4. Visual mining business service using pixel bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Casati, Fabio

    2004-06-01

    Basic bar charts have been commonly available, but they only show highly aggregated data. Finding the valuable information hidden in the data is essential to the success of business. We describe a new visualization technique called pixel bar charts, which are derived from regular bar charts. The basic idea of a pixel bar chart is to present all data values directly instead of aggregating them into a few data values. Pixel bar charts provide data distribution and exceptions besides aggregated data. The approach is to represent each data item (e.g. a business transaction) by a single pixel in the bar chart. The attribute of each data item is encoded into the pixel color and can be accessed and drilled down to the detail information as needed. Different color mappings are used to represent multiple attributes. This technique has been prototyped in three business service applications-Business Operation Analysis, Sales Analysis, and Service Level Agreement Analysis at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. Our applications show the wide applicability and usefulness of this new idea.

  5. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, F; Emsellem, E; Agertz, O; Athanassoula, E; Combes, F; Elmegreen, B; Kraljic, K; Motte, F; Teyssier, R

    2015-01-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find tha...

  6. Design, Analysis and Optimization of Anti-Roll Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Bharane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle anti-roll bar is part of an automobile suspension system which limits body roll angle. This U-shaped metal bar connects opposite wheels together through short lever arms and is clamped to the vehicle chassis with rubber bushes. Its function is to reduce body roll while cornering, also while travelling on uneven road which enhances safety and comfort during driving. Design changes of anti-roll bars are quite common at various steps of vehicle production and a design analysis must be performed for each change. So Finite Element Analysis (FEA can be effectively used in design analysis of anti-roll bars. The finite element analysis is performed by ANSYS. This paper includes pre-processing, analysis, post processing, and analyzing the FEA results by using APDL (Ansys Parametric Design Language. The effects of anti-roll bar design parameters on final anti-roll bar properties are also evaluated by performing sample analyses with the FEA program developed in this project.

  7. Gas dynamics in barred spirals, II: NGC 7496 and 289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas velocity fields in the barred spiral galaxies NGC 7496 and 289 have been measured by means of long-slit spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Pronounced deviations from circular motion of the type predicted by recent theoretical models are seen in NGC 7496: the isovelocity contours are distorted into a characteristic S-shaped pattern and there is a large velocity gradient across the bar. The velocity field is virtually identical to that of a previously observed barred spiral, NGC 5383 for which a number of models have been published. The nuclear [OIII] emission lines are very asymmetric with a wing extending to about 1000 km s-1 to the blue of the systemic velocity; this wing is only faintly seen in the Balmer lines. NGC 289 has a much smaller bar and consequently the noncircular motions are less pronounced. The most obvious effect is that the kinematic major and minor axes are not perpendicular which is a signature of oval distortions. As a further test of the models of gas streaming in barred spirals the results from 11 previously studied galaxies have been collected. It is shown that the appearance of the velocity field depends on the orientation of the bar to the line of sight, in good agreement with the model predictions

  8. Search for B→μ bar νμγ and B→e bar νeγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have searched for the decays B→μ bar νμγ and B→e bar νeγ in a sample of 2.7x106 charged B decays collected with the CLEO II detector. In the muon channel, we observe no candidates in the signal region and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B→μ bar νμγ)-5 at the 90% confidence level. In the electron channel, we observe five candidates in the signal region and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B→e bar νeγ)-4 at the 90% confidence level. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Gluon exchange potential and cross-section for pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One and two-gluon exchange potentials (OGEP and TGEP) relevant to the pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar transition process are derived from the S-matrix in the approximation of order p2/m2. An effective transition potential obtained from these gluon exchange potentials by the constituent quark model is employed to calculate the differential and total cross-sections for the pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar reaction in the plane wave Born Approximation. The calculated result shows that the relativistic correction terms in the OGEP and TGEP give considerable improvements on the cross-section in comparison with the previous calculations performed by making use of the OGEP given in the extremely non-relativistic approximation

  10. The ee-bar → ττ-bar cross section and forward-backward asymmetry at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements of the ee-bar → ττ-bar cross section and forward-backward asymmetry at a centre-of-mass energies around 91 GeV from the LEP Collaborations are presented. The results are found to be in good agreement with the standard model. In addition, the results from LEP-II at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 189 GeV are presented

  11. The d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a pion cloud model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a model approach in which hadronic fluctuations of the nucleon are generated through gluon splitting and recombination mechanisms. Within this framework, it is shown that the d -u asymmetry of the proton is consistently described by including only nucleon fluctuations to |πN> and |πΔ> bound states. Predictions of the model closely agree with the recent experimental data of the E-866/Nu Sea Collaboration. (author)

  12. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for J/\\psi -> p \\bar{p}\\eta and p \\bar{p} \\eta^{'}

    OpenAIRE

    BES Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Using 58$\\times 10^{6}$ $\\jpsi$ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the branching fractions of $\\jpsi$ to $p\\bar{p}\\eta$ and $p\\bar{p}\\etap$ are determined. The ratio $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb\\eta)}{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb)}$ obtained by this analysis agrees with expectations based on soft-pion theorem calculations.

  13. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  14. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  15. Role of Pb for Ag growth on H-passivated Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have deposited Ag on hydrogen passivated Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) surfaces under high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The deposition, followed by annealing at 250-bar oC for 30-bar min, produced silver islands of an average lateral size 36+/-14-bar nm. Depositing a small amount of Pb prior to Ag deposition reduced the average island size to 14+/-5-bar nm. A small amount of Pb, initially present at the Ag-Si interface, is found to be segregating to the surface of Ag after annealing. Both these aspects, namely, reduction of the island size and Pb floating on the Ag surface conform to the surfactant action of Pb. Samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). A selective etching process that preferentially removes Pb, in conjunction with RBS, was used to detect surface segregation of Pb involving depth scales below the resolution of conventional RBS. The annealing and etching process leaves only smaller Ag islands on the surface with complete removal of Pb. Ag growth in the presence of Pb leads to smaller Ag islands with a narrower size distribution

  16. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  17. Crystal Structures of the BAR-PH and PTB Domains of Human APPL1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,J.; Mao, X.; Dong, L.; Liu, F.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors and other important signaling molecules. It contains a BAR and a PH domain near its N terminus, and the two domains may function as a unit (BAR-PH domain). We report here the crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1. The structures reveal novel features for BAR domain dimerization and for the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. The BAR domain dimer of APPL1 contains two four-helical bundles, whereas other BAR domain dimers have only three helices in each bundle. The PH domain is located at the opposite ends of the BAR domain dimer. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirm the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. Lipid binding assays show that the BAR, PH, and PTB domains can bind phospholipids. The ability of APPL1 to interact with multiple signaling molecules and phospholipids supports an important role for this adaptor in cell signaling.

  18. Bars rejuvenating bulges? Evidence from stellar population analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Paula

    2011-01-01

    We obtained stellar ages and metallicities via spectrum fitting for a sample of 575 bulges with spectra available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The structural properties of the galaxies have been studied in detail in Gadotti (2009b) and the sample contains 251 bulges in galaxies with bars. Using the whole sample, where galaxy stellar mass distributions for barred and unbarred galaxies are similar, we find that bulges in barred and unbarred galaxies occupy similar loci in the age vs. metallicity plane. However, the distribution of bulge ages in barred galaxies shows an excess of populations younger than ~ 4 Gyr, when compared to bulges in unbarred galaxies. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics confirm that the age distributions are different with a significance of 99.94%. If we select sub-samples for which the bulge stellar mass distributions are similar for barred and unbarred galaxies, this excess vanishes for galaxies with bulge mass log M < 10.1 M_Sun while for more massive galaxies we find a bimodal bulg...

  19. Introducing a new 3D dynamical model for barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane $z = p_z = 0$ using the Poincar\\'e map as a basic tool and then we study the full 3 dimensional case using the SALI method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evol...

  20. Image Decomposition of Barred Galaxies and AGN Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2007-01-01

    I present the results of multi-component decomposition of V and R broadband images of a sample of 17 nearby galaxies. I use BUDDA v2.1 to produce the fits, allowing to include bars and AGN in the models. A comparison with previous results from the literature shows good agreement. It is found that the axial ratio of bars, as measured from ellipse fits, can be severely underestimated if the galaxy axisymmetric component is relatively luminous. Thus, reliable bar axial ratios can only be determined by taking into account the contributions of bulge and disc to the light distribution in the galaxy image. Through a number of tests, I show that neglecting bars when modelling barred galaxies can result in a overestimation of the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio of a factor of two. Similar effects result when bright, type 1 AGN are not considered in the models. By artificially redshifting the images, I show that the structural parameters of more distant galaxies can in general be reliably retrieved through image fittin...

  1. Secular Damping of Stellar Bars in Spinning Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Stacy; Heller, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution, using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter lambda > 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, slowdown of bar pattern speed weakens substantially with increasing `lambda,' until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the a...

  2. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); Pioro-Ladrière, Michel, E-mail: michel.pioro-ladriere@usherbrooke.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); CIFAR Program in Quantum Information Science, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), M5G 1Z8 Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  3. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  4. Dense Cloud Formation and Star Formation in a Barred Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Nimori, M; Sorai, K; Watanabe, Y; Hirota, A; Namekata, D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2Mass data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr an isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than $10^4M_{\\odot}$ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the i...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF K YIELDS πν(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental program for the study of the rare kaon decays, K → πν(bar ν) is summarized. A review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus of the world-wide kaon program is the two golden modes: K+ → π+ ν(bar ν) and KLo ν(bar ν). The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K+ → π+ ν(bar ν) events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe ∼10 Standard Model events, and the CKM experiment should observe ∼100 SM events by the end of this decade. Limits on the neutral analog KLo → =πo ν(bar ν) have been set by KTeV and within the next couple of years will be pushed by E391a. Measurements of the branching ratio should be made within the next 10 years by KOPIO, with a goal of ∼50 events, and at the JHF, with a goal of up to 1000 events

  6. Double Pion Production in NN and bar NN Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Zou, Bing-Song; Xu, Hu-Shan

    With an effective Lagrangian approach, we give a full analysis on the NN → NNππ and bar NN -> bar NNπ π reactions by exploring the roles of various resonances with mass up to 1.72 GeV. We find large contributions from Δ, N*(1440), Δ(1600) and Δ(1620) resonances. Our calculations also indicate sizeable contributions from nucleon poles for the energies close to the threshold. A good description to the existing data of different isospin channels of NN → NNππ and bar NN -> bar NNπ π for beam energies up to 2.2 GeV is reached. Our results provide important implications to the ABC effect and guildlines to the future experimental projects at COSY, HADES and HIRFL-CSR. We point out that the {bar PANDA} at FAIR could be an essential place for studying the properties of baryon resonances and the data with baryon and anti-baryon in final states are worth analyzing.

  7. Detection of Steel Bars embedded in Concrete Using Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Rhim, H.C. [Yonsei University, Seoul(Korea)

    2001-07-01

    In this study, detection of steel bars embedded in concrete has been performanced using commercial non-destructive test equipments for the purpose of evaluating performance of each equipment to detect steel bas embedded in concrete. The characteristics and limitation of each equipment were identified. Two types of radar detection systems and one electromagnetic detection system using the electromagnetic detection method were used in conducting the non-destructive test. Steel bars having various diameters of 13, 16, 19, 25 and 55 mm were embedded in concrete specimens for detection of them with their respective covering thecknesses being defferent, while a PVC pipe (30 mm), a sheath (50 mm), a wood piece (20 x 100 mm), a Styrofoam piece (20 x 100 mm) and a water container (150 x 300 mm) were embedded in concrete specimens for detection of them a internal defects with their respective covering thicknesses being defferent. Meanwhile, spacing lengths in the horizontal arrangement of steel bars were measured with such spacing lengths being made to range from 50 to 350 mm for detection of such spacing legths. As a result of detecting so, it has been demonstrated that the radar detection method is effective in detecting lacations of steel bars embedded in concrete and spacing lengths in the arrangement thereof, while the electromagnetic detection method is effective in detecting lacations of steel bars embedded in concrete. (author). 8 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Measurement of the branching fractions for Bbar --> D pi l- nu-bar and Bbar --> D* pi l- nu-bar

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Aoki, K; Arinstein, K; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V M; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Chuvikov, A; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, M; Dong, L Y; Dowd, R; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Enari, Y; Epifanov, D A; Fang, F; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Gershon, T; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Gorisek, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Guo, R; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hasuko, K; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hojo, T; Hokuue, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Imoto, A; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, K; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Jen, C M; Kagan, R; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawamura, N; Kawasaki, T; Kazi, S; Kent, N; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, S M; Kim, T H; Kinoshita, K; Kishimoto, N; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovnyi, P P; Kubota, T; Kulasiri, R; Kuo, C C; Kurashiro, H; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, S E; Lee, Y J; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumoto, H; Matsumoto, T; Matyja, A; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, D; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakagawa, T; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Ronga, F J; Root, N; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Saigo, M; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satapathy, M; Sato, N; Satoyama, N; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seki, T; Senyo, K; Seuster, R; Sevior, M E; Shibata, T; Shibuya, H; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Singh, J B; Somov, A; Soni, N; Stamen, R; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takada, N; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanabe, K; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Ueno, K; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Villa, S; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Widhalm, L; Wu, C H; Xie, Q L; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, S; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yang, H; Ying, J; Yoshino, S; Yuan, Y; Yusa, Y; Yuta, H; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Zhang, J; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Ziegler, T; Zürcher, D

    2005-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the branching fractions for Bbar --> D(*) pi l- nu-bar decays in a 275 million BBbar sample collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric collider. Events are tagged by fully reconstructing one of the B mesons in hadronic decay modes. We obtain the following branching fractions: Br(B- --> D+ pi- l- nu-bar) = (0.54 +/- 0.07(stat) +/- 0.07(syst) +/- 0.06(BR)) x 10^-2, Br(B- --> D*+ pi- l- nu-bar) = (0.67 +/- 0.11(stat) +/- 0.09(syst) +/- 0.03(BR)) x 10^-2, Br(B0bar --> D0 pi+ l- nu-bar) = (0.33 +/- 0.06(stat) +/- 0.06(syst) +/- 0.03(BR)) x 10^-2, Br(B0bar --> D*0 pi+ l- nu-bar) = (0.65 +/- 0.12(stat) +/- 0.08(syst) +/- 0.05(BR)) x 10^2, where the third error comes from the error on Bbar --> D(*) l- nu-bar decays. The contributions from B0bar --> D*+ l- nu-bar decays are excluded in the measurement of B0bar --> D0 pi+ l- nu-bar decays.

  9. On deformed Clifford Clq(n vertical bar m) and orthosymplectic Uq[osp(2n+1 vertical bar 2m)] superalgebras and their root of unity representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the Clifford superalgebra Cl(n vertical bar m) generated by m pairs of Bose operators (odd elements) anticommuting with n pairs of Fermi operators (even elements) can be deformed to Clq(n vertical bar m) such that the latter is a homomorphic image of the quantum superalgebra Uq[osp(2n+1 vertical bar 2m)]. The Fock space F(n vertical bar m) of Clq(n vertical bar m) is constructed. At q being a root of unity (q=eiπl/k) q-bosons (and q-fermions) are operators acting in a finite-dimensional subspace Fl/k(n vertical bar m) of F(n vertical bar m). Each Fl/k(n vertical bar m) is turned through the above mentioned homomorphism into an irreducible (root of unity) Uq[osp(2n+1 vertical bar 2m)] module. For q being a primitive root of unity (I=1) the corresponding representation is unitary. The module F1/k(n vertical bar m) is decomposed into a direct sum of irreducible Uq[sl(m vertical bar n)] submodules. The matrix elements of all Cartan-Weyl elements of Uq[sl(m vertical bar n)] are given within each such submodule. (author)

  10. On the Problem of Non -Uniform Cantilever Bar Stability Loaded at Span by a Concentrated Force Parallel to the Axis Bar and by Tangential Follower Force

    OpenAIRE

    Gazaryan K. B.; Martirosyan S. R.; Yu. G. Sanoyan

    2010-01-01

    The problem of disturbed motion stability of non-uniform elastic cantilever bar loaded at span by a concentrated force parallel to the axis of the non-deflected bar and by tangential force to the axis of the deflected bar is considered.

  11. On the Problem of Non -Uniform Cantilever Bar Stability Loaded at Span by a Concentrated Force Parallel to the Axis Bar and by Tangential Follower Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan K. B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of disturbed motion stability of non-uniform elastic cantilever bar loaded at span by a concentrated force parallel to the axis of the non-deflected bar and by tangential force to the axis of the deflected bar is considered.

  12. Search for a promising tetraquark candidate $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ in $pn\\to \\Lambda\\Lambda X$

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao-Hai

    2008-01-01

    We propose to search for a tetraquark candidate $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ in $pn\\to \\Lambda\\Lambda X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})\\to \\Lambda\\Lambda K^+K^0$ or $\\Lambda\\Lambda KK^*$. The existence of tetraquark state $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ with $J^P=0^+$, $1^-$ or $1^+$ was predicted in the literature due to specific diquark effective degrees of freedom inside hadrons. In order to understand the underlying dynamics for exotic hadrons, a search for the tetraquark $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ is strongly recommended. The proposed reaction involves two $\\Lambda$ production, of which the narrow widths make it a great advantage in the analysis of the final state missing mass spectrum. We make an estimate of the production rate of $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ in an effective Lagrangian theory and find that for $J^P=1^-$ the sample events of $\\sim 2200 nb^{-1}$ will be able to identify $X(ud\\bar{s}\\bar{s})$ with five standard deviations at a width of 10 MeV to $K^+K^0$ near threshold. For $J^P=1^+$ with a width of 20 MeV to $KK^*$, the sample eve...

  13. Four heavy quark and bound state production in the e+e-→ Q + Q-bar'+ Q'+ Q-bar and e+e- → (QQ-bar') + Q' + Q-bar processes in Z0-boson pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the QCD perturbation theory and nonrelativistic model of heavy quarkonium the cross-sections of four heavy quark production in e+e- annihilation, as well as the cross-sections of the associative production of the 1S- and 2S-wave (QQ-bar')-mesons in the e+e- → (QQ-bar') + Q'+ Q-bar process are calculated. Basing on the assumption of the quark-hadron duality the number of the Λbc-hyperon expected for LEP experiments is estimated. The fragmentation functions of b-quark into Bc(Bc*)-meson, c- and b-quarks into ηc(ψ)- and ηb(Υ)-mesons, respectively, are obtained. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Bragg Reflection of Waves by Different Shapes of Artificial Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许泰文; 张宪国; 蔡立宏

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are performed in a wave flume to demonstrate the Bragg reflection of linear gravity waves by artificialbars. Three different artificial bars with rectangular, triangular and rectified cosinoidal shapes are placed discretely on theseabed for measurement of the Bragg reflection. A series of experimental conditions including the number of bars, the pe-riodic bar spacing, the water depth and various wave conditions are tested. Key parameters influencing the Bragg reso-nances are investigated. The experimental data are compared with the values from both theoretical and numerical models.Some key parameters have proved to be effective in describing the primary resonances. Predictive equations of the charac-teristics for the Bragg reflection are proposed in this paper.

  15. Status and perspectives for $\\bar PANDA$ at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Prencipe, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is an international accelerator facility which will use antiprotons and ions to perform research in the fields of nuclear, hadron and particle physics, atomic and anti-matter physics, high density plasma physics and applications in condensed matter physics, biology and the bio-medical sciences. It is located at Darmstadt (Germany) and it is under construction. Among all projects in development at FAIR in this moment, this report focuses on the $\\bar PANDA$ experiment (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). Some topics from the Charm and Charmonium physics program of the $\\bar PANDA$ experiment will be highlighted, where $\\bar PANDA$ is expected to provide first measurements and original contributions, such as the measurement of the width of very narrow states and the measurements of high spin particles, nowaday undetected. The technique to measure the width of these very narrow states will be presented, and a general overview of the machine is provided.

  16. [Development of soy-based protein candy bars for athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig de Penna, E; Bunger, A; Sansur, M; López, L; Santana, R

    1993-09-01

    Two varieties of soy-based candy bars were developed for sportsmen who need a higher protein intake. The two varieties, almond and nut, were covered with chocolate. The ingredients used were isolated soy protein, texturized soy flour, milk solids, cocoa powder, toasted oat, nuts, almonds, authorized flavors, preservants and antioxidants. Controls were carried out in the optimized products, and the results indicate a very good sensory and microbiological quality. The average nutritional composition of both varieties is: 12,4% proteins, 9% lipids and 58,7% carbohydrates, and the caloric value is 375,2 kcal/100 g. A shelf-life study was performed at room temperature with the candy bars packed in an aluminium foil. Determining that the quality remains without significant changes during 30 days for the nut candy, and at least for 60 days for the almond candy bar. PMID:8779627

  17. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  18. Superdeduction in Lambda-Bar-Mu-Mu-Tilde

    CERN Document Server

    Houtmann, Clément

    2011-01-01

    Superdeduction is a method specially designed to ease the use of first-order theories in predicate logic. The theory is used to enrich the deduction system with new deduction rules in a systematic, correct and complete way. A proof-term language and a cut-elimination reduction already exist for superdeduction, both based on Christian Urban's work on classical sequent calculus. However the computational content of Christian Urban's calculus is not directly related to the (lambda-calculus based) Curry-Howard correspondence. In contrast the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus is a lambda-calculus for classical sequent calculus. This short paper is a first step towards a further exploration of the computational content of superdeduction proofs, for we extend the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus in order to obtain a proofterm langage together with a cut-elimination reduction for superdeduction. We also prove strong normalisation for this extension of the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus.

  19. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  20. Dynamics of five-bar COBOT using differential mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xun; LU Dun-min; WANG Lan; SHEN Jin-hua; BERNHARD R.

    2003-01-01

    COBOT is a new kind of collaborative robot , which can work with people in a shared space. In this paper a new kind of CVT using differential mechanism is introduced, which is major parts of five-bar COBOT and based the feature of nonhlonnmic constraint. The dynamic model of differential mechanism and five-bar architecture COBOT is founded. There are two kinds of coupled mode of two CVT:serial and parallel. In this paper, we present the dynamic model of serial and parallel COBOT take five-bar COBOT as research object. From the dynamic analysis foregoing, both serial and parallel COBOT model are have the feature of nonholonomic constraint. The ending track and moving state are controlled by the force of control motor and operator. The control motor can not control the movement and ending track of COBOT without the cooperation of operator.

  1. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  2. Optimization of Steel Bar Manufacturing Process Using Six Sigma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAEEM Khawar; ULLAH Misbah; TARIQ Adnan; MAQSOOD Shahid; AKHTAR Rehman; NAWAZ Rashid; HUSSAIN Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and control- methodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  3. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section using dilepton events in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    We present a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector. We consider final states with at least two jets and two leptons (ee, e{mu}, {mu}{mu}), and events with one jet for the the e{mu} final state as well. The measured cross section is {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.36{sub -0.79}{sup +0.90} (stat + syst) pb. This result combined with the cross section measurement in the lepton + jets final state yields {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.56{sub -0.56}{sup +0.63}(stat + syst) pb, which agrees with the standard model expectation. The relative precision of 8% of this measurement is comparable to the latest theoretical calculations.

  4. The Spin-orbit force, recoil corrections and possible $B \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D \\bar{D}^{*}$ molecular states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Lu; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model, we have calculated the effective potentials between two heavy mesons $B \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D \\bar{D}^{*}$ from the t- and u-channel $\\pi$, $\\eta$, $\\rho$, $\\omega$ and $\\sigma$ meson exchange with four kinds of quantum number: $I=0$, $J^{PC}=1^{++}$; $I=0$, $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$; $I=1$, $J^{PC}=1^{++}$; $I=1$, $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$. We keep the recoil corrections to the $B \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D \\bar{D}^{*}$ system up to $O(\\frac{1}{M^2})$. The spin orbit force appears at $O(\\frac{1}{M})$, which turns out to be important for the very loosely bound molecular states. Our numerical results show that the momentum-related corrections are unfavorable to the formation of the molecular states in the $I=0$, $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ and $I=1$, $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ channels in the $D \\bar{D}^{*}$ systems.

  5. Staying away from the bar: the local dynamical signature of slow and fast bars in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Monari, Giacomo; Siebert, Arnaud; Duchateau, Aurore; Lorscheider, Thibault; Bienaymé, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Both the three-dimensional density of red clump giants and the gas kinematics in the inner Galaxy indicate that the pattern speed of the Galactic bar could be much lower than previously estimated. Here, we show that such slow bar models are unable to reproduce the bimodality observed in local stellar velocity space. We do so by computing the response of stars in the Solar neighbourhood to the gravitational potential of slow and fast bars, in terms of their perturbed distribution function in action-angle space up to second order, as well as by identifying resonantly trapped orbits. We also check that the bimodality is unlikely to be produced through perturbations from spiral arms, and conclude that, contrary to gas kinematics, local stellar kinematics still favour a fast bar in the Milky Way, with a pattern speed of the order of almost twice (and no less than 1.8 times) the circular frequency at the Sun's position. This leaves open the question of the nature of the secondary long bar in the Milky Way.

  6. Effects of bar coding on a pharmacy stock replenishment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M I; Zilz, D A

    1989-07-01

    A bar-code stock ordering system installed in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area of a hospital pharmacy was compared with a manual paper system to quantify overall time demands and determine the error rate associated with each system. The bar-code system was implemented in the ambulatory-care pharmacy in November 1987 and in the sterile products area in January 1988. It consists of a Trakker 9440 transaction manager with a digital scanner; labels are printed with a dot matrix printer. Electronic scanning of bar-code labels and entry of the amount required using the key-pad on the transaction manager replaced use of a preprinted form for ordering items. With the bar-code system, ordering information is transferred electronically via cable to the pharmacy inventory computer; with the manual system, this information was input by a stockroom technician. To compare the systems, the work of technicians in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area was evaluated before and after implementation of the bar-code system. The time requirements for information gathering and data transfer were recorded by direct observation; the prevalence of errors under each system was determined by comparing unprocessed ordering information with the corresponding computer-generated "pick lists" (itemized lists including the amount of each product ordered). Time consumed in extra trips to the stockroom to replace out-of-stock items was self-reported. Significantly less time was required to order stock and transfer data to the pharmacy inventory computer with the bar-code system than with the manual system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757044

  7. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Shen, Juntai; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-08-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pattern speed is too high or the bulge central density is too low. We also study the periodic orbits in our galaxy models, and find that the concept of inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) may be generalized by the extent of x2 orbits. All roundish nuclear rings in our simulations settle in the range of x2 orbits (or ILRs). However, knowing the resonances is insufficient to pin down the exact location of these nuclear rings. We suggest that the backbone of round nuclear rings is the x2 orbital family, i.e. round nuclear rings are allowed only in the radial range of x2 orbits. A round nuclear ring forms exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of infalling gas balances the centrifugal force, which can be described by a parameter f_ring measured from the rotation curve. We find an empirical relation between the bar parameters and f_ring, and apply it to measure bar pattern speed in a sample of barred galaxies with nuclear rings.

  8. High fliers: the physiology of bar-headed geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2010-07-01

    Up to half the world's population of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) migrate between central Asia and India and fly between 5000 m and 9000 m above sea level as they cross the Himalayas. The partial pressures of oxygen at these altitudes are, respectively, about 50% and 30% those at sea level. Flapping flight is energetically expensive, so how are bar-headed geese able to migrate at such altitudes? The haemoglobin of bar-headed geese has a greater affinity for oxygen than those of lowland birds, and birds are able to hyperventilate to a greater extent than mammals during severe hypoxia. Together, these mean that the concentration of oxygen in the arterial blood at a given altitude is greater in bar-headed geese than in lowland birds and mammals. The low partial pressure of CO(2) in arterial blood (hypocapnia) that accompanies hyperventilation does not cause reduction of cerebral blood flow in birds as it does in mammals, thus there is greater oxygen delivery to the brain in hypoxic birds, including bar-headed geese, than in mammals. Captive bar headed geese could not maintain elevated aerobic metabolism during exercise at a simulated altitude of 8500 m and their cardiac stroke volume was much lower than that during exercise at sea level. This suggests that if some individuals of this species of geese do really manage to fly over Mt Everest, they may only do so if they receive assistance from vertical air movements, for example from lee waves downwind from the mountains. PMID:20116442

  9. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  10. Nef divisors on $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$ from GIT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexeev, Valery; Swinarski, David

    2008-01-01

    We introduce and study the GIT CONE of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$, which is generated by the pullbacks of the natural ample line bundles on the GIT quotients $(\\mathbb P^1)^n//SL(2)$. We give an explicit formula for these line bundles and prove a number of basic results about the GIT cone. As one application, we prove unconditionally that the log canonical models of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$ with a symmetric boundary divisor coincide with the moduli spaces of weighted curves or with the symmetric GIT quotient, ex...

  11. Deformation of orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeghini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via G Sansone 1, Sesto, 50019, Florence (Italy); Kulish, Petr P [St Petersburg Department of Steklov Mathematical Institute, Fontanka 27, St Petersburg 191023 (Russian Federation)

    2004-05-21

    Triangular deformation of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar 4) is defined by chains of twists. The corresponding classical r-matrix is obtained by a contraction procedure from the trigonometric r-matrix. The carrier space of the constant r-matrix and the twist element is the Borel subalgebra. The known super-Jordanian twist of osp(1 vertical bar 2) is generalized as an extended twist to the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebras of higher rank. The dimension of the cobracket kernel is related to the number of generators with primitive twisted coproduct of the deformed algebra. (letter to the editor)

  12. Deformation of orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triangular deformation of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar 4) is defined by chains of twists. The corresponding classical r-matrix is obtained by a contraction procedure from the trigonometric r-matrix. The carrier space of the constant r-matrix and the twist element is the Borel subalgebra. The known super-Jordanian twist of osp(1 vertical bar 2) is generalized as an extended twist to the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebras of higher rank. The dimension of the cobracket kernel is related to the number of generators with primitive twisted coproduct of the deformed algebra. (letter to the editor)

  13. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LONGSHORE CURRENTS OVER PLANE AND BARRED BEACHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-wei; ZOU Zhi-li

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the vertical profile of the longshore currents over plane and barred beaches.The logarithmic law is applied to fit the data for the region below the wave trough and an adjusted logarithmic profile without the mass transport velocity is applied to the region above the wave trough.The results indicate that the logarithmic law fits the data well for both plane and barred beaches.The friction velocity and the relative roughness obtained by the data fitting are compared with relevant calculated results.

  14. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  15. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (Ln bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (Ln bar, g)-spaces

  16. Symmetry Perspectives on Some Auxetic Body-Bar Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fowler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scalar mobility counting rules and their symmetry extensions are reviewed for finite frameworks and also for infinite periodic frameworks of the bar-and-joint, body-joint and body-bar types. A recently published symmetry criterion for the existence of equiauxetic character of an infinite framework is applied to two long known but apparently little studied hinged-hexagon frameworks, and is shown to detect auxetic behaviour in both. In contrast, for double-link frameworks based on triangular and square tessellations, other affine deformations can mix with the isotropic expansion mode.

  17. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  18. Equivalent Bar Conceptions for Computer Analysis of Pantographic Foldable Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2003-01-01

    An equivalent bar conception is firstly developed for the computer analysis of pantographic foldablestructures. The uniplet of two three-node beam elements is assumed as a six-bar assembly with respect to leastnorm least square solution for the elastic strain energy equality. The equilibrium equation is developed for the e-quivalent models, and the internal forces formulated sequently for backup calculation. This procedure is provedpractical for some engineering, and some interesting concepts proposed. Finally, three numerical tests are present-ed.

  19. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system

  20. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  1. Crear una ilusión : Barça

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of Catalan nationalism and the use of F.C. Barcelona - Barça - in the expression of national sentiments. My way of examining and analysing Football Club Barcelona in this thesis is as a 'dominant symbol' in Turner's terms (1964). By doing this I choose to understand Barça as a thing which generates models and narratives of ones own identity as well other identities 'by association in fact or thought' (Turner: 1964: 20). I believe that my thesis provides...

  2. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  3. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, A. Al; Ghachem, M. Ben; Nassib, N.; Chehida, F. Ben [Hospital d' Enfants, Service d' orthopedie infantile, Tunis (Tunisia); Kozlowski, K. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  4. Test of the $h_1(1830)$ made of $K^{*}\\bar{K}^*$ with the $\\eta_c\\rightarrow \\phi K^{*}\\bar{K}^{*}$ decay

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Oset, Eulogio; Meng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We present a new reaction, complementary to the $J/\\psi\\rightarrow \\eta K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0}$ from which an $h_1$ resonance with mass around $1830$ MeV was reported from a BESIII experiment. The new reaction is $\\eta_c\\rightarrow \\phi K^*\\bar{K}^*$, or $\\eta_c(2S)\\rightarrow \\phi K^*\\bar{K}^*$. Using the information from the analysis of $J/\\psi\\rightarrow \\eta K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0}$, we find that the $K^*\\bar{K}^*$ invariant mass distribution for those two $\\eta_c$ decays exhibits a clear peak aro...

  5. Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Sessions, Richard B.; Traer, Colin J.;

    2012-01-01

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) are regulators of endosomal sorting. For the SNX-BAR subgroup, a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain is vital for formation/stabilization of tubular subdomains that mediate cargo recycling. Here, by analysing the in vitro membrane remodelling properties of all 12 human SNX-BARs......, we report that some, but not all, can elicit the formation of tubules with diameters that resemble sorting tubules observed in cells. We reveal that SNX-BARs display a restricted pattern of BAR domain-mediated dimerization, and by resolving a 2.8 Å structure of a SNX1-BAR domain homodimer, establish...... that dimerization is achieved in part through neutralization of charged residues in the hydrophobic BAR-dimerization interface. Membrane remodelling also requires functional amphipathic helices, predicted to be present in all SNX-BARs, and the formation of high order SNX-BAR oligomers through selective...

  6. Theoretical and experimental aspects of the bimetallic reinforcement bars steel - steel resistant to corrosion rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sawicki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bimetallic bars which possess higher corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, it is the new kind of bimetallic bars, which are better than standard bars. The bimetallic bars are more often applied in concrete construction.Design/methodology/approach: The simulations of the bar rolling were carried out using the Forge2007® commercial program.Findings: The use of non-corrosive steel on plating layer assures receipt on a high durability and esthetics bimetallic bars.Practical implications: Bimetallic bars are chiefly used in the building industry at production of concrete constructions, and as working elements in bridge building in aggressive environment.Originality/value: Production of bimetallic bars is very difficult. One from many problems during production bimetallic bars is assurance good strength of bimetallic layer bond.

  7. Extraction of the KK-bar isovector scattering length from pp -> d K^+ K-bar^0 data near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Büscher, M; Kleber, V; Krewald, S; Lemmer, R H; Sassen, F P

    2006-01-01

    The results of a recent experiment measuring the reaction pp -> dK^+ K-bar^0 near threshold are interpreted in terms of a spectator model that encapsulates the main features of the observed K^+K-bar^0 invariant mass distribution. A chi^2 fit to this data determines the imaginary part of the isovector scattering length in the KK-bar channel as Im(a_1)=-(0.61\\pm 0.05) fm. We then use the Flatt\\'e representation of the scattering amplitude to infer a value Re(a_1)=-(0.02\\pm 0.03) fm for the real part under the assumption that scaling is approximately satisfied.

  8. The B → D* vertical bar ν form factor at zero recoil and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize our lattice QCD study of the form factor at zero recoil in the decay B → D* vertical bar ν. After careful consideration of all sources of systematic uncertainty, we find, hA1 (1) 0.913+24+17-17-30, where the first uncertainty is from statistics and fitting while the second combined uncertainty is from all other systematic effects

  9. Measurement of B+ -> D+ D0bar branching fraction and charge asymmetry and search for B0 -> D0 D0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, I; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the B+ -> D+ D0bar and B0 -> D0 D0bar decays based on 656.7 10^6 BBar events collected with the Belle detector at KEKB. We measure the branching fraction and charge asymmetry for the B+ -> D+ D0bar decay: Br(B+ -> D+ D0bar)= (3.85 +- 0.31 +- 0.38) 10^-4 and A_{CP}(B+ -> D+ D0bar)=0.00 +- 0.08 +- 0.02, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematical. We also set the upper limit for the B0 -> D0 D0bar decay: Br(B0 -> D0 D0bar) < 0.42 10^-4 at 90% CL.

  10. Measurement of the branching fraction and charge asymmetry of the decay B+ -> D+ D0bar and search for B0 -> D0 D0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, I; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Brako, M; Brodzicka, J; Chao, Y; Chen, cA; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Dash, M; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W S; Hyun, H J; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Kah, D H; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Krokovny, P; Kuo, C C; Kuroki, Y; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Lin, S W; Liu, C; Liventsev, D; Mandl, F; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, D; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Schneider, O; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Shapkin, M; Shibuya, H; Shiu, J G; Somov, A; Stari, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanaka, M; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Wang, P; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2008-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the B+ -> D+ D0bar and B0 -> D0 D0bar decays based on 657 10^6 BBar events collected with the Belle detector at KEKB. We measure the branching fraction and charge asymmetry for the B+ -> D+ D0bar decay: B(B+ -> D+ D0bar)=(3.85 +- 0.31 +- 0.38) 10^{-4} and Acp(B+ -> D+ D0bar)=0.00 +- 0.08 +- 0.02, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. We also set the upper limit for the B0 -> D0 D0bar decay: B(B0 -> D0 D0bar)< 0.43 10^{-4}at 90% CL.

  11. Is the newly observed $X(5568)$ a $B\\bar{K}$ molecular state?

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performed dynamical study of the $B^{(*)}$ and $\\bar K$ interaction shows that the newly observed $X(5568)$ or $X(5616)$ cannot be assigned to be an isovector $B\\bar{K}$ or $B^*\\bar{K}$ molecular state. We continue to investigate the isoscalar $B^{(*)}\\bar{K}$ systems, and the $B^{(*)}\\bar{K}$ systems with isospin $I=0,1$, and predict the existences of several isoscalar $B^{(*)}\\bar K^{(*)}$ molecular states. A new task of exploring open-bottom molecular states will be created for future experiment.

  12. K+ -> pi+ nu nu(bar) and FCNC from non-universal Z' bosons

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiao-Gang(INPAC, SKLPPC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Valencia, G.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the E787 and E949 result for K+ -> pi+ nu nu(bar) we examine the effects of a new non-universal right-handed Z' boson on flavor changing processes. We place bounds on the tree-level FCNC from K-K(bar) and B-B(bar) mixing as well as from the observed CP violation in kaon decay. We discuss the implications for K -> pi nu nu(bar), B -> X nu nu(bar) and B -> tau+ tau-. We find that existing bounds allow substantial enhancements in the K+ -> pi+ nu nu(bar) rate, particularly through a...

  13. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; Harris, Diane M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school…

  14. On the nature of the barlens component in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E; Salo, H; Bosma, A

    2014-01-01

    Barred galaxies have very interesting morphological features. Here we examine the barlens, a lens-like component whose extent along the bar major axis is shorter than that of the bar and whose outline is oval or circular. We show that such a component can also be found in a number of N-body plus SPH simulations. We analyse its properties by converting simulation snapshots into images, which we then analyse in the same way as images of observed galaxies. We make extensive comparisons with galaxies from the NIRS0S (Near Infrared S0 Survey) and the S$^4$G (Spitzer Stellar Structure Survey of Galaxies) samples and find very good agreement. These comparisons include morphology, radial projected density profiles, shapes, sizes and fluxes. We observe the barlens component in our simulations from different viewing angles. This reveals that {\\it barlenses are the vertically thick part of the bar seen face-on, i.e. that a barlens seen edge-on is a boxy/peanut/X bulge}. This finding makes it possible to follow barlens d...

  15. Single neutral pion production by charged-current $\\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    Aliaga, L; Bercellie, A; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Brooks, W K; Butkevich, A; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Carneiro, M F; Christy, M E; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Gallagher, H; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Miller, J; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Osta, J; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Sobczyk, J T; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Yepes-Ramirez, H; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2015-01-01

    Single neutral pion production via muon antineutrino charged-current interactions in plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the \\minerva detector exposed to the NuMI low-energy, wideband antineutrino beam at Fermilab. Measurement of this process constrains models of neutral pion production in nuclei, which is important because the neutral-current analog is a background for $\\bar{\

  16. Anti vibration bars replacement in Vandellos II steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.N. Vandellos II is equipped with three steam generators Westinghouse model F. The number of tubes is 5626 each SG and the material Inconel 600TT. During the first inservice inspection, in 1989, tube wall thickness reductions were observed due to fretting in zones of contact with the tubes anti vibration bars. In the 2 nd shutdown for refueling (1990) all the tubes subject to this type of degradation were inspected by eddy currents, occurring a significative increase in number of tubes affected as well as the quantity of plugged tubes for that reason. Additionally, Westinghouse performed visual inspection and dimensional control of gaps in the tube bundles. Taking in account the results, the replacement with AVBs of new design was decided. AVBs new design is more complex than the original due to the combination of flexible and expandable bars in order to eliminate gaps between tubes an bars an assure proper bundle support. Given that the installation has to be done under water for shielding, all unions are bolted so that no welding is required. Each one of the bars, 333 per SG, is attached to a support structure consisting in 6 retaining plates and 4 bridge plates. (Author)

  17. CERN access card: Introduction of a bar code

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Before the latest version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2 comes into force, we would like to inform you that, in future, CERN access cards may bear a bar code to transcribe the holder's identification number. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  18. CERN access cards - Introduction of a bar code (Reminder)

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the latest revised version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2, CERN access cards may bear a bar code transcribing the holder's identification number (the revised version of this subsidiary document to the aforementioned Circular will be published shortly). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  19. Study of the decay B0bar -> D* omega pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-24

    We report on a study of the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -} with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million B{bar B} decays, we measure the branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{omega}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.88 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -} {nu}{sub {tau}}. We also measure the polarization of the D*{sup +} as a function of the {omega}{pi}{sup -} mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*{sup +} to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda} = 0.654 {+-} 0.042(stat.) {+-} 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{rho}(1450), {rho}(1450) {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}.

  20. Analysis of broken rotor bars in large induction motors

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Gustavo Dias; Ivan Eduardo Chabu

    2006-01-01

    A new technique to detect broken rotor bars, in large squirrelcage induction motors is presented. In order to avoid problems in industrial applications, the electromagnetic behavior of induction machines with rotor faults was examined, by using a mathematical model. Simulation results are presented from the model implemented in the Simulink-Matlab. Experimental results are presented in order to validate the proposed method.

  1. Loss of halo triaxiality due to bar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Rubens E G

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations indicate that the dark matter haloes of galaxies should be generally triaxial. Yet, the presence of a baryonic disc is believed to alter the shape of the haloes. Here we aim to study how bar formation is affected by halo triaxiality and how, in turn, the presence of the bar influences the shape of the halo. We perform a set of collisionless N-body simulations of disc galaxies with triaxial dark matter haloes, using elliptical discs as initial conditions. We study models of different halo triaxialities and, to investigate the behaviour of the halo shape in the absence of bar formation, we run models with different disc masses, halo concentrations, disc velocity dispersions and also models where the disc shape is kept artificially axisymmetric. We find that the introduction of a massive disc causes the halo triaxiality to be partially diluted. Once the disc is fully grown, a strong stellar bar develops within the halo that is still non-axisymmetric, causing it to lose its remaini...

  2. Free riding and the provision of candy bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Kooreman, P.

    2002-01-01

    A wealth of experimental literature studies the effect of repetition and group size on the extent of free riding in the provision of public goods. In this paper, we use data from honor systems for candy bars in 166 firms to test whether such effects can be found outside the laboratory. We find that

  3. Kokum Fruit Bar Development via Response Surface Methodology (RSM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Bafna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology (RSM was used for the determination of optimum ingredients level to prepare kokum fruit bar. Kokum pulp was extracted using water extraction method at temperature (24.97ºC and time (30.42 min. The effects of ingredients levels on sensory parameters like texture, overall acceptability and calcium content of the prepared fruit bar were studied by employing a Box- Behnken Design (BBD. During the experimental trials the pulp quantity is kept fixed. The coefficient of determination R² for texture, overall acceptability and calcium content were 0.8298, 0.9239 and 0.9842 respectively. Analysis of variable (ANOVA performed on the experimental values showed that sugar and milk powder were the most important factors that affected characteristics of the kokum fruit bar as it exerted a highly significant influence (p < 0.05 on all the dependent variables. Based on surface and contour plots, optimum ingredients level for formation of kokum fruit bar were pulp, sugar, milk powder; 50g, 40g and 9.39g respectively.

  4. The orbital structure of a tidally induced bar

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Athanassoula, E

    2016-01-01

    Orbits are the key building blocks of any density distribution and their study helps us understand the kinematical structure and the evolution of galaxies. Here we investigate orbits in a tidally induced bar of a dwarf galaxy, using an $N$-body simulation of an initially disky dwarf galaxy orbiting a Milky Way-like host. After the first pericenter passage, a tidally induced bar forms in the stellar component of the dwarf. The bar evolution is different than in isolated galaxies and our analysis focuses on the period before it buckles. We study the orbits in terms of their fundamental frequencies, which we calculate in a Cartesian coordinate frame rotating with the bar. Apart from the well-known x$_1$ orbits we find many other types, mostly with boxy shapes of various degree of elongation. Some of them are also near-periodic, admitting frequency ratios of 4/3, 3/2 and 5/3. The box orbits have various degrees of vertical thickness but only a relatively small fraction of those have banana (i.e. smile/frown) or i...

  5. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  6. College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Marketing in Nightclubs and Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S. Lee; Myers, John A.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Ciszewski, Tiffany N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a college student's exposure to tobacco marketing in nightclubs and bars was affected by the presence of a smoke-free law. Participants: A random sample (N = 478) of students participated in the survey (no smoke-free law, n = 240; smoke-free law, n = 238). The analysis was limited to students who reported being in…

  7. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FEED BAR ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Xu; G.H. Liu; G.S. Ren; Z. Shen; C.P. Ma; W. W. Ren

    2007-01-01

    A flexible technique of hot working of bars by axial feed rolling was introduced. The processdeformation, strain field, stress field, and temperature field of the parts are analyzed by finite elementmethod (FEM)-simulation software DEFORM-3D. The material flow rule and tool load have beeninvestigated.

  8. Finite particle method for kinematically indeterminate bar assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying YU; Yao-zhi LUO

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a structural analysis algorithm called the finite particle method(FPM)for kinematically indeterminate bar assemblies.Different from the traditional analysis method.FPM is based on the combination of the vector mechanics and numerical calculations.It models the analyzed domain composed of finite particles.Newton's second law is adopted to describe the motions of all particles.A convected material frame and explicit time integration for the solution procedure is also adopted in this method.By using the FPM,there is no need to solve any nonlinear equations,to calculate the stiffness matrix or equilibrium matrix.which is very helpful in the analysis of kinematically indeterminate structures.The basic formulations for the space bar are derived.following its solution procedures for bar assemblies.Three numerical examples are analyzed using the FPM.Results obtained from both the straight pretension cable and the suspension cable assembly show that the FPM can produce a more accurate analysis result.The motion simulation of the four-bar space assembly demonstrates the capability of this method in the analysis of kinematically indeterminate structures.

  9. Studies of radiative penguin B decays at BaBar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John M LoSecco; BaBar Collaboration

    2004-03-01

    We summarize results on a number of observations of penguin dominated radiative decays of the meson. Such decays are forbidden at tree level and proceed via electroweak loops. As such they may be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The observations have been made at the BaBar experiment at PEP-II, the asymmetric factory at SLAC.

  10. Hydrogen adsorption on palladium and palladium hydride at 1 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Skulason, Egill; Nielsen, Gunver;

    2010-01-01

    The dissociative sticking probability for H-2 on Pd films supported on sputtered Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) has been derived from measurements of the rate of the H-D exchange reaction at 1 bar. The sticking probability for H-2, S. is higher on Pd hydride than on Pd (a factor of 1.4 ...

  11. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  12. $\\bar{partial}$-coherent sheaves over complex manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Pali, Nefon

    2003-01-01

    This is a large audience version of our previous work (see math.AG/0301146) in which we prove the existence of an (exact) equivalence between the category of coherent analytic sheaves and the category of $\\bar{\\partial}$-coherent sheaves. We also include here the complete proof of our main Theorem.

  13. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    OpenAIRE

    Manin, Yu.; Smirnov, M

    2011-01-01

    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  14. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  15. The formation of spiral arms and rings in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Gomez, M; Masdemont, J J; García-Gomez, C

    2007-01-01

    In this and in a previous paper (Romero-Gomez et al. 2006) we propose a theory to explain the formation of both spirals and rings in barred galaxies using a common dynamical framework. It is based on the orbital motion driven by the unstable equilibrium points of the rotating bar potential. Thus, spirals, rings and pseudo-rings are related to the invariant manifolds associated to the periodic orbits around these equilibrium points. We examine the parameter space of three barred galaxy models and discuss the formation of the different morphological structures according to the properties of the bar model. We also study the influence of the shape of the rotation curve in the outer parts, by making families of models with rising, flat, or falling rotation curves in the outer parts. The differences between spiral and ringed structures arise from differences in the dynamical parameters of the host galaxies. The results presented here will be discussed and compared with observations in a forthcoming paper.

  16. Rings and spirals in barred galaxies. I Building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E; Masdemont, J J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present building blocks which can explain the formation and properties both of spirals and of inner and outer rings in barred galaxies. We first briefly summarise the main results of the full theoretical description we have given elsewhere, presenting them in a more physical way, aimed to an understanding without the requirement of extended knowledge of dynamical systems or of orbital structure. We introduce in this manner the notion of manifolds, which can be thought of as tubes guiding the orbits. The dynamics of these manifolds can govern the properties of spirals and of inner and outer rings in barred galaxies. We find that the bar strength affects how unstable the L1 and L2 Lagrangian points are, the motion within the 5A5A5Amanifold tubes and the time necessary for particles in a manifold to make a complete turn around the galactic centre. We also show that the strength of the bar, or, to be more precise, of the non-axisymmetric forcing at and somewhat beyond the corotation region, deter...

  17. Measurement of the location of tie-bar shoulders

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vactank is machined on a length of 13m at the location of the rails for HCAL. in addition at one side the inner vactank has shoulders to lodge the M48 tie-bars that will guarantee the fixation to the swivelling platform actually produced at HANJUNG Company in South Korea

  18. Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforcement steel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two nodded, unidimensional bar element formulated and implemented as a computer program in FORTRAN for elastoplastic Finite Element Analysis best suited for standard type of materials particularly metals was employed in order to find the stain hardening factor for the experimental data of several hundred reinforcement steel bars which were tested in laboratory. Here in the very first instance experimental yield and ultimate values were prescribed as input data and strain-hardening factor was obtained. Direct iterative procedure was adopted and the post yield behavior of the material was modeled on the basis of a tangent modulus. The study was aimed at finding the suitability of ELPAS as theoretical tool for mathematical modeling of reinforcement bars manufactured from steel scrap. Since a very wide variation of the strain-hardening factor values was observed. Statistical analysis in terms of mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation was performed. This was aimed at investigating further the reliability of such bars when used in R.C. structures based on stochastic approach. (author)

  19. Error Bars for Distributions of Numbers of Events

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Ritu; Caldwell, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The common practice for displaying error bars on distributions of numbers of events is confusing and can lead to incorrect conclusions. A proposal is made for a different style of presentation that more directly indicates the level of agreement between expectations and observations.

  20. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLoth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognising the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognise the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesised candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that a these two easily recognisable actions are sufficient for recognising the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and b the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results.

  1. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Huth, Kerstin; De Ruiter, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognize the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesized candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that (a) these two easily recognizable actions are sufficient for recognizing the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and (b) the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results. PMID:24009594

  2. Towards understanding the dynamics of the bar/bulge region in our Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassoula E.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I review some of the work on bars which is closely linked to the bar/bulge system in our Galaxy. Several independent studies, using totally independent methods, come to the same results about the 3D structure of a bar, i.e., that a bar is composed of a vertically thick inner part and a vertically thin outer part. I give examples of this from simulations and substantiate the discussion with input from orbital structure analysis and from observations. The thick part has a considerably shorter radial extent than the thin part. I then see how this applies to our Galaxy, where two bars have been reported, the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar. Comparing their extents and making the reasonable and necessary assumption that our Galaxy has properties similar to those of other galaxies of similar type, leads to the conclusion that these two bars can not form a standard double bar system. I then discuss arguments in favour of the two bars being simply different parts of the same bar, the COBE/DIRBE bar being the thick inner part and the Long bar being the thin outer part of this bar. I also very briefly discuss some related new results. I first consider bar formation and evolution in disc galaxies with a gaseous component – including star formation, feedback and evolution – and a triaxial halo. Then I consider bar formation in a fully cosmological context using hydrodynamical LCDM simulations, where the host galaxies grow, accrete matter and significantly evolve during the formation and evolution of the bar.

  3. Dispersive bounds on the shape of the B bar → D(*)lν bar form factor using spin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most accurate method of extracting the parameter modulus of Vcb of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is based on the study of the B bar → D(*)lνbar decays. To calculate the relevant form factors entering the expression of the differential decay rate a method which combines QCD dispersion relations unitarity and heavy quark symmetry was devised. In the present paper the analysis of the correlation between the slope and the curvature of the physical form factor near zero recoil is extended by exploiting in a complete way the spin symmetry in the fundamental doublet of the BD mesons. We take into account simultaneously the unitarity inequalities for the polarization functions of the vector (Vμ c bar γμb) and axial weak current (Aμ c bar γμγ5b). All the form factors are included in the inequalities, taking into account properly for all of them the Bc poles, the specific unitarity thresholds, as well as the expressions given by heavy quark symmetry near zero recoil. We treat also in a rigorous way the kinematical constrains relating various form factors at q2 = 0. The increased theoretical input used in the analysis is shown to lead to quite strong constraints on the shape of the physical form factors near zero recoil

  4. Boosting Higgs pair production in the $b\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$ final state with multivariate techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J Katharina; Frost, James A; Hartland, Nathan P; Issever, Cigdem; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of Higgs pair production will be a cornerstone of the LHC program in the coming years. Double Higgs production provides a crucial window upon the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and has a unique sensitivity to the Higgs trilinear coupling. We study the feasibility of a measurement of Higgs pair production in the $b\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$ final state at the LHC. Our analysis is based on a combination of traditional cut-based methods with state-of-the-art multivariate techniques. We account for all relevant backgrounds, including the contributions from light and charm jet mis-identification, which are ultimately comparable in size to the irreducible $4b$ QCD background. We demonstrate the robustness of our analysis strategy in a high pileup environment. For an integrated luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}=3$ ab$^{-1}$, a signal significance of $S/\\sqrt{B}\\simeq 3$ is obtained, indicating that the $b\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$ final state alone could allow for the observation of double Higgs production at the H...

  5. Physical and metallurgical considerations of failures of soldered bars in bar attachment systems for implant overdentures: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, J Neil; Payne, Alan G T; Swain, Michael V

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify the etiological factors of failure of soldered bars in bar attachment systems for removable implant overdentures. A search of MEDLINE using the key words "bar attachment systems" was performed of English language peer-reviewed journals published between 1975 and 2005. Clinical studies of implant overdentures with prosthodontic maintenance complications of bar attachment systems were identified to establish the perceived etiology of failure. A further search of MEDLINE using the key words "solder joint" was also performed of the fixed prosthodontic literature to identify specific factors affecting the strength, fatigue resistance, and quality of gold solder joints used for bar attachment systems. The first search on bar attachment systems produced evidence of low failure rates of interabutment bars, but higher failure rates of bars where distal cantilever extensions were used. There were no explanations or descriptions of the nature of those failures in the clinical studies reviewed. The second search on fixed prosthodontic literature identified multiple factors that could potentially relate to the failed solder joints with bar attachments. Two potential sites of failure in bar attachments with distal cantilevers were identified, and a simple estimate of the tensile stresses at the solder joints was performed. The values found are comparable to the fatigue failure stresses reported in the searched literature. PMID:17052473

  6. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}$ production cross-section with 8 TeV ATLAS data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00335900; Moenig, Klaus

    his thesis presents the measurement of the $t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}$ production cross-section, using a dataset of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. The measurement is based on a cut-and-count method, using a sample of events with exactly four $b$-tagged jets, which is shown to have a high purity in signal events. The measurement exploits the most precise jet energy scale and $b$-tagging calibrations and is performed in a fiducial phase space that is designed to minimize the model dependence of the measurement. The fiducial cross-section is measured to be $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}^{\\mathrm{fid}}=18.9\\pm 3.5\\mathrm{\\ (stat)} ^{+5.6}_{-5.5} \\mathrm{\\ (sys)}\\pm 0.6 \\mathrm{\\ (Lumi)}$ fb, or subtracting the contribution from $t\\bar{t}H(b\\bar{b})$ and $t\\bar{t}Z(b\\bar{b})$ final states, $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}^{\\mathrm{fid},\\mathrm{QCD}}=17.8\\pm 3.5\\mathrm{\\ (stat)} ^{+5.9}_{-5.7} \\mathrm{\\ (sys)}\\pm 0.6\\mathrm{\\ (Lumi)}$ fb. The result is compared with a multitu...

  7. Impact on the bar value in hot by the introduction of advanced control bars in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent dates the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station (CNLV) has acquired new designs of control bars, this new type of bars presents modifications important in their design. For what is important to analyze their performance inside those reactors of this nuclear power station. Presently work is shown the behavior of the nucleus of the reactor in hot condition (HFP) when three different types of control bar are used. The first of them corresponds the one that initially has been used in this power station and that we will call original. The second type of control bars, it corresponds to an advanced type and it is the first design different from the original and it corresponds to a bar design that it includes Hafnium (Hf) like one of their neutronic absorption characteristics. The third, denoted as 2AV, include besides the material of the second type new design characteristics, and it is the last finish bar type that it has been introduced in the operation of the reactors of the CNLV. With base in the studied cases is found that the bars 2AV have a total power value, 7.6 % bigger respect the bars 1AV; and in turn the bars 1AV, 6.1 % bigger with respect the ORG control bars. (Author)

  8. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  9. Pinkbar is an epithelial-specific BAR domain protein that generates planar membrane structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pykäläinen, Anette; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Zhao, Hongxia; Saarikangas, Juha; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Jansen, Maurice; Hakanen, Janne; Koskela, Essi V.; Peränen, Johan; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Salminen, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Dominguez, Roberto; Lappalainen, Pekka (Helsinki); (Penn)

    2013-05-29

    Bin/amphipysin/Rvs (BAR)-domain proteins sculpt cellular membranes and have key roles in processes such as endocytosis, cell motility and morphogenesis. BAR domains are divided into three subfamilies: BAR- and F-BAR-domain proteins generate positive membrane curvature and stabilize cellular invaginations, whereas I-BAR-domain proteins induce negative curvature and stabilize protrusions. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the I-BAR subfamily, Pinkbar, is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it localizes to Rab13-positive vesicles and to the plasma membrane at intercellular junctions. Notably, the BAR domain of Pinkbar does not induce membrane tubulation but promotes the formation of planar membrane sheets. Structural and mutagenesis analyses reveal that the BAR domain of Pinkbar has a relatively flat lipid-binding interface and that it assembles into sheet-like oligomers in crystals and in solution, which may explain its unique membrane-deforming activity.

  10. Determination of the structure of the X (3872) in p bar A collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, A. B.; Strikman, M.; Bleicher, M.

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the structure of the X (3872) meson is unknown. Different competing models of the c c bar exotic state X (3872) exist, including the possibilities that this state is either a mesonic molecule with dominating D0D bar * 0 + c . c . composition, a c c bar q q bar tetraquark, or a c c bar -gluon hybrid state. It is expected that the X (3872) state is rather strongly coupled to the p bar p channel and, therefore, can be produced in p bar p and p bar A collisions at PANDA. We propose to test the hypothetical molecular structure of X (3872) by studying the D or Dbar* stripping reactions on a nuclear residue.

  11. Measurement of the charged multiplicity of Z0→b bar b events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an impact parameter tag to select an enriched sample of Z0→b bar b events, we have measured the difference between the average charged multiplicity of Z0→b bar b and Z0→ hadrons to be bar nb-bar nhad=2.24±0.30 ( stat )±0.33 ( syst ) tracks per event. From this, we have derived bar nb-bar nuds=3.31±0.41±0.79. Comparing this measurement with those at lower center-of-mass energies, we find no evidence that bar nb-bar nuds depends on energy. This result is in agreement with a precise prediction of perturbative QCD, and supports the notion that QCD remains asymptotically free down to the scale Mb2

  12. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    OpenAIRE

    Bero Lisa A; Montini Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists wh...

  13. First Observation of the Cabibbo Suppressed Decay B+→ bar D0K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed the decay B+→ bar D0 K+ , using 3.3x106 B bar B pairs collected with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. We find the ratio of branching fractions R≡B(B+→ bar D0K+)/B(B+→ bar D0π+)=0.055±0.014±0.005 . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. A Study on a Bell Type Stabilizer Bar of a Small Coaxial Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Tokutake, Hiroshi

    The motion of a stabilizer bar of the small coaxial helicopter was analyzed in the previous study. It has been made clear by the measurements on the motion of the stabilizer bar that the following two revisions are required in the analysis. (1) The motion of stabilizer bar is affected by the upper rotor. (2) Neither of the terms in the moment acting on the stabilizer bar at its hinge, kββ+kββ, can be ignored.

  15. Regular motions in double bars. I. Double-frequency orbits and loops

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejewski, Witold; Athanassoula, E.

    2007-01-01

    Bars in galaxies are mainly supported by particles trapped around stable periodic orbits. These orbits represent oscillatory motion with only one frequency, which is the bar driving frequency, and miss free oscillations. We show that a similar situation takes place in double bars: particles get trapped around parent orbits, which in this case represent oscillatory motion with two frequencies of driving by the two bars, and which also lack free oscillations. Thus the parent orbits, which const...

  16. Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar system – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiwen Xia; Wei Yao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) systems. Significant progress has been made on the q...

  17. The recoil correction and spin-orbit force for the possible $B^* \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D^* \\bar{D}^{*}$ states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Lu; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the one-boson exchange model, we have calculated the effective potentials between two heavy mesons $B^* \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D^* \\bar{D}^{*}$ from the t- and u-channel $\\pi$-, $\\eta$-, $\\rho$-, $\\omega$- and $\\sigma$-meson exchanges. We keep the recoil corrections to the $B^* \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D^* \\bar{D}^{*}$ systems up to $O(\\frac{1}{M^2})$, which turns out to be important for the very loosely bound molecular states. Our numerical results show that the momentum-related corrections are favorable to the formation of the molecular states in the $I^G=1^+$, $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ in the $B^* \\bar{B}^{*}$ and $D^* \\bar{D}^{*}$ systems.

  18. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  19. Optimization of production conditions and material characteristics of tubular stabilizer bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, R.

    1983-08-01

    Weight reduction of car tubular stabilizer bars is studied. Optimization of prematerial, forming and tempering procedures, and surface treatment are discussed. Steel qualities and production conditions were examined for feasibility with sample stabilizer bars. It is concluded that tubular stabilizer bars can be manufactured and practically used in cars. Tube diameters must not be too small, otherwise the weight saving is minimal.

  20. 75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Steel Bar from India, 59 FR 66915 (December 28, 1994). These cash deposit requirements, when imposed... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (``SSB'')...

  1. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, 59 FR 66914 (December 28, 1994). These deposit... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil....

  2. 78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 59 FR 66915, 66921 (December 28... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The period of review (POR)...

  3. 75 FR 12199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...'') from India. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661... Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 72 FR 51595... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 59 FR 66915 (December 28,...

  4. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer. PMID:24934069

  5. 77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 59 FR 66915 (December 28, 1994). These cash deposit requirements, when... bar means articles of stainless steel in straight lengths that have been either hot-rolled, forged... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping...

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Municipal Smokefree Ordinances: Attitudes of Restaurant and Bar Owners and Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Scott P.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the attitudes of restaurant and bar owners and managers toward a smokefree city ordinance can contribute greatly to the success of a smokefree policy campaign. While local opposition to a smokefree policy always arises from restaurant and bar owners, this study of restaurant and bar owners and managers in two Midwestern cities…

  7. SLIDEPLOT: Stata module for sliding bar plot for frequencies or percents

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas J. Cox

    2003-01-01

    slideplot produces a sliding bar plot showing frequencies (or optionally percents) of categories using data from one or more variables. The plot is most helpful if these categories can be ordered naturally, at least approximately. The bar plot may be vertical or horizontal. Each bar is stacked and each straddles zero. The frequencies or percents shown are plotted as positive or negative.

  8. Energy dependence of $e^+e^- \\to 6\\pi$ and $e^+e^- \\to N\\bar{N}$ cross sections near the $N\\bar{N}$ threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Obrazovsky, A. E.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    Using recent BABAR, CMD-3 and SND data, the sum of $e^+e^- \\to 3(\\pi^+\\pi^-), 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0), p\\bar{p}, n\\bar{n}$ cross sections is obtained. Unlike $e^+e^- \\to 3(\\pi^+\\pi^-)$ and $e^+e^- \\to 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0)$ processes, no structures in total cross section are found near the $N\\bar{N}$ threshold within the limits of measurement errors.

  9. Connecting Global to Local Parameters in Barred Galaxy Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. D. Caranicolas

    2002-09-01

    We present connections between global and local parameters in a realistic dynamical model, describing motion in a barred galaxy. Expanding the global model in the vicinity of a stable Lagrange point, we find the potential of a two-dimensional perturbed harmonic oscillator, which describes local motion near the centre of the global model. The frequencies of oscillations and the coefficients of the perturbing terms are not arbitrary but are connected to the mass, the angular rotation velocity, the scale length and the strength of the galactic bar. The local energy is also connected to the global energy. A comparison of the properties of orbits in the global and local potential is also made.

  10. OPG operational experience with stator conductor bars fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three years, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Pickering Nuclear has experienced fouling of the stator conductor bar cooling water channels on two units. To address the associated stator bar temperature rises, chemical cleaning was undertaken three times on one unit and once on the other. These events were the subject of two formal investigations and a single rigorous chemistry assessment. The investigations were conducted using a formalized root-cause protocol. The assessment involved a system chemistry review over a 10-year period and a critical evaluation of dissolved oxygen control. This paper describes: - the internal investigations undertaken by OPG to better understand and resolve the problem, - OPG's cleaning strategy and different cleaning options performed on affected units, - the remedial actions undertaken by OPG, and - The interim actions following the final post-cleaning inspections. (orig.)

  11. The Measurements of J/psi --> p \\bar{p}

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, J Z

    2004-01-01

    The process J/psi --> p \\bar{p} is studied using 57.7 X 10^6 J/psi events collected with the BESII detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider(BEPC). The branching ratio is determined to be Br(J/psi --> p \\bar{p})=(2.26 \\pm 0.01 \\pm 0.14) X 10^{-3}, and the angular distribution is well described by \\frac{dN}{d cos\\theta_p} = 1+ \\alpha cos\\theta_p with \\alpha=0.676 \\pm 0.036 \\pm 0.042, where \\theta_p is the angle between proton and beam direction. The obtained \\alpha value is in good agreement with predictions of first-order QCD.

  12. Monitoring the BaBar Data Acquisition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The BaBar data acquisition system(DAQ)transports data from the detector front end eletronics to short term disk storage.A monitoring application(VMON)has been developed to monitor the one hundred and ninety computers in the dataflow system.Performance information for each CPU is collected and multicast across the existing data transport network.The packets are currently collected by a single UNIX workstation and archived.A ROOT based GUI provides control and displays the DAQ performance in real time.The same GUI is reused to recover archived VMON data,VMON has been deployed and constantly monitors the BaBar dataflow system.It has been used for diagnostics and provides input to models projecting future performance.The application has no measurable impact on data taking ,responds instantaneously on the human timescale to requests for information display,and uses only 3% of a 300MHz Sun Ultra5 CPU.

  13. Use of hafnium in control bars of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the use of hafnium as neutron absorber material in nuclear reactors has been reason of investigation by virtue of that this material has nuclear properties as to the neutrons absorption and structural that can prolong the useful life of the control mechanisms of the nuclear reactors. In this work some of those more significant hafnium properties are presented like nuclear material. Also there are presented calculations carried out with the HELIOS code for fuel cells of uranium oxide and of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides under controlled conditions with conventional bars of boron carbide and also with similar bars to which are substituted the absorbent material by metallic hafnium, the results are presented in this work. (Author)

  14. Time-dependent Corotation Resonance in Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Taam, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    The effective potential neighboring the corotation resonance region in barred galaxies is shown to be strongly time-dependent in any rotating frame because of the competition of nearby perturbations of similar strengths with differing rotation speeds. Contrary to the generally adopted assumption, that in the bar rotating frame the corotation region should possess four stationary equilibrium points (Lagrange points), with high quality N-body simulations we localize the instantaneous equilibrium points and find that they circulate or oscillate broadly in azimuth with respect to the pattern speeds of the inner or outer perturbations. This implies that at the particle level the Jacobi integral is not well conserved around the corotation radius. That is, angular momentum exchanges decouple from energy exchanges, enhancing the chaotic diffusion of stars through the corotation region.

  15. Comprehensive experimental study of scrap steel reinforcement bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test results of comprehensive experimental investigations carried out in terms of tensile properties, merit no., Brinell Hardness, impact strength, ability to bend and rebend, torsional strength, chemical composition, microstructure. Also, a theoretical study based on statistical/reliability analysis and Finite Element simulation are presented for a very large number of steel bar samples manufactured from various types of steel scrap purchased from different cities of Pakistan and produced by a substantial number of manufacturers. This experimental study is mainly aimed at determining the suitability of these steel bars as reinforcement for R.C.C. construction, particularly due to complaints of users regarding sub-standard quality and reluctance of manufacturers to follow the prescriptions of PSI for standardization under Certification and Marks Ordinance, 1961. The results showed a wide variation of almost all the properties implying that they would not be suitable for important projects or the situations where dynamic forces such as those due to earthquake etc. are expected. (author)

  16. The BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Status and Performance Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Group, for the BaBar Collaboration EMC

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter at the BaBar detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with high resolution. The current status of the calorimeter, now in its seventh year of operation, is being presented, as well as details on improvements made to the analysis code during the last years.

  17. GFRP Bar: Determining Tensile Strength with Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Almerich Chulia, Ana Isabel; Fenollosa Forner, Ernesto Jesús; Cabrera Fausto, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain GFRP reinforcement bars it is necessary to undertake tests regulated code which require important mechanical tools. This paper presents a method which allows for determining GFRP rebars tensile strength value from their flexural strength value which has been obtained with a simple, inexpensive and reliable test. This method results will be verified by applying it to values obtained in a series of bending tests and comparing these results with values obtained in tensile test...

  18. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P; Gaillard, JM; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, JP; Poireau, V.; X. Prudent; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.

    2013-01-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e +e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. HERSCHEL SEARCH FOR O2 TOWARD THE ORION BAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a search for molecular oxygen (O2) toward the Orion Bar, a prominent photodissociation region at the southern edge of the H II region created by the luminous Trapezium stars. We observed the spectral region around the frequency of the O2 NJ = 33-12 transition at 487 GHz and the 54-34 transition at 774 GHz using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory. Neither line was detected, but the 3σ upper limits established here translate to a total line-of-sight O2 column density 16 cm–2 for an emitting region whose temperature is between 30 K and 250 K, or 16 cm–2 if the O2 emitting region is primarily at a temperature of ∼2 column density is less than 4 × 1015 cm–2, a value that is below, and possibly well below, model predictions for gas with a density of 104-105 cm–3 exposed to a far-ultraviolet flux 104 times the local value, conditions inferred from previous observations of the Orion Bar. The discrepancy might be resolved if (1) the adsorption energy of O atoms to ice is greater than 800 K; (2) the total face-on AV of the Bar is less than required for O2 to reach peak abundance; (3) the O2 emission arises within dense clumps with a small beam filling factor; or (4) the face-on depth into the Bar where O2 reaches its peak abundance, which is density dependent, corresponds to a sky position different from that sampled by our Herschel beams.

  20. Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for eva...

  1. Durability of GFRP reinforcing bars and their bond in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ROLLAND, Arnaud; Chataigner, Sylvain; QUIERTANT, Marc; Benzarti, Karim; Argoul, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite reinforcing bars (rebars) for the reinforcement of concrete appears as an attractive solution to prevent corrosion, which is the main pathology encountered on concrete structures. Although such rebars are being used for more than ten years, there is a clear lack of knowledge regarding their durability, especially under alkaline environment. This paper aims at investigating the evolutions of tensile properties and bond in concrete of GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer...

  2. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Special tensor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kronecker tensor field, the contraction tensor field, as well as the multi-Kronecker and multi-contraction tensor fields are determined and the action of the covariant differential operator, the Lie differential operator, the curvature operator, and the deviation operator on these tensor fields is established. The commutation relations between the operators Sym and Asym and the covariant and Lie differential operators are considered acting on symmetric and antisymmetric tensor fields over (Ln bar, g)-spaces

  3. Quark nuggets search using gravitational waves aluminum bar detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronga, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Up to now there is no evidence of supersymmetric WIMPS dark matter. This may suggests to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets. Nuclearites are an example of compact objects that could be constituent of the dark matter. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER is reported.

  4. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

  5. Particle identification using the DIRC in BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar DIRC runs extremely well at design luminosities, providing excellent PID in both ring and veto modes. Machine backgrounds expected as PEP-II goes to much higher luminosities (1034 cm2·s-1 or more) in the next 5 years will require faster data acquisition electronics and further shielding of the SOB from low energy machine produced gamma rays

  6. Heavy ${\\bar Q}Q$ free energy from hadronic states

    OpenAIRE

    Megias, E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Salcedo, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Within the spirit of the Hadron Resonance Gas model, we study a representation of the heavy $\\\\bar{Q}Q$ free energy at temperatures below the phase transition in terms of the string and heavy-light hadrons. We discuss the string breaking phenomenon and the relevance of avoided crossings between the fundamental string and the hadron spectrum. Good agreement with lattice data is achieved.

  7. Modelling split-Hopkinson pressure bar tests on quartz sand

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, A.; Clarke, S. D.; Petkovski, M.; Rigby, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    FE modelling of a confined split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test on dry quartz sand was carried out using LS-DYNA in order to assess whether Material Model 5 could replicate experimental results, which would enable a more detailed investigation of the stress state in SHPB specimen. Quasi-static test data was used to select the material model input, and the model SHPB was set up to replicate the experimental conditions. The results show that Material Model 5 replicates the volum...

  8. The Physiological Stimulus for the BarA Sensor Kinase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Chavez, Ricardo; Alvarez, Adrian F.; Romeo, Tony; Georgellis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The two-component signal transduction system (TCS) BarA/UvrY activates transcription of CsrB and CsrC noncoding RNAs, which act by sequestering the RNA-binding global regulatory protein CsrA. Here, we show that the metabolic end products formate and acetate provide a physiological stimulus for this TCS and thus link posttranscriptional regulation by the Csr system to the metabolic state of the cell.

  9. How Bar-Headed Geese Fly Over the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Frappell, Peter B.; Butler, Patrick J.; Bishop, Charles M.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade.

  10. K\\bar{K}-Continuum and Isoscalar Nucleon Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H. -W.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse the isoscalar vector current form factors of the nucleon using dispersion relations. In addition to the usual vector meson poles, we account for the K\\bar{K}-continuum contribution by drawing upon a recent analytic continuation of KN scattering amplitudes. For the Pauli form factor all strength in the \\phi region is already given by the continuum contribution, whereas for the Dirac form factor additional strength in the \\phi region is required. The pertinent implications for the le...

  11. Vibro-Impact Response of a Cracked Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant R. Hiwarkar; Vladimir I. Babitsky; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a crack in a structure affects its dynamic behaviour under working conditions. Cracks introduce nonlinearities into the system; the use of such nonlinearities for damage detection should be investigated. A model of a one-dimensional cracked cantilever bar subjected to longitudinal harmonic excitation is used to analyse a vibro-impact response as a way to monitor structural health. The effect of contact nonlinearity due to crack's faces interaction is considered. This nonlinear...

  12. Marketingová komunikace hotelu Buddha Bar Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Oberreiterová, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to define the term of marketing mix and followingly in its frame of communication to determine specifically the marketing communication. The part of this thesis is the application of the theory on the practical example of Buddha-Bar Hotel Prague. The benefits of this thesis will be the suggestions how to improve the communication and make it more intensive with other subjets, clients and media.

  13. Intelligent cutting-off of pipes and bars

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Mendes, José A.; Fonseca, Jaime C.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, automatic cutting-off machines, of metallic pipes or bars, use a constant cutting velocity mode. This mode of operation, constant cutting velocity combined with different profiles of materials to be cut, exposes the cutting saw to variable cutting forces. Therefore, the cutting off machine is usually set for the worst expected conditions, otherwise excessive wear of the saw and machine will occur. Further, traditional cutting-off machines require the adjust...

  14. Graph connectivity and universal rigidity of bar frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Alfakih, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Let $G$ be a graph on $n$ nodes. In this note, we prove that if $G$ is $(r+1)$-vertex connected, $1 \\leq r \\leq n-2$, then there exists a configuration $p$ in general position in $R^r$ such that the bar framework $(G,p)$ is universally rigid. The proof is constructive and is based on a theorem by Lovasz et al concerning orthogonal representations and connectivity of graphs [12,13].

  15. Persistent Currents and Dissipation in Narrow Bilayer Quantum Hall Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakidis, Jordan; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2000-01-01

    Bilayer quantum Hall states support a flow of nearly dissipationless staggered current which can only decay through collective channels. We study the dominant finite-temperature dissipation mechanism which in narrow bars is driven by thermal nucleation of pseudospin solitons. We find the finite-temperature resistivity, predict the resulting staggered current-voltage characteristics, and calculate the associated zero-temperature critical staggered current and gate voltage.

  16. Fracture toughness evaluation of circumferentially-cracked round bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measure of the fracture toughness of a circumferentially-cracked round bar is generally performed through approximate formulae. Comparison of existing formulae to finite element results does not always show good agreement. Therefore an eta factor is introduced in order to improve the existing analytical formula. The axisymmetrical geometry is generally considered to be a high constrained geometry. Finite element calculations are performed to verify and quantify the constraint relative to the three point bending configuration (precracked Charpy)

  17. Electroweak Penguin and Leptonic Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, F.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-08-26

    Recent BABAR results on electroweak penguin and leptonic decays are reviewed. In particular, the measurements of B {yields} K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and the preliminary results on B {yields} X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} are presented. Also summarized are the preliminary limits on B{sup +} {yields} l{sup +}{nu} (l = e,{mu}) and B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  18. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, V; Tieguhong, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and sav...

  19. Progress in precision laser spectroscopy of p-bar-He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass of the antiproton (the antiproton-electron mass ratio mp-bar/me) can be deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of antiprotonic helium, compared to 3-body QED calculations. The most precise spectroscopy measurements have so far been limited by Doppler-broadening at finite temperatures. The status of our ongoing precision measurements is presented, within the framework of the Asacusa experiment at CERN.

  20. TITAN - a 9 MW, 179 bar pressurised water rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the TITAN rig built at Winfrith for thermal hydraulic experiments with water at up to 179 bar pressure. A power supply of 9 MW is available. The report describes three typical experiments that show the versatility of the rig. The first is a 25 rod pressurized water reactor fuel bundle critical heat flux experiment, the second is a parallel channel evaporator test and the third is a model jet pump test. (author)

  1. Study of eta K(K)over-bar and eta ' K(K)over-bar with the fixed center approximation to Faddeev equations

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, W.H.; Xiao, Chu Wen; Oset Báguena, Eulogio

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the three-body systems of eta K (K) over bar and eta'K (K) over bar, by taking the fixed center approximation to Faddeev equations. We find a clear and stable resonance structure around 1490 MeV in the squared eta K (K) over bar scattering amplitude, which is not sensitive to the renormalization parameters. Conversely, we get only an enhancement effect of the threshold in the eta'K (K) over bar amplitude that indicates the difficulty to bind the eta'K (K) ov...

  2. Nearshore bar migration and sediment-induced buoyancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Silvia; Conley, Daniel C.; Brocchini, Maurizio; Elgar, Steve

    2010-02-01

    A 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model that includes the effects of sediment-induced stratification is shown to simulate the observed onshore and offshore migration of a nearshore sandbar. The only two free parameters of the model, the bed reference concentration and the sediment diffusivity, are taken from the literature, rather than tuned to the data used here. The model results suggest that predictions of onshore bar migration, in which wave-induced sediment transport confined to within a few centimeters of the bottom dominates, are not greatly affected by accounting for buoyancy effects. The model results also suggest that both mean flows and waves transport sediment during offshore bar migration, with different components of transport dominating at different cross-shore locations across the bar-trough bathymetry. Neglecting the effects of sediment-induced stratification results in higher model skill during the largest waves, likely because the excess turbulence production simulated by the non-stratified model is counterbalanced by neglected breaking-wave-generated turbulence. Considering both onshore and offshore migration, the model that includes sediment-induced stratification has higher skill than the model without stratification.

  3. Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Woong-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x1-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an 'L' shape and eventually leading ...

  4. Bar-code technology applied to drug-use evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowitz, B J; Petitta, A; Mlynarek, M; Touchette, M; Peters, M; Long, P; Patel, R

    1993-05-01

    Bar-code technology was used to determine: (1) patterns in histamine H2-receptor antagonist use and (2) the occurrence of adverse drug effects and drug interactions associated with the use of these agents in critically ill patients. Patients at Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit) receiving histamine H2-receptor antagonists over a two-month period were evaluated. Clinical information was collected in the intensive care units by using a bar-code system. The data-capture menu was based on drug-use-evaluation criteria for H2-receptor antagonists. Data collected in the scanning wands were uploaded into a computer database and were analyzed at the end of the study. Data were collected for 207 patients. Cimetidine was the predominant H2-receptor antagonist used, and the predominant indication was stress-ulcer prophylaxis. Dosing trends followed accepted guidelines for cimetidine dosage adjustment in renal and hepatic failure. Two drug interactions and six adverse drug reactions occurred. Pharmacists made 92 recommendations to the medical staff regarding modification in therapy, involving 32% of the patients. Data collection required an average of 10 minutes per day each for three pharmacists. H2-receptor antagonist use patterns were evaluated in intensive care units through the application of bar-code technology. The speed and efficiency of this automated tool facilitated collection of a large amount of data. PMID:8099468

  5. MOEM scan engine for bar code reading and factory automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Park, Sangtae; Melendes, Robert; Wang, A.; Andrews, Angus P.; Garcia-Nunez, Dawn S.; Jinar, Dan; Richardson, Patti D.; Studer, J.; Chen, J. K.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.; Moranski, Jeffrey A.

    1998-03-01

    Rockwell is in the state of technology transfer to manufacturing of a micro-opto-electro-mechanical scan engine with superior scanning performance for bar code reading and factory automation. The scan engine consists of three main components: actuator, mirrors, and control electronics. The first two components are fabricated on a silicon cantilever beam while the control electronics are presently hybrid. The actuator comprises of a bimorph layer covered with two metal layers. The mirror has a large area (several mm2) and it is micromachined with a surface flatness better than (lambda) /2. Actuator scan-angles greater than 22 degree(s) with high repeatability in performance are achieved. The scan engine was integrated with an existing Rockwell commercial bar code reader/decoder and successfully proven to read a two-character code 39 bar code. The system was capable of decoding the 13-mil label at 360 scans per second with a 100% successful read performance. Environmental testing of the device indicates that the scanner can operate at elevated temperatures up to 70 degree(s)C with minor fluctuations in frequency and scan angle. The scanner has also gone through a lifetime cycle test and it has survived more than 8 billion cycles during a period of 18 months. To increase the yield and the performance level of the device, theoretical study as well as dynamic simulation by finite elements modeling have been investigated and will be reported separately.

  6. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhi; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pattern speed is too high or the bulge central density is too low. We also study the periodic orbits in our galaxy models, and find that the concept of inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) may be generalized by the extent of $x_2$ orbits. All roundish nuclear rings in our simulations settle in the range of $x_2$ orbits (or ILRs). However, knowing the resonances is insufficient to pin down the exact location of these nuclear rings. We suggest that the backbone of round nuclear rings is the $x_2$ orbital family, i.e. round nuclear r...

  7. Curvature and Residual Stress Analysis in Rotational Leveling of Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-qin WANG; Zhi-fang LIU; Hen-gan OU; Yuan-xin LUO; Xing-chun YAN

    2016-01-01

    Leveling process plays an important role in delivering the desired material properties and product stand-ards.An analytical method for the rotational leveling process of bars was presented.First,each cross section of the bar in the leveling area was discretized with the roller gap-curvature relations established in both planes XY and XZ. Second,a numerical procedure with two steps was developed to simulate both pressing and leveling processes.This approach can be easily implemented to produce simulation results of the curvature and traj ectory distributions during the leveling process,as well as the bending and residual stresses.It is found that curvature and traj ectory distribu-tions follow a sine-shape due to the characteristic of rotational movement,which also results in a helical pattern of residual stress after leveling.Based on the results obtained,it is also observed that the rotational movement is benefi-cial for adding the number of bending cycle.This is the reason why there are only a few pairs of rollers on the bar leveler.

  8. Cold dust in giant barred galaxy NGC1365

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S; Combes, F; Henkel, C; Menten, K M; Beck, R; Kovács, A; Guesten, R

    2013-01-01

    Observations of galaxies at sub-millimeter wavelengths, where the emission is mainly due to cold dust, are required to constrain the dust physical properties and provide important insight on the gas content of galaxies. We mapped NGC1365 at 870um with LABOCA, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera, allowing us to probe the central mass concentration as well as the rate at which the gas flows to the center. We obtained the dust physical properties both globally and locally for different locations in the galaxy. A 20 K modified black body represents about 98% of the total dust content of the galaxy, the rest can be represented by a warmer dust component of 40 K. The bar exhibits an east-west asymmetry in the dust distribution: The eastern bar is heavier than the western bar by more than a factor of 4. Integrating the dust SED, we derive a total infrared (IR) luminosity of 9.8 x 10^{10} L_{\\odot} leading to a dust-enshrouded star formation rate of ~16.7 M_{\\odot} per year in NGC1365. We derive the gas mass from the mea...

  9. Construction and calibration of a bar weighing lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cinque Mariano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally, standard lysimeters include a lever-load cell scale, which has become expensive compared to new electronic equipment available for experimental purposes. Currently, lysimeters containing weighing bars with up to 4 load cells are economically feasible. This goal of this study was to present the construction and calibration of four weighing lysimeters built using two rectangular tanks, with a surface area of 1.35 m2 (1 m by 1.35 m and a depth of 1.5 m, loaded on two weighing bars. Each bar had two high accuracy loading cells connected to a junction box and a datalogger by a coaxial cable. Calibration of each lysimeter was performed after field installation. The results showed a linear response (R2 > 0.9999 of electric signal (mV to mass increase or decrease (kg with minimum hysteresis. The mean absolute error of the mass estimate (0.0245 to 0.2844 equivalent-mm and a Willmott index between the observed and estimated data (d = 1.0000 indicate the high precision of the new equipment. The results allow concluding that the lysimeters in this study are appropriate for estimating evapotranspiration and other components of soil water balance.

  10. Membrane shape instabilities induced by BAR domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    Membrane curvature has developed into a forefront of membrane biophysics. Numerous proteins involved in membrane curvature sensing and membrane curvature generation have recently been discovered, including proteins containing the crescent-shaped BAR domain as membrane binding and shaping module. Accordingly, the structure determination of these proteins and their multimeric complexes is increasingly well-understood. Substantially less understood, however, are thermodynamic and kinetic aspects and the detailed mechanisms of how these proteins interact with membranes in a curvature-dependent manner. New experimental approaches need to be combined with established techniques to be able to fill in these missing details. Here we use model membrane systems in combination with a variety of biophysical techniques to characterize mechanistic aspects of BAR domain protein function. This includes a characterization of membrane curvature sensing and membrane generation. We also establish kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of BAR protein dimerization in solution, and investigate kinetic aspects of membrane binding. We present two new approaches to investigate membrane shape instabilities and demonstrate that membrane shape instabilities can be controlled by protein binding and lateral membrane tension. This work is supported through NIH grant GM-097552 and NSF grant CBET-1053857.

  11. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Primas, F; Cole, A A

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the chemical evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to that of the Milky Way (MW) and investigates the relation between the bar and the inner disc of the LMC in the context of the formation of the bar. We obtained high-resolution and mid signal-to-noise ratio spectra with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT and performed a detailed chemical analysis of 106 and 58 LMC field red giant stars (mostly older than 1 Gyr), located in the bar and the disc of the LMC respectively. We measured elemental abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu. We find that the {\\alpha}-element ratios [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] are lower in the LMC than in the MW while the LMC has similar [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] to the MW. As for the heavy elements, [Ba,La/Eu] exhibit a strong increase with increasing metallicity starting from [Fe/H]=-0.8 dex, and the LMC has lower [Y+Zr/Ba+La] ratios than the MW. Cu is almost constant over all metallicities and about 0.5 dex lower in the LMC than ...

  12. The BaBar Software Architecture and Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment has in place since 1995 a software release system (SRT Software Release Tools) based on CVS (Concurrent Version System) which is in common for all the software developed for the experiment, online or offline, simulation or reconstruction. A software release is a snapshot of all BaBar code (online, offline, utilities, scripts, makefiles, etc.). This set of code is tested to work together, and is indexed by a release number (e.g., 6.8.2) so a user can refer to a particular release and get reproducible results. A release will involve particular versions of packages. A package generally consists of a set of code for a particular task, together with a GNU makefile, scripts and documentation. All BaBar software is maintained in AFS (Andrew File System) directories, so the code is accessible worldwide within the Collaboration. The combination SRT, CVS, AFS, has demonstrated to be a valid, powerful and efficient way of organizing the software infrastructure of a modern HEP experiment with collaborating Institutes distributed worldwide, both in a development and production phase

  13. Practical and Reliable Error Bars in Quantum Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2016-07-01

    Precise characterization of quantum devices is usually achieved with quantum tomography. However, most methods which are currently widely used in experiments, such as maximum likelihood estimation, lack a well-justified error analysis. Promising recent methods based on confidence regions are difficult to apply in practice or yield error bars which are unnecessarily large. Here, we propose a practical yet robust method for obtaining error bars. We do so by introducing a novel representation of the output of the tomography procedure, the quantum error bars. This representation is (i) concise, being given in terms of few parameters, (ii) intuitive, providing a fair idea of the "spread" of the error, and (iii) useful, containing the necessary information for constructing confidence regions. The statements resulting from our method are formulated in terms of a figure of merit, such as the fidelity to a reference state. We present an algorithm for computing this representation and provide ready-to-use software. Our procedure is applied to actual experimental data obtained from two superconducting qubits in an entangled state, demonstrating the applicability of our method.

  14. Structure and kinematics of candidate double-barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, A V; Chavushyan, V H

    2003-01-01

    Results of optical and NIR spectral and photometric observations of a sample of candidate double-barred galaxies are presented. Velocity fields and velocity dispersion maps of stars and ionized gas, continuum and emission-line images were constructed from integral-field spectroscopy observations carried out at the 6m telescope (BTA) of SAO RAS, with the MPFS spectrograph and the scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer. NGC2681 was also observed with long-slit spectrograph of the BTA. Optical and NIR images were obtained at the BTA and at the 2.1m telescope (OAN, M\\'exico). High-resolution images were retrieved from the HST data archive. Morphological and kinematic features of all 13 sample objects are described in detail. Attention is focused on the interpretation of observed non-circular motions of gas and stars in circumnuclear (one kiloparsec- scale) regions. We have shown first of all that these motions are caused by a gravitational potential of large-scale bar. NGC3368 and NGC3786 have nuclear bars only, the...

  15. Study of the decay B0bar -> D*+ omega pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Re, D; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We report on a study of the decay B0bar -> D*+ omega pi- with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Based on a sample of 232 million BBbar decays, we measure the branching fraction BF(B0bar -> D*+ omega pi-) = (2.88 +/- 0.21(stat.) +/- 0.31(syst.)) \\times 10^{-3}. We study the invariant mass spectrum of the omega pi- system in this decay. This spectrum is in good agreement with expectations based on factorization and the measured spectrum in tau- -> omega pi- nu_tau. We also measure the polarization of the D*+ as a function of the omega pi- mass. In the mass region 1.1 to 1.9 GeV we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization of the D*+ to be Gamma_L/Gamma = 0.654 +/- 0.042(stat.) +/- 0.016(syst.). This is in agreement with the expectations from heavy-quark effective theory and factorization assuming that the decay proceeds as B0bar -> D*+ rho(1450), rho(1450) -> omega pi-.

  16. Measurement of the Branching Fractions of the Decays \\bar{B}^0 to Lambda_c^+ \\bar{p} and B^- to Lambda_c^+ \\bar{p} pi^-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC,

    2006-12-06

    The authors present studies of two-body and three-body charmed baryonic B decays in a sample of 232 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. The branching fractions of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p} and B{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {bar p}{pi}{sup -} are measured to be (2.15 {+-} 0.36 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.56) x 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.31 {+-} 0.92) x 10{sup -4}, respectively. The uncertainties quoted are statistical, systematic, and from the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +} branching fraction. They observe a baryon-antibaryon threshold enhancement in the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p} invariant mass spectrum of the three-body mode and measure the ratio of the branching fractions to be {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p}) = 16.4 {+-} 2.9 {+-} 1.4. These results are preliminary.

  17. Dependence of Junction Voltage Saturation on Uniformity and Quality of Laser Diode Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qing-Cheng; SHI Jia-Wei; GUO Shu-Xu; LIU Kui-Xue; CAO Jun-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the sinkage at the threshold of the electric derivative curve(IdV/dI-I)on the uniformity and the quality of the laser diode bar is analyzed.By using the equations derived from the equivalent circuits of the bars,the influence of the bar uniformity on the depth of the dip is investigated in theory under certain conditions.Furthermore,the experimental results based on the presented technique indicate that the depth of the dip is interrelated to the uniformity and the quality of the corresponding bar.The present technique can be used conveniently and effectively to measure the laser diode bars in practice.

  18. Candida utilis metabolism and morphology under increased air pressure up to 12 bar

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Rita; Lopes, Marlene; Belo, Isabel; Mota, M.

    2014-01-01

    Batch cultures of C. utilis CBS 621 were carried out in a pressurized reactor under increased air pressure up to 6 bar. The effect of total air pressure was also investigated in a high cell density fed-batch culture, raising the total air pressure from 1 bar to 12 bar. The results showed that the rise of air pressure, for both operation modes, led to a substantial enhancement of biomass production. Moreover, ethanol formation was significantly reduced at 6 bar and 12 bar air pressure, respect...

  19. The $X(4140)$, $X(4270)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ and their $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark partners

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the simple color-magnetic interaction model, we investigate possible ground $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states in the diquark-antidiquark basis. We use several methods to estimate the mass spectrum and discuss possible assignment for the $X$ states observed in the $J/\\psi\\phi$ channel. We find that assigning the Belle $X(4350)$ as a $0^{++}$ tetraquark is consistent with the tetraquark interpretation for the $X(4140)$ and $X(4270)$ while the interpretation of the $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ needs orbital or radial excitation. There probably exist several tetraquarks around 4.3 GeV which decay into $J/\\psi\\phi$ or $\\eta_c\\phi$.

  20. Prospects for measuring K+ -> π+ ν νbar and KL0 -> π0 ν νbar at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare kaon decay experiments underway or planned for the BNL AGS will yield new and independent determinations of V*tsVtd. A measurement of B(KL0 rarrow π0 νbar ν) allows a determination of the imaginary part of this quantity, which is the fundamental CP-violating parameter of the Standard Model, in a uniquely clean manner. Since the measurement of B(K+ rarrow π+ νbar ν) determines vertbarV*tsVtd, a complete derivation of the unitarity triangle is facilitated. These results can be compared to high precision data expected to come from the B sector in a number of ways, allowing for unique tests of new physics

  1. 25 tooli : Euroopa Nõukogu kohvik "Bar Europe" = 25 Chairs : Council of Europe Cafe "Bar Europe" / Maria Orlova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orlova, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu - Justus Lipsius - hoonest Brüsselis. Kohviku "Bar Europe" kujundusest, mille tegi Hollandi büroo Droog Design. Kohviku interjöör põhineb Hollandi 17. sajandi kultuuripärandi interpreteerimisel. Lisaks tavalistele toolidele on ruumi toodud 25 tooli 25 EL-i liikmesriigist. Eestit esindava tooli "John" autoriks on Toivo Raidmets. 5 värv. sisevaadet

  2. Observation of eta(c) decay into Sigma(+)(Sigma)over-bar(-) and (sic)(-)over bar>(+) final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, M.L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Coccetti, F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J.P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A.Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.S.; Huang, X.T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J.S.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y.T.; Liao, G.R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, Cheng; Liu, C.X.; Liu, C.Y.; Liu, F.H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X.L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C.L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J.W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J.F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y.J.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Sun, Z.T.; Tang, C.J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B.Q.; Wang, D.; Wang, D.Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J.B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L.H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S.X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q.J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. Z.; Zhao, S.J.; Zhao, T.C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, Z.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X.R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.H.; Zhu, Stuart; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.M.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a data sample of 2.25 x 10(8) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of eta(c) mesons to Sigma(+)(Sigma) over bar (-) and (sic)(-)(+) .The branching fractions are measured to be (2.11 +/- 0.28(stat) +/- 0.18(syst) +/- 0.50(PDG)) x 10(-3)

  3. Angular distributions in $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\pi^{0}(\\eta)$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, V F; Salnikov, S G

    2016-01-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\pi^{0}$ and $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}\\eta$ close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold are calculated with the help of the $N\\bar{N}$ optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of $\\psi(2S)$. We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of $N\\bar{N}$ scattering together with $N\\bar{N}$ and six pion production in $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold. The $p\\bar{p}$ invariant mass spectra is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the $N\\bar{N}$ interaction, is predicted close to the $p\\bar{p}$ threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of $N\\bar{N}$ interaction.

  4. Thermodynamics of amalgam cells {M-amalgam vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (M=Sr, Ba) and primary medium effects in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the amalgam cell {MxHg1-x vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (with M=Sr, Ba) the potential difference E has been measured as a function of the mole fraction xM of the metal M in amalgams and of the molality m of MCl2 in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures Z={A+W} with mass fractions of alcohol wA=+/- as functions of the MCl2 molality. The Em-bar dependence on the alcohol mole fraction in the solvent mixture within the ranges explored turns out to be linear for both of these two metals M in the amalgams studied. Of course, also the molal-scale standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔGW->Z-bar )m=2F(WEm-bar-ZEm-bar), which constitutes the 'primary medium effect' upon transferring MCl2 from pure water to the (alcohol+water) mixture, is linear in xA. In the same context, following Feakins and French's treatment, which implies volume fraction statistics, the relevant primary medium effects upon MCl2 on the mol.dm-3 scale have been analysed in terms of the expected linear relation of (ΔGW->Z-bar)c=2F(WEc-bar -ZEc-bar) against the logarithm of water volume fraction, leading to primary hydration numbers for SrCl2 and BaCl2, respectively, in acceptable agreement with Bockris' data based on different methods

  5. Evidence for B+ \\to Jpsi p Lambda-bar and Search for B0 --> Jpsi p p-bar

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dorsten, M P; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Back, J J; Bellodi, G; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graugès-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Ernst, J A; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a search for the decays $B^+\\to J/\\psi p \\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $B^0\\to J/psi p \\bar{p}$ in a data set of $(88.9 \\pm 1.0)\\times 10^6$ $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays collected by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II $\\e^+e^-$ storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Four charged $B$ candidates have been observed with an expected background of $0.21\\pm 0.14$ events. The corresponding branching fraction is $12^{+9}_{-6}\\times 10^{-6}$, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined. The result can be interpreted as a 90% confidence level (CL) upper limit of $26 \\times 10^{-6}$. We also find one $B^0$ candidate, with an expected background of $0.64\\pm 0.17$ events, implying a 90% CL upper limit of $1.9 \\times 10^{-6}$.

  6. Measurements of the $B \\to D^*$ Form Factors Using the Decay $\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^{*+} e^- \\bar{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M

    2006-02-24

    We measure the dependence of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}e{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub e} on the decay angles and momentum transfer. The data sample consists of {approx} 86 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B}-pairs accumulated on the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider PEP-II. We specify the three form factors by two ratios R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}, and by a single parameter {rho}{sup 2} characterizing the polynomial representing h{sub A{sub 1}}, the function which describes the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factor A{sub 1}. We determine R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, and {rho}{sup 2} using an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the full decay distribution. The results are R{sub 1} = 1.396 {+-} 0.060 {+-} 0.035 {+-} 0.027, R{sub 2} = 0.885 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.022 {+-} 0.013, and {rho}{sup 2} = 1.145 {+-} 0.059 {+-} 0.030 {+-} 0.035. The stated uncertainties are the statistical from the data, statistical from the size of the Monte Carlo sample and the systematic uncertainty, respectively. In addition, based on this measurement, we give an updated value for the CKM matrix element |V{sub cb}|.

  7. Energy dependence of $\\bar{K}N$ interaction in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Cieply, A

    2011-01-01

    When the $\\bar{K}N$ system is submerged in nuclear medium the $\\bar{K}N$ scattering amplitude and the final state branching ratios exhibit a strong energy dependence when going to energies below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold. A sharp increase of $\\bar{K}N$ attraction below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold provides a link between shallow $\\bar{K}$-nuclear potentials based on the chiral $\\bar{K}N$ amplitude evaluated at threshold and the deep phenomenological optical potentials obtained in fits to kaonic atoms data. We show the energy dependence of the in-medium $K^{-}p$ amplitude and demonstrate the impact of energy dependent branching ratios on the $\\Lambda$-hypernuclear production rates. \\keywords{kaon-nucleon amplitude \\and nuclear medium \\and hypernuclei

  8. Measurements of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in Z sup 0 decays into ss-bar, cc-bar and bb-bar-preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, M G

    1999-01-01

    Measurements are reported of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in flavour-identified quark final states based on the full LEP1 statistics, corresponding to 3x10 sup 6 hadronic Z sup 0 decays collected by the DELPHI experiment from 1992 to 1995. Particle identification provided by the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters and the Time Projection Chamber is used to obtain clear D sup 0 , D sup + , D sub s sup + and LAMBDA sub c sup + signatures. A measurement of the charm multiplicity in bb-bar events is also presented. Identification of high-energy charged kaons is used to tag the s quark. Two methods for determination of the forward-backward asymmetry of the s quark are presented.

  9. On structures seen in the Ps(1s) + H(1s,2-bar p-bar) approximation to positron scattering by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently Gien reported substantial resonance structure in the S-wave cross sections for positron-hydrogen scattering calculated in the Ps(1s) + H(1s, ''2p-bar'') approximation. We show that these structures are unreal and are the result of a further approximation in which the ''2p-bar'' channel is not allowed to open. (author)

  10. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Study of $\\psi$ decays to the $\\Xi^{-}\\bar\\Xi^{+}$ and $\\Sigma(1385)^{\\mp}\\bar\\Sigma(1385)^{\\pm}$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    We study the decays of the charmonium resonances $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(3686)$ to the final states $\\Xi^{-}\\bar\\Xi^{+}$, $\\Sigma(1385)^{\\mp}\\bar\\Sigma(1385)^{\\pm}$ based on a single baryon tag method using data samples of $(223.7 \\pm 1.4) \\times 10^{6}$ $J/\\psi$ and $(106.4 \\pm 0.9) \\times 10^{6}$ $\\psi(3686)$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The decay $\\psi(3686)\\rightarrow\\Sigma(1385)^{\\mp}\\bar\\Sigma(1385)^{\\pm}$ is observed for the first time, and the measurements of the other processes, including the branching fractions and angular distributions, are in good agreement with and much more precise than the previously published results. Additionally, the ratios $\\frac{{\\cal{B}}(\\psi(3686)\\rightarrow\\Xi^{-}\\bar\\Xi^{+})}{{\\cal{B}}(J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\Xi^{-}\\bar\\Xi^{+})}$, $\\frac{{\\cal{B}}(\\psi(3686)\\rightarrow\\Sigma(1385)^{-}\\bar\\Sigma(1385)^{+})}{{\\cal{B}}(J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\Sigma(1385)^{-}\\bar\\Sigma(1385)^{+})}$ and $\\frac{{\\cal{B}}(\\psi(3686)\\rightarrow\\Sigma(1385)^{+}\\bar\\Sigma(138...

  12. Study of the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ in $e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai-Bo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data of BES, Belle and BABAR, the production of $D\\bar{D}$ in $e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}$ scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contribution in the energy region from 3.7 GeV to 4.0 GeV. In the maximum likelihood fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of $\\psi(3770)$, the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decay by confronting the data to theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decay is $97.2\\pm 8.9%$, as well as the branching ratio of $\\psi(4040)$, $\\psi(4160)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decays.

  13. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ channel in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s= 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Abhinav [Univ. of Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2011-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in 5.2 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at p √s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The final state considered is a pair of b jets with large missing transverse energy, as expected from p$\\bar{p}$→ ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ production. The search is also sensitive to the WH → ℓvb$\\bar{b}$ channel, where the charged lepton is not identified. Boosted decision trees are used to discriminate signal from background. Good agreement is observed between data and expected backgrounds, and, for a Higgs-boson mass of 115 GeV, a limit is set at 95% C.L. on the cross section multiplied by branching fraction of (p$\\bar{p}$ → (Z/W)H) × (H → b$\\bar{b}$) that is a factor 4.57 expected and 3.73 observed larger than the value expected from the standard model.

  14. C2H observations toward the Orion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Z.; Ossenkopf, V.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Faure, A.; Makai, Z.; Bergin, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The ethynyl radical (C2H) is one of the first radicals to be detected in the interstellar medium. Its higher rotational transitions have recently become available with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical parameters of the C2H emitting gas toward the Orion Bar. Methods: We analyze the C2H line intensities measured toward the Orion Bar CO+ Peak and Herschel/HIFI maps of C2H, CH, and HCO+ and a NANTEN map of [Ci]. We interpret the observed C2H emission using the combination of Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN data with radiative transfer and PDR models. Results: Five rotational transitions of C2H (from N = 6-5 up to N = 10-9) have been detected in the HIFI frequency range toward the CO+ peak of the Orion Bar. Based on the five detected C2H transitions, a single component rotational diagram analysis gives a rotation temperature of ~64 K and a beam-averaged C2H column density of 4 × 1013 cm-2. The rotational diagram is also consistent with a two-component fit, resulting in rotation temperatures of 43 ± 0.2 K and 123 ± 21 K and in beam-averaged column densities of ~8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ~2.3 × 1013 cm-2 for the three lower-N and for the three higher-N transitions, respectively. The measured five rotational transitions cannot be explained by any single parameter model. According to a non-LTE model, most of the C2H column density produces the lower-N C2H transitions and traces a warm (Tkin ~ 100-150 K) and dense (n(H2) ~ 105-106 cm-3) gas. A small fraction of the C2H column density is required to reproduce the intensity of the highest-N transitions (N = 9-8 and N = 10-9) originating in a high-density (n(H2) ~5 × 106 cm-3) hot (Tkin ~ 400 K) gas. The total beam-averaged C2H column density in the model is 1014 cm-2. A comparison of the spatial distribution of C2H to those of CH, HCO+, and [Ci] shows the best correlation with CH. Conclusions: Both the non-LTE radiative transfer model and a simple PDR model representing the Orion Bar

  15. The SushiBar: An automated system for paleomagnetic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, M.; Gilder, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a new, automated system based on a three-axis superconducting magnetometer and a custom-made coil designed to experiment on cylindrical specimens used in typical paleomagnetic investigations. The system, which resembles a sushi bar, facilitates stepwise alternating field demagnetization of up to 99 samples per loaded track. It also enables researchers to explore magnetic properties using an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) in any coercivity window up to peak alternating fields of 95 mT with direct current bias fields up to 0.17 mT. For example, partial ARM (pARM) spectra characterize magnetic grain size distributions in rocks, yet rarely are pARM spectra measured because the complete curve for one sample takes at least two hours to acquire manually. The SushiBar achieves 99 such curves in slightly less than 100 hours. Using the SushiBar, we measured the pARM sprectra, as well as the viscosity and anisotropy of ARM in three discrete switching field windows, of continental sediments from the Xishuigou section (western China). The average grain size remains constant along the 2200 m-thick section, yet magnetic viscosity varies systematically from bottom to top of the section; samples with high magnetic viscosities also have higher proportions of non-viscous material on average. Principal anisotropy axis directions from the lowest switching fields correlate well with principal axis directions from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Principal axis directions defined at higher switching fields systematically deviate from those at lower switching fields, perhaps defining the fabric of the remanence carrying grains.

  16. Qualification of flat welding of nuclear fuel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualification of flat welding consists in the process (procedures (11), instructions (5), specifications (4) and programs (3)) and equipment (systems (4), equipment (6)) with the Personal Qualification (operators and supervisors) that was done in simultaneous form and supported with test and training programs with its respective technical reports, liberated by the Quality Assurance Office of ININ. Moreover, specific procedures of process and personal qualification are realized with the respective supervision by Quality Assurance Office. For the process, 20 welding were realized as follow: 5 welding with maximum contributing of heat, 10 welding with nominal contributing of heat, 5 welding with minimum contributing of heat. The heat contributing for the qualification was done maximum, of increasing the welding current, diminishing the helium flux and the revolutions per minute of the bar, at the moment of welding, with respect to nominal values. In the minimum contributing of heat it is diminished the welding current, increasing the helium flux and the revolutions per minute of the bar with respect to nominal values. With the qualification it has been finished the development of flat welding with results which define an own method of ININ. It was implemented a pneumatic system, for the elimination of micron cracks. It was required a control of turn velocity of the bar of hundredth of revolution. Moreover the main welding parameters each 40 μs are acquired. Also it was automated completely the process to avoid possible human mistakes. The standard deviations of the values of the realized inspections in the quality, are lower. Process, equipment and personnel with their respective Quality reports and registries are qualified, as well as the Quality certificates of two operators and one supervisor. (Author)

  17. Experimental study for sensorless broken bar detection in induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents experimental results of sensorless broken bar detection in induction motors based on fluctuations of the stator current zero crossing instants before actual breakdown occurs. These fluctuations are sensed by a microcontroller (μC), and transferred to a computer for monitoring the amplitude changes on specific frequency components using fast Fourier transformation algorithms. The motor current signal is also monitored for verification purposes. The main reasons of rotor faults are broken bars, end ring faults and bearing faults. Most recent efforts are focusing on current spectrum analysis, as the current signal is easily accessible for all induction motors. Instead of sampling motor current with a high resolution analog to digital converter, zero crossing instants are recorded as the waveforms cross zero. Fluctuations in the intervals between successive zero crossings of the three phase current waveforms are analyzed in the frequency domain. Broken bars and end ring breakages, supply unbalances, rotor eccentricities and shaft misalignment faults are distinguished by monitoring amplitude changes of the 2sf, fr, and 2f spectral components, where s is the motor slip, f is supply frequency and fr is rotor speed. Appearance of only the 2sf component in zero crossing times (ZCT) of the signal spectrum implies rotor faults. The 2f component occurs only when supply is unbalanced or in the case of stator winding faults. Separation of these two faults is implemented by monitoring both components. In addition, when there is additional rotor eccentricity due to bearing deterioration or shaft misalignment, it is also necessary to monitor the fr fault signature component to distinguish mixed faults. It may be necessary to include additional signals such as motor vibration or temperature to extend the reliability of the fault detection system for critical machines

  18. Near-infrared mapping of spiral barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented were obtained with a 32 x 32 InSb charge injection device (CID) array cooled at 4K, at the f/36 cassegrain focus of the 3m60 Canada-France-Hawaii telescope with a spatial resolution of 0.5 inches per pixel. The objects presented are spiral barred galaxies mapped at J(1.25 microns), H(1.65 microns) and K(2.2 microns). The non-axisymetric potential due to the presence of a bar induces dynamical processes leading to the confinement of matter and peculiar morphologies. Infrared imaging is used to study the link between various components. Correlations with other wavelengths ranges and 2-colors diagrams ((J-H), (H-K)) lead to the identification of star forming regions, nucleus. Maps show structures connected to the central core. The question is, are they flowing away or toward the nucleus. Observations of M83 lead to several conclusions. The star forming region, detected in the visible and the infrared cannot be very compact and must extend to the edge of the matter concentration. The general shape of the near-infrared emission and the location of radio and 10 micron peaks suggest the confinement of matter between the inner Linblad resonances localized from CO measurements about 100 and 400 pc. The distribution of color indices in the arc from southern part to the star forming region suggests an increasing amount of gas and a time evolution eventually triggered by supernova explosions. Close to the direction of the bar, a bridge-like structure connects the arc to the nucleus with peculiar color indices

  19. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies. PMID:26837423

  20. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  1. The Frequency of Barred Spiral Galaxies in the Near-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Eskridge, P B; Pogge, R W; Quillen, A C; Davies, R L; De Poy, D L; Houdashelt, M L; Kuchinskii, L E; Ramírez, S V; Sellgren, K; Terndrup, D M; Tiede, G P; Eskridge, Paul B.; Frogel, Jay A.; Pogge, Richard W.; Quillen, Alice C.; Davies, Roger L.; Houdashelt, Mark L.; Kuchinski, Leslie E.; Ramirez, Solange V.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Tiede, Glenn P.

    1999-01-01

    We have determined the fraction of barred galaxies in the H-band for a statistically well-defined sample of 186 spirals drawn from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy survey. We find 56% of our sample to be strongly barred at H, while another 16% is weakly barred. Only 27% of our sample is unbarred in the near-infrared. The RC3 and the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies both classify only about 30% of our sample as strongly barred. Thus strong bars are nearly twice as prevalent in the near-infrared as in the optical. The frequency of genuine optically hidden bars is significant, but lower than many claims in the literature: 40% of the galaxies in our sample that are classified as unbarred in the RC3 show evidence for a bar in the H-band, while for the Carnegie Atlas this fraction is 66%. Our data reveal no significant trend in bar fraction as a function of morphology in either the optical or H-band. Optical surveys of high redshift galaxies may be strongly biased against finding bars, as bars are increasin...

  2. Application of smart BFRP bars with distributed fiber optic sensors into concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Lihua; Song, Shiwei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the self-sensing and mechanical properties of concrete structures strengthened with a novel type of smart basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars were experimentally studied, wherein the sensing element is Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensing technique. First, one of the smart bars was applied to strengthen a 2m concrete beam under a 4-points static loading manner in the laboratory. During the experiment, the bar can measure the inner strain changes and monitor the randomly distributed cracks well. With the distributed strain information along the bar, the distributed deformation of the beam can be calculated, and the structural health can be monitored and evaluated as well. Then, two smart bars with a length of about 70m were embedded into a concrete airfield pavement reinforced by long BFRP bars. In the field test, all the optical fiber sensors in the smart bars survived the whole concrete casting process and worked well. From the measured data, the concrete cracks along the pavement length can be easily monitored. The experimental results also confirmed that the bars can strengthen the structures especially after the yielding of steel bars. All the results confirm that this new type of smart BFRP bars show not only good sensing performance but also mechanical performance in the concrete structures.

  3. Dynamical Modelling of the Galactic Bulge and Bar: Pattern Speed, Stellar, and Dark Matter Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disk using the Made-to-Measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of $39.0 \\pm 3.5 \\,\\rm{km\\,s^{-1}\\,kpc^{-1}}$, placing the bar corotation radius at $6.1 \\pm 0.5 \\, \\rm{kpc}$ and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be $M_{\\rm{bar/bulge}} = 1.88 \\pm 0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$, larger than the mass of disk in the bar region, $M_{\\rm{inner\\ disk}} = 1.29\\pm0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$. The total dynamical...

  4. Measurements of the branching fractions of $B^{+} \\to p \\bar{p} K^{+}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The branching fractions of the decay $B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+}$ for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component $(M_{p\\bar p} <2.85 $ $ GeV/c^{2})$ and the branching fractions via the resonant $c\\bar c$ states $\\eta_{c}(1S)$ and $\\psi(2S)$ relative to the decay via a $J/\\psi$ intermediate state are \\begin{align*} \\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})_{total}}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}=& \\, 4.91 \\pm 0.19 \\, {(\\rm stat)} \\pm 0.14 \\, {(\\rm syst)},\\\\ \\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})_{M_{p\\bar p} <2.85 {GeV/}c^{2}}}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}=& \\, 2.02 \\pm 0.10 \\, {(\\rm stat)}\\pm 0.08 \\, {(\\rm syst)},\\\\ \\frac{{\\mathcal B} (B^{+} \\to \\eta_{c}(1S) K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+} \\to p \\bar p K^{+})} = & \\, 0.578 \\pm 0.03...

  5. Poly-SiGe-based MEMS Xylophone Bar Magnetometer

    OpenAIRE

    Rochus, Véronique; Jansen, R.; Tilmans, H. A. C.; Rottenberg, X.; Chen, C.; Ranvier, S.; Lamy, Hervé; Rochus, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary characterization of highly sensitive MEMS-based Xylophone Bar Magnetometers (XBMs) realized in imec’s poly-SiGe MEMS technology. Key for our Lorentz force driven capacitively sensed resonant sensor are the combination of reasonably high Q-factor and conductivity of imec’s poly-SiGe, our optimized multiphysics sensor design targeting the maximization of the Q-factor in a wide temperature range as well as our proprietary monolithic abo...

  6. Ulkoiset muuttujat ravintolan liiketoiminnassa : Case Bar&Cafe Kanuuna

    OpenAIRE

    Ylinen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat ravintolan tuloksen syntymiseen ja sen kehittymiseen, ja saada siten arvokasta tietoa liiketoiminnan kehittämiseen. Tutkimuksen kohteena oli Parkanoon perustettu terassiravintola Bar&Cafe Kanuuna. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää 1) auringon vaikutusta eri tuoteryhmien myyntiin, 2) viikonpäivän vaikutusta eri tuoteryhmien myyntiin, 3) ulkolämpötilan vaikutusta eri tuoteryhmien myyntiin sekä 4) asiakaspalautteen käyttök...

  7. Stampless fabrication of sheet bars using disposable templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the new method of small-scale fabrication of sheet bars. The procedure is performed by using disposable overlay templates, or those associated with a sheet, which parameters are obtained directly from the drawing. The proposed method used as a substitution of die cutting enables to intensify the preparatory technological process, which is particularly effective when launching the market-oriented items into production. It significantly increases the competitiveness of mechanical engineering and creates the conditions for technical support of present-day flexible production systems.

  8. Monitoring corrosion of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

  9. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Variation operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variation operator is determined over (Ln bar, g)-spaces as a linear differential operator, acting on tensor fields in a given basis. Its commutation relations with the Lie differential operator, with the covariant differential operator and with the contraction operator are imposed. The corollaries from using the different commutation relations in a Lagrangian formalism are found and two types of variation methods are distinguished: the common (canonical) method of Lagrangians with partial derivatives (MLPD) and the method of Lagrangians with covariant derivatives (MLCD)

  10. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Jun You; Ki-Tae Park; Dong-Woo Seo; Ji-Hyun Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar) due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc.) lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross...

  11. Review of B B-bar Mixing Results

    OpenAIRE

    Daoudi, Mourad

    1999-01-01

    A review of B B-bar mixing results at the end of July 1999 is presented. Emphasis is put on recent measurements of Delta-Md and Delta-Ms. For Delta-Md, the new world average is Delta-Md = 0.473 +- 0.016 ps-1. For Delta-Ms, the new world average 95% CL limit is 12.4 ps-1, with a sensitivity of 14.2 ps-1. Other related results are covered very briefly.

  12. Selected Topics on Hadronic B Decays From BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent measurements of branching fractions and decay-rate asymmetries in charmless hadronic B decays at the BaBar experiment are presented. The selected topics include Dalitz plot analyses of B → K+ π-π and signal searches in B → PP and PV, where isoscalar mesons are involved, and in B → b1P, P and V denote a pseudoscalar and vector meson, respectively. Several measurements in charmless hadronic B decays have indicated possible deviations from the theoretical predictions within the Standard Model. The measurements presented would contribute to searching for and resolving such puzzles.

  13. Visual evoked potentials to colour change of a moving bar

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina eMurd; Kairi eKreegipuu; Nele eKuldkepp; Aire eRaidvee; Maria eTamm; Jüri eAllik

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we found that it takes less time to detect colour change in a moving object compared to colour change in a stationary one (Kreegipuu et al., 2006, Vision Research 46(11), 1848-1855). Here, we replicated the experiment, but in addition to reaction times we measured visual evoked potentials, to see whether this effect of motion is revealed at the cortical level of information processing. We asked our subjects to detect colour changes in stationary (0º/s) and moving bars (4...

  14. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; J. Vidhya; Anuradha, R.; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R.; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews t...

  15. Bilayer graphene Hall bar with a pn-junction

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovic, S. P.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic field dependence of the Hall and the bend resistances for a ballistic Hall bar structure containing a pn-junction sculptured from a bilayer of graphene. The electric response is obtained using the billiard model and we investigate the cases of bilayer graphene with and without a band gap. Two different conduction regimes are possible: $i$) both sides of the junction have the same carrier type, and $ii$) one side of the junction is n-type while the other one is p-ty...

  16. Graphene Hall bar with an asymmetric pn-junction

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovic, S. P.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the magnetic field dependence of the Hall and the bend resistances in the ballistic regime for a single layer graphene Hall bar structure containing a pn-junction. When both regions are n-type the Hall resistance dominates and Hall type of plateaus are formed. These plateaus occur as a consequence of the restriction on the angle imposed by Snell's law allowing only electrons with a certain initial angles to transmit though the potential step. The size of the plateau and its po...

  17. Investigating learners’ meta-representational competencies when constructing bar graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mhlolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current views in the teaching and learning of data handling suggest that learners should create graphs of data they collect themselves and not just use textbook data. It is presumed real-world data creates an ideal environment for learners to tap from their pool of stored knowledge and demonstrate their meta-representational competences. Although prior knowledge is acknowledged as a critical resource out of which expertise is constructed, empirical evidence shows that new levels of mathematical thinking do not always build logically and consistently on previous experience. This suggests that researchers should analyse this resource in more detail in order to understand where prior knowledge could be supportive and where it could be problematic in the process of learning. This article analyses Grade 11 learners’meta-representational competences when constructing bar graphs. The basic premise was that by examining the process of graph construction and how learners respond to a variety of stages thereof, it was possible to create a description of a graphical frame or a knowledge representation structure that was stored in the learner’s memory. Errors could then be described and explained in terms of the inadequacies of the frame, that is: ‘Is the learner making good use of the stored prior knowledge?’ A total of 43 learners were observed over a week in a classroom environment whilst they attempted to draw graphs for data they had collected for a mathematics project. Four units of analysis are used to focus on how learners created a frequency table, axes, bars and the overall representativeness of the graph vis-à-vis the data. Results show that learners had an inadequate graphical frame as they drew a graph that had elements of a value bar graph, distribution bar graph and a histogram all representing the same data set. This inability to distinguish between these graphs and the types of data they represent implies that learners were likely

  18. Managing the BaBar object oriented database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment stores its data in an Object Oriented federated database supplied by Objectivity/DB(tm). This database is currently 350TB in size and is expected to increase considerably as the experiment matures. Management of this database requires careful planning and specialized tools in order to make the data available to physicists in an efficient and timely manner. The authors discuss the operational issues and management tools that were developed during the previous run to deal with this vast quantity of data at SLAC

  19. Quantum pumping and quantized magnetoresistance in a Hall bar

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauboer, M.

    2003-01-01

    We show how a dc current can be generated in a Hall bar without applying a bias voltage. The Hall resistance $R_H$ that corresponds to this pumped current is quantized, just as in the usual integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE). In contrast with the IQHE, however, the longitudinal resistance $R_{xx}$ does not vanish on the plateaus, but equals the Hall resistance. We propose an experimental geometry to measure the pumped current and verify the predicted behavior of $R_H$ and $R_{xx}$.

  20. NN-bar vacuum polarization and nuclear meson exchange interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relativistic Hartree equations for a finite nucleus are solved taking into account negative energy nucleons. This formulation yields the nuclear mean meson fields suppressed and the nuclear radius increased owing to the contribution of negative energy nucleons. Secondly, taking the positive energy nucleon sector picture of a nucleus, we derive the nuclear meson exchange interactions between positive energy nucleons modified by the NN-bar vacuum polarization on the cause of the meson exchanges. The vacuum polarization suppresses the meson exchange interactions and increases the interaction ranges. (author)