WorldWideScience

Sample records for bar codes

  1. Blurring in bar code signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    1997-10-01

    When a bar code symbol is passed over a scanner, it is struck across by a fast moving laser beam. The laser light is scattered by the bar code. The total scattered power is modulated by the reflectivity of the bars and spaces in the symbol. A fraction of the scattered light is collected and focused onto a photodetector that converts the light variation into an electronic signal. The electronic signal is then digitized for analysis by a computer. The scanning and detection process can be modeled by a convolution of the laser beam profile and the bar code reflectivity function. The switching between states in the digitized bar code signal, which represents transitions from a space to a bar or vice versa, is determined by a zero-crossing point in the second derivative of the analog signal. The laser profile acts like a smoothing function. It blurs the analog electronic signal. If the width of the laser profile is less than the minimum width of bars and spaces in the bar code reflectivity function, the transition point is not affected by the location of its neighboring edges. If the laser profile is wider than the minimum width in the bar code, the transition point can be shifted due to the locations of its neighboring edges. The behavior of the shift of transition is analyzed here for all cases in a UPC symbol. It is found that the amount of shift in the transition point is almost the same for several different cases within the depth of field of the scanner. The knowledge of the behavior of transition point shift can be used to accurately compensate printing errors in an over-printed bar code. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of bar code scanning is the Fourier transform of the marginal function of the scanning laser beam. The MTF through focus for a scanning system is presented. By using an aperture with central obscuration in the laser focusing system, the high frequency resolution of bar code scanning can be enhanced and the depth of field of the scanner can

  2. Modulation transfer function of bar code scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Milster, Tom D.

    1998-09-01

    Bar code scanners are ubiquitous in supermarkets. As a bar code is passed over a scanner, a laser beam scans across the bar code. The scattered light is modulated by the reflectivity of the bars and spaces of the bar code. The bar code scanning process can be described as a 1D convolution of the scanning laser profile and the bar code reflectivity function. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of bar code scanning is the Fourier transform of the marginal profile of the laser beam. The properties of the MTF of bar code scanning is similar to that of an incoherent imaging system. Measurements of the MTF of bar code scanning at one focus position are presented. The experimental results are then discussed.

  3. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  4. Irradiation test of bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  5. Bar code application to nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of efficient implementation of IAEA safeguards inspection, operators ought to prepare the information which is related to the strata for flow verification in a timely manner, such as physical inventory listing and summary of the fuel bundles. Today the use of bar code technique in tracing of products related data or counting number of items has been more and more applied to many facets of industry. From these points of view, the Japan Nuclear Fuel Company (NF) has been developing JNF Total Bar Code System. Now JNF has established an on-line input system of the fuel bundle accountability data by use of the bar code system to quickly prepare the information necessary for the inspection. As the first step, JNF implemented this bar code system at the flow verification to prepare physical inventory summary and location map of the fuel bundles in the storage. This paper reports that as a result of this, NF confirmed that this bar code system made it possible to input easily and quickly nuclear material accountancy information, and therefore this system is utilized as an effective and efficient measure of timely preparation for the inspection

  6. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  7. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  8. BAR-MOM Code and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    BAR-MOM [1,2] code to calculate the height of the fission barrier Bf, the energy of the ground state, the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum(the spin value) Lmax at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number and angular momentum L for 19BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z≥102[3] by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission

  9. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  10. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  11. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) Lmax at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  12. Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants

  13. System analysis of bar code laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpu; Chen, Zhaofeng; Lu, Zukang

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses on realizing the three important aspects of bar code scanner: generating a high quality scanning light beam, acquiring a fairly even distribution characteristic of light collection, achieving a low signal dynamic range over a large depth of field. To do this, we analyze the spatial distribution and propagation characteristics of scanning laser beam, the vignetting characteristic of optical collection system and their respective optimal design; propose a novel optical automatic gain control method to attain a constant collection over a large working depth.

  14. The application of bar coding technology at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar coding at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) can be used to track waste containers within the facility, control transuranic (TRU) waste inventory flow, and reduce manpower and error in recording package identification or control parameters. By choosing where and when to bar code, precise timelines or time-and-motion studies can be conducted to aid in streamlining waste handling throughput at WIPP. Additionally, the use of bar codes as waste container identification (ID) numbers increases the accuracy of recording the ID numbers by four orders of magnitude. The bar code label can also be utilized for other functions, such as shipping labels. Also, the bar code is integrated with the waste management data base such that the entire data base can be accessed on a computer using a bar code

  15. Monitoring the laser marking of a bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar code label which has been laser marked onto the end of a nuclear fuel tube is tested for unacceptable depth penetration of the heat affected zone. The average gray level value of the bar code label is compared with a predetermined standard. The label is optically sensed by a video camera and a set of discrete digital values representative of the bar code label is generated. The average digital value representative of the bar code label is calculated and compared to a predetermined standard level derived from measurements of acceptable laser marked tubes. (author)

  16. Bar code technology improves positive patient identification and transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G; Langeberg, A; Dohnalek, L

    2005-01-01

    As a result of human error, an estimated 1 in 12,000 blood transfusions is given to the wrong patient. The cause of nearly all of these errors is failure of hospital personnel to identify positively intended transfusion recipients, their blood samples for cross-matching, or their correct blood components. We describe our experience using a point-of-care bar code transfusion safety system that links patients' bar-coded wristbands, with bar-coded labels on blood sample tubes, blood component bags, and nurses' identification badges. The result was 100 % accuracy of matching patients, their blood samples, and components for transfusions. For verifying information before starting blood transfusions, nurses preferred bar code "double checks" to conventional visual "double checks" by a second nurse. Methods are needed to reinforce nurses' proficiency with technological approaches to transfusion safety, such as software-driven bar code scanning, in situations where transfusions are administered infrequently. PMID:16050151

  17. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  18. Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

    1987-04-01

    Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

  19. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  20. Effects of bar coding on a pharmacy stock replenishment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M I; Zilz, D A

    1989-07-01

    A bar-code stock ordering system installed in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area of a hospital pharmacy was compared with a manual paper system to quantify overall time demands and determine the error rate associated with each system. The bar-code system was implemented in the ambulatory-care pharmacy in November 1987 and in the sterile products area in January 1988. It consists of a Trakker 9440 transaction manager with a digital scanner; labels are printed with a dot matrix printer. Electronic scanning of bar-code labels and entry of the amount required using the key-pad on the transaction manager replaced use of a preprinted form for ordering items. With the bar-code system, ordering information is transferred electronically via cable to the pharmacy inventory computer; with the manual system, this information was input by a stockroom technician. To compare the systems, the work of technicians in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area was evaluated before and after implementation of the bar-code system. The time requirements for information gathering and data transfer were recorded by direct observation; the prevalence of errors under each system was determined by comparing unprocessed ordering information with the corresponding computer-generated "pick lists" (itemized lists including the amount of each product ordered). Time consumed in extra trips to the stockroom to replace out-of-stock items was self-reported. Significantly less time was required to order stock and transfer data to the pharmacy inventory computer with the bar-code system than with the manual system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757044

  1. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system

  2. CERN access card: Introduction of a bar code

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Before the latest version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2 comes into force, we would like to inform you that, in future, CERN access cards may bear a bar code to transcribe the holder's identification number. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  3. CERN access cards - Introduction of a bar code (Reminder)

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the latest revised version of the implementation measures relating to Operational Circular No. 2, CERN access cards may bear a bar code transcribing the holder's identification number (the revised version of this subsidiary document to the aforementioned Circular will be published shortly). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  4. MOEM scan engine for bar code reading and factory automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Park, Sangtae; Melendes, Robert; Wang, A.; Andrews, Angus P.; Garcia-Nunez, Dawn S.; Jinar, Dan; Richardson, Patti D.; Studer, J.; Chen, J. K.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.; Moranski, Jeffrey A.

    1998-03-01

    Rockwell is in the state of technology transfer to manufacturing of a micro-opto-electro-mechanical scan engine with superior scanning performance for bar code reading and factory automation. The scan engine consists of three main components: actuator, mirrors, and control electronics. The first two components are fabricated on a silicon cantilever beam while the control electronics are presently hybrid. The actuator comprises of a bimorph layer covered with two metal layers. The mirror has a large area (several mm2) and it is micromachined with a surface flatness better than (lambda) /2. Actuator scan-angles greater than 22 degree(s) with high repeatability in performance are achieved. The scan engine was integrated with an existing Rockwell commercial bar code reader/decoder and successfully proven to read a two-character code 39 bar code. The system was capable of decoding the 13-mil label at 360 scans per second with a 100% successful read performance. Environmental testing of the device indicates that the scanner can operate at elevated temperatures up to 70 degree(s)C with minor fluctuations in frequency and scan angle. The scanner has also gone through a lifetime cycle test and it has survived more than 8 billion cycles during a period of 18 months. To increase the yield and the performance level of the device, theoretical study as well as dynamic simulation by finite elements modeling have been investigated and will be reported separately.

  5. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

  6. Bar-code technology applied to drug-use evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowitz, B J; Petitta, A; Mlynarek, M; Touchette, M; Peters, M; Long, P; Patel, R

    1993-05-01

    Bar-code technology was used to determine: (1) patterns in histamine H2-receptor antagonist use and (2) the occurrence of adverse drug effects and drug interactions associated with the use of these agents in critically ill patients. Patients at Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit) receiving histamine H2-receptor antagonists over a two-month period were evaluated. Clinical information was collected in the intensive care units by using a bar-code system. The data-capture menu was based on drug-use-evaluation criteria for H2-receptor antagonists. Data collected in the scanning wands were uploaded into a computer database and were analyzed at the end of the study. Data were collected for 207 patients. Cimetidine was the predominant H2-receptor antagonist used, and the predominant indication was stress-ulcer prophylaxis. Dosing trends followed accepted guidelines for cimetidine dosage adjustment in renal and hepatic failure. Two drug interactions and six adverse drug reactions occurred. Pharmacists made 92 recommendations to the medical staff regarding modification in therapy, involving 32% of the patients. Data collection required an average of 10 minutes per day each for three pharmacists. H2-receptor antagonist use patterns were evaluated in intensive care units through the application of bar-code technology. The speed and efficiency of this automated tool facilitated collection of a large amount of data. PMID:8099468

  7. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies. PMID:26837423

  8. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; J. Vidhya; Anuradha, R.; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R.; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews t...

  9. Effects Of Substrate Scattering On Bar-Code Scanning Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Eric; Sklar, David

    1983-04-01

    When a beam of light strikes a piece of paper or similar substrate, a portion of its energy penetrates into the bulk and, due to multiple scattering, may re-emerge at some distance from the point of entry. We refer to this phenomenon as substrate scattering. In this paper we describe a general model for scattering substrates and, using linear systems theory, we investigate its implications for bar-code scanning. We show that the effects of substrate scattering can be represented as a modified reflectance distribution associated with the original printed reflectance pattern. This effective distribution is shown to be independent of the details of scanning system configuration. We show that under a broad range of conditions substrate scattering will decrease modulation and will cause scanners to overestimate barwidths. A specific diffusion model of the scattering process is developed, providing a family of functions which can be used in empirical studies. We conclude that the scattering distributions will not even be approximately Gaussian. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with this conclusion and inconsistent with a Gaussian model. Further experimental results are presented which show that, for typical substrates, depth of modulation may be decreased by 20 percent or more and perceived bar-width increases will be on the order of one mil.

  10. System Design Considerations In Bar-Code Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1984-08-01

    The unified transfer function approach to the design of laser barcode scanner signal acquisition hardware is considered. The treatment of seemingly disparate system areas such as the optical train, the scanning spot, the electrical filter circuits, the effects of noise, and printing errors is presented using linear systems theory. Such important issues as determination of depth of modulation, filter specification, tolerancing of optical components, and optimi-zation of system performance in the presence of noise are discussed. The concept of effective spot size to allow for impact of optical system and analog processing circuitry upon depth of modulation is introduced. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles, but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic bar-code symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  11. Contrast and Comparison Between the Old and New Bar Code for Commodity Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaolin; Ma Jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the development of socialism market economy, the former Bar Code For Commodity Management Measures (being called Old Measures for short hereafter) issued by the National Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision can not adapt to the requirement of managing for bar code for commodity.

  12. Bar coded air sample tracking and bar coded loose surface contamination sample tracking: How it can assist in compliance with the DOE's new 10 CFR 835 and the NRC's new 10 CFR 20 regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes advance sample tracking and processing techniques which utilize bar code technology for field data collection and count room analysis. Techniques described by the paper include bar coded area air sampling, bar coded portable breathing zone air sampling, and bar coded loose surface contamination sampling. Bar coded sample tracking is explored to demonstrate how it can assist in compliance with new DOE 10 CFR 835 and NRC 10 CFR 20 requirements. Operation of portable bar code readers is explored to provide insight to the advantages of bar coded sample tracking and corresponding sample trending analyses. Case studies involving bar coded sample tracking systems which are in use at NRC facilities, DOE sites, and decommission projects are discussed

  13. Deblurring, Localization and Geometry Correction of 2D QR Bar Codes Using Richardson Lucy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manpreet Kaur; Amandeep Singh Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes the recognition of 2D QR bar codes. This paper describes the deblurring, localization and geometry correction of 2D QR bar codes. The images captured are blurred due motion between the image and the camera. Hence the image containing the QR barcode cannot be read by QR reader. To make the QR barcode readable the images are need to be deblurred. Lucy Richardson method and Weiner Deconvolution Method is used to deblurr and localize the bar code. From both of ...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque automated bar-coded system for controlling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories uses an automated inventorycontrol system to account for nuclear material. This system provides advantages in accuracy of daily transactions, in inventory reconciliations, and in location control. The unique feature of this computerized system is bar coding, which is the focus of this paper. A minicomputer generates an 8-digit control number on a bar-coded label when accountability is initially established for each item of nuclear material. The label ensures that only properly bar-code labeled nuclear material can be transferred within Sandia, inventoried, shipped, or expended

  15. A bar-code reader for an alpha-beta automatic counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the FAG Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. Installation of the bar-code reader system required several modifications: Mechanical changes in the automatic sample changer, design and production of new sample holders, modification of the sample planchettes, changes in the electronic system, update of the operating software of the system (authors)

  16. Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code

    OpenAIRE

    Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle formation is accompanied by dramatic changes in membrane geometry. The role of the BAR domain proteins in membrane shaping—with a focus on how their structural features are optimized for this function—is explained here.

  17. A new magnetic bar code system based on a magnetic anisotropy detection (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, I.; Watanabe, N.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic bar codes can be used in unclean environments, where widely used optical bar code systems cannot be applied. Readout system for magnetic bar codes can also be made much simpler than optical ones. A new magnetic bar code system is proposed, in which binary information is coded in the sign of tilted angles of magnetic strips from a given standard direction. This scheme is unique compared to the conventional optical bar code, where width or space of the parallel pattern carries information, or an already reported magnetic bar code, where cross sectional shapes of pattern engraved in a ferromagnetic body carries information. Each of the magnetic strips brings about magnetic anisotropy due to its shape effect, hence angular dependent permeability in the proximity of the strip. The sign of the tilted angle of each magnetic strip is detected inductively through the angular dependent permeability by using a magnetic pickup head with a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils, where the sign of mutual inductance between the primary and the secondary figure-eight coil has one to one relationship to the sign of the tilted angle. Because the detection of the tilted angle is independent of scanning speed, variation in the scanning speed of the readout head does not affect the performance. In our preliminary study, the proposed magnetic bar code system was examined using pickup head consisting of a pair of cross-coupled 10-turn figure-eight coils which was embedded in a rectangular ferrite rod with cross-shape groove on the top surface of 6.5×3 mm dimension. The head was made thinner in the scanning direction to allow dense alignment of the pattern. Two kinds of pattern were made: the one was by aligning short amorphous wires (5 mm in length and 120 μm in diameter) on the plastic film and the other by using a thin (10 μm in thickness) copper film with tilted slits backed by an amorphous ribbon. These samples of magnetic bar code patterns were scanned with lift-off of

  18. Deblurring, Localization and Geometry Correction of 2D QR Bar Codes Using Richardson Lucy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the recognition of 2D QR bar codes. This paper describes the deblurring, localization and geometry correction of 2D QR bar codes. The images captured are blurred due motion between the image and the camera. Hence the image containing the QR barcode cannot be read by QR reader. To make the QR barcode readable the images are need to be deblurred. Lucy Richardson method and Weiner Deconvolution Method is used to deblurr and localize the bar code. From both of the methods Lucy Richardson Method is best because this method takes less time for execution than the other method. Simulink Model is used for the Geometry correction of the QR bar code. In future, we would like to investigate the generalization of our algorithm to handle more complicated motion blur.

  19. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented

  20. Study of nurse workarounds in a hospital using bar code medication administration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Laurie L; Dudjak, Linda A; Wolf, Gail A

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed registered nurse workarounds in an academic medical center using bar code medication administration technology. Nurse focus groups and a survey were used to determine the frequency and potential causes of workarounds. More than half of the nurses surveyed indicated that they administered medications without scanning the patient or medications during the last shift worked. Benefits of this study include considerations when implementing bar code medication administration technology that may minimize the development of these workarounds in practice. PMID:22202186

  1. Speckle revisited: analysis of speckle noise in bar-code scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Emanuel; Kresic-Juric, Sasa; Bergstein, Leonard

    2001-06-01

    Laser beams used for bar-code scanning exhibit speckle noise generated by the roughness of the surface on which bar-codes are printed. Statistical properties of a photodetector signal that integrates a time-varying speckle pattern falling on its aperture are analyzed in detail. We derive simple closed form expressions for the auto-correlation function and power spectral density of the detector current for general form scanning beams with arbitrary field distributions. Theoretical calculations are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  2. A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali N Nalawade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of commercial methods for identifying dentures are available. They can be either invasive or noninvasive techniques. The less sophisticated procedures include simple engraving with bur, and more sophisticated procedures use labels or chips. Bar coding system is a way of transferring data to the computer and huge data can be stored as a record. Bar coding can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be used in individual identification.

  3. Analysis of Edge Detection in Bar Code Symbols: An Overview and Open Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Krešić-Jurić

    2012-01-01

    Accurate edge localization is essential in bar code decoding. Since speckle noise is the most dominant form of noise in laser bar code scanners, it is important to fully understand its effects on edge detection. Starting with the basic statistical properties of speckle patterns, we present stochastic analysis of speckle noise. We derive the autocorrelation function and power spectral density (PSD) of the noise in terms of intensity distribution of the scanning beam. We then ...

  4. The application of PDA and 2D bar code in material fuel storage management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends a management system based on PDA and 2D bar code technology, system design and solutions concerned with domestic transfer, storehouse entry and setting, transfer among storehouses, physical inventory are described as well. The system fits business processes well and optimizes data acquisition and processing effectively by u sing the following key technologies: bar code material and paste stand under radioactive conditions, two dimensional storage space emulation, information cascade protection. (authors)

  5. Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies

  6. Management of manufacture and installation of plant pipings by bar code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the piping system of nuclear power plants, the number of parts is very large, and the mill sheet is attached to each part, therefore, it is necessary to manage them individually, and large man power is required. In order to resolve the delay of mechanization in the factory, bar code system was adopted on full scale. At the time of taking parts out from the store, bar code labels are stuck to all piping parts. By this means, all the processes of manufacture and inspection are managed with a computer, and it is useful for labor saving and the prevention of mistaken input. This system is centering around the system of the progress management for piping manufacture, and is operated by being coupled with respective systems of production design, order and inventory, mill sheet management and installation management. The management of production design, manufacture, inspection and installation is explained. There is the problem of sticking bar code labels again as the labels become dirty or parts pass through coating and pickling processes. The direct carving of bar codes on parts by laser marker was tried, and it was successful for stainless steel, but in carbon steel pipes, it was hard to read. It is desirable to develop the bar codes which endure until the end of plant life. (K.I.)

  7. Biosensors and Bio-Bar Code Assays Based on Biofunctionalized Magnetic Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cloarec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports the applications of magnetic microbeads in biosensors and bio-bar code assays. Affinity biosensors are presented through different types of transducing systems: electrochemical, piezo electric or magnetic ones, applied to immunodetection and genodetection. Enzymatic biosensors are based on biofunctionalization through magnetic microbeads of a transducer, more often amperometric, potentiometric or conductimetric. The bio-bar code assays relie on a sandwich structure based on specific biological interaction of a magnetic microbead and a nanoparticle with a defined biological molecule. The magnetic particle allows the separation of the reacted target molecules from unreacted ones. The nanoparticles aim at the amplification and the detection of the target molecule. The bio-bar code assays allow the detection at very low concentration of biological molecules, similar to PCR sensitivity.

  8. Analysis of Edge Detection in Bar Code Symbols: An Overview and Open Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Krešić-Jurić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate edge localization is essential in bar code decoding. Since speckle noise is the most dominant form of noise in laser bar code scanners, it is important to fully understand its effects on edge detection. Starting with the basic statistical properties of speckle patterns, we present stochastic analysis of speckle noise. We derive the autocorrelation function and power spectral density (PSD of the noise in terms of intensity distribution of the scanning beam. We then study the signal-to-noise ratio for signals that result from scanning different configurations of edges. Next, we consider statistical properties of edge localization error caused by speckle noise. We show that the standard deviation of the error is determined by the PSD of the noise and relative positions of edges in a bar code symbol. Based on the analysis presented here, we propose new criteria for system design.

  9. Using bar codes to manage radwaste in a nuclear power facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining accountability, and tracking the location of radioactive waste, has been simplified through the use of bar codes at the Peach Bottom and Limerick Power Plants. A system has been developed which utilizes portable, programmable bar code readers and a microcomputer to collect and report pertinent data on the generation and location of radwaste in the plant. The system, which was customized for each plant, was designed to collect data at the work place through the use of the portable bar code readers and menu cards. The program was designed in a modular format for easy modification and expansion and the system has been adapted for the tracking of equipment, tools, instruments, and respirators. The benefit from this inventory management system is more timely and accurate information for the control of radwaste generation, handling, storage, and shipping. The improved control has resulted in more efficient, cost effective radwaste operations, reduced radiation exposure to personnel, and a cleaner, more orderly plant

  10. Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Brantley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.

  11. 76 FR 66235 - Bar Code Technologies for Drugs and Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... technology adoption have proceeded since 2004 had the Bar Code Final Rule not gone into effect? 11. What are hospitals' and other health-care facilities' forecasts for technology adoption once incentives in the...'' (76 FR 3821). One of the provisions in the new Executive order is the affirmation of...

  12. Method and apparatus for reading lased bar codes on shiny-finished fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes, in a nuclear fuel rod identification system, a method of reading a bar code etched directly on a surface of a nuclear fuel rod. It comprises: defining a pair of light diffuser surfaces adjacent one another but in oppositely inclined relation to a beam of light emitted from a light reader; positioning a fuel rod, having a cylindrical surface portion with a bar code etched directly thereon, relative to the light diffuser surfaces such that the surfaces are disposed adjacent to and in oppositely inclined relation along opposite sides of the fuel rod surface portion and the fuel rod surface portion is aligned with the beam of light emitted from the light reader; directing the beam of light on the bar code on fuel rod cylindrical surface portion such that the light is reflected therefrom onto one of the light diffuser surfaces; and receiving and reading the reflected light from the bar code via the one of the light diffuser surfaces to the light reader

  13. Challenges implementing bar-coded medication administration in the emergency room in comparison to medical surgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Nancy

    2013-03-01

    Bar-coded medication administration has been successfully implemented and utilized to decrease medication errors at a number of hospitals in recent years. The purpose of this article was to discuss the varying success in utilization of bar-coded medication administration on medical-surgical units and in the emergency department. Utilization reports were analyzed to better understand the challenges between the units. Many factors negatively impacted utilization in the emergency department, including the inability to use bar-coded medication administration for verbal orders or to document medications distributed by the prescribing providers, unique aspects of emergency department nursing workflow, additional steps to chart when using bar-coded medication administration, and alert fatigue. Hardware problems affected all users. Bar-coded medication administration in its current form is more suitable for use on medical-surgical floors than in the emergency department. New solutions should be developed for bar-coded medication administration in the emergency department, keeping in mind requirements to chart medications when there is no order in the system, document medications distributed by prescribing providers, adapt to unpredictable nursing workflow, minimize steps to chart with bar-coded medication administration, limit alerts to those that are clinically meaningful, and choose reliable hardware with adequate bar-code scanning capability. PMID:23321481

  14. Laser bar code applied in computer aided design of power fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan

    2010-10-01

    A computer aided process planning system is developed based on laser bar code technology to automatize and standardize processing-paper making. The system sorts fittings by analyzing their types, structures, dimensions, materials, and technics characteristics, groups and encodes the fittings with similar technology characteristics base on the theory of Group Technology (GT). The system produces standard technology procedures using integrative-parts method and stores them into technics databases. To work out the technology procedure of fittings, the only thing for users need to do is to scan the bar code of fittings with a laser code reader. The system can produce process-paper using decision trees method and then print the process-cards automatically. The software has already been applied in some power stations and is praised by the users.

  15. Machine-vision-based bar code scanning for long-range applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenecker, Charles; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

    1998-10-01

    Bar code labeling of products has become almost universal in most industries. However, in the steel industry, problems with high temperatures, harsh physical environments and the large sizes of the products and material handling equipment have slowed implementation of bar code based systems in the hot end of the mill. Typical laser-based bar code scanners have maximum scan distances of only 15 feet or so. Longer distance models have been developed which require the use of retro reflective paper labels, but the labels must be very large, are expensive, and cannot stand the heat and physical abuse of the steel mill environment. Furthermore, it is often difficult to accurately point a hand held scanner at targets in bright sunlight or at long distances. An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University, and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system performs both the pointing and reading functions. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head, and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The computer analyzes the images, and can identify product ID tags in a wide-angle scene. It controls the camera to point at each tag and zoom for a closeup picture. The closeups are analyzed and the program need both a barcode and the corresponding alphanumeric code on the tag. This paper describes the camera pointing and bar-code reading functions of the algorithm. A companion paper describes the OCR functions.

  16. Modeling And Simulation Of Bar Code Scanners Using Computer Aided Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekson, Ron; Campbell, Scott

    1988-06-01

    Many optical systems have demanding requirements to package the system in a small 3 dimensional space. The use of computer graphic tools can be a tremendous aid to the designer in analyzing the optical problems created by smaller and less costly systems. The Spectra Physics grocery store bar code scanner employs an especially complex 3 dimensional scan pattern to read bar code labels. By using a specially written program which interfaces with a computer aided design system, we have simulated many of the functions of this complex optical system. In this paper we will illustrate how a recent version of the scanner has been designed. We will discuss the use of computer graphics in the design process including interactive tweaking of the scan pattern, analysis of collected light, analysis of the scan pattern density, and analysis of the manufacturing tolerances used to build the scanner.

  17. Preliminary investigation of acoustic bar codes for short-range underwater communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-09-01

    In March 2005, underwater acoustic communications experiments were carried out from the DRDC Atlantic research vessel CFAV QUEST. A battery-operated BATS20 transmitter and a broadband barrel-stave flextensional transducer were used to broadcast noise containing acoustic bar code (ABC) information. The ABCs are silent frequency bands of fixed duration that resemble retail bar codes when viewed in a spectrogram. Two sites were selected for the experiments. The first was a shallow-water area west of the Berry Islands in the Bahamas, and the second was a deep-water site south of the Western Bank on the Scotian Shelf. Two receiver systems were deployed; autonomous, variable-buoyancy Stealth Buoys resting on the bottom at the shallow site, and drifting AN/SSQ-53F sonobuoys fitted with GPS at the deep site. Results from these experiments will be presented and future work will be discussed.

  18. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Emily S.; Cook, Richard I.; Marta L. Render

    2002-01-01

    Objective. In addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs).

  19. A Molecular Bar-Coded DNA Repair Resource for Pooled Toxicogenomic Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, John P.; Patil, Ashish; Zappala, Maria R.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Cunningham, Richard P.; Begley, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage from exogenous and endogenous sources can promote mutations and cell death. Fortunately, cells contain DNA repair and damage signalling pathways to reduce the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of DNA damage. The identification of specific DNA repair proteins and the coordination of DNA repair pathways after damage has been a central theme to the field of Genetic Toxicology and we have developed a tool for use in this area. We have produced 99 molecular bar-coded Escherichia coli gene...

  20. Patient Safety with Blood Products Administration Using Wireless and Bar-Code Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanne...

  1. The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

    2008-03-01

    The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

  2. Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanji, Karen C.; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Poon, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning s...

  3. Animal house stock control based on bar-coded cage labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, R

    1985-10-01

    In an animal house serving the needs of a large research institute, a regular inventory of the animals in stock is a considerable help towards effective management of the facility. In particular, advising the licence-holders of what animals are being held in their name and reminding them of the costs involved is a valuable exercise. The introduction of a computerized system of stock control, based on bar-coded cage labels, is described. The system has proved economical to operate, accurate, and can be run by persons without computer expertise. PMID:4068665

  4. Effects of spherical aberration on the laser beam of a bar code scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    1998-08-01

    The modulation transfer function of bar code scanning is a useful tool for evaluating the performance of the scanning laser beam. Understanding the behavior of the scanning laser system near the end of its depth of focus is of particular interest because it may lead to the development of techniques that could effective extend the depth of focus. In the article the MTF at focus and the two extremes of the depth of focus are presented. The presence of spherical aberration in the scanning laser beam generally reduces the depth of focus. The effects of the spherical aberration to the MTF is presented and discussed.

  5. BARS - a heterogeneous code for 3D pin-by-pin LWR steady-state and transient calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3D pin-by-pin dynamic model for LWR detailed calculation was developed. The model is based on a coupling of the BARS neutronic code with the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermal hydraulic code. This model is intended to calculate a fuel cycle, a xenon transient, and a wide range of reactivity initiated accidents in a WWER and a PWR. Galanin-Feinberg heterogeneous method was realized in the BARS code. Some results for a validation of the heterogeneous method are presented for reactivity coefficients, a pin-by-pin power distribution, and a fast pulse transient. (Authors)

  6. Use of bar-code technology in MC and A system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant problem during the treatment of nuclear materials is the usage of reliable, rapid, integrate automated systems of nuclear material control and account to reduce the dose loading of personnel. One of the directions to solve the indicated problems is the usage of bar-code technology. Such integrated system should include protection of materials, measuring of materials, and record of materials and drawing up of an inventory list. It is especially important for the enterprises, in which the enriched uranium and other nuclear materials, under IAEA warranties, are utilized. According to US assistance program in the field of MC and A, NSC KIPT has been received indispensable equipment and software, including equipment of nondestructive analysis and automated inventory material accounting system (AIMAS), which was intended for modernizing of nuclear material account system in NSC KIPT. The purpose of operations was estimation of generalized procedures on both MC and A and nondestructive analysis, and updating them so that they might obey the specific conditions of the Enterprise and demands of the Ukraine Regulatory Administration. In NSC KIPT, which is the largest nuclear and physics research center in Ukraine, the measures on enactment of bar-code technology for nuclear materials control and account with the usage of equipment and software of US leading firms (Intermec, Prodigy Max, Tharo Systems, Inc) have been conducting since 1999. During the introduction of this technology, the software on nuclear material control and account (AIMAS data base) has been installed on NSC KIPT computers. The structure of the NSC KIPT's facility has been determined according to demands of the State and IAEA demands. The items of information on the structure of the Facility, and data, which was verified and prepared for input, on nuclear material for each key measuring point of inventory quantity of the material have been set into nuclear material control and

  7. High-speed two-dimensional bar-code detection system with time-sharing laser light emission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaumi, Hiroo; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2000-12-01

    A novel twodimensional bar-code detection system with time-sharing light emission laser diodes is proposed. A bias current allowing the laser diode to improve the light output rise time is optimized to slightly below the threshold of the diode, so that channel cross-talk among three-layer bar-code signals caused by the bias light can be kept small and a high-speed pulse modulation drive operation can be achieved. A prototype system for a three-layer bar code has achieved an effective scanning speed two and nine tenths times that of conventional scanners. It is estimated from the detection range that the number of time-sharing light emission laser diodes can be increased to at least four, when the current detection amplifier with a bandwidth of 6.4 MHz is used.

  8. Equipment Inventory Management and Transaction Recording Using Bar Coding Scheme via VB6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Salvador, PECE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to implement bar coding system developed through the VB6 and Microsoft Access as mechanism for the PUP ECE Laboratory Transaction recording and monitoring. The study was concerned on proper documenting and managing the daily transaction of the ECE Laboratory with the AutoLab System.Results showed that the AutoLab System effectively automated the recording of transactions merging the existing manual method into one recording mechanism. The Automated Laboratory coined as AutoLab merged the ECE Room Utilization Log Book, ECE Borrower’s Slip and the ECE Transaction Log Book into one complete package in terms of transaction recording and equipment inventory monitoring

  9. Speckle Noise in Bar-Code Scanning Systems -Power Spectral Density and SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Emanuel; KrěIć-Juri, SǎA.; Bergstein, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Laser-based flying-spot scanners are strongly affected by speckle that is intrinsic to coherent illumination of diffusing targets. In such systems information is usually extracted by processing the derivative of a photodetector signal that results from collecting over the detector's aperture the scattered light of a laser beam scanning a bar code. Because the scattered light exhibits a time-varying speckle pattern, the signal is corrupted by speckle noise. In this paper we investigate the power spectral density and total noise power of such signals. We also analyze the influence of speckle noise on edge detection and derive estimates for a signal-to-noise ratio when a laser beam scans different sequences of edges. The theory is illustrated by applying the results to Gaussian scanning beams for which we derive closed form expressions.

  10. Use of bar-code technology in MC and A system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant problem during the treatment with nuclear materials is the usage of reliable, rapid, integrant automated systems of nuclear material control and account. Thus the dose loading of attending technical personnel is essentially reduced. One of the directions of the solution of the indicated problems is the usage of bar-code technology. Such integrated system should include protection of materials, measuring of materials, and record of materials and drawing up of an inventory list. Especially it is important for the enterprises, on which the enriched uranium and other nuclear materials, which are under IAEA warranties, are utilized. According to US assistance program in the field of MC and A, NSC KIPT has been received indispensable equipment and software, including equipment of nondestructive analysis and automated inventory material accounting system (AIMAS), which was intended for modernizing of nuclear material account system in NSC KIPT. The purpose of operations was estimation of generalized procedures on both MC and A and nondestructive analysis, and updating them so that they might obey the specific conditions of the Enterprise and demands of the Ukraine Regulatory Administration. In NSC KIPT, which is the largest nuclear and physics research center in Ukraine, the measures on enactment of bar-code technology for nuclear materials control and account with the usage of equipment and software of US leading firms (Intermec, Prodigy Max, Tharo Systems, Inc) have been conducting since 1999. During the introduction of this technology, it has been installed the software on nuclear material control and account (AIMAS data base), which was intended for this activities, on NSC KIPT computers. The structure of the NSC KIPT's facility has been determined according to demands of the State and IAEA demands. The key measuring points of inventory quantity has been determined in nuclear material balance zone and the concrete computers, on which is kept

  11. Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which

  12. Scanning micro-mirrors: from bar-code scanning to spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, F.; Grueger, H.; Heberer, A.; Sandner, T.; Wolter, A.; Schenk, H.

    2005-08-01

    Micro Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) reach more and more importance in technical applications. They are smaller than conventional devices, less expensive when fabricated in higher numbers and offer new options concerning reliability and measuring methods. Resonant movable micro-mirrors produced as single crystalline chips with CMOS-compatible technologies provide a broad field of applications. In this paper, we will present different micro-mirrors, which are developed by the Fraunhofer IPMS in Dresden, Germany. They have different layouts and are thus suitable for several applications. Fabricated 1D-mirrors with mechanical angles of +/- 16° can be used for laser deflection in bar-code-scanners, 2D-mirrors with different sizes and frequencies are suitable for imaging, displaying etc. Furthermore processes to apply diffractive structures on the micro-mirror surface were developed, showing an increased efficiency in the first diffraction order. Thus a micro-spectrometer has been built up, working in a wavelength range of 900-2500 nm. Due to the Czerny-Turner set-up, only one fast single InGaAs-photodiode is required.

  13. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2010-04-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  14. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  15. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient’s identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient’s identification and sample errors were collec...

  16. Color bar coding the BRCA1 gene on combed DNA: a useful strategy for detecting large gene rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, S; Aurias, A; Puget, N; Mairal, A; Schurra, C; Montagna, M; Pages, S; Caux, V; Mazoyer, S; Bensimon, A; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    2001-05-01

    Genetic linkage data have shown that alterations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 germline mutations, however, are found less frequently than expected. Mutation detection strategies, which are generally based on the polymerase chain reaction, therefore focus on point and small gene alterations. These approaches do not allow for the detection of large gene rearrangements, which also can be involved in BRCA1 alterations. Indeed, a few of them, spread over the entire BRCA1 gene, have been detected recently by Southern blotting or transcript analysis. We have developed an alternative strategy allowing a panoramic view of the BRCA1 gene, based on dynamic molecular combing and the design of a full four-color bar code of the BRCA1 region. The strategy was tested with the study of four large BRCA1 rearrangements previously reported. In addition, when screening a series of 10 breast and ovarian cancer families negatively tested for point mutation in BRCA1/2, we found an unreported 17-kb BRCA1 duplication encompassing exons 3 to 8. The detection of rearrangements as small as 2 to 6 kb with respect to the normal size of the studied fragment is achieved when the BRCA1 region is divided into 10 fragments. In addition, as the BRCA1 bar code is a morphologic approach, the direct observation of complex and likely underreported rearrangements, such as inversions and insertions, becomes possible. PMID:11284038

  17. A high-speed 12-layer two-dimensional bar code detection system with wideband photodetection amplifier and balanced raster scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaumi, Hiroo; Ajiki, Hiroshi

    1998-12-01

    A high-speed 12-layer 2D bar-code detection system (BCDS) consisting of a photodetection amplifier with an amplification-type current-voltage converter and a balanced raster scanner combined with the complementary light emission drive method for laser diodes, has been developed in order to provide both a high effective scanning speed and multi-layer bar-code detection. This BCDS performs 1,250 scan/s, which is two and a half times the scanning speed of a conventional bar-code detection system. A new theoretical modulation model that gives an accurate model for laser scanning beam traces obtained by the balanced raster scanner is proposed. This model allows an optimum BCDS to be designed easily.

  18. Bar code hotel: diverse interactions of semi-autonomous entities under the partial control of multiple operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Perry

    1995-03-01

    In this paper I describe an interactive installation that was produced in 1994 as one of eight Art and Virtual Environments projects sponsored by the Banff Center for the Arts. The installation, Bar Code Hotel, makes use of a number of strategies to create a casual, social, multi-person interface. Among the goals was to investigate methods that would minimize any significant learning curve, allowing visitors to immediately interact with a virtual world in a meaningful way. By populating this virtual world with semi-independent entities that could be directed by participants even as these entities were interacting with each other, a rich and heterogeneous experience was produced in which a variety of relationships between human participants and virtual objects could be examined. The paper will describe some of the challenges of simultaneously processing multiple input sources affecting a virtual environment in which each object already has its own ongoing behavior.

  19. Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal. (paper)

  20. Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles Determined with an Escherichia coli Gene Knockout Collection: Generating an Antibiotic Bar Code ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  1. Use of a bar code scanner to improve the utility and flexibility of record and verify systems used in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Record and verify systems used in radiation therapy serve a useful purpose in verification of machine parameters for each radiation field and monitoring the treatment as it is administered. There are, however, limitations as to the completeness of this monitoring. These restrictions are primarily due to design limitations of accelerators, which provide only a limited number of hardwired signals for use by such systems. The extent of the signals provided varies among manufacturers. As a result, some commonly used treatment accessories, such as blocking trays, may not be recognized by these systems. Additionally, current commercial record and verify systems cannot be expanded to accommodate institution-specific, customized treatment accessories or devices for positioning or immobilization of patients. This paper describes a complementary approach to providing device detection using a bar code scanner to read coded labels mounted on treatment accessories and download the data into the record and verify system for processing. A microcomputer-based system employing a portable bar code scanner was developed to evaluate the potential of this concept. Implications of adding bar code scanners to record and verify systems are discussed

  2. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers

  3. Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Irina S. Druzhinina

    2007-01-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha g...

  4. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system. PMID:24199057

  5. Application of DNA bar codes for screening of industrially important fungi: the haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto indicates superior chitinase formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2007-11-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all

  6. 标刻在金属零件上的二维条码数据提取方法%2-D Bar Code Data Extraction on Metal Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 何卫平; 雷蕾; 林清松; 李夏霜

    2012-01-01

    针对金属零件上二维条码光照分布不均、点扩散、对比度低与污染干扰等问题,提出一种基于原灰度图像小区域相邻模块对比提取二维条码数据的算法.首先通过峰度值排序法及模块区域微调法由粗到精定位每个二维条码模块位置,然后基于原灰度图像利用遗传算法提取二维条码的数据信息,得到最终的提取结果.与传统二维条码数据提取算法的实验结果证明,该算法对于复杂金属背景上的二维条码识读具有更高的可靠性.%This paper describes a 2D bar code extraction approach that is capable of processing pictures of 2D bar codes on metal parts with uneven distribution of light intensity, point spread, low contrast and pollution interference. The algorithm uses kurtosis value-sorting and module area fine tuning to locate each module's position which is detected from coarse-level to fine-level, then the final extraction data of 2D bar code is obtained by a genetic algorithm based on the original gray-scale image. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed algorithm has higher reliability for 2D bar code extraction on complex metal parts.

  7. 二维码技术在高校智能化管理中的应用探讨%The Application of Two-dimensional Bar Code Technology to University Intelligence Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional bar code technology has been widely applied to a variety of departments and industries due to its informative feature, high confidentiality and security, low cost, easy fabrication, high reliability of deco- ding and ability to resist damage and correct errors. This article probes into the application of two-dimensional bar code technology to campus safety, library, archives information, students and large equipment management in univer- sities, which provides a new thought on research for the smart campus construction.%二维条码技术以信息容量大、保密好和防伪性高、成本低廉且容易制造、译码可靠率高、抗损纠错能力强等特点已经开始普遍应用于各个部门和行业中。探讨了二维码技术在高校校园安全、图书馆、档案信息、学生、大型设备管理方面的应用,为高校智能校园建设提供了新的研究思路。

  8. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  9. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  10. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  11. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  12. Estimated errors in vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from semileptonic D decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate statistical and systematic errors in the extraction of the CKM ratio vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from exclusive D-meson semileptonic decays using lattice QCD and anticipated new experimental results

  13. DNA Bar-Coding for Phytoplasma Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta;

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma identi fi cation has proved dif fi cult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identi fi cation method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identi fi...... cation. While other sequencebased methods may be well adapted to identification of particular strains of phytoplasmas, often they cannot be used for the simultaneous identification of phytoplasmas from different groups. The phytoplasma DNA barcoding protocol in this chapter, based on the tuf and 16Sr...

  14. 应用UCC/EAN-128编码技术对转基因植物产品进行溯源研究%Tracing of genetically modified crops and their derived products by UCC/EAN-128 bar code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王醒宇; 杨捷琳; 陈勇; 潘良文; 丁卓平

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathered information from the five sections including the planting origin, products category, harvesting, processing and packaging stages. Based on the national standard and coding rules, the tracing of genetically modified crops by UCC/EAN-128 bar code about five sections was designed and encipher. As the example of soybeans, the five sections were combined to make the integrity the UCC/EAN bar code. The consumer can obtain the information and trace the products through scanning the UCC/EAN-128 bar code, combining with the data received and the data from the computer database.%该文对转基因植物产品从产地、产品、采收、加工、包装等5个环节收集信息,并根据国家标准中规定相应编码规则对这5个环节进行UCC/EAN-128码的设计与编码。最后,以大豆为例,将这5个编码结合,形成一个完整UCC/EAN-128码。消费者通过扫描条形码,获取相关数据,并将获得数据与计算机建立的数据库相结合,进行信息读取,了解转基因植物产品的生产、加工、包装等信息,从而对转基因植物产品进行有效的溯源。

  15. Computerized mega code recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

  16. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  17. Dissecting brick into bars

    OpenAIRE

    Feshchenko, Ivan; Radchenko, Danylo; Radzivilovsky, Lev; Tantsiura, Maksym

    2008-01-01

    An $N$-dimensional parallelepiped will be called a bar if and only if there are no more than $k$ different numbers among the lengths of its sides (the definition of bar depends on $k$). We prove that a parallelepiped can be dissected into finite number of bars iff the lengths of sides of the parallelepiped span a linear space of dimension no more than $k$ over $\\QQ$. This extends and generalizes a well-known theorem of Max Dehn about partition of rectangles into squares. Several other results...

  18. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  19. Sports Season, Sports Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For foreigners in Beijing, the sports bar is a special place, a place to gather for watching matches and a place to feel the familiarity of home, while for some sports enthusiasts it serves as their second home.

  20. The bar instability revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodi, Filippo; Andreotti, Bruno; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relati...

  1. $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ molecular states

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Rong; Huang, Ming-Qiu(College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073, Hunan, China)

    2009-01-01

    Masses for $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ molecular states are systematically studied in QCD sum rules. The interpolating currents representing the related molecular states are proposed. Technically, contributions of the operators up to dimension six are included in operator product expansion (OPE). Mass spectra for molecular states with $\\{Q\\bar{q}\\}\\{\\bar{Q}^{(')}q\\}$ configurations are obtained.

  2. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  3. The IPG BAR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, B.; Henriquez, L.; Van Niekerk, L.; Verheul, R.

    2013-01-01

    The booklets 'Making Patterns' and 'Using Patterns' describe two aspects of the the pattern method within the urban design process. The accompanying IPG BAR Pattern Library is a small pattern library of urban-airport symbiosis patterns. These documents are the result of the Interdisciplinary Projec

  4. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  5. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian; Hughes, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding of the...... morphodynamic processes and sediment transport pathways involved in bar decay is limited. In this paper, long-term, net offshore bar migration is investigated at Vejers Beach, located on the North Sea coast of Denmark where offshore bar migration rates are of the order of 45–55 m a-1. A wave height...... transformation model confirmed that the decay of the outer bar results in increased wave heights and undertow speeds at the more landward bar potentially causing this bar to speed up its offshore migration. The causes for outer bar decay were investigated through field measurements of sediment transport at the...

  6. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    OpenAIRE

    Govender R; Cloete T.; Curry R.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic na...

  7. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  8. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Michael S; Katz, Neal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the naive dynamical friction prediction, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nat...

  9. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  10. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 8000C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author)

  11. The bar instability revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...

  12. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  13. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc--bulge--halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angula...

  14. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempotabu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  15. Bar Code Reader”とdBASE III PLUSとをインターフェースするプログラムの作成

    OpenAIRE

    比留木, 武雄

    1994-01-01

    The author reported Canine Dirofilariasis Control (CDC) Programs in dBASE III Ver. 2.0 (dBASE) which can control periodical administration of drugs, and forward a direct mail (DM) such an drugs and/or letter to the breeder. Although expected to be available in a pet clinic, these CDC programs proved to be still room for improvement because the voice has been heard that typing data manually is a durden, especially during a busy clinical work. Thus, the author decided to utilize a her code read...

  16. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassoula, E

    2005-01-01

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. Durin...

  17. 基于nCode的前横向稳定杆应变疲劳分析%Strain Fatigue Analysis on Front Transverse Stability Bar Based on nCode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪昀; 陈伟

    2014-01-01

    基于应变疲劳相关理论,采用Hypermesh软件建立了汽车前横向稳定杆的FEM模型,按照实际的跳动行程与约束条件,利用Nastran进行静态力学求解,然后将求解结果在nCode DesignLife中做E-N仿真分析.获得预测该零件的应变疲劳寿命、寿命安全系数及断裂危险位置等信息,验证了零件设计的合理性,同时为零件优化设计及材料的选择提供了科学设计依据.

  18. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  19. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  20. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2005-01-01

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. During the evolution a bar structure forms in the inner parts of the halo as well. This bar is shorter and fatter than the disc bar and stays so all through the simulation, although its length grows considerably with time. Viewed edge-on, the bar in the disc component acquires a boxy or peanut shape. I describe the families of periodic orbits that explain such structures and review the observations showing that boxy/peanut `bulges' are in fact just bars seen edge-on.

  1. Niobium in engineering bar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of niobium as a microalloying addition to hot rolled and cold finished bars offers many opportunities to achieve enhanced mechanical properties in a very cost effective manner. By the addition of niobium (sometimes in combination with vanadium) to selected carbon steel grades, it is possible to produce hot rolled bars with minimum yield strengths up to 689 MPa (100 ksi) and cold finished bars with yield strengths up to 1035 MPa (150 ksi). These high-strength-low-alloy bars have a myriad of applications particularly for automotive parts such as shafts, stabilizer bars, tie rods, piston rods, fasteners such as U-bolts, brackets, and various transmission parts. Of particular value has been the specification of Nb-microalloyed steels for such hot forgings as connecting rods and caps, and weld yokes a situation which has permitted elimination of post-forging heat treatment (quenching and tempering). Significant reductions in cost and energy consumption have been realized

  2. Bars in Cuspy Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, John; Shlosman, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    We examine the bar instability in models with an exponential disk and a cuspy NFW-like dark matter (DM) halo inspired by cosmological simulations. Bar evolution is studied as a function of numerical resolution in a sequence of models spanning 10K to 100M DM particles - including a multi-mass model with an effective resolution of 10G. The goal is to find convergence in dynamical behaviour. We characterize the bar growth, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through resonant transfer of angular momentum, and possible destruction of the DM halo cusp. Overall, most characteristics converge in behaviour in detail for halos containing more than 10M particles. Notably, the formation of the bar does not destroy the density cusp in this case. These higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  4. Design and implementation of food safety backtracking system based on two-dimensional bar code of PDF417%基于PDF417二维条码的食品安全追溯系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建春; 张江伟; 谢小丽; 李健勇; 黄道颖

    2011-01-01

    Because the current situation of the frequent occurrence of food security events, PDF417 two-dimensional bar code encoding and decoding components were designed and implemented based on COM technology, and applied to the food safety backtracking system. Through effective monitoring of the life cycle of problems food, they can be traced quickly, and the source can be found and the fast positioning of the flow of food can be achieved.%针对当前食品安全事件频发的情况,设计和实现了基于COM技术的PDF417二维条码编解码组件,并将其应用到食品安全回溯系统中,通过对食品生命周期的有效监控,对问题食品进行回溯,迅速实现问题食品源头和流向的快速定位.

  5. Valence band structure of the ZnO(1-bar 0-bar 1-bar -bar 0) surface studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic band structure of the ZnO(1-bar 0-bar 1-bar -bar 0) surface has been studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy-dependent measurements and K- and O2-adsorption studies revealed that the O 2p dangling-bond state exists at 3.7eV below the Fermi level at the Γ-bar point. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the state has dominant contribution of the O 2px orbital (x is parallel to the (1-bar 2-bar -bar 1-bar 0) direction) at the Γ-bar point. It is found that the O 2p dangling-bond band lies within the projected bulk bands along the ΓX-bar -bar and-bar ΓX'-bar axes in the surface Brillouin zone. This result settles a controversial issue on the energetic position of the O 2p dangling-bond band, which has been in dispute among theoretical studies. The dispersion widths are found to be 0.8 and 0.5eV along the ΓX-bar -bar and-bar ΓX'-bar directions, respectively

  6. Quasinuclear N bar N states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an interpretation of recent experimental results on nucleon-anti-nucleon annihilation reactions of the type N bar N → πX, which have yielded evidence for a new tensor meson AX (here called X2) with JπC(IG) = 2++(0+). The branching ratios for producing X2 from N bar N atomic states of orbital angular momentum L = 0,1, as well as its preference for decay into ρρ and ππ rather than K bar K channels, are consistent with the identifications of X2 as a 13P2-13F2 bound state of the N bar N potential. We suggest further key test of this interpretation. 21 refs

  7. Electromagnetic Compressive Split Hopkinson Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, P. A. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Silva, C. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for the compressive split Hopkinson bar that makes use of the intense pressure created in a transient magnetic field formed by the passage of a pulse of electric current through a series of coils. The proposed technology enables to characterize the behaviour of materials under high strain-rates with a small acceleration path length of the striker bar and, because propulsion is purely electromagnetic, the overall performance can be easily controlled and nearly ...

  8. Strength Degradation of Gfrp Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Bhise, Vikrant Sudhakar

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to examine the strength degradation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars at high temperature and alkalinity and determine if an Arrhenius type relationship can be used as a means of projecting life. The work done includes a thorough literature review, experiments and development of strength prediction models. The experimental work involves exposure of GFRP bars incased in cement mortar to lime-water solution at 30, 45 and 57°C. Overall 100 ...

  9. Multiprobe quantum spin Hall bars

    OpenAIRE

    Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED We analyze electron transport in multiprobe quantum spin Hall (QSH) bars using the B¨uttiker formalism and draw parallels with their quantum Hall (QH) counterparts. We find that in a QSH bar the measured resistance changes upon introducing side voltage probes, in contrast to the QH case. We also study four- and six-terminal geometries and derive the expressions for the resistances. For these our analysis is generalized from the single-channel to the multi-channel case...

  10. Barred disks in dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, I; Heiderman, A; Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Barden, M; Wolf, C; Peng, C Y; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Bell, E F; Bohm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Rix, H -W; Sanchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of bright (MV <= -18) barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z~0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. To identify and characterize bars, we use ellipse-fitting. We use visual classification, a Sersic cut, and a color cut to select disk galaxies, and find that the latter two methods miss 31% and 51%, respectively of disk galaxies identified through visual classification. This underscores the importance of carefully selecting the disk sample in cluster environments. However, we find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ~30% regardless of the method of disk selection. We study the relationship of the optical bar fraction to host galaxy properties, and find that the optical bar fraction depends strongly on the luminosity of the galaxy and whether it hosts a prominent bulge or is bulgeless. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the optical bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological ...

  11. Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2014-01-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys - fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos - are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three co-planer flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be ...

  12. The BaBar Software Architecture and Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment has in place since 1995 a software release system (SRT Software Release Tools) based on CVS (Concurrent Version System) which is in common for all the software developed for the experiment, online or offline, simulation or reconstruction. A software release is a snapshot of all BaBar code (online, offline, utilities, scripts, makefiles, etc.). This set of code is tested to work together, and is indexed by a release number (e.g., 6.8.2) so a user can refer to a particular release and get reproducible results. A release will involve particular versions of packages. A package generally consists of a set of code for a particular task, together with a GNU makefile, scripts and documentation. All BaBar software is maintained in AFS (Andrew File System) directories, so the code is accessible worldwide within the Collaboration. The combination SRT, CVS, AFS, has demonstrated to be a valid, powerful and efficient way of organizing the software infrastructure of a modern HEP experiment with collaborating Institutes distributed worldwide, both in a development and production phase

  13. A note on the B*B-bar, B*B-bar*, D*D-bar, D*D-bar* molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the one-boson-exchange model, we have performed an extensive study of the possible B*B-bar, B*B-bar*, D*D-bar, D*D-bar* molecular states with various quantum numbers after considering the S-wave and D-wave mixing. We also discuss the possible experimental research of these interesting states. (authors)

  14. Decoding Different Patterns in Various Grey Tones Incorporated in the QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Cvitić; Jesenka Pibernik

    2014-01-01

    Using colors in bar codes causes errors that may adversely affect their readability (Tan etal. 2010), given that the contrast between data and background modules is reduced. Due to the unreliability of using color bar codes, most designers still keep to the limitations placed by Pira International (Smithers Pira) in 2002 (Williams, 2004). Since the contrast between data modules and background modules is the most important aspect in the process of reliable bar code decoding, this paper explore...

  15. Gas flow in barred potentials II. Bar Driven Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

    2015-01-01

    Spiral arms that emerge from the ends of a galactic bar are important in interpreting observations of our and external galaxies. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanism that causes them. We find that these spiral arms can be understood as kinematic density waves generated by librations around underlying ballistic closed orbits. This is even true in the case of a strong bar, provided the librations are around the appropriate closed orbits and not around the circular orbits that form the basis of the epicycle approximation. An important consequence is that it is a potential's orbital structure that determines whether a bar should be classified as weak or strong, and not crude estimates of the potential's deviation from axisymmetry.

  16. /bar p/p collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Status and Performance Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Group, for the BaBar Collaboration EMC

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter at the BaBar detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with high resolution. The current status of the calorimeter, now in its seventh year of operation, is being presented, as well as details on improvements made to the analysis code during the last years.

  18. GFRP Bar: Determining Tensile Strength with Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Almerich Chulia, Ana Isabel; Fenollosa Forner, Ernesto Jesús; Cabrera Fausto, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain GFRP reinforcement bars it is necessary to undertake tests regulated code which require important mechanical tools. This paper presents a method which allows for determining GFRP rebars tensile strength value from their flexural strength value which has been obtained with a simple, inexpensive and reliable test. This method results will be verified by applying it to values obtained in a series of bending tests and comparing these results with values obtained in tensile test...

  19. Dynamically possible pattern speeds of double bars

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Witold

    2009-01-01

    The method to study oscillating potentials of double bars, based on invariant loops, is introduced here in a new way, intended to be more intelligible. Using this method, I show how the orbital structure of a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) changes with the variation of nuclear bar's pattern speed. Not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while high values of this speed lead to loops that are increasingly round. For values between these two extremes, loops supporting the inner bar extend further out as its pattern speed decreases, and they become more eccentric and pulsate more. These findings do not apply to counter-rotating inner bars.

  20. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  1. Bars in the Barkor Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In daytime,the Barkor Street is bustling with tourists,pious pilgrims and merchants crowded together.Only when darkness falls does the street become tranquil.Nevertheless,the area surrounding the Barkor Street(from Tibetan Hospital compound extending to east Beijing Road)is then revived by various kinds of bars.

  2. Bars in Beijing Old Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYUNZHANG

    2003-01-01

    It's seven pm on a summer's evening by Shichahao Lake,central Beijing.A welcome breeze whispers across the lake,and the ruddy vestiges of sunset linger on roofs and treetops.A low hum emanates from bars on the lakeshore packed with young people chatting,drinking and generally

  3. Permutation codes

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Slepians permutation codes are investigated in detail. In particular we optimize the initial vector and derive all dominating codes in dimension n 2 6. With the exception of the simplex and biorthogonal codes - which are always included as special cases of permutation codes - there are probably no further good codes in higher dimensions.

  4. CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING AND ENFORCING CALIFORNIA’S SMOKE-FREE WORKPLACE ACT IN BARS

    OpenAIRE

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P.; Roland S. Moore; Antin, Tamar M.J.

    2009-01-01

    California’s 1995 Smoke-Free Workplace Act—Assembly Bill 13 (AB 13)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper examines the challenges faced by officials responsible for implementing and enforcing the law. As part of a series of studies evaluating AB 13 in bars, researchers conducted confidential in-depth interviews with 35 state, county and municipal authorities and representatives of non-governmental agencies. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed by themes and respond...

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  6. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*

    OpenAIRE

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P.; Roland S. Moore

    2012-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a n...

  7. Bar, Orliac-de-Bar, Beaumont, Saint–Augustin, Ussel

    OpenAIRE

    Simonnot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 2735 Date de l'opération : 2007 (PR) Inventeur(s) : Simonnot Bernard (BEN) La prospection sur les communes de Bar, Orliac-de-Bar, Beaumont et Saint-Augustin n’ayant pas donné pour le moment de nouveaux résultats satisfaisants, une reprise sera nécessaire lors de la prochaine campagne. Ceux découverts récemment demandent une étude plus approfondie. Cette année, la prospection s’est limitée à la partie ouest de la commune d’Ussel, dans la zone de renc...

  8. Analysis of a calculation method for the determination of the value of safety or control bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the Rφ Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)

  9. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  10. Flexural strengthening of reinforced lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete beams with near-surface mounted GFRP bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.C.; Balendran, R.V.; Nadeem, A.; Leung, H.Y. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2006-10-15

    Application of near-surface mounted (NSM) fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient reinforced concrete (RC) members. In order for this technique to perform effectively, the structural behaviour of RC elements strengthened with NSM FRP bars needs to be fully characterized. This paper focuses on the characterization of flexural behaviour of RC members strengthened with NSM glass-FRP bars. Totally, 10 beams were tested using symmetrical two-point loads test. The parameters examined under the beam tests were type of concretes (lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete and normal concrete), type of reinforcing bars (GFRP and steel), and type of adhesives. Flexural performance of the tested beams including modes of failure, moment-deflection response and ultimate moment capacity are presented and discussed in this paper. Results of this investigation showed that beams with NSM GFRP bars showed a reduction in ultimate deflection and an improvement in flexural stiffness and bending capacity, depending on the PA content of the beams. In general, beams strengthened with NSM GFRP bars overall showed a significant increase in ultimate moment ranging from 23% to 53% over the corresponding beams without NSM GFRP bars. The influence of epoxy type was found conspicuously dominated the moment-deflection response up to the peak moment. Besides, the ultimate moment of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars could be predicted satisfactorily using the equation provided in ACI 318-95 Building Code. (author)

  11. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skibba, Ramin A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Willett, Kyle W., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  13. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their

  15. Search for \\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^- decay at Belle

    OpenAIRE

    The Belle Collaboration; Abe, K

    2007-01-01

    We search for the doubly charmed baryonic decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-$, in a data sample of $520\\times10^6$ $B{\\bar B}$ events accumulated at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e^+e^- collider. We find no significant signal and set an upper limit of ${\\cal B}(\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-)

  16. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  17. Use of hafnium in control bars of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the use of hafnium as neutron absorber material in nuclear reactors has been reason of investigation by virtue of that this material has nuclear properties as to the neutrons absorption and structural that can prolong the useful life of the control mechanisms of the nuclear reactors. In this work some of those more significant hafnium properties are presented like nuclear material. Also there are presented calculations carried out with the HELIOS code for fuel cells of uranium oxide and of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides under controlled conditions with conventional bars of boron carbide and also with similar bars to which are substituted the absorbent material by metallic hafnium, the results are presented in this work. (Author)

  18. Atomic simulations of (10 1-bar 2), (10 1-bar 1) twinning and (10 1-bar 2) detwinning in magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (10 1-bar 2) and (10 1-bar 1) twinning and (10 1-bar 2) detwinning for Mg were investigated from the viewpoint of mobility of twinning dislocations and atomic shuffling. First-principles calculations suggested that the twinning dislocations glide more readily for the (10 1-bar 1) twinning than for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning. However, this conflicts with the experimental fact of easier (10 1-bar 2) twin formation. On the other hand, molecular dynamics simulations showed that the atomic shuffling was more activated for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning than for the (10 1-bar 1) twinning, which corresponds to the experimental fact. Therefore, it is suggested that the rate-controlling process for the twin formation is the atomic shuffling. Moreover, the calculations and simulations showed that the twinning dislocations glide more readily for the (10 1-bar 2) detwinning than for the (10 1-bar 2) twinning, whereas the atomic shuffling is less activated for the detwinning, suggesting that the detwinning occurs easily but is unstable, resulting in easy repetition of twinning–detwinning. (paper)

  19. QR CODE GENERATION AND APPLICATION OF ANTI-FALSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ke LIAO

    2016-01-01

    QR code is 2-dimensional bar code. It is more advanced than bar code, which can only store numbers and characters. QR code can store numbers, characters (including Chinese characters) and even images. It has great data capacity and allows for error correction. It is commonly used to spread information and is sometimes used to achieve website login function. It can even be encrypted that the user has to enter password to get the original information. In my thesis, I come up with an idea tha...

  20. A diffractive barcode using diffusion-dot lines to form intersected bright bars with different orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Yeh, Sheng; Lin, Shyh Tsong; Wu, Ming Wei

    2010-11-01

    Conventional barcodes can perform well for the data management of commercial products, but they cannot be used for anti-counterfeiting. Therefore, this paper will propose a new barcode with macro- and micro-anti-counterfeiting features. A barcode image for a conventional barcode is composed of parallel bars with different widths, whereas a barcode image for the new barcode is composed of intersected bars with different orientations. Codes for the proposed barcode are composed of bright bars along four possible orientations only. The proposed barcode pattern possesses many parallel diffusion-dot lines. Because diffusion-dot lines can diffract a laser beam to form different bright bar arrangements corresponding to different codes, the proposed barcode is called a 'diffractive barcode' here. There are brightness and length differences between the bars in a bright bar image and the differences are difficult to counterfeit, so the macrofeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. On the other hand, because the appearances of the diffusion dots are special and they cannot be reproduced, the microfeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. Moreover, both the encoding and decoding work of the diffractive barcode are easy.

  1. A diffractive barcode using diffusion-dot lines to form intersected bright bars with different orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional barcodes can perform well for the data management of commercial products, but they cannot be used for anti-counterfeiting. Therefore, this paper will propose a new barcode with macro- and micro-anti-counterfeiting features. A barcode image for a conventional barcode is composed of parallel bars with different widths, whereas a barcode image for the new barcode is composed of intersected bars with different orientations. Codes for the proposed barcode are composed of bright bars along four possible orientations only. The proposed barcode pattern possesses many parallel diffusion-dot lines. Because diffusion-dot lines can diffract a laser beam to form different bright bar arrangements corresponding to different codes, the proposed barcode is called a 'diffractive barcode' here. There are brightness and length differences between the bars in a bright bar image and the differences are difficult to counterfeit, so the macrofeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. On the other hand, because the appearances of the diffusion dots are special and they cannot be reproduced, the microfeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. Moreover, both the encoding and decoding work of the diffractive barcode are easy

  2. First observation of B-bars0→Ds2*+Xμ-ν-bar decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data collected with the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the semileptonic decays B-bars0→Ds+Xμ-ν-bar and B-bars0→D0K+Xμ-ν-bar are detected. Two structures are observed in the D0K+ mass spectrum at masses consistent with the known Ds1(2536)+ and Ds2*(2573)+ mesons. The measured branching fractions relative to the total B-bars0 semileptonic rate are B(B-bars0→Ds2*+Xμ-ν-bar)/B(B-bars0→Xμ-ν-bar)=(3.3±1.0±0.4)%, and B(B-bars0→Ds1+Xμ-ν-bar)/B(B-bars0→Xμ-ν-bar)=(5.4±1.2±0.5)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the first observation of the Ds2*+ state in B-bars0 decays; we also measure its mass and width.

  3. Speech coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  4. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  5. Results from bar pp colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results bar pp colliders are presented. From elastic scattering experiments at the Tevatron, an average value of σtot = 72.1±2 mb is reported, along with a new measurement of ρ = 0.13 ± 0.7. New measurements of jet direct photon and high pt W and Z production are compared to more precise, higher order predictions from perturbative QCD. Recently available data on the W mass and width give combined values for MW = 80.14±0.27 GeV/c2, and Γ(W) =2. 14 ± 0.08 GeV. From electroweak radiative corrections and MW, one finds Mtop = 130±40 GeV/c2, with a 95% C.L. upper limit at 210 GeV/c2. Current limits on Mtop are presented, along with a review of the prospects for top discovery. From jet data there is no evidence of quark substructure down to the distance scale of 1.4 x 10-17 cm, nor is there evidence for supersymmetry or heavy gauge bosons at bar pp colliders, allowing lower limits on MW, > 520 GeV/c2 and MZ 412 GeV/c2. 66 refs., 26 figs

  6. P{bar P} collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A brief introduction to {bar p}p collider physics is given. Selected results from the collider experiments at the CERN S{bar p}pS and the Tevatron collider are described. The emphasis is on experimental aspects of {bar p}p collisions. Minimum bias physics and the production of jets, Intermediate Vector Bosons and heavy flavors is reviewed. The outlook for physics at hadron colliders for the near future is briefly discussed.

  7. Predictions for $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau} $

    CERN Document Server

    Boubaa, D; Duraisamy, M; Khalil, S

    2012-01-01

    The observation of $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau} $ at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper we calculate this process in a 2HDM framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavour changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass $% \\sim 125 $ GeV then we get $BR(B_s \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-6}$ and $BR(B_d \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-7}$. We also calculate this process in minimal supersymmetric standard model and find $BR(B_s \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}) \\sim 10^{-11}$.

  8. PREDICTIONS FOR $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}$

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaa, Dris; Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2013-12-01

    The observation of B -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ } at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper, we calculate this process in an extended Higgs sector framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavor changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass 125 GeV then we find that, after imposing all experimental constraints, the BR(Bs -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-6 and BR (Bd -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-7. We also calculate this process in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and find the BR(Bs ->τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) is typically of the order 10-8.

  9. Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $\\bar B \\bar B$ Strong Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the potentials of the heavy (charmed or bottomed) pseudoscalar mesons up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$ with the heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We take into account the contributions from the football, triangle, box, and crossed diagrams with the 2$\\phi$ exchange and one-loop corrections to the contact terms. We notice that the total 2$\\phi$-exchange potential alone is attractive in the small momentum region in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=1}$, ${\\bar B_s \\bar B_s}^{I=0}$, or ${\\bar B \\bar B_s}^{I=1/2}$, while repulsive in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=0}$. Hopefully the analytical chiral structures of the potentials may be useful in the extrapolation of the heavy meson interaction from lattice QCD simulation.

  10. B-bar → πlν-bar at three lattice spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing accuracy of experimental results for the exclusive, semileptonic decay B-bar → πlν-bar requires a similarly accurate calculation of the hadronic matrix elements, to determine vertical bar Vub vertical bar. We present preliminary results for the form factors of the B to light meson decay mode. Using results from three lattices in the range 5.7 ≤ β ≤ 6.1 we study the dependence on the lattice spacing

  11. Orbital Support of Fast and Slow Inner Bars in Double Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e. pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar...

  12. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  13. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  14. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  15. Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an ...

  16. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  17. Code Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors)

  18. Impact resistance of bar glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J P; Huggett, R H; Kidner, G

    1993-12-01

    Bar glasses are often used as weapons in interpersonal violence. Violence often erupts spontaneously and assailants use objects close to hand as weapons. After an initial national Accident and Emergency Department study to identify glass designs most often implicated in interpersonal violence, the impact resistance of 1-pint beer glasses was tested in a materials laboratory with a Zwick 5102 pendulum impact tester. Both straight-sided (nonik) glasses (annealed and tempered) and handled tankards (annealed) were tested to destruction. The impact resistance of new glasses was compared with that of glasses subjected to wear. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks did not differ significantly although new glasses were significantly more resistant than worn glasses (p shards although the thicker bases remained intact. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks was 0.5 J, of worn annealed noniks 0.08 J, of tempered new noniks > 4 J, of worn tempered noniks 0.18 J, and of tankards, 1.7 J.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263994

  19. An Implementation of Bayesian Adaptive Regression Splines (BARS in C with S and R Wrappers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrick Wallstrom

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BARS (DiMatteo, Genovese, and Kass 2001 uses the powerful reversible-jump MCMC engine to perform spline-based generalized nonparametric regression. It has been shown to work well in terms of having small mean-squared error in many examples (smaller than known competitors, as well as producing visually-appealing fits that are smooth (filtering out high-frequency noise while adapting to sudden changes (retaining high-frequency signal. However, BARS is computationally intensive. The original implementation in S was too slow to be practical in certain situations, and was found to handle some data sets incorrectly. We have implemented BARS in C for the normal and Poisson cases, the latter being important in neurophysiological and other point-process applications. The C implementation includes all needed subroutines for fitting Poisson regression, manipulating B-splines (using code created by Bates and Venables, and finding starting values for Poisson regression (using code for density estimation created by Kooperberg. The code utilizes only freely-available external libraries (LAPACK and BLAS and is otherwise self-contained. We have also provided wrappers so that BARS can be used easily within S or R.

  20. Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R J; Elmegreen, B G; Salo, H; Laurikainen, E; Elmegreen, D M; Puerari, I; Block, D L

    2009-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared K_s-band AAT IRIS2 observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0- to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is a only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their ...

  1. Barred Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Weinzirl, Tim; Balcells, Marc; Carter, David; Brok, Mark den; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hoyos, Carlos; Peletier, Reynier F; Huxor, Avon P; Peng, Erik; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2010-01-01

    We use ACS data from the HST Treasury survey of the Coma cluster (z~0.02) to study the properties of barred galaxies in the Coma core, the densest environment in the nearby Universe. This study provides a complementary data point for studies of barred galaxies as a function of redshift and environment. From ~470 cluster members brighter than M_I = -11 mag, we select a sample of 46 disk galaxies (S0--Im) based on visual classification. The sample is dominated by S0s for which we find an optical bar fraction of 47+/-11% through ellipse fitting and visual inspection. Among the bars in the core of the Coma cluster, we do not find any very large (a_bar > 2 kpc) bars. Comparison to other studies reveals that while the optical bar fraction for S0s shows only a modest variation across low-to-intermediate density environments (field to intermediate-density clusters), it can be higher by up to a factor of ~2 in the very high-density environment of the rich Coma cluster core.

  2. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  3. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Roland S. Moore

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to th...

  4. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  5. Star Formation Properties in Barred Galaxies(SFB). III. Statistical Study of Bar-driven Secular Evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend to be coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges towards stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the ...

  6. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China; Ji, Cheung-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Melnitchouk, Wally [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Wang, P. [Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  7. BARS DO DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Buta et al. examined the question 'Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?', an idea supported by theoretical studies and also from a preliminary observational analysis. They estimated maximum bar strengths Qb , maximum spiral strengths Qs , and maximum m = 2 arm contrasts A 2s for 23 galaxies with deep Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) Ks -band images. These were combined with previously published Qb and Qs values for 147 galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS) sample and with the 12 galaxies from Block et al. Weak correlation between Qb and Qs was confirmed for the combined sample, whereas the AAT subset alone showed no significant correlations between Qb and Qs , nor between Qb and A 2s. A similar negative result was obtained in Durbala et al. for 46 galaxies. Based on these studies, the answer to the above question remains uncertain. Here we use a novel approach, and show that although the correlation between the maximum bar and spiral parameters is weak, these parameters do correlate when compared locally. For the OSUBSGS sample, a statistically significant correlation is found between the local spiral amplitude, and the forcing due to the bar's potential at the same distance, out to ∼1.6 bar radii (the typical bar perturbation is then of the order of a few percent). Also for the sample of 23 AAT galaxies of Buta et al., we find a significant correlation between local parameters out to ∼1.4 bar radii. Our new results confirm that, at least in a statistical sense, bars do indeed drive spiral density waves.

  8. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    International audience Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar a...

  9. The DIRC detector at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dedicated particle identification system based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (DIRC) light will be used in the BaBar detector. We provide an overview of the DIRC concept, design, and expected performance of the production device and a status report on its construction and commissioning. The DIRC is expected to be operating in the BaBar detector on beam line at the PEP-II B Factory in late spring 1999

  10. The Influence of Bars on Nuclear Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    1997-01-01

    We test ideas on fueling of galactic nuclei by bar-driven inflow by comparing the detection rate and intensity of nuclear H II regions and AGNs among barred and unbarred galaxies in a sample of over 300 spirals selected from our recent optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. Among late-type spirals (Sc-Sm), but not early-type (S0/a-Sbc), we observe in the barred group a very marginal increase in the detection rate of H II nuclei and a corresponding decrease in the incidence of AGNs. The minor differences in the detection rates, however, are statistically insignificant, most likely stemming from selection effects and not from a genuine influence from the bar. The presence of a bar seems to have no noticeable impact on the likelihood of a galaxy to host either nuclear star formation or an AGN. The nuclei of early-type barred spirals do exhibit measurably higher star-formation rates than their unbarred counterparts, as indicated by either the luminosity or the equivalent width of H-alpha emission. By co...

  11. Hot Disks And Delayed Bar Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheth, Kartik; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Athanassoula, E; Weiner, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 $<$ z $\\leq$ 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local Universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep ($\\times$3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z=0 to z=0.84 in L$^*$ and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 $<$ log M$_{*}$(\\Msun)$<$ 11), later-type and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation ...

  12. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  13. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Yusupujiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Ji, Chueng -Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  14. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  15. Two Way Securities in QR Code Image by Using Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Parthiban.S; Sujatha P

    2013-01-01

    QR (Quick Response) Codes, is a kind of barcode, are Initiating to make inroads in the United States. It is upcoming technology which is adopted in higher education and non rural areas. A QR code is a matrix barcode readable by smart phones and mobile phones with cameras and android operating system. This can be refereed as 2D code, 2D bar code and Matrix code. This technique is more convenient to hiding data in simple manner, but there is no security, which lead to information leakage. To av...

  16. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  17. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  18. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  19. Evidence for the existence of $u d \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and the non-existence of $s s \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and $c c \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagenbach, Björn; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We combine lattice QCD results for the potential of two static antiquarks in the presence of two quarks $q q$ of finite mass and quark model techniques to study possibly existing $q q \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks. While there is strong indication for a bound four-quark state for $q q = (ud-du) / \\sqrt{2}$, i.e. isospin $I=0$, we find clear evidence against the existence of corresponding tetraquarks with $q q \\in \\{ uu , (ud+du) / \\sqrt{2} , dd \\}$, i.e. isospin $I=1$, $q q = s s$ and $q q = c c$.

  20. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  1. Sub-baud coding. [for interference reduction in spread-spectrum communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.; Uhran, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    In a spread-spectrum communication system, a data sequence of +1's and -1's is expanded into a sequence of +x's (bottom bar) and -x's (bottom bar) where x (bottom bar) is a length n sequence of +1's and -1's. A sub-baud code is the assignment of a different such baud sequence to each of M users with the objective of reducing interference between users. It is shown that this interference can be described in terms of the even and odd correlation functions between pairs of sequences. A technique for deriving sub-baud codes from cyclic error-correcting codes is given, and a theorem proved which bounds the quality of the resultant code. A specific such cyclic code construction procedure is given which, for any M, yields a sub-baud code for which the mutual interference can be made arbitrarily small by choosing n sufficiently large.

  2. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  3. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan fu...

  4. Heavy-flavored tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{Q}$ configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass spectrum of the tetraquark states composed of four heavy quarks with the $QQ\\bar Q\\bar Q$ configuration in this work. We also discuss their strong decay patterns, which shall be helpful to the experimental search for these exotic states.

  5. Bar Admission--Default on Student Loan Warrants Denial of Admission to Minnesota Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Mitchell Law Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld a decision that student loan default, and subsequent dismissal through bankruptcy, is sufficient reason to deny a law student's bar admission. The bar's requirement of good moral character was interpreted as financial integrity in the Gahan case. (MSE)

  6. B → Dlν form factors and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zero recoil limit of the B → Dlν form factors is calculated on the lattice, which provides a model-independent determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar. Considering a ratio of form factors, in which the bulk of statistical and systematic errors cancel, we obtain a precise result both for h+(1) and for h-(1)

  7. The influence of the environment on bar formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.; Sanchez-Janssen, R.; Corsini, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy mergers and interactions are mechanisms which could drive the formation of bars. Therefore, we could expect that the fraction of barred galaxies increases with the local density. Here we show the first results of an extensive search for barred galaxies in different environments. We conclude that the bar fraction on bright (L>L*) field, Virgo, and Coma cluster galaxies is compatible. These results point towards an scenario where the formation and/or evolution of bars depend mostly on in...

  8. Beyond Stabilizer Codes II: Clifford Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Knill introduced a generalization of stabilizer codes, in this note called Clifford codes. It remained unclear whether or not Clifford codes can be superior to stabilizer codes. We show that Clifford codes are stabilizer codes provided that the abstract error group has an abelian index group. In particular, if the errors are modelled by tensor products of Pauli matrices, then the associated Clifford codes are necessarily stabilizer codes.

  9. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  10. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  11. CP Asymmetries in bar B -> bar K* (-> bar K pi) l+ l- and Untagged bar B_s,B_s -> phi (-> K+ K-) l+ l- Decays at NLO

    CERN Document Server

    Bobeth, Christoph; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay bar B -> bar K* (-> bar K pi) l+ l- offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b ->s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed \\lesssim 1 % in the Standard Model and its extensions where the CKM matrix is the only source of CP violation. Three CP asymmetries are T-odd, and can be O(1) in the presence of non-standard CP violation. The T-even asymmetries can reach O(0.1), limited by the small strong phases in the large recoil region. We furthermore point out an easy way to measure CP phases from time-integrated, untagged bar B_d, B_d -> K* (-> K0 pi0) l+ l- and bar B_s,B_s -> phi (-> K+ K-) l+ l- decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experim...

  12. Tidally induced bars of galaxies in clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, Ewa L; del Pino, Andres; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and an NFW dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger, longer and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit the properties of the bar are controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenters. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when th...

  13. Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.

  14. Warp evidences in precessing galactic bar models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Martin, Patricia; Masdemont, Josep J

    2016-01-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen from an edge-on point of view. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far and in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic, model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect produced by a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model is developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar keep being the skeleton of the inner system, even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we compute the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to get evidences of their warped shapes. As it is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these bu...

  15. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  16. Results from the KARMEN nu-bar submu -> nu-bar sub e neutrino oscillation search

    CERN Document Server

    Eitel, K

    1999-01-01

    The neutrino experiment KARMEN is situated at the beam stop neutrino source ISIS. It provides nu submu's, nu sub e 's and nu-bar's in equal intensities from the pi sup + -mu sup + -decay at rest (DAR). The oscillation channel nu-bar submu -> nu-bar sub e is investigated in the appearance mode with a 56 t liquid scintillation calorimeter at a mean distance of 17.7 m from the nu-source looking for p (nu-bar sub e , e sup +) n reactions. In the data collected through 1997 and 1998 no potential oscillation event was observed. Using a unified approach to small signals as recommended by the PDG, this leads to an upper limit for the mixing angle of sin sup 2 (2 THETA) nu-bar sub e evidence.

  17. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, David C. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shah, Amisha J. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  18. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  19. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  20. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  1. Track Finding Efficiency in BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    Allmendinger, T; Brown, D N; Choi, H; Christ, S; Covarelli, R; Davier, M; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Hafner, A; Kowalewski, R; Long, O; Lutz, A M; Martinelli, M; Muller, D R; Nugent, I M; Pegna, D Lopes; Purohit, M V; Prencipe, E; Roney, J M; Simi, G; Solodov, E P; Telnov, A V; Varnes, E; Waldi, R; Wang, W F; White, R M

    2012-01-01

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using $\\tau$ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the $\\tau$ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of $K_S^0$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs BaBar running periods.

  2. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  3. Brouwer’s Real Thesis on Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    L.E.J. Brouwer made a mistake in the formulation of his famous bar theorem, as was pointed out by S.C. Kleene. By repeating this mistake several times, Brouwer has caused confusion. We consider the assumption underlying his bar theorem, calling it Brouwer’s Thesis. This assumption is not refuted by Kleene’s example and we use it to obtain a conclusion different from Brouwer’s. Thus we come to support a view first expressed and defended by E. Martino and P. Giaretta in [Martino 1981]. We also ...

  4. Fibered Multilinks and singularities $f \\bar g$

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon, Anne; Seade, José

    2005-01-01

    In this article we extend Milnor's fibration theorem for complex singularities to the case of singularities $f \\bar g:(X,P) \\to (C,0))$ defined on a complex analytic singularity germ $(X,P)$, with $f, g$ holomorphic and $f \\bar g$ having an isolated critical value at $0 \\in C$. This can also be regarded as a result for meromorphic germs. Then we strenghten this fibration theorem when $X$ has complex dimension 2, obtaining a fibration theorem for multilinks that extends previous work by Pichon...

  5. Forming Double-barred Galaxies From Dynamically Cool Inner Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P

    2015-01-01

    About one third of early-type barred galaxies host small-scale secondary bars. The formation and evolution of such double-barred galaxies remain far from being well understood. In order to understand the formation of such systems, we explore a large parameter space of isolated pure-disk simulations. We show that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady secondary bar while the outer disk forms a large-scale primary bar. The independent bar instabilities of inner and outer disks result in long-lived double-barred structures whose dynamical properties are comparable with observations. This formation scenario indicates that the secondary bar might form from the general bar instability, the same as the primary bar. Under some circumstances, the interaction of the bars and the disk leads to the two bars aligning or single, nuclear, bars only. Simulations that are cool enough of the center to experience clump instabilities may also generate steady double-barred ga...

  6. Observation of B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del, L; Buono; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of the b --> d penguin-dominated decays B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar in approximately 350 million Upsilon(4S) --> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector. We measure the branching fractions B(B+ --> K0bar K+) = (1.61 +/- 0.44 +/- 0.09) * 10^-6 and B(B0 --> K0 K0bar) = (1.08 +/- 0.28 +/- 0.11) * 10^-6, and the CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0bar K+) = 0.10 +/- 0.26 +/- 0.03. Using a vertexing technique previously employed in several analyses of all-neutral final states containing kaons, we report the first measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B0 --> K0 K0bar, obtaining S = -1.28 +0.80/-0.73 +0.11/-0.16 and C = -0.40 +/- 0.41 +/- 0.06. We also report improved measurements of the branching fraction B(B0 --> K0 pi+) = (23.9 +/- 1.1 +/- 1.0) * 10^-6 and CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0 pi+) = -0.029 +/- 0.039 +/- 0.010.

  7. Parametric Study of Shear Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with FRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Job; Ramadass, S.

    2016-06-01

    Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are being widely used as internal reinforcement in structural elements in the last decade. The corrosion resistance of FRP bars qualifies its use in severe and marine exposure conditions in structures. A total of eight concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with FRP bars were cast and tested over shear span to depth ratio of 0.5 and 1.75. The shear strength test data of 188 beams published in various literatures were also used. The model originally proposed by Indian Standard Code of practice for the prediction of shear strength of concrete beams reinforced with steel bars IS:456 (Plain and reinforced concrete, code of practice, fourth revision. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000) is considered and a modification to account for the influence of the FRP bars is proposed based on regression analysis. Out of the 196 test data, 110 test data is used for the regression analysis and 86 test data is used for the validation of the model. In addition, the shear strength of 86 test data accounted for the validation is assessed using eleven models proposed by various researchers. The proposed model accounts for compressive strength of concrete (f ck ), modulus of elasticity of FRP rebar (E f ), longitudinal reinforcement ratio (ρ f ), shear span to depth ratio (a/d) and size effect of beams. The predicted shear strength of beams using the proposed model and 11 models proposed by other researchers is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The mean of predicted shear strength to the experimental shear strength for the 86 beams accounted for the validation of the proposed model is found to be 0.93. The result of the statistical analysis indicates that the prediction based on the proposed model corroborates with the corresponding experimental data.

  8. Lectura en barómetro

    OpenAIRE

    Cháfer, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Elaboración de material digital y recursos en la red para el tercer curso de la titulación de Química y nuevos grados. El objetivo de este vídeo es aprender a medir la presión atmosférica en un barómetro.

  9. High quality joints of copper bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient joints in copper bus bar conductors can be made very simply by bolting and clamping. This paper proposes the method to maximize the jointing efficiency in order to eliminate hot spots in switchgears by optimizing the effect of spreading resistance and interface resistance.

  10. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  11. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils. PMID:27404117

  12. BaBar Explores CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent results obtained by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC on CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral and charged B decays are presented here. The analysis was performed on a data sample of ∼ 88 million Υ(4S) → B(bar B) decays collected between 1999 and 2002. Using b → c(bar c)s decays, we measure sin2β = 0.741 ± 0.067(stat) ± 0.034(syst). We also present sin2β measurements from, b → s(bar s)s and b → c(bar c)d processes. From neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons, we derive for the CP violating parameters, Sππ = 0.02 ± 0.34 ± 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and Cππ = -0.30 ± 0.25 ± 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12]. First results for B → π+π-π0 and K±π±π0 final states dominated by the ρ± resonance, are also presented

  13. Bar instability in disk-halo systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2016-01-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  14. Shooters:Mini Marvels of the Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2010-01-01

    No cocktail bar or mixer repertoire is complete unless it includes a short selection of shooters. Unfortunately in the past these miniature cocktails had a bad image due to poorly conceived promotions where the emphasis was too heavily weighted towards volume rather than delivering a unique taste experience for customers.

  15. Possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks from $\\Sigma_c^{(*)}\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi^{(',*)}_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In a one-boson-exchange model with one-pion and one-eta exchanges, we investigate possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks produced from the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$, $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$, and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ interactions with the S-D wave mixing. The Lagrangians with chiral symmetry, heavy quark symmetry, and/or hidden local symmetry are adopted to describe the interactions. With such Lagrangians, it is found that the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions are forbidden. For the $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is forbidden and only one-eta exchange survives, there exist three molecular candidates at cutoffs about 3 GeV, i.e., a $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ state with quantum number $I(J^P)=1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ states with $1(\\frac{1}{2}^-)$ and $1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$. For the $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$ and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is allow...

  16. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  17. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zmzhou@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  18. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing in...

  19. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble of...... concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  20. The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Bagley, Micaela; Quillen, Alice C

    2008-01-01

    The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down....

  1. CP asymmetry Relations Between $\\bar B^0\\rightarrow \\pi\\pi$ and $\\bar B^0\\rightarrow \\pi K$ Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang(INPAC, SKLPPC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China)

    1994-01-01

    We prove that CP violating rate difference $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) = \\Gamma (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) - \\Gamma ( B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^-\\pi^+)$ is related to $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+ K^-) = \\Gamma (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+K^-) - \\Gamma (B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^-K^+)$ in the three generation Standard Model. Neglecting small annihilation diagrams, and in the SU(3) symmetry limit, we show $\\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) = - \\Delta (\\bar B^0 \\rightarrow ...

  2. Studies of bb-bar gluon and cc-bar vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on several new studies of bb-barg and cc-barg vertices using 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z0 decays by e+e- collision. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous bbg couplings. The parity violation in Z0 → bb-barg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A measurement of the probability of gluon splitting into cc-bar pairs finds gcc-bar = (2.45 ± 0.29 ± 0.53)%. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into bb-bar pairs yields gbb-bar = (2.84 ± 0.61 (stat.) ± 0.59(yst.)) x 10-3 (Preliminary). (author)

  3. Predictions for NDK, K-bar DN and ND D-bar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work baryon systems made of three hadrons which contain one nucleon and one D meson, and in addition another meson, D-bar , K or K-bar , are investigated using the Fixed Center Approximation to the Faddeev equations. In this work we use Λc(2595), X(3700) and D*s0(2317) bound states as a cluster and a third particle scattering form that clusters. In all cases we find bound states and quasibound states.

  4. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441. ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  5. Quantum Cyclic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sagarmoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define and study \\emph{quantum cyclic codes}, a generalisation of cyclic codes to the quantum setting. Previously studied examples of quantum cyclic codes were all quantum codes obtained from classical cyclic codes via the CSS construction. However, the codes that we study are much more general. In particular, we construct cyclic stabiliser codes with parameters $[[5,1,3

  6. DATA SECURITY THROUGH QR CODE ENCRYPTION AND STEGANOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mary Shanthi Rani; K.Rosemary Euphrasia

    2016-01-01

    The art of information hiding has become an important issue in the recent years as security of information has become a big concern in this internet era. Cryptography and Steganography play major role for secured data transfer. Steganography stands for concealed writing; it hides the message inside a cover medium. Cryptography conceals the content of a message by encryption. QR (Quick Response) Codes are 2-dimensional bar codes that encode text strings. They are able to encode inf...

  7. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies: I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Aguerri, J A L; Falcón-Barroso, J; Amorin, A; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Fernandes, R Cid; García-Benito, R; García-Lorenzo, B; Delgado, R M González; Husemann, B; Kalinova, V; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Mast, D; Pérez, E; Sánchez, S F; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Backsmann, N; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; del Olmo, A; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Pérez, I; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Wisotzki, L; Ziegler, B

    2015-01-01

    The bar pattern speed ($\\Omega_{\\rm b}$) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine \\& Weinberg (1984; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. We measured $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problem...

  8. Rare kaon decays: $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bipul Bhuyan

    2004-03-01

    The experimental progress in the search for $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ will be presented in this paper. Also the physics potential of the proposed BNL experiment to search for $K_{L}^{0} → ^{0} \\bar{}$ (KOPIO) will be discussed.

  9. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego García

    2014-01-01

    We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups selected from the SDSS-DR7, with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on AGN and the role of the high density environment. We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups from SDSS-DR7 group catalog. To provide a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distribution...

  10. Initial magnetic field distribution around high rectangular bus bars

    OpenAIRE

    Cividjian Grigore A.

    2014-01-01

    The one-dimensional transient electromagnetic field in and around a system of two nonmagnetic homogenous rectangular high thin bars can be analytically evaluated if the ratio of average initial magnetic field on the two sides of thin bar, or of the ratio of initial magnetic fields in middle of the bar height is known. In this paper, using appropriate conformal mappings, an exact analytical solution for these ratios are proposed in the case of very thin bars...

  11. Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Mridula, D.; Singh, K. K.; Barnwal, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0–20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not af...

  12. Modeling of concrete cracking due to corrosion process of reinforcement bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossio, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.bossio@unina.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, I-80125 Italy (Italy); Monetta, Tullio, E-mail: monetta@unina.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, I-80125 Italy (Italy); Bellucci, Francesco, E-mail: bellucci@unina.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, I-80125 Italy (Italy); Lignola, Gian Piero, E-mail: glignola@unina.it [Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Prota, Andrea, E-mail: aprota@unina.it [Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    The reinforcement corrosion in Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a major reason of degradation for structures and infrastructures throughout the world leading to their premature deterioration before design life was attained. The effects of corrosion of reinforcement are: (i) the reduction of the cross section of the bars, and (ii) the development of corrosion products leading to the appearance of cracks in the concrete cover and subsequent cover spalling. Due to their intrinsic complex nature, these issues require an interdisciplinary approach involving both material science and structural design knowledge also in terms on International and National codes that implemented the concept of durability and service life of structures. In this paper preliminary FEM analyses were performed in order to simulate pitting corrosion or general corrosion aimed to demonstrate the possibility to extend the results obtained for a cylindrical specimen, reinforced by a single bar, to more complex RC members in terms of geometry and reinforcement. Furthermore, a mechanical analytical model to evaluate the stresses in the concrete surrounding the reinforcement bars is proposed. In addition, a sophisticated model is presented to evaluate the non-linear development of stresses inside concrete and crack propagation when reinforcement bars start to corrode. The relationships between the cracking development (mechanical) and the reduction of the steel section (electrochemical) are provided. Finally, numerical findings reported in this paper were compared to experimental results available in the literature and satisfactory agreement was found.

  13. Modeling of concrete cracking due to corrosion process of reinforcement bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reinforcement corrosion in Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a major reason of degradation for structures and infrastructures throughout the world leading to their premature deterioration before design life was attained. The effects of corrosion of reinforcement are: (i) the reduction of the cross section of the bars, and (ii) the development of corrosion products leading to the appearance of cracks in the concrete cover and subsequent cover spalling. Due to their intrinsic complex nature, these issues require an interdisciplinary approach involving both material science and structural design knowledge also in terms on International and National codes that implemented the concept of durability and service life of structures. In this paper preliminary FEM analyses were performed in order to simulate pitting corrosion or general corrosion aimed to demonstrate the possibility to extend the results obtained for a cylindrical specimen, reinforced by a single bar, to more complex RC members in terms of geometry and reinforcement. Furthermore, a mechanical analytical model to evaluate the stresses in the concrete surrounding the reinforcement bars is proposed. In addition, a sophisticated model is presented to evaluate the non-linear development of stresses inside concrete and crack propagation when reinforcement bars start to corrode. The relationships between the cracking development (mechanical) and the reduction of the steel section (electrochemical) are provided. Finally, numerical findings reported in this paper were compared to experimental results available in the literature and satisfactory agreement was found

  14. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR dom...

  15. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  16. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by...

  18. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  19. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  20. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the ability to be successful, productive members of the profession. Instead, the conventional wisdom is that the greatest obstacles to their success will come in the form of external barriers and institutional policies based on preconceived norms that do not acknowledge the divergent challenges faced by these group members.

  1. A Distinct Structure Inside the Galactic Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiyama, S; Baba, D; Haba, Y; Kadowaki, R; Kato, D; Kurita, M; Nagashima, C; Nagayama, T; Murai, Y; Nakajima, Y; Tamura, M; Nakaya, H; Sugitani, K; Naoi, T; Matsunaga, N; Tanabé, T; Kusakabe, N; Sato, S; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Sato, Shuji

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (J H Ks) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5deg < l < +10.5deg and b=+1.0deg, with the IRSF 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS camera. Ks vs. H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump (RC) stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=+10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the bar-like structure found in previous studies, but we find an additional inner structure at |l| < 4deg, where the longitude - apparent magnitude relation is distinct from the outer bar, and the apparent magnitude peak changes by only 0.1 mag over the central 8deg. The exact nature of this inner structure is as yet uncertain.

  2. Strangeness production in pp-bar collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study strangeness production reactions in the framework of a Chiral Constituent Quark Model. The model includes the coupling with the SU(3) pseudoscalar meson octet due to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. It also includes QCD perturbative effects through the coupling with the gluon field. In this way the two traditional mechanism of strangeness production, i.e., the kaon exchange and gluon annihilation, are introduce in the same framework. Two meson exchanges are parametrized through the exchange of scalar mesons, namely a sigma and a kappa exchange. The kappa exchange allows a better description of the polarization observables of the pp-bar →ΛΛ-bar production reaction. Other strangeness production reaction in the isospin 1 sector are also studied.

  3. Measuring K+ → π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K+ →π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar are ultra-rare kaon decay channels which offer unique opportunities for measuring Standard Model parameters relating to quark mixing and CP violation as well as searching for new physics. In this paper, the prospects for current and future progress on measuring K+ →π+νν-bar and KL0 → π0νν-bar at the Brookhaven AGS are reported. (author)

  4. Seismic Behavor of RC Beam-Column Joint with Additional Bars under Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xilin; Tonny H.URUKAP; LI Sen

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of Beam-Column Joints in moment resisting frame structures are susceptible to damage caused by seismic effects due to poor performance of the joint. A good number of researches were carried out to understand the complex mechanism of RC joints which are considered in seismic design code practices presently adopted. The traditional construction detailing of transverse reinforcement have shown serious joint failure.This paper introduces a new design philosophy involving the use of additional diagonal bars within the joint particularly suitable for low to medium seismic effects in earthquake zones throughout the world. In lieu to this study, ten (10) full-scale interior beam-column specimens were constructed with various additional reinforcement details and configurations as will be discussed in the later. The experiment provided adequate results to proof the idea of additional bars as suitable approach in reinforced concrete structures where earthquake is eminent. While compared with overall cracking observation during the test, the specimen with additional bars (diagonal and straight) had shown few cracks on the column than the ones without. Furthermore, concrete confinement is certainly an important design method as recommended by certain international codes.

  5. Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Rieppo, Jani

    2015-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Hotelli- ja ravintola-alan liikkeenjohdon koulutusohjelma Rieppo, Jani Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi Vuosi 2015 Sivumäärä 58 Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on liiketoimintasuunnitelman laatiminen uudelle rock-baarille, jonka avaaminen Joensuuhun on suunnitelman laatijan toimesta mahdollista joskus tulevaisuudessa. Tavo...

  6. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  7. The Expansion of Speakeasy Bar and Grill

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This strategic analysis makes recommendations on a course of action for Speakeasy Bar and Grill, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, with regards to growth of the brand. The comprehensive analysis determined that Speakeasy currently generates a competitive source of advantage in large part from the high level of direct involvement of its owners as managers, both in terms of cost and customer value advantages. Sustaining this advantage as the company grows with greater demands being placed...

  8. Sohio's L-Bar uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohio Petroleum Company's new L-Bar uranium mill near Grants, New Mexico, refines 2722 kilograms of yellowcake daily from 1360 metric tons of ore produced at Sohio's J.J. No. 1 mine and other nearby mines. This paper follows the ore from the mine through the various processing steps - semi-autogenous grinding, acid leaching, countercurrent decantation, solvent extraction, ammonium diuranate precipitation, washing and drying, and tailings disposal. (author)

  9. Dowel Bar Retrofit Mix Design and Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Yogini; Olek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with the issue of repair of concrete pavement repair using dowel bar retrofit technique, it is very desirable for the repair material to have high fluidity that can ensure good compaction and facilitate flow to tight spaces, preferably without the use of a vibrator. The focus of this project was on identifying critical properties that control long-term performance of repair concrete, especially rapid-setting materials extended using pea gravel (maximum size aggregate 9.5 mm). ...

  10. Ballymore Inn Restaurant Back Bar Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Ballymore Inn

    2014-01-01

    We opened the doors of the Ballymore Inn in Kildare over 16 years ago guided by our philosophy that the best food comes from carefully selected ingredients infused with an imaginative simplicity. The Ballymore Inn has evolved over those 16 years but this philosophy has remained the same. We grow our own seasonal fruit and vegetables and work with some of the country's best suppliers to ensure the finest dining experience for our customers. Our tastefully decorated restaurant and Back Bar crea...

  11. CP violation in p bar p colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simple calculation to investigate the possibility of studying CP violation in the B-environment at present p bar p colliders. The authors' conclusion, based on the comparison of CDF, as an example of a standard detector, with a proposed bottom collider detector (BCD), is that observation of CP violation seems to be possible, though very hard, only with specifically designed detectors and with a high integrated luminosity

  12. Bars do drive spiral density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Salo, H; Buta, R; Knapen, J H

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Buta etal. (2009) examined the question "Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?", an idea supported by theoretical studies and also from a preliminary observational analysis Block etal (2004). They estimated maximum bar strengths Q_b, maximum spiral strengths Q_s, and maximum m=2 arm contrasts A_2s for 23 galaxies with deep AAT K_s-band images. These were combined with previously published Q_b and Q_s values for 147 galaxies from the OSUBSGS sample and with the 12 galaxies from Block etal(2004). Weak correlation between Q_b and Q_s was confirmed for the combined sample, whereas the AAT subset alone showed no significant correlations between Q_b and Q_s, nor between Q_b and A_2s. A similar negative result was obtained in Durbala etal. (2009) for 46 galaxies. Based on these studies, the answer to the above question remains uncertain. Here we use a novel approach, and show that although the correlation between the maximum bar and spiral parameters is weak, these parameters do correlate when compared local...

  13. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  14. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  15. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are taken at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.

  16. INFINITELY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION USING FOUR BAR MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N. ARUNKUMAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the continuously variable transmission systems in automobiles now-a-days are non-positive drives. This means that they cannot be used in heavy vehicles that require very high torque to be transmitted. This new type of infinitely variable transmission is aimed at transmitting high torques by making it a positive drive, thus making continuously variable transmission systems to be suitable for heavy vehicles. Infinitely variable transmission system and continuously variable transmission system are both the same except that there is an extra zero gear ratio in infinitely variable transmission system. This newly developed transmission system is basically a four bar mechanism with variable crank radius which makes it possible to have continuously variable mechanical advantage. The output lever which oscillates in the four bar mechanism is connected to a ratchet mechanism which turns the output shaft intermittently, two four bar mechanisms with a phase difference of 180 degrees is used to avoid the intermittent rotation of the output shaft. A flywheel is used in the output shaft to reduce the fluctuations in both speed and torque.

  17. Quantum Convolutional BCH Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, S A; Klappenecker, A; Roetteler, M; Sarvepalli, P K; Aly, Salah A.; Grassl, Markus; Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin; Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2007-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes can be used to protect a sequence of qubits of arbitrary length against decoherence. We introduce two new families of quantum convolutional codes. Our construction is based on an algebraic method which allows to construct classical convolutional codes from block codes, in particular convolutional BCH codes. These codes have the property that they contain their Euclidean, respectively Hermitian, dual codes. Hence, they can be used to define quantum convolutional codes by the stabilizer code construction. We compute BCH-like bounds on the free distances which can be controlled as in the case of block codes, and establish that the codes have non-catastrophic encoders.

  18. Study of the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and its intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Vetere, M Lo; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Pegna, D Lopes; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voß, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Vasseur, G; Y\\`, Ch; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Sevilla, M Franco; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Puccio, E M T; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Villanueva-Perez, P; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2013-01-01

    We study the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, reconstructing the \\Lambda_{c}^{+} baryon in the $p K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ mode, using a data sample of $467\\times 10^{6}$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-2 storage rings at SLAC. We measure branching fractions for decays with intermediate $\\Sigma_{c}$ baryons to be ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(21.3 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 5.5) \\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(11.5\\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.5 \\pm 3.0)\\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]=(9.1 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 2.4)\\times10^{-5}$, and ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]= (2.2 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.1\\pm 0.6) \\times 10^{-5}$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty on the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\rightarrow\\proton\\Km\\pi^{+}$ branching fraction, respectively. For decays without $\\Sig...

  19. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  20. Initial magnetic field distribution around high rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cividjian Grigore A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional transient electromagnetic field in and around a system of two nonmagnetic homogenous rectangular high thin bars can be analytically evaluated if the ratio of average initial magnetic field on the two sides of thin bar, or of the ratio of initial magnetic fields in middle of the bar height is known. In this paper, using appropriate conformal mappings, an exact analytical solution for these ratios are proposed in the case of very thin bars. Obtained values are compared with FEM results for relatively thick bars.

  1. The influence of the environment on bar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Zarattini, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Corsini, E M

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy mergers and interactions are mechanisms which could drive the formation of bars. Therefore, we could expect that the fraction of barred galaxies increases with the local density. Here we show the first results of an extensive search for barred galaxies in different environments. We conclude that the bar fraction on bright (L>L*) field, Virgo, and Coma cluster galaxies is compatible. These results point towards an scenario where the formation and/or evolution of bars depend mostly on internal galaxy processes rather than external ones.

  2. On the spectrum of $\\bar{X}$-bounded minimal submanifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Salavessa, Isabel M. C.

    2009-01-01

    We prove, under a certain boundedness condition at infinity on the $(\\bar{X}^{\\top}, \\bar{X}^{\\bot})$-component of the second fundamental form, the vanishing of the essential spectrum of a complete minimal $\\bar{X}$-bounded and $\\bar{X}$-properly immersed submanifold on a Riemannian manifold endowed with a strongly convex vector field $\\bar{X}$. The same conclusion also holds for any complete minimal $h$-bounded and $h$-properly immersed submanifold that lies in a open set of a Riemannian man...

  3. Concatenated Conjugate Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M

    2006-01-01

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes either of which contains the dual of the other. A conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is known that conjugate code pairs are applicable to (quantum) cryptography. We give a construction method for efficiently decodable conjugate code pairs.

  4. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  5. Automated bar detection in local disc galaxies from the SDSS - The colors of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Consolandi, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of neither the images nor the ellipticity/P.A. radial profiles, at extracting a fairly pure sample of barred LTGs among thousands of optical images from the SDSS. The procedure relies on the methods described in Consolandi et al. (2016) to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their P.A. and ellipticity profiles. It has been run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local supercluster. The procedure extracted for each galaxy a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes. Examining automatically the profiles of 922 face-on late-type galaxies (B/A >0.7) the procedure found that ~ 36 % are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to constr...

  6. Slowly rotating bars-Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tsigaridi, L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a \\textit{barred-spiral} model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits we find a "bistable region". In the response model we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an "S" shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the "S" part of the characteristic we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from a x1-type to a x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientati...

  7. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  8. The relation between bar formation, galaxy luminosity, and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Aguerri, J A L; Zarattini, S

    2013-01-01

    We derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma cluster are statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on...

  9. Strong resilience of topological codes to depolarization

    CERN Document Server

    Bombin, H; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Katzgraber, Helmut G; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2012-01-01

    The inevitable presence of decoherence effects in systems suitable for quantum computation necessitates effective error correction schemes to protect information from noise. We compute the stability of the toric code to depolarization by mapping the quantum problem onto a classical disordered eight-vertex Ising model. By studying the stability of the related ferromagnetic phase both via large-scale Monte Carlo simulations and via the duality method, we are able to demonstrate an increased error threshold of 18.9(3)% when noise correlations are taken into account. Remarkably, this agrees within error bars with the result for a different class of codes---topological color codes---where the mapping yields interesting new types of interacting 8-vertex models.

  10. Decoding Different Patterns in Various Grey Tones Incorporated in the QR Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using colors in bar codes causes errors that may adversely affect their readability (Tan etal. 2010, given that the contrast between data and background modules is reduced. Due to the unreliability of using color bar codes, most designers still keep to the limitations placed by Pira International (Smithers Pira in 2002 (Williams, 2004. Since the contrast between data modules and background modules is the most important aspect in the process of reliable bar code decoding, this paper explores the dependence of reliable decoding of QR codes incorporated with combinations of grey tones on the technical characteristics of the cameras on smartphones that were marketed in the period between 2008 and 2012.

  11. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (Ln bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), gij;k = 0 and fji = eφ · gji (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((Vn bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V4-spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V4-spaces

  12. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

  13. Twisted Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Neil I.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Spiga, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We introduce twisted permutation codes, which are frequency permutation arrays analogous to repetition permutation codes, namely, codes obtained from the repetition construction applied to a permutation code. In particular, we show that a lower bound for the minimum distance of a twisted permutation code is the minimum distance of a repetition permutation code. We give examples where this bound is tight, but more importantly, we give examples of twisted permutation codes with minimum distance...

  14. Transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    A code is called transitive if its automorphism group (the isometry group) of the code acts transitively on its codewords. If there is a subgroup of the automorphism group acting regularly on the code, the code is called propelinear. Using Magma software package we establish that among 201 equivalence classes of transitive perfect codes of length 15 from \\cite{ost} there is a unique nonpropelinear code. We solve the existence problem for transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes for any admissi...

  15. MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottmann Renzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as

  16. Dependence of Barred Galaxy Fraction on Galaxy Properties and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Choi, Yun-Young

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than $M_{r}=-19.5+5$log$h$ at $0.02\\le z\\le0.05489$, drawn from the SDSS DR 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio $b/a>0.60$, we find 3,240 barred galaxies ($f_{bar}=30.4%$) which divide into 2,542 strong bars ($f_{SB1}=23.8%$) and 698 weak bars ($f_{SB2}=6.5%$). We find that $f_{SB1}$ increases as $u-r$ color becomes redder, and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ($\\sigma\\simeq$150 km s$^{-1}$). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with $\\sigma>150$ km s${}^{-1}$. We also find that $f_{bar}$ ...

  17. How can double-barred galaxies be long-lived?

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Herve

    2015-01-01

    Double-barred galaxies account for almost one third of all barred galaxies, suggesting that secondary stellar bars, which are embedded in large-scale primary bars, are long-lived structures. However, up to now it has been hard to self-consistently simulate a disc galaxy that sustains two nested stellar bars for longer than a few rotation periods. N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including star formation recipes have been performed. Their properties have been compared with the most recent observational data in order to prove that they are representative of double-barred galaxies, even SB0. Overlaps in dynamical resonances and bar modes have been looked for using Fourier spectrograms. Double-barred galaxies have been successfully simulated with lifetimes as long as 7 Gyr. The stellar population of the secondary bar is younger on average than for the primary large-scale bar. An important feature of these simulations is the absence of any resonance overlap for several Gyr. In particular, there is no overlap betw...

  18. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Sol; Lambas, Diego García

    2014-01-01

    We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups selected from the SDSS-DR7, with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on AGN and the role of the high density environment. We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups from SDSS-DR7 group catalog. To provide a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distributions was constructed. We found that the fraction of barred AGN galaxies in groups (~ 38 %) is higher than those in the total barred AGN sample ( ~ 28 %), indicating that AGN spiral galaxies in groups are more likely to be barred than those in the field. We also found that barred AGN galaxies are more concentrated towards the group centers than the other unbarred AGN group members. In addition, barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of population dominated by red colors suggesting that bars produce an importanteffect on gala...

  19. The Structure of the Milky Way's Bar Outside the Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Wegg, Christopher; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from UKIDSS, 2MASS, VVV, and GLIMPSE. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b|<9deg and |l|<40deg. We find: (1) The bar extends to l~25deg at |b|~5deg from the Galactic plane, and to l~30deg at lower latitudes. (2) The long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28-33)deg, consistent with studies of the bulge at |l|<10deg. (3) The scale-height of RCG stars smoothly transitions from the bulge to the thinner long bar. (4) There is evidence for two scale heights in the long bar. We find a ~180pc thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disk near the sun, and a ~45pc super-thin bar component which exists predominantly towards the bar end. (5) Constructing...

  20. Bars and secular evolution in disk galaxies: Theoretical input

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2012-01-01

    Bars play a major role in driving the evolution of disk galaxies and in shaping their present properties. They cause angular momentum to be redistributed within the galaxy, emitted mainly from (near-)resonant material at the inner Lindblad resonance of the bar, and absorbed mainly by (near-)resonant material in the spheroid (i.e., the halo and, whenever relevant, the bulge) and in the outer disk. Spheroids delay and slow down the initial growth of the bar they host, but, at the later stages of the evolution, they strengthen the bar by absorbing angular momentum. Increased velocity dispersion in the (near-)resonant regions delays bar formation and leads to less strong bars. When bars form they are vertically thin, but soon their inner parts puff up and form what is commonly known as the boxy/peanut bulge. This gives a complex and interesting shape to the bar which explains a number of observations and also argues that the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar in our Galaxy are, respectively, the thin and the thick p...

  1. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  2. Homological stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev’s toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev’s toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: ► We show that Kitaev’s toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. ► We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. ► We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. ► We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  3. Neutralino annihilation to q \\bar q g

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Logan, H; Shaughnessy, G; Barger, Vernon; Keung, Wai-Yee; Logan, Heather; Shaughnessy, Gabe

    2006-01-01

    We compute the cross section for \\chi\\chi \\to q \\bar q g at order \\alpha_s^2/M_{\\widetilde q}^6 arising from interference between the tree-level and loop-induced processes. This interference term is the same order in \\alpha_s as \\chi\\chi \\to gg; for mass degenerate squarks M_{\\widetilde q_R} = M_{\\widetilde q_L} = M_{\\widetilde q} we find v_{\\rm rel} \\sigma_{\\rm int} = [-2 m_{\\chi}^2/3 M_{\\widetilde q}^2] v_{\\rm rel} \\sigma (\\chi\\chi \\to gg).

  4. Warp evidences in precessing galactic bar models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Martin, Patricia; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2016-01-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen from an edge-on point of view. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far and in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic, model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect produced by a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model is developed and considered, assuming t...

  5. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  6. A Distinct Structure Inside the Galactic Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (J H Ks) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5deg < l < +10.5deg and b=+1.0deg, with the IRSF 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS camera. Ks vs. H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump (RC) stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=+10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the bar-like structure found in previous studies, ...

  7. $B$--$\\bar B$ Mixing Results

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, M

    1999-01-01

    A review of B B-bar mixing results at the end of July 1999 is presented. Emphasis is put on recent measurements of Delta-Md and Delta-Ms. For Delta-Md, the new world average is Delta-Md = 0.473 +- 0.016 ps-1. For Delta-Ms, the new world average 95% CL limit is 12.4 ps-1, with a sensitivity of 14.2 ps-1. Other related results are covered very briefly.

  8. The Pattern Speed of the Galactic Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnen, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Most late-type stars in the solar neighborhood have velocities similar to the local standard of rest (LSR), but there is a clearly separated secondary component corresponding to a slower rotation and a mean outward motion. Detailed simulations of the response of a stellar disk to a central bar show that such a bi-modality is expected from outer-Lindblad resonant scattering. When constraining the run of the rotation curve by the proper motion of Sgr A* and the terminal gas velocities, the valu...

  9. BarLaurean mahdollisuudet saavuttaa Joutsenmerkki

    OpenAIRE

    Järveläinen, Tuomas; Paavola, Salme

    2009-01-01

    Joutsenmerkki on vapaaehtoinen yhteispohjoismainen Ympäristömerkki. Opinnäytetyö on osa kehittämistyötä, jonka tavoitteena on hakea Joutsenmerkintää BarLaurean toiminnalle. Joutsenmerkin anomiseen tähtäävät toimenpiteet on aloitettu keväällä 2009 tekemällä aiheesta alustava toimintasuunnitelma. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on soveltaa käytäntöön toimintasuunnitelmassa kuvattuja toimenpiteitä, jotka dokumentoidaan Joutsenmerkkikansioon osana Joutsenmerkki-hakemusta. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena ...

  10. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  11. The BaBar Data Reconstruction Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceseracciu, A

    2005-04-20

    The BaBar experiment is characterized by extremely high luminosity and very large volume of data produced and stored, with increasing computing requirements each year. To fulfill these requirements a Control System has been designed and developed for the offline distributed data reconstruction system. The control system described in this paper provides the performance and flexibility needed to manage a large number of small computing farms, and takes full benefit of OO design. The infrastructure is well isolated from the processing layer, it is generic and flexible, based on a light framework providing message passing and cooperative multitasking. The system is distributed in a hierarchical way: the top-level system is organized in farms, farms in services, and services in subservices or code modules. It provides a powerful Finite State Machine framework to describe custom processing models in a simple regular language. This paper describes the design and evolution of this control system, currently in use at SLAC and Padova on {approx}450 CPUs organized in 9 farms.

  12. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search; Obtencion de patrones de barras de control para un BWR usando busqueda Tabu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico 52045 (Mexico); Morales, L.B. [UNAM, IIMAS, Ciudad Universitaria, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Valle, E. del [IPN, ESFM, Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' , Col. Lindavista 07738, D. F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo{sub t}abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  13. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  14. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed. PMID:27062720

  15. The LHCb pentaquark as a $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c-\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c^*$ molecular state

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, L; Oset, E

    2015-01-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis of the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi K^- p$ reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a $\\Lambda(1405)$ contribution in the $K^- p$ spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the $J/\\psi\\,p$ spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and $J^P$ of the experiment, concretely some states built up from the $J/\\psi\\, N$, $\\bar D^* \\Lambda_c$, $\\bar D^* \\Sigma_c$, $\\bar D \\Sigma^*_c$ and $\\bar D^* \\Sigma^*_c$ coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the $K^- p$ mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the $J/\\psi\\,p$ distribution, with values of the $J/\\psi\\, p$ coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The non trivial matching of many properties gives support to a $J^P=3/2^-$ assignment to this state and to its nature as a ...

  16. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s-1 and β-bar 795.10-5, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons γ β-bar/β 1.23 and the generation time Λ 59.10-6s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author)

  17. Stainless steel for reinforcing bar concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where corrosion resisting reinforcing bar is required, stainless steel has been employed for many applications. The longest recorded use so far is over 75 years for a restoration project in the United Kingdom. Other areas are highway bridge decks, retaining walls, tunnels, pier and overpass structures all of which use stainless steel to prevent corrosion and extend structure life. Carbon steel rebar leads to premature failure via concrete spalling that results in excessive repair, high cost, traffic delay and commerce disruption. Selection of stainless steel is based on its corrosion resistance, strength and long life. Installed cost using stainless steel reinforcing barranges from one to fifteen percent depending on structure complexity. Life Cycle Cost calculations reveal when stainless steel reinforcing bar is factored into the design, with a life expectancy up to 125 years, the alloy is cost effective. Data will be exhibited relative to mechanical and physical properties of stainless steel compared to carbon steel rebar. Some stainless rebar applications around the World will be discussed in addition to laboratory and field test results with U-bent stainless steel specimens embedded in concrete. Comments will also be made relative to the environment, lengthened journeys, delivery delay, fuel burned as vehicles sit at idle, drilling, blasting, crushing and transport of aggregate, cement and the attendant power units to manufacture these items for reconstruction. (author)

  18. Orbital structure in barred spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harsoula, Maria; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14427.x

    2010-01-01

    We study the orbital structure in a series of self-consistent $N$-body configurations simulating rotating barred galaxies with spiral and ring structures. We perform frequency analysis in order to measure the angular and the radial frequencies of the orbits at two different time snapshots during the evolution of each $N$-body system. The analysis is done separately for the regular and the chaotic orbits. We thereby identify the various types of orbits, determine the shape and percentages of the orbits supporting the bar and the ring/spiral structures, and study how the latter quantities change during the secular evolution of each system. Although the frequency maps of the chaotic orbits are scattered, we can still identify concentrations around resonances. We give the distributions of frequencies of the most important populations of orbits. We explore the phase space structure of each system using projections of the 4D surfaces of section. These are obtained via the numerical integration of the orbits of test...

  19. Barómetro industrial LEON 50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Álvarez Martínez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Barómetro indusrial LEON 50 es un trabajo de investigación que tiene como objetivo esencial identificar características patrimoniales, financieras y económicas de una muestra de empresas que actúan dentro de la industria leonesa. El soporte de este estudio empírico es la información contable anual auditada que depositan en el Registro Mercantil las empresas integrantes de la muestra, recogida básicamente en el balance de situación, la cuenta de pérdidas y ganacias y el cuadro de finaciación referidos al bienio 2001-02. En esencia, el Barómetro Industrial LEON 50 pretende ser un avance en el análisis, diagnóstico y mejor conocimiento de la industria regional, aportando una visión actualizada sobre estrategias y pautas de actuación empresarial que serán objeto de observación en períodos

  20. Asymptotic Orbits in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harsoula, Maria; Contopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    We study the formation of the spiral structure of barred spiral galaxies, using an $N$-body model. The evolution of this $N$-body model in the adiabatic approximation maintains a strong spiral pattern for more than 10 bar rotations. We find that this longevity of the spiral arms is mainly due to the phenomenon of stickiness of chaotic orbits close to the unstable asymptotic manifolds originated from the main unstable periodic orbits, both inside and outside corotation. The stickiness along the manifolds corresponding to different energy levels supports parts of the spiral structure. The loci of the disc velocity minima (where the particles spend most of their time, in the configuration space) reveal the density maxima and therefore the main morphological structures of the system. We study the relation of these loci with those of the apocentres and pericentres at different energy levels. The diffusion of the sticky chaotic orbits outwards is slow and depends on the initial conditions and the corresponding Jaco...

  1. Anti-seismic behavior of HRB400 reinforced steel bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; SHENG Guang-min; GONG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    The properties of anti-seismic HRB400 steel bars with 25 mm diameter were systematically investigated. The results showed that the properties of the HRB400 reinforced steel bars had been greatly enhanced comparing with HRB335 steel bars, i.e. coordination of strength and ductility, strain-aging sensibility, low temperature impact toughness, weld ability and high strain low cycle fatigue. The ductile-brittle transit temperatures of hot-rolled and strain-aged steel bars were evaluated as -17℃ and-8℃ respectively, and the low temperature impact toughness of HRB400 steel bars remains to be improved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction showed little vanadium existed in ferrite as VN, most of which existed in pearlite as alloy cementite which resulted in the declination of impact toughness. Methods were suggested to improve the anti-seismic properties of steel bars.

  2. Shepherding Tidal Debris with the Galactic Bar: The Ophiuchus Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kohei; Sanders, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that g...

  3. Uncertainties in the Deprojection of the Observed Bar Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yanfei; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length ($a$) and ellipticity ($e$), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a 2D plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles ($i$). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing $i$. All the deprojection methods behave badly when $i$ is larger than $60^\\circ$, due to vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than $60^\\circ$. At moderate inclination angles ($i\\leq60^\\circ$), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching) and Fourier-based methods (Fourier de...

  4. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  5. Λ bar Λ production in two-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of Λ bar Λ, making the first observation of γγ→Λ bar Λ. We present the cross section for γγ→Λ bar Λ as a function of the γγ center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Fault bars and the risk of feather damage in cranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jovani, Roger; Blas, Julio; Stoffel, M.J.; Bortolotti, L.E.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Fault bars are translucent areas across feathers grown under stressful conditions. They are ubiquitous across avian species and feather tracts. Because fault bars weaken feather structure and can lead to feather breakage, they may reduce flight performance and lower fitness. Therefore, natural selection might prime mechan- isms aimed at reducing the cost of fault bars, penalizing their occurrence in those feathers more relevant for flight. Here, we tested one prediction of this ‘fault...

  7. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  8. The structure of the Milky Way's bar outside the bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Vista Variables in the Via Lactea and Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b| ≤ 9° and |l| ≤ 40°. We find (i) the bar extends to l ˜ 25° at |b| ˜ 5° from the Galactic plane, and to l ˜ 30° at lower latitudes; (ii) the long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28°-33°), consistent with studies of the bulge at |l| thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disc near the Sun, and a ˜45 pc superthin bar components which exist predominantly towards the bar end; (v) constructing parametric models for the red clump magnitude distributions, we find a bar half-length of 5.0 ± 0.2 kpc for the two-component bar, and 4.6 ± 0.3 kpc for the thin bar component alone. We conclude that the Milky Way contains a central box/peanut bulge which is the vertical extension of a longer, flatter bar, similar as seen in both external galaxies and N-body models.

  9. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, J. E.; Yackovich, F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginos...

  10. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  11. Interaction of Bar Morphology and Riparian Vegetation in Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francalanci, S.; Bertoldi, W.; Siviglia, A.; Solari, L.; Toffolon, M.; Vetsch, D.

    2013-12-01

    Gravel-bed rivers are often characterized by complex bed topography, including single- and multiple-row alternate bars, bed undulations associated with channel curvature, riffle and pool sequences, presence of riparian vegetation in the floodplain, etc. The interaction of these features results in different morphologies with complex patterns and dynamics. The present work investigates the effect of the riparian vegetation on the bar dynamics, in particular it is investigated how the vegetation, which grows during the dry season on the bars, can alter the topographic patterns evolution during flood conditions. Performing two-dimensional numerical simulations we try to answer to the following research questions: which is the interaction of vegetation with bar morphology? which are the changes in sediment discharge and flow resistance, at cross-sectional and reach scale? Which are the changes in distribution of emerged and submerged areas, and potential feedbacks for vegetation growth? Which is the effect of vegetation on bar wave-length? The code BASEMENT (Faeh et al., 2010) has been used for performing the numerical runs. It has been properly modified in order to deal with the numerical description of the vegetation. The vegetation was allowed to grow during the dry season on the top of dry emergent areas, and the vertical distribution of vegetation in equilibrium condition was modeled as a function of the bed elevation using a simple analytical formulation, following Marani et al (2013). Then, during the flood events we assume that the vegetation distribution does not change, and that it can only be uprooted if the bed is eroded.The flow resistance was divided into a resistance exerted by the soil and a resistance exerted by the plants (Crosato and Saleh, 2010; Li and Millar, 2011); in this way it was possible to reproduce both the decrease in bed shear stress, reducing the sediment transport capacity of the flow within the plants, and the increase in hydraulic

  12. One-loop corrections to the process e+e- → tt-bar including hard bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative corrections to the process e+e- → tt-bar are Calculated in one-loop approximation of the Standard Model. There exist results from several groups. This talk provides further comparisons of the complete electroweak contributions, including hard bremsstrahlung. The excellent final agreement of the different groups allows to continue by working on a code for an event generator for TESLA and an extension to e+e- → 6 fermions. (author)

  13. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  14. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B0-(B0)-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on Bd0-(Bd0)-bar and Bs0-(Bs0)-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  15. Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.

  16. Shanghai’s Bars:Urban Romance and Sadness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuSha

    2002-01-01

    When speaking of Shanghai’s bars, what comes to people’s minds first must be Hengshan Street, a road known for its variety of bars. For many people, Hengshan Street is a landmark. On this street, bars in bold and unrestrained styles appeal to visitors. In fact, the whole street is a large open bar: the hurly-burly of "Hello" permeates every corner of the street; the resonant singing of "Rainbow Potato" echoes in the night sky; the rock’n roll of "Full House" fascinates passers-by with the wildness of John Lennon; even

  17. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  18. Cosmic evolution of bars in simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Habe, Asao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of two bars formed in fully self-consistent hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way-mass galaxies. One galaxy shows higher central mass concentration and has a longer and stronger bar than the other at $z = 0$. The stronger bar evolves by transferring its angular momentum mainly to the dark halo. Consequently the rotation speed of the bar decreases with time, while the amplitude of the bar increases with time. While these features qualitatively agree with the results obtained by idealized simulations, our bars show some unusual behaviors. The pattern speed of the stronger bar largely goes up and down within a half revolution in its early evolutionary stage. This unsteady rotation occurs when the bar is misaligned with the $m = 4$ mode Fourier component. The amplitude of the weaker bar does not increase despite the fact that its rotation slows down with time. This result contradicts what is expected from idealized simulations and is caused by the decline of the cen...

  19. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  20. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both the...... coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  1. Measurement of the B-bar 0 to D^* l ^- nu-bar Branching Fraction with a Partial Reconstruction Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnek, Peter; /Mississippi U.

    2009-12-17

    Presented is a precise measurement of the {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} branching fraction using 81.47 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The measurement was performed by partially reconstructing the D*{sup +} meson from {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays using only the soft pion of the D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} decay to reconstruct its four vector. The branching fraction was measured to be {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = (4.91 {+-} 0.01{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst})%.

  2. Kondo effect of $\\bar{D}_{s}$ and $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ mesons in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    We study the Kondo effect for $\\bar{D}_{s}$ and $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ mesons as impurity particles in nuclear matter. The spin-exchange interaction between the $\\bar{D}_{s}$ or $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ meson and the nucleon induces the enhancement of the effective coupling in the low-energy scattering in the infrared region, whose scale of singularity is given by the Kondo scale. We investigate the Kondo scale in the renormalization group equation at nucleon one-loop level. We furthermore study the ground state with the Kondo effect in the mean-field approach, and present that the Kondo scale is related to the mixing strength between the $\\bar{D}_{s}$ or $\\bar{D}_{s}^{\\ast}$ meson and the nucleon in nuclear matter. We show the spectral function of the impurity when the Kondo effect occurs.

  3. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  4. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  5. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  6. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  7. New strategies of reloads design and models of control bars in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results obtained when analyzing new strategies in the reload designs of nuclear fuel and models of control bars, for boiling water reactors are presented. The idea is to analyze the behaviour of the reactor during an operation cycle, when the heuristic rules are not used (commonly used by expert engineers in both designs). Specifically was analyzed the rule of low leak and the load strategy Control Cell Core for the design of a fuel reload. In a same way was analyzed the rule of prohibiting the use of the intermediate positions in the control bars, as well as the construction of bar models based on load strategies type Control Cell Core. In the first analysis a balance and transition cycle were used. For the second analysis only a transition cycle was used, firstly with the reloads designed in the first analysis and later on with reloads built by other methods. For the simulation of the different configurations proposed in both cases, was used the code Simulate-3. To obtain the designs in both studies, the heuristic techniques or neural networks and taboo search were used. The obtained results show that it can be omitted of some rules used in the ambit for the mentioned designs and even so to obtain good results. To carry out this investigation was used Dell work station under Li nux platform. (Author)

  8. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyskocil, Ladislav, E-mail: Ladislav.Vyskocil@ujv.cz; Macek, Jiri

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent.

  9. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent

  10. CP violation in hyperon decays: the case p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the experimental status of CP violation and of the phenomenology of hyperon non-leptonic decays. Updated information on the estimate of CP-violating observable in these decays is presented. An experimental programme is outlined, which aims to pursue the search for direct CP violation in hyperon-antihyperon decays by means of the reaction p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-. The experiment as well as analysis methods are described. Alternative approaches employing hyperons are also discussed. 54 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  11. Investigation of the $X(5568)$ as a fully open-flavor $su\\bar b\\bar d$ tetraquark state

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Steele, T G; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the newly observed charged $X(5568)$ meson as an exotic open-flavor tetraquark state $su\\bar b\\bar d$ with $J^P=0^+/1^+$ in the framework of QCD sum rules. We use the color antisymmetric $[\\mathbf{\\bar 3_c}]_{su} \\otimes [\\mathbf{3_c}]_{\\bar{b}\\bar d}$ tetraquark currents in both scalar and axial-vector channels to perform evaluations and numerical analyses. Our results imply that the $X(5568)$ can be interpreted as both the scalar $su\\bar b\\bar d$ tetraquark state and the axial-vector one, which are in good agreement with the experiment observation. We also investigate the possible decay patterns of the $X(5568)$ and suggest to search for its neutral partner in the radiative decay into $B_s^0 \\gamma$ and $B_s^* \\gamma$, which can be used to determine its spin-parity quantum numbers. Moreover, we predict its charmed partner state around $2.55$ GeV with the quark content $su\\bar c\\bar d$ and $J^P=0^+/1^+$.

  12. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    OpenAIRE

    Lebed, Richard F.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-01-01

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\b...

  13. Teseo code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report some validation tests for the TESEO code are described. The TESEO code was developed at ENEA - Clementel Center in the framework of the C2RV code sequence. This code sequence produces multigroup resonance cross sections for fast reactor analysis. It consists of the codes TESEO, MC2-II, GERES, ANISN, MEDIL. The TESEO code processes basic nuclear data in ENDF-B format and produces an ultrafine group (2082 groups) cross section library for the MC2-II code. To validate the TESEO algorithms, the data produced by TESEO code were compared with the data produced by other well-tested codes which use different algorithms. No substantial differences was found between these data and the data produced by TESEO code. TESEO algorithms showed high reliability. A detailed study of TESEO calculation options was carried out. Their use and functions are shown to inform the user of the code

  14. Bars and spheroids in gravimetry problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sizikov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    The direct gravimetry problem is solved by dividing each deposit body into a set of vertical adjoining bars, whereas in the inverse problem, each deposit body is modelled by a homogeneous ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid). Well-known formulae for the z-component of gravitational intensity for a spheroid are transformed to a convenient form. Parameters of a spheroid are determined by minimizing the Tikhonov smoothing functional with constraints on the parameters, which makes the ill-posed inverse problem by unique and stable. The Bulakh algorithm for initial estimating the depth and mass of a deposit is modified. The proposed technique is illustrated by numerical model examples of deposits in the form of two and five bodies. The inverse gravimetry problem is interpreted as a gravitational tomography problem or, in other words, as "introscopy" of Earth's crust and mantle.

  15. A Distinct Structure inside the Galactic Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Baba, Daisuke; Haba, Yasuaki; Kadowaki, Ryota; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Murai, Yuka; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji; Naoi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Sato, Shuji

    2005-03-01

    We present the result of a near-infrared (JHKs) survey along the Galactic plane, -10.5dSIRIUS camera. Ks versus H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams reveal a well-defined population of red clump stars whose apparent magnitude peak changes continuously along the Galactic plane, from Ks=13.4 at l=-10deg to Ks=12.2 at l=10deg after dereddening. This variation can be explained by the barlike structure found in previous studies, but we find an additional inner structure at |l|<~4deg, where the longitude-apparent magnitude relation is distinct from the outer bar and where the apparent magnitude peak changes by only ~0.1 mag over the central 8°. The exact nature of this inner structure is as yet uncertain.

  16. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  17. A high luminosity bar BB factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors discuss a proposal for the construction of a high luminosity, L ∼ 1034 cm-2 s-1, electron-positron collider, operating in the energy range of 10 to 15 GeV total center of mass energy. The motivation for such a bar B-B system, in particular the rare decay modes and the CP violation. In this paper the authors give only a preliminary estimate of the main parameters of this system, with the purpose of establishing its feasibility. The high luminosity required to study the B physics makes any collider extremely difficult, and pushes the beam characteristics to a region not yet explored. What we propose is no exception and will require a large amount of research and development of beam physics and technology before a more detailed proposal can be made

  18. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  19. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  20. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  1. Chiral perturbation theory for vertical bar ΔI vertical bar = (3(2)) hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the vertical bar ΔI vertical bar = (3(2)) amplitudes of hyperon non-leptonic decays of the form B → B'π in the context of chiral perturbation theory. The lowest-order predictions are determined in terms of only one unknown parameter and are consistent within errors with current data. We investigate the theoretical uncertainty of these predictions by calculating the leading non-analytic corrections. We also present an estimate for the size of the S-wave Λ and Ξ decays which vanish at leading order. We find that the corrections to the lowest-order predictions are within the expectations of naive power counting and, therefore, that this picture can be tested more accurately with improved measurements

  2. Study of the decays D0→K bar K, π bar π

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the CLEO detector we have observed the Cabibbo-suppressed decays D0→K0 bar K0, K+K-, and π+π-. We determine B(D0→K0 bar K0)= (0.13+0.07-0.05+0.02-0.02)%. Our measurement B(D0→K+K-)/B(D0→π+π-)=2.35±0.37±0.28 represents asubstantial improvement over previous results. We find no evidence for the decay D0→π0π0, and place a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of B(D0→π0π0)<0.46%

  3. QR Codes and Security Mechanism Using Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sarang A. Kotalwar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response (QR Code has been widely used in the automatic identification fields. In order to adapting various sizes, a little dirty or damaged, and various lighting conditions of bar code image, this paper proposes a novel implementation of real-time Quick Response Code recognition using mobile, which is an efficient technology used for data transferring. An image processing system based on mobile is described to be able to binaries, locate, segment, and decode the QR Code Which indicate that these algorithms are robust to real world scene image.In order to adapting various sizes, various gray level values, and under various lighting conditions of real bar code image, a high-speed, highaccuracy Binarization method is developed, which can locate the finder pattern accurately and integrate the local thresholding method with global thresholding. Experiments have shown that over 99% barcode can be optimally recognized with the proposed algorithm. Mobile phones can be made secure with generation & detection of QR code in android base application & with proper flow of information.

  4. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  5. Dynamics of deeply bound (K) over-bar states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, 2-3 (2007), s. 633-636. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : over-bar-nuclear bound states * over-bar-nuclear relativistic mean field calculations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2007

  6. Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridi, L.; Patsis, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a barred-spiral model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits, we find a `bistable region'. In the response model, we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an `S'-shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the `S' part of the characteristic, we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from an x1-type to an x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientation when reaching the lowest energy of the `S'. The spirals of the model follow a standard `precessing ellipses flow' and the orbits building them have energies beyond the `S' region. The bar is structured mainly by sticky orbits from regions around the stability islands of the central family. This leads to the appearance of X features in the bars on the galactic plane. Such a bar morphology appears in the unsharp-masked images of some moderately inclined galaxies.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  8. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  9. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  10. Decentralized Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  11. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic: in the...

  12. Stellar population constraints on the ages of galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    James, Phil A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the stellar populations within the central regions of four nearby barred galaxies, and use a novel technique to constrain the duration of bar activity. We focus on the star formation 'desert', a region within each of these galaxies where star formation appears to have been suppressed by the bar. New H beta spectroscopic data are presented, and used to produce spectroscopic line indices which are compared with theoretical predictions from population synthesis models for simple stellar populations and temporally truncated star formation histories. This analysis shows that the dearth of star formation activity in these regions appears to have been continuing for at least 1 Gyr, with timescales of several Gyr indicated for two of the galaxies. This favours models in which strong bars can be long-lived features of galaxies, but our results also indicate a significant diversity in stellar population ages, and hence in the implied histories of bar activity in these four galaxies.

  13. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle;

    2011-01-01

    in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big......High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first...

  14. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  15. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    net cross shore suspended sediment transport flux as a function of either of the variables $\\zeta_0$, $\\Omega$, or $\\Omega_{HK}$. Secondly, the bed is allowed to evolve under the influence of the sediment transport processes. The development of breaker bars in both laboratory scale settings and...... prototype scale settings is considered. The temporal development of the cross shore profile is simulated for several combinations of wave forcing and sediment grain diameters. The variation is described with emphasis on the development of the crest level of the breaker bar, the variation in the bed shear...... stress on the crest of the breaker bar, and its migration speed. Additionally, a net onshore current over a breaker bar is considered, where this current mimics the presence of a horizontal circulation cell. The development of the breaker bar is described for different values of the net onshore current...

  16. Characterizing Barred Galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, I; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    In dense clusters, higher densities at early epochs as well as physical processes, such as ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions become important, and can have direct consequences for the evolution of bars and their host disks. To study bars and disks as a function of environment, we are using the STAGES ACS HST survey of the Abell 901/902 supercluster (z~0.165), along with earlier field studies based the SDSS and the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS). We explore the limitations of traditional methods for characterizing the bar fraction, and in particular highlight uncertainties in disk galaxy selection in cluster environments. We present an alternative approach for exploring the proportion of bars, and investigate the properties of bars as a function of host galaxy color, Sersic index, stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, and morphology.

  17. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    perpendicular to the reinforcement bar) was reduced for SFRC compared to plain concrete, whereas there was no clear impact on the slip at the concrete/steel-bar (displacement discontinuity parallel to the reinforcement bar) caused by the steel fibres. Additional experimental and numerical studies concerning......Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...

  18. Near-infrared surface photometry of barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a number of theoretical studies, it must be concluded that bar-like stellar structures are a preferred dynamical form in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. The objective of the observational research reported in this paper is to study by surface photometry parameters which describe the radial and azimuthal luminosity distributions of the bars of barred spiral galaxies. Such information is important for a comparison with theoretical models. The observational data are discussed, taking into account the photographic material, the reduction of data, and the decomposition of the radial luminosity profiles. Attention is also given to the structure of the bars, a comparison with the Miller and Smith models, and a discussion of the results. The considered study has provided near-infrared surface photometry for the stellar bars of a number of barrel spiral galaxies. 53 references

  19. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  20. An application framework and data model prototype for the BaBar experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment is a high energy physics experiment to do physics with e+e- colliding beams in the 10 GeV center-of-mass energy at the PEP-II accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The principal objectives are to study CP violation and rare processes in decays of B mesons. The experiment is under construction, with first data anticipated in 1999. The BaBar experiment is expected to accumulate of order 109 events per calendar year, with over 108 interesting hadronic events. The data must be stored efficiently, but must be easily accessible in order for multiple and frequent physics analyses to be carried out. The analysis framework must be flexible enough to accommodate a variety of analysis modules and multiple input/output streams. The BaBar collaboration has developed a prototype for the analysis framework and data access, written in C++ using an object-oriented design philosophy. The data access is based on the Farfalla package. The base class is a ''node''. Various types of node objects can be associated into a ''tree'' organization to form the record of an event. Because of an existing Fortran code base and expertise, access from Fortran 90 as well as C++ is a requirement, and various implementations have been studied. The analysis framework is intended to be a system which can accommodate code from a variety of sources in both online and offline environments. The prototype is based on the idea of forming sequences of modules which can be linked together to obtain the desired processing of data streams. There are standard modules, which perform tasks such as input, output and filtering. In addition, the user can create modules for particular analysis needs. A complete execution sequence, called a path, can be active or inactive, or can be terminated prior to completion based on the event data in the filtering process. Multiple paths can be specified

  1. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  2. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  3. An observer's view of simulated galaxies: disc-to-total ratios, bars, and (pseudo-)bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, Cecilia; Jonsson, Patrik; White, Simon D M

    2010-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way mass galaxies to study the relative importance of the main stellar components, discs, bulges, and bars, at z=0. The main aim of this work is to understand if estimates of the structural parameters of these components determined from kinematics (as usually done in simulations) agree well with those obtained using a photometric bulge/disc/bar decomposition (as done in observations). To perform such a comparison, we produced synthetic observations of the simulation outputs with the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code SUNRISE and used the BUDDA code to make 2D photometric decompositions of the resulting images. We find that the kinematic disc-to-total ratio (D/T) estimates are systematically and significantly lower than the photometric ones. While the maximum D/T ratios obtained with the former method are of the order of 0.2, they are typically >0.4, and can be as high as 0.7, according to the latter. The photometric decomposition shows ...

  4. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  5. Bar Code-Based Management to Enhance Efficiency of a Sterile Supply Unit in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Meh Meh; Tan, Agnes B H; Leong, Mike H W

    2016-04-01

    Sterile surgical instruments are essential for successful surgical outcomes. The Singapore General Hospital's Theatre Sterile Supplies Unit (TSSU) has faced many challenges, including increasing demand for instruments and the need to maintain instruments of greater complexity. To address these challenges, stakeholders from key departments at Singapore General Hospital formed a multidisciplinary team to transform operations in the TSSU. The team adopted and implemented the TSSU Instrument Management System (TIMS) in three phases over five years. The project included standardizing instrument-naming conventions, implementing electronic integration of instrument tracking in the unit, extending traceability of instruments to the major ORs, initiating integrated web-based instrument ordering, and extending the system management of instruments at ambulatory surgery and specialized OR facilities. The implementation of TIMS has improved inventory, supply, and quality management; reduced instrument repairs; and led to savings through increased productivity and lower expenses. PMID:27004503

  6. Depth Of Modulation And Spot Size Selection In Bar-Code Laser Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1982-04-01

    Many optical and electronic considerations enter into the selection of optical spot size in flying spot laser scanners of the type used in modern industrial and commerical environments. These include: the scale of the symbols to be read, optical background noise present in the symbol substrate, and factors relating to the characteristics of the signal processor. Many 'front ends' consist of a linear signal conditioner followed by nonlinear conditioning and digitizing circuitry. Although the nonlinear portions of the circuit can be difficult to characterize mathematically, it is frequently possible to at least give a minimum depth of modulation measure to yield a worst-case guarantee of adequate performance with respect to digitization accuracy. Depth of modulation actually delivered to the nonlinear circuitry will depend on scale, contrast, and noise content of the scanned symbol, as well as the characteristics of the linear conditioning circuitry (eg. transfer function and electronic noise). Time and frequency domain techniques are applied in order to estimate the effects of these factors in selecting a spot size for a given system environment. Results obtained include estimates of the effects of the linear front end transfer function on effective spot size and asymmetries which can affect digitization accuracy. Plots of convolution-computed modulation patterns and other important system properties are presented. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  7. A Bar Code and Radio-Frequency Identification System for Transfusion Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandler SG; DiBandi L; Langeberg A; Gibble J; Wilson C; Feldman CF

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will describe a pilot study of radio-frequency (RF) identification tags ("chips") that was conducted in parallel with standard procedures for the collection and testing of Red Blood Cells (Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, American Red Cross Biomedical Services, Baltimore, MD) and transfusion (Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether multi-write RF chips could be attached to blood bags, programmed, and used to facilitate the collection of information from (1) a blood bag manufacturer to (2) a blood collection center and, subsequently, to (3) a hospital transfusion service.

  8. Method for non-destructive measurement of heat affected zone of identification code on nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method for the nondestructive measurement of the depth of the heat affected zone underneath a laser generated identification code on a nuclear fuel rod tube, the change in impedance of an electromagnetic foil produced by a portion of the tube is measured before and after the etching of a bar code is performed by use of laser power. The impedance change in the coil produced by the bar code-bearing tube portion is compared with the impedance change produced in the coil by the same tube portion before the bar code is generated thereon to determine whether a maximum allowed depth of the heat affected zone of the tube portion has been exceeded. (author)

  9. Lawyers for Literacy. A Bar Leadership Manual. A Special Service Publication of the American Bar Association's Task Force on Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to provide materials to help state and local bar associations become involved with the literacy issue. Chapter 1 provides an overview of illiteracy as a very serious problem. Chapter 2 describes major public and private efforts to combat illiteracy. Chapter 3 explains why the bar associations should be involved. Chapter 4…

  10. The $K \\bar K \\pi$ decay of the $f_1(1285)$ and its nature as a $K^* \\bar K -cc$ molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Aceti, F.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the decay of $f_1(1285) \\to \\pi K \\bar K$ with the assumption that the $f_1(1285)$ is dynamically generated from the $K^* \\bar{K} - cc$ interaction. In addition to the tree level diagrams that proceed via $f_1(1285) \\to K^* \\bar{K} - cc \\to \\pi K \\bar K$, we take into account also the final state interactions of $K \\bar K \\to K \\bar K$ and $\\pi K \\to \\pi K$. The partial decay width and mass distributions of $f_1(1285) \\to \\pi K \\bar K$ are evaluated. We get a value for the part...

  11. Role of $Y(4630)$ in the $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ reaction near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the charmed baryon production reaction $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ in an effective Lagrangian approach. Besides the $t$-channel $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons exchanges, the $s$-channel $Y(4630)$ meson exchange is taken into account. For the total cross sections, the $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons provide minor background contributions, while the $Y(4630)$ state gives a clear peak structure with the magnitude of 10 $\\mu$b at center of mass energy 4.63 GeV. Basing on the results, we suggest that the reaction of $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ can be used to search for the $1^{--}$ charmonium-like $Y(4630)$ state, and our predictions can be tested in future by the $\\rm{\\bar PANDA}$ facility.

  12. Variation of Galactic Bar Length with Amplitude and Density as Evidence for Bar Growth over a Hubble Time

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Knapen, Johan H; Buta, Ronald J; Block, David L; Puerari, Ivanio

    2007-01-01

    K_s-band images of 20 barred galaxies show an increase in the peak amplitude of the normalized m=2 Fourier component with the R_25-normalized radius at this peak. This implies that longer bars have higher $m=2$ amplitudes. The long bars also correlate with an increased density in the central parts of the disks, as measured by the luminosity inside 0.25R_25 divided by the cube of this radius in kpc. Because denser galaxies evolve faster, these correlations suggest that bars grow in length and amplitude over a Hubble time with the fastest evolution occurring in the densest galaxies. All but three of the sample have early-type flat bars; there is no clear correlation between the correlated quantities and the Hubble type.

  13. Analysis of a calculation method for the determination of the value of safety or control bars; Analisis de un metodo de calculo para la determinacion del valor de barras de seguridad o control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Torres A, C.; Filio L, C. [ININ, Gcia. de Reactores, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1982-09-15

    Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the R{phi} Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)

  14. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zeki Karakus

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement.

  15. Spitzer reveals what's behind Orion's Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; O'Dell, C R; McNabb, Ian A; Colgan, Sean W J; Zhuge, Scott Y; Ferland, Gary J; Hidalgo, Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 11 regions SE of the Bright Bar in the Orion Nebula, along a radial from the exciting star theta1OriC, extending from 2.6 to 12.1'. Our Cycle 5 programme obtained deep spectra with matching IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) aperture grid patterns. Most previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the ISM particularly for elemental abundances. Spitzer observations provide a unique perspective on the Ne and S abundances by virtue of observing the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) in Orion and H II regions in general. The Ne/H abundance ratio is especially well determined, with a value of (1.01+/-0.08)E-4. We obtained corresponding new ground-based spectra at CTIO. These optical data are used to estimate the electron temperature, electron density, optical extinction, and the S+/S++ ratio at each of our Spitzer positions. That permits an adjustment for the total gas-phase S abundan...

  16. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-surface mounted (NSM fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm.

  17. Shepherding Tidal Debris with the Galactic Bar: The Ophiuchus Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally-disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  18. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  19. Shepherding tidal debris with the Galactic bar: the Ophiuchus stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis, respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  20. Formation and evolution of bars in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2002-01-01

    I follow a bar from its formation, via its evolution, to its destruction and, perhaps, regeneration. I discuss the main features at each stage and particularly the role of the halo. Bars can form even in sub-maximum discs. In fact, such bars can be stronger than bars which have grown in maximum discs. This is due to the response of the halo and, in particular, to the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the disc particles constituting the bar and the halo particles at resonance with it. The bar slowdown depends on the initial central concentration of the halo and the initial value of the disc Q. Contrary to the halo mass distribution, the disc changes its radial density profile considerably during the evolution. Applying the Sackett criterion, I thus find that discs become maximum in many simulations in which they have started off as sub-maximum. I briefly discuss the evolution if a gaseous component is present, as well as the destruction and regeneration of bars.

  1. The nature and nurture of bars and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Aguerri, J A L; Corsini, E M; Zarattini, S

    2012-01-01

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma cluster are statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at $M_r\\,\\simeq\\,-20.5$ in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to $M_r\\,\\simeq\\,-19$ in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that b...

  2. Fourier Dissection of Early-Type Galaxy Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R; Salo, H; Block, D L; Knapen, J H

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a near-infrared survey of early-type galaxies designed to provide information on bar strengths, bulges, disks, and bar parameters in a statistically well-defined sample of S0-Sa galaxies. Early-type galaxies have the advantage that their bars are relatively free of the effects of dust, star formation, and spiral structure that complicate bar studies in later type galaxies. We describe the survey and present results on detailed analysis of the relative Fourier intensity amplitudes of bars in 26 early-type galaxies. We also evaluate the symmetry assumption of these amplitudes with radius, used recently for bar-spiral separation in later-type galaxies. The results show a wide variety of radial Fourier profiles of bars, ranging from simple symmetric profiles that can be represented in terms of a single gaussian component, to both symmetric and asymmetric profiles that can be represented by two overlapping gaussian components. More complicated profiles than these are also found, often due to ...

  3. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, J E; Yackovich, F

    1988-08-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to give mean total survival levels of 4.4 X 10(5) c.f.u. per bar which was 70-fold higher than those reported on used soap bars. Sixteen panelists were instructed to wash with the inoculated bars using their normal handwashing procedure. After washing, none of the 16 panelists had detectable levels of either test bacterium on their hands. Thus, the results obtained using our new method were in complete agreement with those obtained with the previously published method even though the two methods differ in a number of procedural aspects. These findings, along with other published reports, show that little hazard exists in routine handwashing with previously used soap bars and support the frequent use of soap and water for handwashing to prevent the spread of disease. PMID:3402545

  4. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  5. Precise predictions for BR$(B_{s,d}^0\\to \\ell \\bar \\ell)$ in models beyond the MSSM with {\\tt SARAH} and {\\tt SPheno}

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H; Porod, W; Staub, F

    2013-01-01

    We present the possibility of calculating the quark flavor changing neutral current decays $B_{s}^0\\to \\ell \\bar \\ell$ and $B_{d}^0\\to \\ell \\bar \\ell$ for a large variety of supersymmetric models. For this purpose, the complete one-loop calculation has been implemented in a generic form in the {\\tt Mathematica} package {\\tt SARAH}. This information is used by {\\tt SARAH} to generate {\\tt Fortran} source code for {\\tt SPheno} for a numerical evaluation of these processes in a given model. We comment also on the possibility to use this setup for non-supersymmetric models.

  6. GUIDELESS SPATIAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON CODING POLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; QIU Zongming; QU Jiamin; LIU Hongzhao

    2008-01-01

    A new method of guideless spatial coordinate measurement technology based on coding pole and vision measurement is proposed. Unequal spacing of bar code is adopted to pole, so that the code combination of pole image in measuring field is unique. Holographic characteristics of numeric coding pole are adopted to obtain pole pose and pole probe position by any section of bar code on the pole. Spatial coordinates of measuring points can be obtained by coordinate transform. The contradiction between high resolution and large visual field of image sensor is resolved, thereby providing a new concept for surface shape measurement of large objects with high precision. The measurement principles of the system are expounded and mathematic model is established. The measurement equation is evaluated by simulation experiments and the measurement precision is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments prove that this system is characterized by simple structure and wide measurement range. Therefore it can be used in the 3-dimentional coordinate measurement of large objects.

  7. Search for B→l bar νl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We search for the decays B-→l-bar νl in a sample of 2.2x106 charged B decays using the CLEO detector. We see no evidence for a signal in any channel and set upper limits on the branching fractions of B(B-→τ-bar ντ)-3, B(B-→μ-ν2;mμ)-5, and B(B-→e-bar νe)-5 at the 90% confidence level

  8. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi; Shen, Juntai; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pa...

  9. The mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is described which enables the mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars to be predicted after several years irradiation. The model is physically based, and includes the effects of thermal and irradiation induced changes in the microstructure of the bars, and macroscopic wear. The predictions of the model, both in the failure time of stressed tie-bar samples and other results such as proof strength, have been verified against the results of an extensive post-irradiation programme carried out by the CEGB and the UKAEA. (author)

  10. When physics takes over: BAR proteins and membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mijo; Voth, Gregory A.; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Bassereau, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes become highly curved during membrane trafficking, cytokinesis, infection, immune response or cell motion. Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain proteins with their intrinsically curved and anisotropic shape are involved in many of these processes, but with a large spectrum of modes of action. In vitro experiments and multiscale computer simulations have contributed in identifying a minimal set of physical parameters, namely protein density on the membrane, membrane tension, and membrane shape, that control how bound BAR domain proteins behave on the membrane. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted coupling of BAR proteins to membrane mechanics and propose a simple phase diagram that recapitulates the effects of these parameters. PMID:26519988

  11. Torsion of elliptical composite bars containing neutral coated cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using complex variable methods and conformal mapping techniques, we establish the existence of coated cavities of various shapes that do not disturb the warping function in a host elliptical bar. These cavities are known as ‘partly neutral cavities’. Our results show that the two axes corresponding to the neutral elliptical coating are parallel to those of the host elliptical bar and that the centre of the elliptical coating can be located arbitrarily on the major axis of the host bar. Examples of neutral coated non-elliptical cavities are provided.

  12. Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law

    OpenAIRE

    Magzamen, S.; Charlesworth, A.; Glantz, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law in the state of California.
DESIGN—Content analysis of newspaper, trade journal, and magazine items.
SUBJECTS—Items regarding the smokefree bar law published seven months before and one year following the implementation of the smokefree bar law (June 1997 to December 1998). Items consisted of news articles (n = 446), opinion editorials (n = 31), editorials (n = 104), letters to the editor (n = 240), and cartoons (n...

  13. Influence of laser treatment on the fatigue of notched bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHui; LingWeiye; JiangShouwei

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue cutting is a new approach for separating material. Man-made fatigue can be realized by applying a rotating bending load to a notched bar. To better utilize the new method, laser treatment is adopted in this study. After laser radiation at the notch root, the fatigue cycle of the bar drops dramatically. Based on the experimental result, we draw the conclusion that the fatigue of the bar is influenced by the shape of the hardened area. A hardened area that has a small axial dimension and a relatively large radial dimension facilitates the fatigue. The desirable hardened area can be obtained by controlling the laser treatment parameters.

  14. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of double-barred galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Moiseev

    2002-01-01

    We describe the results of our spectroscopy for a sample of barred galaxies whose inner regions exhibit an isophotal twist commonly called a secondary bar. The line-of-sight velocity fields of the ionized gas and stars and the light-of-sight velocity dispersion fields of the stars were constructed from two-dimensional spectroscopy with the 6m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. We detected various types of non-circular motions of ionized gas: radial flows within large-scale bars, cou...

  15. Temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe River mouth bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zuosheng; ZHANG Yong; LIU Zhan; WEI Helong; HE Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the bathymetric records of 371 survey sections in the present Huanghe mouth area from 1996 to 2001, the temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe mouth bars were studied by using GIS technology. The variation of the mouth bars is closely related to the water and sediment discharges from the Huanghe River to the sea that has been decreasing drastically in recent years, and to coastal hydrodynamic regimes. The characteristics of the mouth bars are unique in contrast with those of other estuaries in the world (1) The mouth bars of the Huanghe River consist of many small sandbars. Usually the sandbars are of ellipse-shape with the long axis of about 1~6 km, and short axis of about 1~4 kin. The long axis is parallel to the principal direction of tidal current, and the short axis is variable, depending on the local dynamics. The crest of the sandbars is only about 0.4 m below the water surface at low tide. They are distributed within an area of 20 km2, not far from the river mouth area. The present mouth bars are in small-medium size, quite different from the large one formed during the 1970s and 1980s, when the river sediment discharge was several times larger than that after 1996. (2) The scale of a river mouth bar is related to the river discharge of that year. In 1997 sediment discharge from the Huanghe River was 42 Mt, and the mouth bar consisted of several small scattered sandbars. In 1998 the size of mouth bars was much larger thar that in 1997, as the sediment discharge from the Huanghe River increased to 363 Mt. Variation of the mouth bars largely depends on the sediment discharge with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. The calculation of the volume of the mouth bar area shows that about 30%~40% of the river's into-sea sediment is deposited in the mouth bar area. (3) Compared with other large estuaries in the world, the Huanghe mouth bars have three unique features in responding to its high sediment concentration: small size, steep

  16. A Monte Carlo code for ion beam therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Initially developed for applications in detector and accelerator physics, the modern Fluka Monte Carlo code is now used in many different areas of nuclear science. Over the last 25 years, the code has evolved to include new features, such as ion beam simulations. Given the growing use of these beams in cancer treatment, Fluka simulations are being used to design treatment plans in several hadron-therapy centres in Europe.   Fluka calculates the dose distribution for a patient treated at CNAO with proton beams. The colour-bar displays the normalized dose values. Fluka is a Monte Carlo code that very accurately simulates electromagnetic and nuclear interactions in matter. In the 1990s, in collaboration with NASA, the code was developed to predict potential radiation hazards received by space crews during possible future trips to Mars. Over the years, it has become the standard tool to investigate beam-machine interactions, radiation damage and radioprotection issues in the CERN accelerator com...

  17. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  18. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  19. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  20. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Study of $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R B; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M B; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A C; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S P; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ulrich, M U; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M W; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A Z; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    The decays $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$ have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 million $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII $e^+e^-$ collider. The branching fractions are determined to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p})=(2.112\\pm0.004\\pm0.031)\\times10^{-3}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n})=(2.07\\pm0.01\\pm0.17)\\times10^{-3}$. Distributions of the angle $\\theta$ between the proton or anti-neutron and the beam direction are well described by the form $1+\\alpha\\cos^2\\theta$, and we find $\\alpha=0.595\\pm0.012\\pm0.015$ for $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $\\alpha=0.50\\pm0.04\\pm0.21$ for $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the $J/\\psi\\to N\\bar{N}$ decay.

  2. B-bar0, B- and B-bars0 decays into J/ψ and KK-bar or πη

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the B-bars0→J/ψK+K-, B-bar0→J/ψK+K-, B-→J/ψK0K-, B-bar0→J/ψπ0η and B-→J/ψπ-η decays and compare their mass distributions with those obtained for the B-bars0→J/ψπ+π- and B-bar0→J/ψπ+π-. The approach followed consist in a factorization of the weak part and the hadronization part into a factor which is common to all the processes. Then what makes the reactions different are some trivial Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix elements and the weight by which the different pairs of mesons appear in a primary step plus their final state interaction. These elements are part of the theory and thus, up to a global normalization factor, all the invariant mass distributions are predicted with no free parameters. Comparison is made with the limited experimental information available. Further comparison of these results with coming LHCb measurements will be very valuable to make progress in our understanding of the meson–meson interaction and the nature of the low lying scalar meson resonances, f0(500),f0(980) and a0(980)

  3. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  4. MKENO-DAR: a direct angular representation Monte Carlo code for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the Monte Carlo code MULTI-KENO, the MKENO-DAR (Direct Angular Representation) code has been developed for criticality safety analysis in detail. A function was added to MULTI-KENO for representing anisotropic scattering strictly. With this function, the scattering angle of neutron is determined not by the average scattering angle μ-bar of the Pl Legendre polynomial but by the random work operation using probability distribution function produced with the higher order Legendre polynomials. This code is avilable for the FACOM-M380 computer. This report is a computer code manual for MKENO-DAR. (author)

  5. Informal control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  6. Informal Control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  7. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  8. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a...

  9. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  10. The Semileptonic Decay Modes {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow Ds ell bar{ν}}: A New Analysis in Potential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Rahmani, S.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the Schrödinger equation with a combination of Deng-Fan-type and harmonic terms. To solve the corresponding differential equation, we split the equation to two parts: the parent and the perturbation terms. We use the Nikiforov-Uvarov technique to solve the parent part. For the perturbation part, we apply the series expansion method. Next, using the calculated wave function, we investigate some bottom and charm mesons within the Isgur-Wise function formalism. We present especially semileptonic {bar{B} rightarrow Dell bar{ν}} and {bar{B}s rightarrow D_s ell bar{ν }} decay widths, branching ratios and {|V_{cb}|} (element of the CKM matrix). Masses of some pseudoscalar mesons are also indicated. Comparisons of our results with experimental values and other approaches are included.

  11. Constant of heat conduction and stabilization of bus bar conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of heat conduction is given bringing about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  12. DIRC - A particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic-ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs

  13. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  14. Kinematics of t bar t events at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinematic properties of t bar t events are studied in the W+multijet channel using data collected with the CDF detector during the 1992 - 1995 runs at the Fermilab Tevatron collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 109 pb-1. Distributions of a variety of kinematic variables chosen to be sensitive to different aspects of t bar t production are compared with those expected from Monte Carlo calculations. A sample of 34 events rich in t bar t pairs is obtained by requiring at least one jet identified by the silicon vertex detector (SVX) as having a displaced vertex consistent with the decay of a b hadron. The data are found to be in good agreement with predictions of the leading order t bar t matrix element with color coherent parton shower evolution. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Visual mining geo-related data using pixel bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Keim, Daniel A.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wright, Peter; Schneidewind, Joern

    2005-03-01

    A common approach to analyze geo-related data is using bar charts or x-y plots. They are intuitive and easy to use. But important information often gets lost. In this paper, we introduce a new interactive visualization technique called Geo Pixel Bar Charts, which combines the advantages of Pixel Bar Charts and interactive maps. This technique allows analysts to visualize large amounts of spatial data without aggregation and shows the geographical regions corresponding to the spatial data attribute at the same time. In this paper, we apply Geo Pixel Bar Charts to visually mining sales transactions and Internet usage from different locations. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique for providing data distribution and exceptions from the map.

  16. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  17. Confirmation of an End-On Bar in NGC-6503

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Emily; Chomiuk, Laura; Keenan, Ryan; Nelson, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    The nearby isolated galaxy NGC 6503 features several characteristics that suggest the possible presence of a strong bar. These include a star-forming inner ring, circumnuclear disk, central stellar velocity dispersion decrease (σ-drop), and a surface brightness profile with a quasi-exponential central peak followed by a plateau at moderate radii. In Freeland et al. (2009, submitted) we propose the existence of a strong end-on bar in NGC 6503 as an explanation for these observables. Bureau & Athanassoula (2005) demonstrate through simulations that a strong end-on bar in a highly inclined galaxy such as NGC 6503 (incl. 74 degrees) would be hidden from view morphologically (appearing as a round bulge), but should show a strong ``double-humped'' signature in its stellar rotation curve. We propose long-slit spectroscopic observations along the major axis of the NGC 6503 to determine stellar kinematics and search for the signature of a strong end-on bar.

  18. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  19. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Berrier, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced ...

  20. $\\mathbf{\\bar{C}_{n,n-1}}$ revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make $\\bar{C}_{n,n-1}$, which is the main theorem of [Ka1] Y.Kawamata, Addition formula of logarithmic Kodaira dimensions for morphisms of relative dimension one, more accessible.

  1. Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Benxia; YU Xiping

    2009-01-01

    Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars are investigated by a previously developed numerical model. First, the computed free surface displacements of regular waves at various locations are compared with the available experimental data to confirm the validity of the numerical model, and satisfactory agreements are obtained. In addition, variations of decomposition characteristics with incident wave parameters and the change of energy spectrum for regular waves are also studied. Then the spectrum evolution of irregular waves over submerged bars, as well as the influence of incident peak wave period and the steepness of the front slope of the bar on spectrum evolution, is investigated. Wave decomposition and spectral shape are found to be significantly influenced by the incident wave conditions. When the upslope of the bar becomes 1:2, the length of the slope becomes shorter and will not benefit the generation of high frequency energy, so spectrum evolution is not significant.

  2. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  3. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream-bar

  4. Angular distributions in J / ψ → p p bar π0 (η) decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Milstein, A. I.; Salnikov, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The differential decay rates of the processes J / ψ → p p bar π0 and J / ψ → p p bar η close to the p p bar threshold are calculated with the help of the N N bar optical potential. The same calculations are made for the decays of ψ (2 S). We use the potential which has been suggested to fit the cross sections of N N bar scattering together with N N bar and six pion production in e+e- annihilation close to the p p bar threshold. The p p bar invariant mass spectrum is in agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of the angular distributions, which appears due to the tensor forces in the N N bar interaction, is predicted close to the p p bar threshold. This anisotropy is large enough to be investigated experimentally. Such measurements would allow one to check the accuracy of the model of N N bar interaction.

  5. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  6. Kokum Fruit Bar Development via Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    OpenAIRE

    Pritam Bafna; Mrs. N. Manimehalai

    2014-01-01

    A response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum ingredients level to prepare kokum fruit bar. Kokum pulp was extracted using water extraction method at temperature (24.97ºC) and time (30.42 min). The effects of ingredients levels on sensory parameters like texture, overall acceptability and calcium content of the prepared fruit bar were studied by employing a Box- Behnken Design (BBD). During the experimental trials the pulp quantity is kept fixed...

  7. ANATOMY OF THE BAR INSTABILITY IN CUSPY DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the bar instability in galactic models with an exponential disk and a cuspy dark matter (DM) halo with a Navarro-Frenk-White cosmological density profile. The equilibrium models are constructed from a three-integral composite distribution function but subject to the bar instability. We generate a sequence of models with a range of mass resolution from 1.8 K to 18 M particles in the disk and 10 K to 100 M particles in the halo along with a multimass model with an effective resolution of ∼1010 particles. We describe how mass resolution affects the bar instability, including its linear growth phase, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through the resonant transfer of angular momentum to the DM halo, and the possible destruction of the halo cusp. Our higher resolution simulations show a converging spectrum of discrete resonance interactions between the bar and DM halo orbits. As the pattern speed decays, orbital resonances sweep through most of the DM halo phase space and widely distribute angular momentum among the halo particles. The halo does not develop a flat density core and preserves the cusp, except in the region dominated by gravitational softening. The formation of the bar increases the central stellar density and the DM is compressed adiabatically increasing the halo central density by 1.7 times. Overall, the evolution of the bar displays a convergent behavior for halo particle numbers between 1 M and 10 M particles, when comparing bar growth, pattern speed evolution, the DM halo density profile and a nonlinear analysis of the orbital resonances. Higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting the angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  8. The final log canonical model of $\\bar{M}_6$

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the birational model of $\\bar{M}_6$ given by quadric hyperplane sections of the degree 5 del Pezzo surface. In the spirit of the genus 4 case treated by Fedorchuk, we show that it is the last non-trivial space in the log minimal model program for $\\bar{M}_6$. We also obtain a new upper bound for the moving slope of the moduli space.

  9. Configuration Database for BaBar On-line

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoldus, R.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.; Kolomensky, Y.; Salnikov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The configuration database is one of the vital systems in the BaBar on-line system. It provides services for the different parts of the data acquisition system and control system, which require run-time parameters. The original design and implementation of the configuration database played a significant role in the successful BaBar operations since the beginning of experiment. Recent additions to the design of the configuration database provide better means for the management of data and add ...

  10. Quarkonium Spectroscopy and New States from BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, L.; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste

    2007-06-08

    We review results on charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. More space is reserved to the new results like the observation of hadronic non-B{bar B} {Upsilon}(4S) decays and the investigation on the production and decay properties of the recently discovered charmonium-like states X(3872) and Y (4260). These results are preliminary, unless otherwise specified.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the property of a scintillation bar in the multi-neutron correlation spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yu-Shou; YE Yan-Lin; GE Yu-Cheng; L(U) Lin-Hui; Faisal Q.; JIANG Dong-Xing; HUA Hui; ZHENG Wao; LI Zhi-Huan; LI Xiang-Qing; LOU Jian-Ling; LU Fei; FAN Feng-Ying; CAO Zhong-Xin; LI Qi-Te; XIAO Jun

    2009-01-01

    To perform a kinematically complete measurement of the dissociation reaction for neutron-rich nuclei, a multi-neutron correlation spectrometer is proposed at Peking University.A Monte Carlo simulation code based on GEANT4 is developed for a single scintillation bar which processes not only the energy deposition but also the light propagation in the scintillator and the light collection and conversion to signal at the end of the bar in a realistic way. The simulating method is described in detail in this paper, and the timing and position resolutions and detector efficiency are studied based on the simulation and compared with the experimental results.A new method of crosstalk rejection has been demonstrated to be important for the design of the whole spectrometer.

  12. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important to...... understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  13. Codes from difference sets

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Cunsheng

    2014-01-01

    This is the first monograph on codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. It aims at providing a survey of constructions of difference sets and almost difference sets as well as an in-depth treatment of codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. To be self-contained, this monograph covers necessary mathematical foundations and the basics of coding theory. It also contains tables of best BCH codes and best cyclic codes over GF(2) and GF(3) up to length 125 and 79, respectively. This repository of tables can be used to benchmark

  14. (Sigma-Delta) Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Boulagouaz, M.; Leroy, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of cyclic ($f(t),\\sigma,\\delta$)-codes for $f(t)\\in \\Ore$. These codes generalize the $\\theta$-codes as introduced by D. Boucher, F. Ulmer, W. Geiselmann \\cite{BGU}. We construct generic and control matrices for these codes. As a particular case the ($\\si,\\de$)-$W$-code associated to a Wedderburn polynomial are defined and we show that their control matrices are given by generalized Vandermonde matrices. All the Wedderburn polynomials of $\\mathbb F_q[t;\\t...

  15. Hercules and Wolf 630 Stellar Streams and Galactic Bar Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V

    2016-01-01

    We have identified the four most significant features in the UV velocity distribution of solar neighborhood stars: H1, H2 in the Hercules stream and W1, W2 in the Wolf 630 stream. We have formulated the problem of determining several characteristics of the central Galactic bar independently from each of the identified features by assuming that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams are of a bar-induced dynamical nature. The problem has been solved by constructing 2:1 resonant orbits in the rotating bar frame for each star in these streams. Analysis of the resonant orbits found has shown that the bar pattern speed is 45-55 km/s/kpc, while the bar angle lies within the range 40-60 degrees. The results obtained are consistent with the view that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams could be formed by a long-term influence of the Galactic bar leading to a characteristic bimodal splitting of the UV velocity plane.

  16. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  17. Visual mining business service using pixel bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Casati, Fabio

    2004-06-01

    Basic bar charts have been commonly available, but they only show highly aggregated data. Finding the valuable information hidden in the data is essential to the success of business. We describe a new visualization technique called pixel bar charts, which are derived from regular bar charts. The basic idea of a pixel bar chart is to present all data values directly instead of aggregating them into a few data values. Pixel bar charts provide data distribution and exceptions besides aggregated data. The approach is to represent each data item (e.g. a business transaction) by a single pixel in the bar chart. The attribute of each data item is encoded into the pixel color and can be accessed and drilled down to the detail information as needed. Different color mappings are used to represent multiple attributes. This technique has been prototyped in three business service applications-Business Operation Analysis, Sales Analysis, and Service Level Agreement Analysis at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. Our applications show the wide applicability and usefulness of this new idea.

  18. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, F; Emsellem, E; Agertz, O; Athanassoula, E; Combes, F; Elmegreen, B; Kraljic, K; Motte, F; Teyssier, R

    2015-01-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find tha...

  19. Design, Analysis and Optimization of Anti-Roll Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Bharane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle anti-roll bar is part of an automobile suspension system which limits body roll angle. This U-shaped metal bar connects opposite wheels together through short lever arms and is clamped to the vehicle chassis with rubber bushes. Its function is to reduce body roll while cornering, also while travelling on uneven road which enhances safety and comfort during driving. Design changes of anti-roll bars are quite common at various steps of vehicle production and a design analysis must be performed for each change. So Finite Element Analysis (FEA can be effectively used in design analysis of anti-roll bars. The finite element analysis is performed by ANSYS. This paper includes pre-processing, analysis, post processing, and analyzing the FEA results by using APDL (Ansys Parametric Design Language. The effects of anti-roll bar design parameters on final anti-roll bar properties are also evaluated by performing sample analyses with the FEA program developed in this project.

  20. Gas dynamics in barred spirals, II: NGC 7496 and 289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas velocity fields in the barred spiral galaxies NGC 7496 and 289 have been measured by means of long-slit spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Pronounced deviations from circular motion of the type predicted by recent theoretical models are seen in NGC 7496: the isovelocity contours are distorted into a characteristic S-shaped pattern and there is a large velocity gradient across the bar. The velocity field is virtually identical to that of a previously observed barred spiral, NGC 5383 for which a number of models have been published. The nuclear [OIII] emission lines are very asymmetric with a wing extending to about 1000 km s-1 to the blue of the systemic velocity; this wing is only faintly seen in the Balmer lines. NGC 289 has a much smaller bar and consequently the noncircular motions are less pronounced. The most obvious effect is that the kinematic major and minor axes are not perpendicular which is a signature of oval distortions. As a further test of the models of gas streaming in barred spirals the results from 11 previously studied galaxies have been collected. It is shown that the appearance of the velocity field depends on the orientation of the bar to the line of sight, in good agreement with the model predictions

  1. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  2. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  3. Permutation codes for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

  4. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  5. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  6. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  7. Search for B→μ bar νμγ and B→e bar νeγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have searched for the decays B→μ bar νμγ and B→e bar νeγ in a sample of 2.7x106 charged B decays collected with the CLEO II detector. In the muon channel, we observe no candidates in the signal region and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B→μ bar νμγ)-5 at the 90% confidence level. In the electron channel, we observe five candidates in the signal region and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B→e bar νeγ)-4 at the 90% confidence level. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Gluon exchange potential and cross-section for pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One and two-gluon exchange potentials (OGEP and TGEP) relevant to the pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar transition process are derived from the S-matrix in the approximation of order p2/m2. An effective transition potential obtained from these gluon exchange potentials by the constituent quark model is employed to calculate the differential and total cross-sections for the pp-bar → ΛΛ-bar reaction in the plane wave Born Approximation. The calculated result shows that the relativistic correction terms in the OGEP and TGEP give considerable improvements on the cross-section in comparison with the previous calculations performed by making use of the OGEP given in the extremely non-relativistic approximation

  9. The states of W-class as shared resources for perfect teleportation and superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we know, the states of triqubit systems have two important classes: GHZ-class and W-class. In this paper, the states of W-class are considered for teleportation and superdense coding, and they are generalized to multi-particle systems. First we describe two transformations on the shared resources for teleportation and superdense coding. With these transformations, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for a state of W-class being suitable for perfect teleportation and superdense coding. For the state vertical bar W>123 = 1/2 (vertical bar 100>123 + vertical bar 010>123 + √2 vertical bar 001>123) which was thought to be not suitable for sending three classical bits by sending two qubits by Agrawal and Pati (2006 Phys. Rev. A 74 062320), we show that it may be used to fulfil that task, if entangled unitary operations on two qubits are allowed. We generalize the states of W-class to multi-qubit systems and multi-particle systems with higher dimension. We propose two protocols for teleportation and superdense coding by using W-states of multi-qubit systems that generalize the protocols by using |W)123 proposed by Agrawal and Pati. We obtain an optimal way to partition some W-states of multi-qubit systems into two subsystems, such that the entanglement between them achieves maximum value

  10. Hate-Speech Code at U. of Wisconsin Voided by Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1991-01-01

    A federal district judge has struck down a two-year-old University of Wisconsin code barring slurs or epithets based on an individual's race, sex, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or ethnic origin, ruling that it violates students' First-Amendment rights to freedom of speech. The decision affects a number of other colleges. (MSE)

  11. The ee-bar → ττ-bar cross section and forward-backward asymmetry at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements of the ee-bar → ττ-bar cross section and forward-backward asymmetry at a centre-of-mass energies around 91 GeV from the LEP Collaborations are presented. The results are found to be in good agreement with the standard model. In addition, the results from LEP-II at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 189 GeV are presented

  12. The d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a pion cloud model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a model approach in which hadronic fluctuations of the nucleon are generated through gluon splitting and recombination mechanisms. Within this framework, it is shown that the d -u asymmetry of the proton is consistently described by including only nucleon fluctuations to |πN> and |πΔ> bound states. Predictions of the model closely agree with the recent experimental data of the E-866/Nu Sea Collaboration. (author)

  13. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for J/\\psi -> p \\bar{p}\\eta and p \\bar{p} \\eta^{'}

    OpenAIRE

    BES Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Using 58$\\times 10^{6}$ $\\jpsi$ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the branching fractions of $\\jpsi$ to $p\\bar{p}\\eta$ and $p\\bar{p}\\etap$ are determined. The ratio $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb\\eta)}{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb)}$ obtained by this analysis agrees with expectations based on soft-pion theorem calculations.

  14. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  15. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  16. Role of Pb for Ag growth on H-passivated Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have deposited Ag on hydrogen passivated Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) surfaces under high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The deposition, followed by annealing at 250-bar oC for 30-bar min, produced silver islands of an average lateral size 36+/-14-bar nm. Depositing a small amount of Pb prior to Ag deposition reduced the average island size to 14+/-5-bar nm. A small amount of Pb, initially present at the Ag-Si interface, is found to be segregating to the surface of Ag after annealing. Both these aspects, namely, reduction of the island size and Pb floating on the Ag surface conform to the surfactant action of Pb. Samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). A selective etching process that preferentially removes Pb, in conjunction with RBS, was used to detect surface segregation of Pb involving depth scales below the resolution of conventional RBS. The annealing and etching process leaves only smaller Ag islands on the surface with complete removal of Pb. Ag growth in the presence of Pb leads to smaller Ag islands with a narrower size distribution

  17. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  18. Report on FY15 Two-Bar Thermal Ratcheting Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baird, Seth T [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pu, Chao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-22

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH* for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above . The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, , is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. These newly proposed rules also address a long-term objective to provide an option for more simple, comprehensive and easily applied rules than the current so called simplified rules These two-bar tests discussed herein are part of an ongoing series of tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. The initial focus of the two-bar ratcheting test program, to verify the procedure for evaluation of strain limits for Alloy 617 at very high temperatures, has been expanded to respond to guidance from

  19. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  20. Crystal Structures of the BAR-PH and PTB Domains of Human APPL1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,J.; Mao, X.; Dong, L.; Liu, F.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors and other important signaling molecules. It contains a BAR and a PH domain near its N terminus, and the two domains may function as a unit (BAR-PH domain). We report here the crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1. The structures reveal novel features for BAR domain dimerization and for the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. The BAR domain dimer of APPL1 contains two four-helical bundles, whereas other BAR domain dimers have only three helices in each bundle. The PH domain is located at the opposite ends of the BAR domain dimer. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirm the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. Lipid binding assays show that the BAR, PH, and PTB domains can bind phospholipids. The ability of APPL1 to interact with multiple signaling molecules and phospholipids supports an important role for this adaptor in cell signaling.

  1. Security of QR Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The 2-dimensional barcodes known as QR (Quick Response) Codesare increasing their popularity as they appear in more places in theurban environment. QR Codes can be considered as physical hyper-linksthat give the ability to users to access, through their mobile devicesthat are able to scan QR Codes, additional information located in aweb-page. Apart from marketing, QR Codes have been also adopted indifferent areas such as the on-line payments. This development alongwith the trend that some of ...

  2. Practices in Code Discoverability

    OpenAIRE

    Teuben, Peter; Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to d...

  3. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  4. Progressive fractal coding

    OpenAIRE

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  5. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  6. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  7. Locally Repairable Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Papailiopoulos, Dimitris S.; Dimakis, Alexandros G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems for large-scale applications typically use replication for reliability. Recently, erasure codes were used to reduce the large storage overhead, while increasing data reliability. A main limitation of off-the-shelf erasure codes is their high-repair cost during single node failure events. A major open problem in this area has been the design of codes that {\\it i)} are repair efficient and {\\it ii)} achieve arbitrarily high data rates. In this paper, we explore the r...

  8. Further Evidence for an Elliptical Instability in Rotating Fluid Bars and Ellipsoidal Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, S; Ou, Shangli; Motl, Joel E. Tohline & Patrick M.

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic code, we examine the dynamical stability of more than twenty self-gravitating, compressible, ellipsoidal fluid configurations that initially have the same velocity structure as Riemann S-type ellipsoids. Our focus is on ``adjoint'' configurations, in which internal fluid motions dominate over the collective spin of the ellipsoidal figure; Dedekind-like configurations are among this group. We find that, although some models are stable and some are moderately unstable, the majority are violently unstable toward the development of $m=1$, $m=3$, and higher-order azimuthal distortions that destroy the coherent, $m=2$ bar-like structure of the initial ellipsoidal configuration on a dynamical time scale. The parameter regime over which our models are found to be unstable generally corresponds with the regime over which incompressible Riemann S-type ellipsoids have been found to be susceptible to an elliptical strain instability \\citep{LL96}. We therefore suspect that ...

  9. Uniaxial Bond Stress-Slip Relationship of Reinforcing Bars in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungnam Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a study carried out on the estimation of the bond stress-slip relationship for reinforced concrete members under axial tension loading. An analytical model is proposed that utilizes the conventional bond stress-slip theories as well as the characteristics of deformed bar and concrete cross-sectional area. An equation for the estimation of the bond stress is formulated as the function of nondimensional factors (e.g., bond stress, slip, etc.. The validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed model are established by comparing the analytical results with the experimental data and the JSCE design codes, as well as the analytical models given by Ikki et al. and Shima. The analytical results presented in this paper indicate that the proposed model can effectively estimate the bond stress-slip relationship of reinforced concrete members under axial tension loading.

  10. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  11. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  12. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  13. DATA SECURITY THROUGH QR CODE ENCRYPTION AND STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mary Shanthi Rani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The art of information hiding has become an important issue in the recent years as security of information has become a big concern in this internet era. Cryptography and Steganography play major role for secured data transfer. Steganography stands for concealed writing; it hides the message inside a cover medium. Cryptography conceals the content of a message by encryption. QR (Quick Response Codes are 2-dimensional bar codes that encode text strings. They are able to encode information in both vertical and horizontal direction, thus able to encode more information. In this paper a novel approach is proposed for secret communication by combining the concepts of Steganography and QR codes. The suggested method includes two phases: (i Encrypting the message by a QR code encoder and thus creating a QR code (ii Hiding the QR code inside a colour image. This hiding process embeds the quantised QR code so that it will not make any visible distortion in the cover image and it introduces very minimum Bit Error Rate (BER. Experimental result shows that the proposed method has high imperceptibility, integrity and security..

  14. Bars rejuvenating bulges? Evidence from stellar population analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Paula

    2011-01-01

    We obtained stellar ages and metallicities via spectrum fitting for a sample of 575 bulges with spectra available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The structural properties of the galaxies have been studied in detail in Gadotti (2009b) and the sample contains 251 bulges in galaxies with bars. Using the whole sample, where galaxy stellar mass distributions for barred and unbarred galaxies are similar, we find that bulges in barred and unbarred galaxies occupy similar loci in the age vs. metallicity plane. However, the distribution of bulge ages in barred galaxies shows an excess of populations younger than ~ 4 Gyr, when compared to bulges in unbarred galaxies. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics confirm that the age distributions are different with a significance of 99.94%. If we select sub-samples for which the bulge stellar mass distributions are similar for barred and unbarred galaxies, this excess vanishes for galaxies with bulge mass log M < 10.1 M_Sun while for more massive galaxies we find a bimodal bulg...

  15. Introducing a new 3D dynamical model for barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane $z = p_z = 0$ using the Poincar\\'e map as a basic tool and then we study the full 3 dimensional case using the SALI method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evol...

  16. Image Decomposition of Barred Galaxies and AGN Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2007-01-01

    I present the results of multi-component decomposition of V and R broadband images of a sample of 17 nearby galaxies. I use BUDDA v2.1 to produce the fits, allowing to include bars and AGN in the models. A comparison with previous results from the literature shows good agreement. It is found that the axial ratio of bars, as measured from ellipse fits, can be severely underestimated if the galaxy axisymmetric component is relatively luminous. Thus, reliable bar axial ratios can only be determined by taking into account the contributions of bulge and disc to the light distribution in the galaxy image. Through a number of tests, I show that neglecting bars when modelling barred galaxies can result in a overestimation of the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio of a factor of two. Similar effects result when bright, type 1 AGN are not considered in the models. By artificially redshifting the images, I show that the structural parameters of more distant galaxies can in general be reliably retrieved through image fittin...

  17. Secular Damping of Stellar Bars in Spinning Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Stacy; Heller, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution, using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter lambda > 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, slowdown of bar pattern speed weakens substantially with increasing `lambda,' until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the a...

  18. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); Pioro-Ladrière, Michel, E-mail: michel.pioro-ladriere@usherbrooke.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); CIFAR Program in Quantum Information Science, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), M5G 1Z8 Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  19. Dense Cloud Formation and Star Formation in a Barred Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Nimori, M; Sorai, K; Watanabe, Y; Hirota, A; Namekata, D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2Mass data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr an isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than $10^4M_{\\odot}$ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the i...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF K YIELDS πν(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental program for the study of the rare kaon decays, K → πν(bar ν) is summarized. A review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus of the world-wide kaon program is the two golden modes: K+ → π+ ν(bar ν) and KLo ν(bar ν). The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K+ → π+ ν(bar ν) events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe ∼10 Standard Model events, and the CKM experiment should observe ∼100 SM events by the end of this decade. Limits on the neutral analog KLo → =πo ν(bar ν) have been set by KTeV and within the next couple of years will be pushed by E391a. Measurements of the branching ratio should be made within the next 10 years by KOPIO, with a goal of ∼50 events, and at the JHF, with a goal of up to 1000 events