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Sample records for bap retrasa senescencia

  1. La aplicación de nitrógeno en otoño retrasa la senescencia foliar en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    TOGNETTI, J.A; DE ANGELIS; SÁNCHEZ, E.E

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa prolongación de la duración de la vida de las hojas de frutales en otoño es deseable ya que contribuye a mejorar la disponibilidad de reservas para el ciclo siguiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la época y modalidad de la fertilización nitrogenada en manzanos sobre la senescencia foliar al final del ciclo vegetativo.El ensayo se llevó a cabo durante tres temporadas (2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009) en dos montes de manzano cv Royal Gala/EM9 y cv Red Chief/F...

  2. Intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) por la citocinina bap

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Martínez-Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la citocinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP) en el intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas de Triticum aestivum L. durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar en invernadero. Plántulas de 21 días después de la siembra (DDS) fueron asperjadas con BAP 0,1mM o agua (testigo) cada 3 días por 20 días. El retraso de senescencia foliar en las plantas tratadas con BAP fue monitoreado mediante cuantificación de clorofila y proteína soluble total. El intercambio de gases se estimó...

  3. La aplicación de nitrógeno en otoño retrasa la senescencia foliar en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOGNETTI, J.A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa prolongación de la duración de la vida de las hojas de frutales en otoño es deseable ya que contribuye a mejorar la disponibilidad de reservas para el ciclo siguiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la época y modalidad de la fertilización nitrogenada en manzanos sobre la senescencia foliar al final del ciclo vegetativo.El ensayo se llevó a cabo durante tres temporadas (2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009 en dos montes de manzano cv Royal Gala/EM9 y cv Red Chief/Franco. Se emplearon tres formas de aplicación de nitrógeno: a por suelo luego de la cosecha (NO; b foliar luego de la cosecha (FO; c por suelo en primavera (P. El testigo (T no recibió aplicación de nitrógeno. Se determinó la concentración de clorofila en hojas de dardos vegetativos en muestreos periódicos realizados desde mediados a fines de marzo y se siguió la evolución de la defoliación natural de las plantas. Asimismo, se determinó la fecha de entrada en reposo. Nuestros resultados muestran que las plantas de los tratamientos NO y FO presentaron mayores niveles de clorofila que los tratamientos P y T hacia el final del ciclo vegetativo. El tratamiento FO presentó las menores tasas de defoliación natural en la temporada 2006/2007 en la cultivar Royal Gala y en la temporada 2007/2008 en la cultivar Red Chief. No hubo diferencias en la fecha de entrada en reposo de las plantas excepto en la temporada 2008/2009, en la que el tratamiento T perdió antes las hojas. En conclusión, la fertilización de poscosecha favorece el mantenimiento del follaje verde en manzano en la época previa a la entrada en reposo invernal de las plantas.AbstractProlonging leaf life span in fruit trees during autumn is desirable since it may help improve reserve availability for the following cycle. The aim of this research was to assess the influence of the timing and mode of nitrogen fertilization of apple trees on foliar senescence at the end of the vegetative

  4. Structural and biophysical characterization of the cytoplasmic domains of human BAP29 and BAP31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben M Quistgaard

    Full Text Available Two members of the B-cell associated 31 (BAP31 family are found in humans; BAP29 and BAP31. These are ubiquitously expressed receptors residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP31 functions in sorting of membrane proteins and in caspase-8 mediated apoptosis, while BAP29 appears to mainly corroborate with BAP31 in sorting. The N-terminal half of these proteins is membrane-bound while the C-terminal half is cytoplasmic. The latter include the so called variant of death effector domain (vDED, which shares weak sequence homology with DED domains. Here we present two structures of BAP31 vDED determined from a single and a twinned crystal, grown at pH 8.0 and pH 4.2, respectively. These structures show that BAP31 vDED forms a dimeric parallel coiled coil with no structural similarity to DED domains. Solution studies support this conclusion and strongly suggest that an additional α-helical domain is present in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region, probably forming a second coiled coil. The thermal stability of BAP31 vDED is quite modest at neutral pH, suggesting that it may assemble in a dynamic fashion in vivo. Surprisingly, BAP29 vDED is partially unfolded at pH 7, while a coiled coil is formed at pH 4.2 in vitro. It is however likely that folding of the domain is triggered by other factors than low pH in vivo. We found no evidence for direct interaction of the cytoplasmic domains of BAP29 and BAP31.

  5. Efectos de la rapamicina en los procesos de senescencia y autofagia en líneas celulares humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo N. Fernández Larrosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la autofagia como la senescencia celular son procesos que, en principio, evitan el desarrollo tumoral impidiendo la proliferación de células dañadas. Sin embargo, la autofagia no siempre lleva a la muerte celular, sino que puede ser un mecanismo de supervivencia en condiciones de estrés. En cuanto a la senescencia, si bien las células no proliferan, producen factores de crecimiento que contribuyen a la proliferación de células vecinas. La rapamicina es un conocido inmunosupresor utilizado en pacientes con transplantes de órganos, que inhibe la cascada de transducción de señal mTOR, principal vía que censa el estado energético y nutricional de la célula, permite la síntesis de proteínas e inhibe la autofagia cuando se encuentra activa. En este trabajo se investigó la acción de rapamicina sobre estos procesos y encontramos que a dosis bajas es capaz de inducir la senescencia de una línea celular normal y a dosis altas la autofagia en una línea celular transformada. También se determinó que el oncogén RAC3 es inhibitorio de la autofagia y su expresión es inhibida por rapamicina. Estos resultados constituyen un aporte al conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares por los cuales este fármaco puede actuar, dado que actualmente se ha focalizado el interés en su aplicación a terapias anti-tumorales.

  6. From where did the BAPS emerge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel G

    2014-02-01

    This is a personal account of the emergence of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons (BAPS), one of the oldest of the specialty associations. It was formed in 1953 by like-minded professionals from around the UK, and its first meeting was held in and around the Hospital for Sick Children, London, in the summer of 1954. It included many surgeons from around the world eager to share experience of the challenges of this new surgical discipline. The BAPS had four aims: the advancement of the study, practice, and research in paediatric surgery, the promotion of the teaching of paediatric surgery, both under-graduate and post-graduate, and advice on the training of paediatric surgeons, advice on matters concerning the paediatric surgical services in the British Isles, and fourthly, the promotion of friendship with paediatric surgeons overseas. Copyright © 2014.

  7. BAP1 has a survival role in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent.

  8. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  9. A recurrent germline BAP1 mutation and extension of the BAP1 tumor predisposition spectrum to include basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K A W; Aoude, L G; Johansson, P

    2015-01-01

    ) and mesothelioma, as previously reported for germline BAP1 mutations. However, mutation carriers from three new families, and one previously reported family, developed basal cell carcinoma (BCC), thus suggesting inclusion of BCC in the phenotypic spectrum of the BAP1 tumor syndrome. This notion is supported...

  10. Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to malignant mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Joseph R.; Cheung, Mitchell; Pei, Jianming; Below, Jennifer E.; Tan, Yinfei; Sementino, Eleonora; Cox, Nancy J.; Dogan, A. Umran; Pass, Harvey I.; Trusa, Sandra; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Powers, Amy; Rivera, Zeyana; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Tanji, Mika; Gaudino, Giovanni; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Because only a small fraction of asbestos-exposed individuals develop malignant mesothelioma1, and because mesothelioma clustering is observed in some families1, we searched for genetic predisposing factors. We discovered germline mutations in BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) in two families with a high incidence of mesothelioma. Somatic alterations affecting BAP1 were observed in familial mesotheliomas, indicating biallelic inactivation. Besides mesothelioma, some BAP1 mutation carriers developed uveal melanoma. Germline BAP1 mutations were also found in two of 26 sporadic mesotheliomas: both patients with mutant BAP1 were previously diagnosed with uveal melanoma. Truncating mutations and aberrant BAP1 expression were common in sporadic mesotheliomas without germline mutations. These results reveal a BAP1-related cancer syndrome characterized by mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. We hypothesize that other cancers may also be involved, and that mesothelioma predominates upon asbestos exposure. These findings will help identify individuals at high risk of mesothelioma who could be targeted for early intervention. PMID:21874000

  11. La opinión del anciano sobre el proceso de senescencia, actividad física y estilo de vida de los adventistas

    OpenAIRE

    Cibeli dos Santos, Noely; Marques Franco, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    La longevidad siempre fue anhelada por el ser humano. En Brasil, esa conquista ha sucedido por el aumento en la expectativa de vida, lo que ha levantado preocupación en cuanto a la calidad de ese envejecimiento. En este contexto, el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo conocer la opinión del anciano adventista sobre el proceso de senescencia y la infl de la actividad física. La metodología utilizada fue el abordaje cualitativo. Se realizó la investigación en la comunidad del Jardim Refugio, en ...

  12. Técnicas para la detección de apoptosis y senescencia celular in vitro y su importancia en biotecnología de la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Martínez Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre las principales técnicas de detección de los niveles de apoptosis y senescencia celular para aplicación en cultivo de células animales y humanas, dada la importancia de establecer la metodología más adecuada para su implementación en investigación biológica y biomédica que usa este tipo de células como medios de diagnóstico, experimentación y obtención de alternativas terapéuticas. Existe la necesidad de aplicar técnicas estandarizadas para evaluación y monitoreo del cultivo de células ya que esto garantiza la calidad del mismo cuando este tiene aplicación en el campo clínico. La apoptosis y la senescencia celular se perfilan como parámetros biológicos idóneos para esta valoración. La apoptosis se considera una forma de muerte celular que, a diferencia de la necrosis, es ordenada, programada y dependiente de energía, que implica la activación de un grupo de enzimas proteolíticas denominadas caspasas y una cascada molecular intracelular hasta la desaparición completa de la célula. La senescencia celular se define como la pérdida irreversible de la capacidad proliferativa de la célula que al mismo tiempo se encuentra en un estado metabólicamente activo. Se muestra una comparación entre las técnicas de detección de estos fenómenos y, finalmente, se enfatiza en la opción de implementar multiensayos para una determinación más sensible y rigurosa de apoptosis y senescencia celular in vitro.

  13. Vacuolas asociadas a la senescencia: participación en la degradación de proteínas fotosintéticas e interacción con la vía autofágica

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo de tesis pretende profundizar el conocimiento de las vacuolas asociadas a la senescencia (VAS) a través de tres temáticas: - el desarrollo, entendido como la variación temporal de las VAS, su biogénesis y el efecto de moduladores de la senescencia; - la caracterización de la actividad biológica de las VAS participando en el desmantelamiento del aparato fotosintético; - y la relación entre el mecanismo de autofagia y el desarrollo de las VAS. ...

  14. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 3. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of western Rajasthan, Thar desert. B C Deotare M D Kajale S N Rajaguru S Kusumgar A J T Jull J D Donahue. Special Section on: Quaternary History and Palaeoenvironmental Record of ...

  15. BAP concentration and subcultive number in torch ginger multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Oliveira Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The large ornamental potential of tropical flowers has stimulated the commercial cultivation of various species. Micropropagation is a viable alternate method of propagation, since it enables obtaining a higher number of seedlings with uniformity and pathogens free. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro multiplication rate of Etlingera elatior cv. Porcelana, using explants obtained from in vitro established seedling shoots, obtained from the 2nd subcultive. The explants were inoculated in MS culture medium containing different concentrations of BAP (0.0; 2.22; 4.44; 6.66; 8.88; and 11,10 μM, and the cultures maintained in a growth room with temperature 25.0 ± 2.0 °C under a photoperiod of 12 hours of light and light intensity of 30 μmol.m-2 s-1. The multiplication rate was monthly, according to the four subcultives, totaling 120 days. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, analyzed in a factorial 4 x 6. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. There were significant differences in subcultives and made for BAP concentrations used. For the first subcultive, the concentration of 2.22 μM of BAP afforded a rate of 4.06 sprouts per explant, already in the second and fourth subcultives, with the addition of cytokinin concentration was increased amount of sprouts reaching at a rate of 4.05 and 4.96 shoots/explant in the highest concentration of BAP. The results of the treatments evaluated indicate that the presence of BAP favored sprout emission. The concentrations of 2.22, 8.88 and 11.10 μM this cytokinin promoted the highest multiplication rates in the first, second and fourth subcultives, respectively.

  16. BAP1 inhibits the ER stress gene regulatory network and modulates metabolic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fangyan; Lee, Hyemin; Zhang, Yilei; Zhuang, Li; Yao, Hui; Xi, Yuanxin; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; You, M James; Li, Wei; Su, Xiaoping; Gan, Boyi

    2017-03-21

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically linked to metabolic homeostasis via the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which is instructed by multiple transcriptional regulatory cascades. BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a tumor suppressor with de-ubiquitinating enzyme activity and has been implicated in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Here we show that BAP1 inhibits cell death induced by unresolved metabolic stress. This prosurvival role of BAP1 depends on its de-ubiquitinating activity and correlates with its ability to dampen the metabolic stress-induced UPR transcriptional network. BAP1 inhibits glucose deprivation-induced reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion, two cellular events contributing to the ER stress-induced cell death. In line with this, Bap1 KO mice are more sensitive to tunicamycin-induced renal damage. Mechanically, we show that BAP1 represses metabolic stress-induced UPR and cell death through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reveal that BAP1 binds to ATF3 and CHOP promoters and inhibits their transcription. Taken together, our results establish a previously unappreciated role of BAP1 in modulating the cellular adaptability to metabolic stress and uncover a pivotal function of BAP1 in the regulation of the ER stress gene-regulatory network. Our study may also provide new conceptual framework for further understanding BAP1 function in cancer.

  17. BAP1 facilitates diagnostic objectivity, classification, and prognostication in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephanie M; Dunning, Ryan; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Husain, Aliya N; Krausz, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) has emerged as a promising biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Loss of BAP1 expression can occur by a variety of mechanisms, but reports on incidence are variable and the clinical significance is unclear. In order to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of BAP1, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of 111 MPM cases and performed BAP1 immunohistochemistry. BAP1 was lost in 77% of epithelioid cases (n=58) but was retained in all sarcomatoid cases (n=10); 49% of biphasic cases showed loss (n=43), and BAP1-negative cases demonstrated loss of staining in both the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components. All non-neoplastic mesothelial tissues (n=20) retained BAP1, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 61%, 100%, 100%, and 32%, respectively. Moreover, BAP1 expression in spindled mesothelium enabled discrimination of reactive and malignant cells, thus providing a more objective means of distinguishing epithelioid from biphasic morphology compared to histology alone. Nonetheless, BAP1 staining was patchy in some benign mesothelial neoplasms, which raises concern for using BAP1 in small biopsies. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival with BAP1 loss, but this did not reach significance in multivariate analysis accounting for histologic subtype. When only epithelioid cases were analyzed there was a trend toward increased survival, but it did not reach significance. We conclude that BAP1 loss is frequent in epithelioid MPM, which is in turn associated with improved survival, and that it can have additional clinical significance by facilitating histologic classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target

  19. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  20. Loss of expression of BAP1 is very rare in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Parkhill, Thomas R; Jung, Jason; Wardell, Kathryn L; Verdonk, Brandon; Singh, Arjun; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Sheen, Amy; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Germline mutations of the BAP1 gene have been implicated in a cancer predisposition syndrome which includes mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanocytic lesions, renal cell carcinoma, and possibly other malignancies. Double hit inactivation of BAP1 with subsequent loss of expression of the BAP1 protein also occurs in approximately 50% of mesotheliomas. The link between BAP1 mutation and lung cancer is yet to be fully explored. We sought to assess BAP1 expression in a large cohort of lung cancers undergoing surgery with curative intent. We searched the Anatomical Pathology database of our institution for lung cancer patients undergoing surgery with curative intent between 2000 and 2010. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed in tissue microarray format. Our cohort included 257 lung cancer patients, of which 155 (60%) were adenocarcinomas and 72 (28%) were squamous cell carcinomas, with no other subtype comprising more than 3%. BAP1 loss of expression was found in only one lung cancer. We conclude that BAP1 mutation occurs very infrequently (0.4%) in non-small cell lung cancer. Given that the pathological differential diagnosis between lung carcinoma and mesothelioma may sometimes be difficult, this finding increases the specificity of loss of expression for BAP1 for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identificación y caracterización funcional de genes candidatos asociados a la senescencia foliar en girasol basado en perfiles transcripcionales y metabólicos

    OpenAIRE

    Moschen, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    El proceso de senescencia en plantas es un mecanismo complejo controlado por múltiples variables genéticas y ambientales que condicionan el rendimiento de los cultivos. En el caso del girasol, el segundo cultivo oleaginoso en importancia económica para nuestro país, se trata de un proceso con impacto económico que interviene en la brecha existente entre el rendimiento potencial y el rendimiento real observado, por la mayor o menor oportunidad de las plantas para mantener el sistema fotosintét...

  2. Diagnostic utility of BAP1 and EZH2 expression in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Morita, Shigeki; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi

    2017-04-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer that is usually diagnosed at advanced stages; thus, highly sensitive and specific markers are necessary for its early definitive diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility and prognostic significance of BAP1 and EZH2 in malignant mesothelioma. The expression of BAP1 and EZH2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 32 malignant mesotheliomas and 44 benign mesothelial proliferative lesions, including well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (n = 4), mesothelial inclusion cyst (n = 22), and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (n = 18). BAP1 loss and high EZH2 expression were observed in 17 (53%) and 22 (66%) malignant mesothelioma cases, respectively, whereas none of the benign lesions showed BAP1 loss or high EZH2 expression. The combination of BAP1 loss and high EZH2 expression as markers to differentiate epithelioid/biphasic malignant mesothelioma from benign mesothelial lesions was highly sensitive (90%) and specific (100%). There were no statistically significant associations between parameters such as age and sex of patients, tumour location, asbestos exposure, treatment, histology, and BAP1 or EZH2 expression. Survival analysis revealed that BAP1 loss, but not high EZH2 expression, was associated with a better prognosis. BAP1 loss and high EZH2 expression were highly specific to malignant mesothelioma in differentiating it from benign mesothelial proliferations, and the combination of these two markers improved the diagnostic accuracy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. BAP1 dependent expression of long non-coding RNA NEAT-1 contributes to sensitivity to gemcitabine in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasramka, Mansi; Yan, Irene K; Wang, Xue; Nguyen, Phuong; Matsuda, Akiko; Maji, Sayantan; Foye, Catherine; Asmann, Yan; Patel, Tushar

    2017-01-25

    Genetic alterations in chromatin modulators such as BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) are the most frequent genetic alteration in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (CCA). We evaluated the contribution of BAP1 expression on tumor cell behavior and therapeutic sensitivity to identify rationale therapeutic strategies. The impact of BAP1 expression on sensitivity to therapeutic agents was evaluated in CCA cells with a 7-fold difference in BAP1 expression (KMBC-low, HuCCT1-high) and genetically engineered haplo-insufficient BAP1 knockout cells. We also identified long non-coding RNA genes associated with loss of BAP1 and their role in therapeutic sensitivity. Sensitivity to gemcitabine was greater in low BAP1 expressing or BAP1 knockout cells compared with the high BAP1 expressing cells or control haplo-insufficient cells respectively. Similar results were observed with TSA, olaparib, b-AP15 but not with GSK126. A differential synergistic effect was observed in combinations of gemcitabine with olaparib or GSK126 in KMBC cells and TSA or bAP15 in HuCCT1 cells, indicating BAP1 dependent target-specific synergism and sensitivity to gemcitabine. A BAP1 dependent alteration in expression of lncRNA NEAT-1 was identified by RT-PCR based lncRNA expression profiling, and an inverse relationship between this lncRNA and BAP1 was observed in analysis of the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas cholangiocarcinoma dataset. Exogenous modulation of NEAT-1 and/or BAP1 expression altered tumor cell phenotype and modulated sensitivity to gemcitabine. NEAT-1 is a downstream effector of gemcitabine sensitivity in CCA. The expression of BAP1 is a determinant of sensitivity to therapeutic drugs that can be exploited to enhance responses through combination strategies.

  4. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  5. Clumped perinuclear BAP1 expression is a frequent finding in sporadic epithelioid Spitz tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Bryan; Traczyk, Tom N; Gerami, Pedram

    2013-06-01

    BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) represents a recently identified tumor suppressor protein. Loss of BAP1 has been observed in cutaneous epithelioid Spitz tumors. These cutaneous melanocytic tumors show a distinct histopathologic phenotype characterized by an intradermal sheet-like proliferation of epithelioid melanocytes. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes, histopathologic findings and immunophenotype in spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms with the morphologic features seen in BAP1 mutated Spitz tumors. Cases were obtained from our files. BAP1 immunohistochemistry was evaluated dichotomously for the presence of nuclear staining. Fifteen of 19 cases showed loss of nuclear BAP1 expression. Of the 15 cases displaying nuclear loss of BAP1, clumped perinuclear staining was observed in 8 cases while 7 cases showed complete loss. Follow up ranging from 0-45 months (mean 17 months) was uneventful. Our data are consistent with an indolent overall clinical course for epithelioid Spitz tumors with loss of BAP1. Furthermore, a large subset of epithelioid Spitz tumors display loss of nuclear expression but show a reproducible clumped perinuclear staining pattern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  7. A BAP1 Mutation in a Danish Family Predisposes to Uveal Melanoma and Other Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual...... with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.......Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor...

  8. Patterns of BAP1 protein expression provide insights into prognostic significance and the biology of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Neil; Thornton, Sophie; Coupland, Sarah E; Coulson, Judy M; Sacco, Joseph J; Krishna, Yamini; Heimann, Heinrich; Taktak, Azzam; Cebulla, Colleen M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Kalirai, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare aggressive intraocular tumour with a propensity for liver metastases, occurring in ∼50% of patients. The tumour suppressor BAP1 is considered to be key in UM progression. Herein, we present the largest study to date investigating cellular expression patterns of BAP1 protein in 165 UMs, correlating these patterns to prognosis. Full clinical, histological, genetic, and follow-up data were available for all patients. BAP1 gene sequencing was performed on a subset of 26 cases. An independent cohort of 14 UMs was examined for comparison. Loss of nuclear BAP1 (nBAP1) protein expression was observed in 54% (88/165) UMs. nBAP1 expression proved to be a significant independent prognostic parameter: it identified two subgroups within monosomy 3 (M3) UM, which are known to have a high risk of metastasis. Strikingly, nBAP1-positiveM3 UMs were associated with prolonged survival compared to nBAP1-negative M3 UMs (Log rank, p  = 0.014). nBAP1 protein loss did not correlate with a BAP1 mutation in 23% (6/26) of the UMs analysed. Cytoplasmic BAP1 protein (cBAP1) expression was also observed in UM: although appearing 'predominantly diffuse' in most nBAP1-negative UM, a distinct 'focal perinuclear' expression pattern - localized immediately adjacent to the cis Golgi - was seen in 31% (18/59). These tumours tended to carry loss-of-function BAP1 mutations. Our study demonstrates loss of nBAP1 expression to be the strongest prognostic marker in UM, confirming its importance in UM progression. Our data suggest that non-genetic mechanisms account for nBAP1 loss in a small number of UMs. In addition, we describe a subset of nBAP1-negative UM, in which BAP1 is sequestered in perinuclear bodies, most likely within Golgi, warranting further mechanistic investigation.

  9. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis

    2009-10-15

    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  10. GERMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF CARNATION USING BAP AND KIN IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Restelatto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to establish a system of in vitro multiplication for the harpsichord, the seeds were sterilized in sodium hypochlorite and inoculated in MS. The induction of axillary buds used the BAP and Kinetin (KIN at concentrations of 0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg/L. Was added, 3% (w/v sucrose, 0,6 (w/v agar and the pH ± 5.8. 40 days after the inoculation of seeds, germination was evaluated. The best average germination occurred in T1 (0 min in hypochlorite and T3 (10 min in hypochlorite (9,0 and 8,75 treatments, respectively, differing T2 (5 min in hypochlorite (3,75. In the formation of axillary buds, treatment T1 (2,0 mg / L BAP presented (7,1 buds /explant. Have the treatment T3 (4,0 mg /L BAP presented (5,5 buds / explant, and T1 (zero BAP statistically had the lowest bud formation (3,73 buds / explant. For CIN, it was observed that the best response (5,6 and 5,1 buds/explants were in the T1 (0 CIN and T3 (4.0 mg /L KIN treatments whereas in T2 (2,0 mg /L CIN had the lowest bud formation (2,7 buds /explant . Thus, sodium hypochlorite was effective in decontaminating and BAP and KIN hormones were effective for inducing gems

  11. Role of the Vibrio cholerae matrix protein Bap1 in cross-resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylise Duperthuy

    Full Text Available Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that are released from Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of effectors involved in infectious processes. In this study we have investigated the role of OMVs of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor A1552 strain in resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. To assess this potential role, we grew V. cholerae with sub-lethal concentrations of Polymyxin B (PmB or the AMP LL-37 and analyzed the OMVs produced and their effects on AMP resistance. Our results show that growing V. cholerae in the presence of AMPs modifies the protein content of the OMVs. In the presence of PmB, bacteria release OMVs that are larger in size and contain a biofilm-associated extracellular matrix protein (Bap1. We demonstrated that Bap1 binds to the OmpT porin on the OMVs through the LDV domain of OmpT. In addition, OMVs from cultures incubated in presence of PmB also provide better protection for V. cholerae against LL-37 compared to OMVs from V. cholerae cultures grown without AMPs or in presence of LL-37. Using a bap1 mutant we showed that cross-resistance between PmB and LL-37 involved the Bap1 protein, whereby Bap1 on OMVs traps LL-37 with no subsequent degradation of the AMP.

  12. Efek NAA dan BAP terhadap Pembentukan Tunas, Daun, dan Tinggi Tunas Stek Mikro Nepenthes ampullaria Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heti Sartika Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the interaction between NAA and BAP as well as to obtain the best combination of both treatments in promoting the growth of Nepenthes ampullariamicrocutting.An experiment arranged in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD wasapplied. Stem segments were used as blocks, where block I was the first segment followed by the next two segments as block II and III respectively. Two factors, i.e. NAA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 µM and BAP concentrations (0, 9, 18, 27 µM were employed giving rise to 16 combination of treatments. Each treatment combination was replicated threetimes resulting in 48 experimental units. The parametersmeasured were date of shoot initiation, date of root initiation, shoot number, leaf number, root number, length of longest leafand shoot height. The results showed that interactionbetween NAA and BAP in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth was observed.  Combination between NAA of 0 µM and BAP of 18 µMwas found to be the best in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth.Meanwhile, combination between NAA 0 µM and BAP 27 µM was recommended to promote shoot number of N. ampullaria.

  13. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  14. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V.; Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  15. Modeling Renal Cell Carcinoma in Mice: Bap1 and Pbrm1 Inactivation Drive Tumor Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Feng; Cohn, Shannon; Christie, Alana; McKenzie, Tiffani; Wolff, Nicholas; Do, Quyen N; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan; Wang, Tao; Dey, Anwesha; Busslinger, Meinrad; Xie, Xian-Jin; Hammer, Robert E; McKay, Renée M; Kapur, Payal; Brugarolas, James

    2017-08-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations, which are associated with tumors of different grade and prognosis. However, whether BAP1 and PBRM1 loss causes ccRCC and determines tumor grade is unclear. We conditionally targeted Bap1 and Pbrm1 (with Vhl ) in the mouse using several Cre drivers. Sglt2 and Villin proximal convoluted tubule drivers failed to cause tumorigenesis, challenging the conventional notion of ccRCC origins. In contrast, targeting with PAX8, a transcription factor frequently overexpressed in ccRCC, led to ccRCC of different grades. Bap1 -deficient tumors were of high grade and showed greater mTORC1 activation than Pbrm1 -deficient tumors, which exhibited longer latency. Disrupting one allele of the mTORC1 negative regulator, Tsc1 , in Pbrm1 -deficient kidneys triggered higher grade ccRCC. This study establishes Bap1 and Pbrm1 as lineage-specific drivers of ccRCC and histologic grade, implicates mTORC1 as a tumor grade rheostat, and suggests that ccRCCs arise from Bowman capsule cells. Significance: Determinants of tumor grade and aggressiveness across cancer types are poorly understood. Using ccRCC as a model, we show that Bap1 and Pbrm1 loss drives tumor grade. Furthermore, we show that the conversion from low grade to high grade can be promoted by activation of mTORC1. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 900-17. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Leung and Kim, p. 802 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 783 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Efectos de la rapamicina en los procesos de senescencia y autofagia en líneas celulares humanas Rapamycin effect on senescence and autophagy processes in human cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo N. Fernández Larrosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la autofagia como la senescencia celular son procesos que, en principio, evitan el desarrollo tumoral impidiendo la proliferación de células dañadas. Sin embargo, la autofagia no siempre lleva a la muerte celular, sino que puede ser un mecanismo de supervivencia en condiciones de estrés. En cuanto a la senescencia, si bien las células no proliferan, producen factores de crecimiento que contribuyen a la proliferación de células vecinas. La rapamicina es un conocido inmunosupresor utilizado en pacientes con transplantes de órganos, que inhibe la cascada de transducción de señal mTOR, principal vía que censa el estado energético y nutricional de la célula, permite la síntesis de proteínas e inhibe la autofagia cuando se encuentra activa. En este trabajo se investigó la acción de rapamicina sobre estos procesos y encontramos que a dosis bajas es capaz de inducir la senescencia de una línea celular normal y a dosis altas la autofagia en una línea celular transformada. También se determinó que el oncogén RAC3 es inhibitorio de la autofagia y su expresión es inhibida por rapamicina. Estos resultados constituyen un aporte al conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares por los cuales este fármaco puede actuar, dado que actualmente se ha focalizado el interés en su aplicación a terapias anti-tumorales.Autophagy and senescence are both processes that firstly avoid tumor development through the inhibition of proliferation of damaged cells. However, autophagy does not imply cell death, because it is also a mechanism of cell survival under stress conditions. Concerning senescence, although these cells do not proliferate, they produce growth factors that contribute to the proliferative response of other cells. Rapamycin is an immunosupressor used in transplanted patients that inhibits the mTOR transduction signal pathway. This pathway is involved in the control of the energetic and nutritional state of the cell allowing protein

  17. Bap, a biofilm matrix protein of Staphylococcus aureus prevents cellular internalization through binding to GP96 host receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaione Valle

    Full Text Available The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections.

  18. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  19. Effects of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of combined treatment of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and benzyl amino purine (BAP) was studied on mineral elements (Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, sodium, iron and Manganese) and lipid content in relation to senescence. The experimental site for this study was situated at the botanical garden of ...

  20. A cryptic BAP1 splice mutation in a family with uveal and cutaneous melanoma, and paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K.; Choi, J.; Chung, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivating germ line BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) mutations have recently been reported in families with uveal or cutaneous malignant melanoma (UMM, CMM), mesothelioma, and meningioma. Although apparently predisposing to a wide range of tumors, the exact tumor spectrum associated with germ...

  1. Indoor Spatial Monitoring of Combustion Generated Pollutants (TSP, CO, and BaP) by Indian Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    contribution from cooking. TSP concentrations were obtained gravimetrically . Future studies might determine dust and soot separately. Part of the BaP analysis...Monograph, # 98. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. Smith, K.R., 1987: Biofuels , Air Pollution, and Health: A Global review. Plenum

  2. The prognostic significance of BAP1, NF2, and CDKN2A in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Aatur D; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Choudry, Haroon A; Bartlett, David L; Pingpank, James F; Zeh, Herbert J; Luvison, Alyssa; Fuhrer, Kimberly; Bahary, Nathan; Seethala, Raja R; Dacic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion for patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has resulted in improved disease control and increased survival. Despite these results, there are significant perioperative risks associated with this aggressive procedure that necessitate consideration of prognostic markers during patient selection. The molecular pathogenesis of peritoneal mesothelioma remains relatively unknown, but extrapolation of findings from their pleural counterpart would suggest frequent alterations in CDKN2A, NF2, and BAP1. Homozygous deletions in CDKN2A portend a worse overall survival in peritoneal mesothelioma. However, the prevalence and prognostic significance of NF2 and BAP1 abnormalities has not been studied. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization using CDKN2A and NF2 locus-specific probes and BAP1 immunohistochemistry identified homozygous CDKN2A deletions (n=25, 29%), hemizygous NF2 loss (n=30, 35%), and/or loss of BAP1 protein expression (n=49, 57%) in 68 of 86 (79%) peritoneal mesotheliomas. Homozygous CDKN2A deletions or hemizygous NF2 loss correlated with shorter progression-free survival (Pguide future treatment decisions for patients with peritoneal mesothelioma.

  3. Multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa': efeito da citocinina BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' apresenta alta produtividade, ótimo sabor e aparência dos frutos para a comercialização. No entanto, por ser altamente suscetível à escaldadura das folhas (Xylella fastidiosa Wells, esta variedade apresenta problemas de cultivo no sul do Brasil. As técnicas de cultura in vitro permitem propagar e rapidamente espécies de interesse, além de permitir a limpeza de patógenos e a produção de matrizes com qualidade genética e sanitária comprovada. Porém, o uso prático da propagação in vitro requer a otimização das condições de cultura para cada espécie e/ou variedade. Dentre os fatores que mais influenciam a micropropagação, estão as citocininas, com destaque para o BAP. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' sob diferentes concentrações de BAP. Após três subculturas em meio MA1, segmentos nodais com 0,5-1,0 cm foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças significativas no número de brotos para as diferentes concentrações de BAP testadas. No entanto, o maior número de brotos por explante (3,6 obteve-se na concentração de 2,0 mg.L-1 e a maior altura média dos brotos foi obtido na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. Concentrações maiores que a 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP inibiram o crescimento dos brotos. A micropropagação da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' a partir de ápices caulinares e gemas laterais em meio de cultura MA1 mostrou-se eficaz.

  4. The impact of primer sets on detection of the gene encoding biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Acinetobacter baumannii: in silico and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodori, M; Douraghi, M; Yaseri, M; Rahbar, M

    2017-04-01

    The Acinetobacter baumannii virulence protein Bap is encoded by a large gene and contains both variable sequence and repetitive modules. To date, four primer sets targeting different regions of bap have been designed, but no study has evaluated all these primers simultaneously for detection of bap. Here, we assessed the effect of primer sets Bap I-IV, on detection of bap both in silico and in vitro. Using the primer set Bap II, all 143 tested strains yielded an amplicon corresponding to the bap gene. This primer set showed the highest sensitivity (100, 95% CI: 97·9-100%) compared to the other primer sets. This study demonstrates that primer set Bap II performs with optimal efficiency for detection of the bap gene among different strains. This study investigated the effect of nucleotide variation on PCR detection of the bap gene in various Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Since bap is the target gene for many detection assays, this variation can affect the detection efficiency. Here we present a primer set Bap II with optimal detection efficiency amongst 143 different strains, as shown by in silico and in vitro evidence. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  6. Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of BAP1 Protein Expression in Different Types of Cancer-A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Zhu, Wen-Wei

    2018-02-01

    The prognostic value of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression in different cancer types remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of BAP1 gene expression. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched comprehensively for relevant studies. The pooled effects were calculated to investigate the association of BAP1 expression with cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features. The χ 2 and I 2 tests were performed to evaluate heterogeneity among the enrolled articles. If the p > 0.05 and I 2  50%, we used a random-effects model. A total of 26 studies covering 8043 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The correlation between BAP1 expression and patient survival was evaluated for 10 different cancer types. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of BAP1 expression and overall survival (OS) was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-1.12) with heterogeneity (I 2  = 85.8%, p type, rather than other parameters (geographic region, detection method, sample size, or comparison method), lead to this heterogeneity. BAP1 expression was a favorable predicative factor for OS in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (HR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.47-0.69), non-small cell lung cancer (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.96), and uveal melanoma (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.27-0.62), while high expression of BAP1 was associated with poorer outcome in malignant pleural mesothelioma (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.67-2.47). Our study revealed that BAP1 expression tends to have different prognostic values in different cancer types. Clinically, BAP1 may serve as a promising marker for prognostic prediction for certain cancer types.

  7. RESPON PEMBENTUKAN KALUS KORO BENGUK (MUCUNA PRURIENS L. PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI 2,4-D DAN BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ariani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan konsentrasi 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D dan benzylamino purin (BAP optimal dalam pembentukan kalus dari eksplan setengah biji koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens L.. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan ialah rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor, yaitu konsentrasi 2,4-D (0,5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1,5 ppm, 2 ppm dan BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm untuk induksi kalus. Hasil induksi dipindahkan pada media MS0, kemudian dilanjutkan pada media MS yang ditambah BAP, IBA, GA. Parameter yang diamati adalah waktu terbentuk kalus, persentase eksplan berkalus, berat kalus per eksplan, warna dan tekstur kalus. Pada tahap induksi kalus, BAP 3 mg/l menyebabkan pertumbuhan kalus terberat dibandingkan konsentrasi lainnya. Sementara pada tahap diferensiasi, konsentrasi BAP 3 ppm dan 2,4-D 1 ppm merupakan konsentrasi yang mengakibatkan persentase kalus sehat tertinggi. Perlakuan 2,4-D 1 ppm dan BAP 3 ppm menghasilkan kalus putih transparan, kompak, dan berat kalus tertinggi (0,49 gram. Konsentrasi tersebut merupakan konsentrasi yang disarankan untuk menumbuhkan kalus koro bengukThis research aimed to determine the optimal concentration of 2,4-D and BAP in callus formation from an explant of half seed Mucuna pruriens. The research design was used completely randomized design with two factors: the concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1.5 ppm, 2 ppm  and BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, and 3 ppm for callus inductions. The induction result is moved to MS0 medium, then continued to MS medium which was added by BAP, IBA, GA. The measured parameters were: callus formation time, the percentage of callus explants, the weight of callus for each explants, color and texture of callus. During induction phase BAP 3 ppm caused the heaviest callus growth than others, meanwhile in differentiation phase BAP 3 ppm and 2,4-D 1 ppm caused the highest percentage of healthy callus. Treatment of 2,4-D 1 ppm and BAP 3 ppm produced white and compact transparent

  8. Effect of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine on shoot induction in explants of brazilwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katarina Oliveira Aragão

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic forest has been subjected to intense degradation, with only about 7% to 8% of its original area remaining today. This situation has raised concerns over the conservation of species threatened with extinction. In all, 276 tree and bush species are under threat, out of which this study chose to evaluate alternatives for protecting brazilwood ‘Pau-Brasil’ (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.. Most studies performed so far on this subject either evaluate the effect of cytokinins on induction of callogenesis or focus on improving cryopreservation methodologies. In an attempt to expand knowledge about biotechnological techniques enabling conservation of C. echinata, this work evaluated the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and explant type on induction of shoots in brazilwood. To attain that, explants were inoculated into basic MS medium and into MS medium supplemented with 2.5 µM, 3.5 µM and 4.5 µM of BAP, and kept in a growth room for 40 days under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. A 2x4 factorial design was adopted, with three replicates. Analyzed variables included shoot percentage, callogenesis and oxidations, and means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% probability level. Results showed a significant influence of BAP only on shoot induction, and of explant type on that variable and on other variables too. It was concluded that, under in vitro conditions, the nodal type of explant is more responsive to BAP action and that 2.5 µM is the recommended concentration for shoot induction in brazilwood.

  9. Enhanced Bayesian modelling in BAPS software for learning genetic structures of populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirén Jukka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the most recent decade many Bayesian statistical models and software for answering questions related to the genetic structure underlying population samples have appeared in the scientific literature. Most of these methods utilize molecular markers for the inferences, while some are also capable of handling DNA sequence data. In a number of earlier works, we have introduced an array of statistical methods for population genetic inference that are implemented in the software BAPS. However, the complexity of biological problems related to genetic structure analysis keeps increasing such that in many cases the current methods may provide either inappropriate or insufficient solutions. Results We discuss the necessity of enhancing the statistical approaches to face the challenges posed by the ever-increasing amounts of molecular data generated by scientists over a wide range of research areas and introduce an array of new statistical tools implemented in the most recent version of BAPS. With these methods it is possible, e.g., to fit genetic mixture models using user-specified numbers of clusters and to estimate levels of admixture under a genetic linkage model. Also, alleles representing a different ancestry compared to the average observed genomic positions can be tracked for the sampled individuals, and a priori specified hypotheses about genetic population structure can be directly compared using Bayes' theorem. In general, we have improved further the computational characteristics of the algorithms behind the methods implemented in BAPS facilitating the analyses of large and complex datasets. In particular, analysis of a single dataset can now be spread over multiple computers using a script interface to the software. Conclusion The Bayesian modelling methods introduced in this article represent an array of enhanced tools for learning the genetic structure of populations. Their implementations in the BAPS software are

  10. Immunochemical and biological characterization of monoclonal antibodies against BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Assumpção, G G; Silveira, C R F; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Tanjoni, I; Carmona, A K; Alves, M F M; Takehara, H A; Rucavado, A; Ramos, O H P; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-11-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class of Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomations by Bothrops asper, a medically-important species in Central America and parts of South America. Six monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against BaP1 (MABaP1) were produced and characterized regarding their isotype, dissociation constant (K(d)), specificity and ability to neutralize BaP1-induced hemorrhagic and proteolytic activity. Two MABaP1 are IgM, three are IgG1 and one is IgG2b. The K(d)s of IgG MoAbs were in the nM range. All IgG MoAbs recognized conformational epitopes of BaP1 and B. asper venom components but failed to recognize venoms from 27 species of Viperidae, Colubridae and Elapidae families. Clone 7 cross-reacted with three P-I SVMPs tested (moojeni protease, insularinase and neuwiedase). BaP1-induced hemorrhage was totally neutralized by clones 3, 6 and 8 but not by clone 7. Inhibition of BaP1 enzymatic activity on a synthetic substrate by MABaP1 was totally achieved by clones 3 and 6, and partially by clone 8, but not by clone 7. In conclusion, these neutralizing MoAbs against BaP1 may become important tools to understand structure-function relationships of BaP1 and the role of P-I class SVMP in snakebite envenomation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PEMBENTUKAN TUNAS DARI BIJI MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. ASAL BENGKALIS DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BAP DAN MADU SECARA IN VITRO

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    Mayta Novalida Isda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGarcinia mangostana L. merupakan salah satu spesies dari famili Guttiferae kaya senyawa dari golongan xanthon. Manggis memiliki juvenil yang lama. Salah satu metode yang dapat memecahkan masalah dalam perbanyakan tanaman manggis dalam jumlah yang banyak, bisa sepanjang musim dan menghasilkan tanaman yang seragam yaitu kultur in vitro. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi terbaik antara Benzil Amino Purin (BAP dan madu terhadap induksi tunas dari eksplan biji manggis yang belah tiga melintang  secara in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan BAP (0;3 mg/L dan madu (3;6 mg/L pada media MS (Murashige-Skoog dengan pengamatan 70 hari setelah tanam (hst. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian BAP maupun madu mampu meningkatkan pembentukan tunas. Pemberian BAP dan madu berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase terbentuknya tunas, waktu muncul tunas, jumlah tunas dan panjang tunas.  Jumlah tunas terbanyak terdapat pada perlakuan 3 mg/L BAP sebanyak 20 tunas per biji. Kombinasi perlakuan dengan penambahan 3 mg/L BAP + 3 ml/L madu menghasilkan persentase terbentuk tunas tertinggi (100%; waktu muncul tunas tercepat 12,75 hst; dan panjang tunas tertinggi 1,86 cm. Pada penelitian ini telah berhasil menginduksi tunas dari biji manggis yang dibelah tiga melintang asal Bengkalis dengan penambahan BAP dan madu.AbstractGarcinia mangostana L. is one of the species within the family Guttiferae that rich in compounds from the class of xanthon. Mangosteen has time juvenile problems. One method that can solve the problem in the mangosteen plant propagation which can be produced in a large number in all season and uniform is in vitro culture. The purpose of this study was to determine the best concentration of BAP and honey to induce the formation of shoot from explants of mangosteen seeds split transversely into three pieces by in vitro method. This study used a Completely Randomized Design

  12. Prognostic impact of chromosomal aberrations and GNAQ, GNA11 and BAP1 mutations in uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Kjersti M; Gravdal, Karsten; Mørk, Sverre J

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate clinico-pathological and molecular prognostic factors in a well-defined series of posterior uveal melanoma (UM) with focus on chromosomal aberrations and mutations in the GNAQ, GNA11 and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) genes. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE......) tissue samples were obtained from 50 consecutive eyes enucleated for UM between 1993 and 2005. The material was tested for loss of chromosome 3 and gain of chromosome 8q gene signatures by selective molecular gene markers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and for DNA...

  13. Molecular Analysis and Expression of bap Gene in Biofilm-Forming Multi-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Omid Azizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB. Methods: Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR. Biofilm formation was assayed by the microtiter method. Results: The sequence of bap was determined and deposited in the GenBank database (accession no. KR080550.1. Expression of bap in the presence of low iron was analyzed by relative quantitative real time PCR (rqRT-PCR. Nearly half of the isolates belonged to RAPD-types A and B remaining were either small clusters or singleton. The results of biofilm formation revealed that 23 (35.4%, 18 (27.7%, 13 (20%, and 11 (16.9% of the isolates had strong, moderate, weak, and no biofilm activities, respectively. ompA and csuE genes were detected in all, while bap and blaPER-1 were detected in 43 (66% and 42 (64% of the isolates that showed strong and moderate biofilm activities (p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Analysis of bap expression by rqRT-PCR revealed five isolates with four-fold bap overexpression in the presence of low iron concentration (20 μM. Conclusion: The results suggest that bap overexpression may influence biofilm formation in presence of low iron concentration.

  14. Investigations on critical parameters, growth, structural and spectral studies of beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, D; Selvarajan, P; Perumal, S

    2014-01-01

    Beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) salt has been synthesized and the solubility of the synthesized sample in double distilled water was determined at different temperatures. Solution stability was studied by observing the metastable zone width by employing the polythermal method. Induction period values for different supersaturation ratios at room temperature were determined based on the isothermal method. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, critical free energy change, interfacial tension, and nucleation rate have been estimated for BAP salt on the basis of the classical nucleation theory. The lattice parameters of the grown BAP crystal were determined using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder XRD study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform–Raman studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the BAP crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was studied using the Kurtz–Perry powder technique. UV–visible spectral studies were carried out to understand optical transparency and the type of band gap of the grown BAP crystal. (paper)

  15. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  16. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Reed, John C. [Program on Apoptosis, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Pascual, Jaime, E-mail: pascual@burnham.org [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  17. Diodos emissores de luz e concentrações de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de morangueiro Light-emitting diodes and BAP concentrations in the in vitro strawberry multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gomes da Rocha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o efeito de fontes de luz na micropropagação de morangueiro, com níveis crescentes de BAP no meio de cultivo. Para tanto, inocularam-se gemas de brotações da cultivar 'Sabrosa' em meio MS com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 100mg L-1 de mio-inositol, 7g L-1 de ágar e BAP (0; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9; e 1,5mg L-1, em pH 5,8. Os explantes foram cultivados a 25+2°C, com 16 horas de fotoperíodo e luminosidade de 20µmol m-2 s-1, esta última fornecida por diferentes fontes de luz (LED azul-EDEB 3LA1, LED verde-EDET 3LA1, LED vermelho-EDER 3LA3, lâmpada fluorescente Growlux e lâmpada fluorescente branca. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em um fatorial 5x5 (concentrações de BAP x fontes de luz, com seis repetições. O experimento foi repetido em três subcultivos sucessivos de 35 dias cada. Nestes avaliaram-se o número de brotações por explante e a altura das brotações. Ao final do terceiro subcultivo, determinaram-se, ainda, as concentrações de carotenoides e de clorofilas a e b, independentemente do nível de BAP. Maior número de brotações por explante foi obtido sob LEDs vermelhos e verdes. Concentrações de BAP no meio de cultura entre 0,82 e 1,22mg L-1, dependendo da fonte de luz, proporcionaram maior multiplicação in vitro de brotações. Sob todas as fontes de luz foram obtidas brotações de maior comprimento em meio isento de BAP. Brotações cultivadas sob LEDs vermelhos apresentaram maior quantidade de pigmentos fotossintéticos, enquanto aquelas sob LEDs verdes e lâmpadas Growlux apresentaram a menor.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different sources of light in strawberry micropropagation, under increasing levels of BAP in culture medium. 'Sabrosa' shoots were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 30g L-1 sucrose, 100mg L-1 myo-inositol, 7 agar g L-1 and BAP (0; 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; e 1.5mg L-1, pH 5.8. The explants were cultivated at 25

  18. Concentrações de BAP sobre a proliferação in vitro de brotos de Lippia alba [(Mill.N.E.Brown] BAP concentrations on in vitro proliferation of Lippia alba [(Mill. N.E.Brown] shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Asmar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba é uma planta de origem brasileira, pertencente à família Verbenaceae. É conhecida por combater a insônia e a asma, além de possuir ação anticonvulsivante e antifúngica. A micropropagação tem sido utilizada para multiplicação de várias espécies com propriedades medicinais, e o BAP é a citocinina sintética mais utilizada para a multiplicação in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer a concentração adequada de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. Explantes constituídos de segmentos nodais provenientes de plântulas já estabelecidas in vitro com aproximadamente 0,5 cm foram inoculados em meio MS, suplementado com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP em adição de 30 g L-1 de sacarose. A utilização de 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP promove a multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. A ausência deste regulador propicia maior número de folhas e o uso na concentração de 0,5 mg L-1 aumentou as massas fresca e seca de parte aérea nesta espécie.Lippia alba is a Brazilian plant, belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It is known to combat insomnia and asthma, also has antifungal and anticonvulsant actions. Micropropagation has been used for propagation of various species with medicinal properties, and BAP is the most widely used synthetic cytokinin for in vitro multiplication. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate concentration of BAP on in vitro multiplication of L. alba. Explants consisting of nodal segments from seedlings already established in vitro with approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 30 g L-1 of sucrose. The use of 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP promotes the in vitro multiplication of L. alba. The absence of this regulator provides a greater number of leaves and its use at the concentration of 0.5 mg L-1 increased shoots' fresh and dry weights in this specie.

  19. Influência da concentração de BAP e AG3 no desenvolvimento in vitro de mandioquinha-salsa Influence of BAP and GA3 concentration on the in vitro development of arracacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno R. Madeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das concentrações de BAP e de AG3 no desenvolvimento in vitro de mandioquinha-salsa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações de 0,0; 0,2 e 0,4 mg L-1 de BAP e de 0,0; 0,125 e 0,250 mg L-1 de AG3 no desenvolvimento de ápices caulinares com cerca de 2 mm das cultivares Amarela de Senador Amaral e Amarela Comum. A interação cultivares x concentração de BAP não foi significativa para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,0617. O aumento na concentração de BAP reduziu a formação de calos; entretanto, promoveu proporcionalmente redução no desenvolvimento da parte aérea. A concentração de BAP que apresentou os melhores resultados foi em torno de 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, conciliando diâmetro de calo relativamente reduzido e bom desenvolvimento da parte aérea, cerca de 4,5 brotos com altura média de 43 mm. A interação cultivares x concentração de AG3 não foi significativa para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,4310. O aumento na concentração de AG3 promoveu elevação significativa na altura média e máxima das brotações e aumento no tamanho de calos. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se maior número de brotações na cultivar Amarela Comum.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of BAP and GA3 concentrations on the in vitro arracacha development. The concentrations tested were 0.0; 0.2 and 0.4 mg L-1 of BAP and 0.0; 0.125 and 0.250 mg L-1 of GA3 in the shoot tips with about 2 mm of arracacha, cultivars Amarela de Senador Amaral and Amarela Comum. The interaction of cultivars x BAP concentration was not significant for any one of the evaluated variables (P>0,0617. The increase in the BAP concentration reduced the callus formation; however, promoted larger reduction in the shoot development. The best BAP concentration was around 0.3 mg L-1, with relatively reduced callus diameter and good development of shoot, with a mean of 4.5 shoots

  20. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

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    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  1. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  2. Computer program design specifications for the Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) science data decommutation program (BAPS48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Balloon-Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) Science Data Docummutation Program (BAPS48) is a pulse code modulation docummutation program that will format the BUSS science data contained on a one inch PCM tracking tape into a seven track serial bit stream formatted digital tape.

  3. Bothrops asper metalloproteinase BaP1 is inhibited by alpha(2)-macroglobulin and mouse serum and does not induce systemic hemorrhage or coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Gutiérrez, José María

    2004-02-01

    The ability of the P-I metalloproteinase BaP1, isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, to induce systemic bleeding, thrombocytopenia and defibrinogenation was assessed in an experimental mouse model. Intravenous administration of BaP1 caused neither systemic bleeding nor any evidence of pathology in lungs, kidneys, liver, heart and brain. Moreover, there were no alterations in the whole blood clotting time or in platelet numbers. In addition, BaP1 did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities of BaP1 were readily inhibited by the plasma proteinase inhibitor, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and normal mouse serum also inhibited hemorrhage. Such inhibition may explain why BaP1 induces multiple local tissue-damaging effects, but is largely devoid of systemic toxicity.

  4. Loss of BAP1 expression is very rare in peritoneal and gynecologic serous adenocarcinomas and can be useful in the differential diagnosis with abdominal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Jung, Jason; Sheen, Amy; D'Urso, Lisa; Sioson, Loretta; Pickett, Justine; Parkhill, Thomas R; Verdonk, Brandon; Wardell, Kathryn L; Singh, Arjun; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-05-01

    Gynecologic and primary peritoneal serous carcinoma may be difficult to distinguish from abdominal mesotheliomas clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically. BAP1 double-hit inactivation and subsequent loss of protein expression have been reported in more than half of all abdominal mesotheliomas. We therefore sought to investigate the expression of BAP1 in serous carcinoma and explore its potential utility as a marker in the differential diagnosis with mesothelioma. We searched the computerized database of the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia, for all cases of gynecologic and peritoneal serous carcinomas and mesotheliomas diagnosed between 1998 and 2014. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed on tissue microarray sections. Cases with completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of a positive internal control in nonneoplastic cells were considered negative. If staining was equivocal (eg, absent nuclear staining but no internal control), staining was repeated on whole sections. Loss of BAP1 expression was found in only 1 of 395 (0.3%) serous carcinomas but in 6 of 9 (67%) abdominal mesotheliomas (P < .001) and 131 of 277 (47%) thoracic mesotheliomas (P < .001). We conclude that BAP1 loss occurs extremely infrequently in gynecologic and peritoneal serous adenocarcinomas, whereas it is very common in mesotheliomas including abdominal mesothelioma. Therefore, although positive staining for BAP1 cannot be used to exclude a diagnosis of mesothelioma, loss of BAP1 expression can be used to very strongly support a pathological diagnosis of abdominal mesothelioma over serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Case of the Resected Lymphohistiocytoid Mesothelioma: BAP1 Is a Key of Accurate Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Taichi; Toyokawa, Gouji; Yamada, Yuichi; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Haratake, Naoki; Kozuma, Yuka; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a well-known malignant tumor that occurs in the pleura and is histopathologically classified into three subtypes. Lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma (LHM) is considered a variant of epithelioid MM, and few cases have been reported. First case of LHM was reported by Henderson et al. in 1988. It is difficult to precisely diagnose LHM, and it is often misdiagnosed as reactive mesothelial cell proliferation. An 82-year-old man, with the smoking history of nine pack-years, was referred to our Department due to an abnormal shadow and pleural effusion in the left lung field on the chest X-ray imaging. His occupation was a teacher through his life without any asbestos exposure. Computed tomography (CT) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography showed a tumor which was suggestive of malignancy on the left chest wall, with the possible invasion into the left 2nd to 4th ribs. He underwent a CT-guided biopsy and a thoracentesis, but the tumor was shown to be a benign tumor indicative of a reactive mesothelial cell proliferation. Then, he underwent a surgical resection and the tumor was suspected of liposarcoma macroscopically. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were suggestive of mesothelial lesion, such as nodular histiocytic or mesothelial hyperplasia. However, loss of BAP1 and no p16 homozygous deletion in the tumor cells led to the diagnosis of LHM, not a benign lesion. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory effects of BaP1 a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom: leukocyte recruitment and release of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cristina Maria; Zamuner, Stella Regina; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2006-04-01

    The inflammatory events induced by BaP1, a 22.7 kDa metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, were studied. BaP1 i.p. injection in mice induced a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate into peritoneal cavity of animals with predominance of neutrophils in the early phase followed by mononuclear cells in the late period. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of BaP1 by chelation with EDTA resulted in a drastic reduction of this effect. In addition, BaP1 induced a significant increase of blood neutrophil numbers before its accumulation in peritoneal cavity, thus suggesting a stimulatory action of BaP1 on mechanisms of cell mobilization from bone marrow reserve compartments. A reduction in the number of neutrophils was observed in the exudate when antibodies against LECAM-1, CD18 and LFA-1 were used, suggesting the involvement of these adhesion molecules in the effects of BaP1. In contrast, there was no effect with antibodies against ICAM-1 and PECAM-1. Moreover, a conspicuous increment in the levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, but not of LTB4, was observed in peritoneal washes collected from mice injected with BaP1. It is concluded that BaP1 induces in vivo a marked leukocyte influx, which parallels an increased number of these cells in the blood, and is associated to the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules and release of chemotactic inflammatory cytokines. Since BaP1 is a P-I class metalloproteinase, these results indicate that the proteolytic domain of metalloproteinases per se can trigger specific inflammatory events.

  7. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

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    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Status kelangkaan pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. termasuk rawan (vulnerable karena tingginya permintaan dan mahalnya harga menyebabkan eksploitasi pulesari di hutan meningkat sedangkan upaya konservasi dan budidayanya belum ada. Selama ini perbanyakan pulesari hanya mengandalkan biji di alam. Benih pulesari persentase perkecambahannya tergolong sangat rendah, waktu lama dan sulit diperbanyak secara vegetatif. Memperhatikan sulitnya mendapatkan bibit pulesari secara konvensional maka perlu dilakukan dengan cara kultur jaringan. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium kultur jaringan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional Tawangmangu selama tiga bulan. Bibit A. reinwardtii Bl. diperoleh dari Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu. Biji kupas dan dikeringkan selama lima hari, dicuci menggunakan aquadest steril, direndam pada 0,5% Agrept 5 menit kemudian pada 2,125% natrium hipochorida 5 menit dan dibilas menggunakan aquades steril. Media Murashige dan Skoog (MS disiapkan sesuai komposisi. Penelitian ini rancangan acak lengkap (RAL pola faktorial. Faktor pertama konsentrasi zat pengatur tumbuh BAP pada konsentrasi 3, 4 dan 5 mg/l dan faktor kedua konsentrasi giberelin dari 1, 2 dan 3 mg/l. Media MS yang dimodifikasi dengan penambahan BAP konsentrasi 3, 4, dan 5 mg/l dan giberelin konsentrasi 1, 2, dan 3 mg/l sehingga diperoleh 9 kombinasi perlakuan. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan zat pengatur tumbuh BAP  mg/l dan giberelin 2 mg/l pada media MS terbentuk tunas dan akar. Tunas terbentuk pada 30 hari setelah tanam dengan tinggi 2 cm dan akar muncul pada 45 hari setelah tanam dalam satu kali percobaan. Kesimpulan: Pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. dapat diperbanyak melalui kultur jaringan menggunakan biji sebagai eksplan. Kaca kunci : pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii Bl, BAP dan giberelin Abstract Background: Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. in natural habitat becomes rare and reaches

  8. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  9. MACROPROPAGATION OF PLANTAIN (MUSA SPP. CULTIVARS PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE AND CORNE 1: EFFECT OF BENZYLAMINOPURINE (BAP CONCENTRATION

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    Deless Edmond Fulgence THIEMELE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, plantain is one of the most important starchy food and cash crops. Nonetheless, one of the major constraints for its production was the unavailability of healthy planting materials at planting time. This constraint could be lifted using the cloning of planting materials via the in vitro micropropagation or in vivo macropropagation techniques. Shelled corms from four cultivars, known as PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE and CORNE 1, were used. Three treatments differing in three hormonal concentrations, especially 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 mg L-1 were tested. The control one was hormone free. Tested treatments were laid out in a split plot design. The decorticated banana corms were sprayed twofold at 2 weeks interval with BAP solution when placed in sterilized soil in high humidity plastic tunnel. It emerged from results, regarding BAP concentration effect, that BAP treatment with 40 mg L-1 significantly reduced the emergence time of shoots at 20 days as against 25.1, 28.3 and 28.5 for the 2 tested other treatments as well as control, respectively. Likewise, the concentrations 40.0 mg L-1 both recorded the largest number of sprouted buds per corm and number of shoots per corm. With respect to banana cultivar effect, PITA 3 showed the largest number of shoots per corm. Basing on such findings, it is concluded that MSD technique combined with BAP at 40.0 mg L-1 is a suitable technique for improving of the in vivo macropropagation of plantain. This concentration increased at least 50 % of sucker production compared to control.

  10. Effect of BAP, ethrel and stem girdling on growth and partitioning of photosynthates in Y-shaped mungbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, J.D.S.; Abbas, S.; Sita Ram; Sirohi, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    During early vegetative growth, pots grown mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek cv. Pusa 105) were forced to develop a Y-shaped stem consisting of two symmetrical branches. At preflowering stage, the plants were treated with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP-20 ppm) and ethrel (500 ppm). Stem girdling was also done just below the junction of the two symmetrical branches and hormonal application (BAP) was done on one of the branches and its effect was observed on other branch of the same plant. Suitable controls were kept. BAP delayed the leaf senescence, enhanced photosynthetic rate and its duration on the treated as well as untreated leaf, whereas ethrel enhanced leaf senescence, reduced photosynthetic rate and its duration. 14 C studies indicated that the translocation of photosynthates was diverted differentially to other plant parts through hormonal application. Girdling on main stem affected the remote effects of hormones and about 98% 14 C remained on the applied branch itself indicating that growth regulators showed their effect on the other branch through roots only. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs

  11. ORGANOGÊNESE IN VITRO DE Citrus EM FUNÇÃO DE CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP E SECCIONAMENTO DO EXPLANTE CITRUS IN VITRO ORGANOGENESIS RELATED TO BAP CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPLANT SECTION

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    THAÍS LACAVA DE MOURA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento in vitro de Citrus depende diretamente do desenvolvimento de protocolos eficientes para regeneração de plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de concentrações de 6-benzilaminopuria (BAP na organogênese in vitro de limão-'Cravo' e laranja-'Pêra', bem como o efeito do seccionamento do explante em laranja-'Valência'. Para o limão-'Cravo', foram utilizados como explante, segmentos internodais de plântulas germinadas in vitro, cultivados em meio MT e variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 mg.L-1. Nas laranjas-'Pêra' e 'Valência' os explantes foram segmentos do epicótilo de plântulas germinadas in vitro. Os explantes de laranja-'Pêra' foram cultivados em meio MT variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 mg.L-1. Para a laranja-'Valência', metade dos explantes foram seccionados e cultivados em meio MT acrescido de 1,0 mg.L-1 de BAP. Todas as brotações obtidas foram alongadas no meio de cultura MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 e enraizadas no meio MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 0,5 g.L-1 de carvão ativado + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftaleno acético (ANA. O melhor resultado para o número de brotações adventícias foi obtido na concentração 2,5 mg.L-1 de BAP para limão-'Cravo', e nas concentrações 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 de BAP para laranja-'Pêra'. O seccionamento dos explantes favoreceu a organogênese in vitro da laranja-'Valência', porém as brotações apresentaram menor índice de enraizamento.The establishment of efficient plant regeneration protocols is essential for the success and application of in vitro breeding biotechnologies in Citrus. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP on the in vitro organogenesis of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck and 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, and the effect of cutting the explant on the in vitro organogenesis of

  12. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  13. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Nora; Cota-Guajardo, Silvia; López-Salazar, Mayra; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith

    2016-01-01

    bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan's Zoo and Mazatlán's Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased.

  14. Benzilaminopurina (BAP e thidiazuron (TDZ na propagação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Benzylaminopurine (BAP and thidiazuron (TDZ on in vitro propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    R. Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é muito utilizada pela medicina popular devido suas propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de concentrações de BAP e de TDZ na propagação in vitro de dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM desta espécie. Segmentos nodais, provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0, 1 e 5 μM de BAP ou TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Observou-se que a organogênese in vitro de P. glomerata é genótipo-dependente. O acesso BRA mostrou um maior potencial para a propagação in vitro em relação ao JB-UFSM. O cultivo dos segmentos nodais do acesso BRA em meio com 1 μM de TDZ, seguido pelo subcultivo dos brotos para meio isento de citocininas mostrou ser um método viável para a propagação in vitro devido à alta taxa de multiplicação e o bom desenvolvimento das plantas. No acesso JB-UFSM, o cultivo dos segmentos nodais em meio não acrescido de citocinina mostrou ser o método mais adequado para a produção de um grande número de plantas com alta qualidade.The plant Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as Brazilian ginseng, is extensively used in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of BAP and TDZ concentrations on the in vitro propagation of two sources (BRA and JB-UFSM of this species. Nodal segments originated from aseptically grown plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 5 μM BAP or TDZ. After 30 days, the plants were transferred to MS medium without cytokinin. The in vitro organogenesis of P. glomerata is genotype-dependent. The source BRA had greater potential for in vitro propagation than JB-UFSM. The culture of BRA nodal segments on medium with 1 μM TDZ, followed by subcultivation of sprouts on cytokinin

  15. Blister formation and skin damage induced by BaP1, a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, A; Núñez, J; Gutiérrez, J M

    1998-01-01

    Blister formation and skin damage can be induced by BaP1, a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. Pathological changes in the skin were investigated after intramuscular injections of Bothrops asper haemorrhagic metalloproteinase BaP1. Blisters developed within the first hour, with separation of epidermis from the dermal-epidermal junction, whereas acantholysis of epithelial cells was not observed. After the third hour there was ulceration with formation of a proteinaceous scab and inflammatory infiltrate. By 7 to 14 days there was evidence of a regenerative process in dermis and epidermis. Haemorrhage occurred in both dermis and hypodermis as a consequence of BaP1 injection, together with damage of sebaceous glands and an inflammatory reaction in which enlarged macrophages were the predominant cell type. Zymography assays showed the presence of several endogenous metalloproteinases in the exudate, skin homogenates and plasma. In addition, BaP1 was detected in exudates and plasma by immunoblotting. This technique also demonstrated the presence of components immunologically related to laminin and collagen type IV in exudates. It is suggested that BaP1, and probably endogenous matrix metalloproteinases, degrade some protein components at the dermal-epidermal junction, inducing the formation of blisters. PMID:9797720

  16. Frequency of bap and cpaA virulence genes in drug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and their role in biofilm formation

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    Arezoo Fallah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Acinetobacter baumannii has a high propensity to form biofilm and frequently causes medical device-related infections with multiple-drug-resistance in hospitals. The aim of this work is to study antimicrobial resistance and the role of bap and cpaA genes in biofilm formation by A. baumannii to understand how this pathogen persists in the hospital environment. Materials and Methods: Theantibiotic resistance profile and in vitro biofilm-forming ability of one hundred clinical isolates of A. baumannii was evaluated by disc diffusion and crystal-violet staining methods, respectively. Isolates were tested for the presence of bap and cpaA genes. Results: The isolates were highly resistant to cefepime, third-generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, aminoglycosides and carbapenems. Moreover, four isolates were resistant to colistin. Quantification of biofilm showed that 43% of the isolates were strong biofilm-producer. Furthermore, 32% of the isolates exhibited moderate biofilm-formation and showed initial binding activity. Frequency of bap and cpaA were determined 92% and 36%, respectively. Conclusion: There was strong association between the presence of bap gene and biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates (P=0.003. In addition, multidrug resistant isolates produced stronger biofilm than other isolates (P=0.0001. These results indicate importance of biofilm in resistance of isolates and effect of presence of bap gene in biofilm formation by A. baumannii strains.

  17. Bap1 and Pbrm1: Determinants of Tumor Grade and mTOR Activation in VHL-Deficient Mouse Models of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet Y; Kim, William Y

    2017-08-01

    Large genome sequencing efforts have identified frequent mutations in the histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling genes BAP1 and PBRM1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this issue of Cancer Discovery , Gu and colleagues model these genetic events in mice and report that dual inactivation of Vhl with either Bap1 or Pbrm1 results in faithful genetically engineered murine models of ccRCC. Moreover, their work establishes that Bap1 and Pbrm1 are determinants of tumor grade and mTORC1 activation and provocatively suggests that the cell of origin of ccRCC may lie in PAX8-expressing Bowman capsule cells. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 802-4. ©2017 AACR See related article by Gu et al., p. 900 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-01-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 μM) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  19. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (Pbiotransformation enzymes and extensive metabolism of this toxicant. As a consequence, B(a)P metabolites were generated to a greater extent in colon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen. © 2013.

  20. Concentração de bap e a eficiência de micropropagação de bananeira tetraplóide (grupo AAAB Bap concentration and tetraploid banana micropropagation efficiency (AAAB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver um procedimento eficiente para a produção de mudas de bananeiras tetraplóides (Musa sp. cv. FHIA-01, grupo AAAB estudou-se o efeito do clone no desenvolvimento in vitro dos explantes e as taxas de contaminação, multiplicação e nível de oxidação em meios de cultura contendo cinco concentrações de BAP. Na fase de introdução in vitro dos explantes, foi observada elevada taxa de contaminação (22,32%, causada, principalmente, por bactérias. No entanto, os níveis de contaminação decresceram na seqüência dos subcultivos, tendo sido de 1,07% no oitavo subcultivo. As maiores taxas de multiplicação foram obtidas no meio de cultura MS com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em média de 2,65 plântulas por subcultivo, possibilitando a produção estimada de 584 plântulas de FHIA-01 por explante inicial no sexto e 3451 no oitavo subcultivo. Em função do clone, houve a produção estimada de 305 a 4497 plântulas por explante inicial, após oito subculturas. A eficiência de aclimatização das plântulas foi de 94%, não sendo encontrados variantes somaclonais em condições de casa-de-vegetação.The objective of the present work was to establish an efficient procedure for the in vitro production of tetraploid banana plantlets (Musa sp. cv. FHIA-01, AAAB group. The cloning effect on the in vitro development of the explants, the rates of contamination and multiplication, and the level of oxidation in culture media with five benzylaminopurine (BAP concentrations were studied. In the phase of in vitro introduction of explants, a high level of contamination (22.32%, caused mainly by bacteria, was observed. However, the degree of contamination decreased along the subcultures, reaching 1.07% in the eighth subculture. Higher multiplication rates were obtained, averaging 2.65 per subculture, on the MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 BAP, leading to an estimated production of 584 and 3451 plantlets/initial explant after

  1. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  2. Effect of 6-BAP and IAA in meristems in vitro establishment of Colocasia esculenta (L Schott 'INIVIT MC 2012' cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletys Santos Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meristems for the in vitro establishment of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott cv. 'INIVIT MC-2012' decreases bacterial contamination but is required to increase its growth. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of 6-Benzylaminopurine and indoleacetic acid on its in vitro establishment. Various concentrations of the two growth regulators were included in the culture medium and with the best combination the explants were cultured in shaking and static liquid culture medium. With the use of the culture medium constituted by 80% of the salts and vitamins MS, 30 g l-1 sucrose, 0.1 g l-1 myo-inositol, 0.1 mg l-1 6-BAP, 0.05 mg l-1 of AIA and culture in agitation were obtained meristems with the appropriate morphological characteristics to transfer to the multiplication phase at 28 days of culture. Keywords: orbital agitator, propagation, taro

  3. PROPAGACIÓN VEGETATIVA DE PLÁTANO Y BANANO CON LA APLICACIÓN DE BENZILAMINOPURINA (6-BAP Y ACIDO INDOLACETICO (AIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayron Fabricio Canchignia Martínez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la propagación vegetativa de dos variedades de Banano (Valery y Orito y una de Plátano (Barraganete, se sometió a diferentes tratamientos hormonales, para evaluar el número de brotes, la concentración 30 mg L-1 de BAP alcanzó el mayor promedio, con 2.36 brotes para todas las variedades. En longitud y diámetro de brotes, la concentración que logró el mayor promedio fue C0, no encontrándose diferencias entre las concentraciones de 6-BAP y AIA. La variedad que presentó la mayor longitud y diámetro de brotes fue el banano Orito con 55.65 y 2.97 cm, respectivamente. El mayor porcentaje de vigor alto de brote lo demostró el tratamiento con 40 mg L-1 BAP + 12 mg L-1 AIA con 24.17%; el mayor porcentaje de vigor medio lo alcanzó el tratamiento con 30 mg L-1 BAP y sin hormona con 72.22%, la supervivencia de cepas, en las variedades Barraganete y Orito presentaron el 100% de cepas vivas, superando al banano Valery quien obtuvo un promedio de 91.67%.

  4. The chromatin remodeling BAP complex limits tumor-promoting activity of the Hippo pathway effector Yki to prevent neoplastic transformation in Drosophila epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Shilin; Herranz, Héctor; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes are mutated in many human cancers. In this article, we make use of a Drosophila genetic model for epithelial tumor formation to explore the tumor suppressive role of SWI/SNF complex proteins. Members of the BAP complex exhibit...

  5. A neutralizing recombinant single chain antibody, scFv, against BaP1, A P-I hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J M A; Oliveira, T S; Silveira, C R F; Caporrino, M C; Rodriguez, D; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Ramos, O H P; Rucavado, A; Gutiérrez, J M; Magalhães, G S; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Fernandes, I

    2014-09-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomings by Bothrops asper, a medically important snake species in Central America and parts of South and North America. The main treatment for these accidents is the passive immunotherapy using antibodies raised in horses. In order to obtain more specific and batch-to-batch consistent antivenons, recombinant antibodies are considered a good option compared to animal immunization. We constructed a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) from a monoclonal antibody against BaP1 (MABaP1) formerly secreted by a hybridoma clone. This recombinant antibody was cloned into pMST3 vector in fusion with SUMO protein and contains VH and VL domains linked by a flexible (G4S)3 polypeptide (scFvBaP1). The aim of this work was to produce scFvBaP1 and to evaluate its potential concerning the neutralization of biologically important activities of BaP1. The cytoplasmic expression of this construct was successfully achieved in C43 (DE3) bacteria. Our results showed that scFvBaP1-SUMO fusion protein presented an electrophoretic band of around 43 kDa from which SUMO alone corresponded to 13.6 kDa, and only the scFv was able to recognize BaP1 as well as the whole venom by ELISA. In contrast, neither an irrelevant scFv anti-LDL nor its MoAb partner recognized it. BaP1-induced fibrinolysis was significantly neutralized by scFvBaP1, but not by SUMO, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, scFvBaP1, as well as MaBaP1, completely neutralized in vivo hemorrhage, muscle necrosis, and inflammation induced by the toxin. Docking analyses revealed possible modes of interaction of the recombinant antibody with BaP1. Our data showed that scFv recognized BaP1 and whole B. asper venom, and neutralized biological effects of this SVMP. This scFv antibody can be used for understanding the molecular mechanisms of neutralization of SVMPs, and for exploring the potential of

  6. Metabolism and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (B[a]P-7,8-dione) in human lung cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: detection of an adenine B[a]P-7,8-dione adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Liu, Xiaojing; Basu, Sankha S; Zhang, Li; Kushman, Mary E; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-05-21

    Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (B[a]P-7,8-dione) is produced in human lung cells by the oxidation of (±)-B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol, which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). However, information relevant to the cell-based metabolism of B[a]P-7,8-dione is lacking. We studied the metabolic fate of 2 μM 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial HBEC-KT cells. In these three cell lines, 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione was rapidly consumed, and radioactivity was distributed between the organic and aqueous phase of ethyl acetate-extracted media, as well as in the cell lysate pellets. After acidification of the media, several metabolites of 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione were detected in the organic phase of the media by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-radioactivity monitoring (HPLC-UV-RAM). The structures of B[a]P-7,8-dione metabolites varied in the cell lines and were identified as B[a]P-7,8-dione conjugates with glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), 8-O-monomethylated-catechol, catechol monosulfate, and monoglucuronide, and monohydroxylated-B[a]P-7,8-dione by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We also obtained evidence for the first time for the formation of an adenine adduct of B[a]P-7,8-dione. Among these metabolites, the identity of the GSH-B[a]P-7,8-dione and the NAC-B[a]P-7,8-dione was further validated by comparison to authentic synthesized standards. The pathways of B[a]P-7,8-dione metabolism in the three human lung cell lines are formation of GSH and NAC conjugates, reduction to the catechol followed by phase II conjugation reactions leading to its detoxification, monohydroxylation, as well as formation of the adenine adduct.

  7. CALOGÊNESE DE TECIDO FOLIAR DE PORTA-ENXERTO DE MACIEIRA M.7 (MALUS sp. INDUZIDA POR BAP E CPPU LEAF TISSUE CALLOGENESIS OF APPLE (Malus sp. ROOTSTOCK CV. M.7 INDUCED BY BAP AND CPPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a organogênese de macieira (Malus sp, após a obtenção de calo por meio de explantes de folhas do porta-enxerto M.7 multiplicado in vitro. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da Embrapa Clima Temperado, utilizando folhas com a superfície abaxial e adaxial em contato com o meio, com ou sem escarificação; associados às citocininas Benzilaminopurina (BAP e Forchlorfenuron (CPPU na concentração de 5mM. Utilizou-se o meio básico MS acrescido de sacarose (30 g.L-1 , mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1 e ágar (6 g.L-1, além do regulador de crescimento Ácido Naftalenoácetico (ANA 0,5mM. Os tratamentos permaneceram por três semanas no escuro sob temperatura ambiente, o que propiciou 100% de formação de calos, sendo em seguida submetidos a fotoperíodo de 16 horas com intensidade luminosa de 20 mE.m-2.s-1 e temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Os explantes escarificados proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo do que a utilização de explantes intatos. Explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo, independentemente de o meio conter BAP ou CPPU. O uso da escarificação, associado ao CPPU, promoveu uma maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar. A superior regeneração de calos foi alcançada em condição de superfície abaxial do disco foliar associado ao CPPU. Portanto, o uso de explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionou aumento da intensidade de calo. O uso do explante escarificado em meio contendo CPPU proporcionou maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar em contato com o meio.This work was carried out in order to study the apple (Malus sp. organogenesis after callus formation in M.7 apple rootstock leaf explants multiplied in vitro. The experiment was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory at

  8. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, M.S.; Lopez, J.M.; Mastral, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R 2 = 0.817, PRESS/SSY = 0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q CV 2 =0.813, PRESS/SSY = 0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.679 and PRESS/SSY = 0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.551, PRESS/SSY = 0.449).

  9. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  11. Deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathway leading to the reduction of cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youming; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Bin; Ge, Jianhui

    2018-04-15

    b-AP15, a potent and selective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 14 (USP14), displays in vitro and in vivo antitumor abilities on some types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its action is not well elucidated. The purposes of the present study are to observe the potential impacts of b-AP15 on cell survival of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to investigate whether and how this compound inhibits some survival-promoting signaling pathways. We found that b-AP15 significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, along with the perturbation of cell cycle and the decreased expressions of cell cycle-related proteins. We also demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enhanced by b-AP15 supplementation. The inhibition of ER stress/UPR only partly attenuated the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, b-AP15 treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling pathways, and suppressed phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, which were not restored by the inhibition of ER stress/UPR. Furthermore, the expression levels of signaling molecules in Notch1 were reduced by specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Notably, either Wnt or Notch1 signaling inhibitor mitigated phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, and mimicked the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These results clearly indicate that b-AP15 induced cytotoxic response to hepatocellular carcinoma cells by augmenting ER stress/UPR and inhibiting Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathways. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which b-AP15 produces its antitumor therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking fate model in freshwater and PBPK model to assess human internal dosimetry of B(a)P associated with drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, Philippe; Tanaka, T; Johansson, E; Brochot, C

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an integrated modeling approach for predicting internal tissue concentrations of chemicals by coupling a multimedia environmental model and a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A case study was designed for a region situated on the Seine river watershed, downstream of the Paris megacity, and for benzo(a)pyrene emitted from industrial zones in the region. In this case study, these two models are linked only by water intake from riverine system for the multimedia model into human body for the PBPK model. The limited monitoring data sets of B(a)P concentrations in bottom sediment and in raw river water, obtained at the downstream of Paris, were used to re-construct long-term daily concentrations of B(a)P in river water. The re-construction of long-term series of B(a)P level played a key role for the intermediate model calibration (conducted in multimedia model) and thus for improving model input to PBPK model. In order to take into account the parametric uncertainty in the model inputs, some input parameters relevant for the multimedia model were given by probability density functions (PDFs); some generic PDFs were updated with site-specific measurements by a Bayesian approach. The results of this study showed that the multimedia model fits well with actual annual measurements in sediments over one decade. No accumulation of B(a)P in the organs was observed. In conclusion, this case study demonstrated the feasibility of a full-chain assessment combining multimedia environmental predictions and PBPK modeling, including uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  13. Effect of AgNO3 and BAP on Root as a Novel Explant in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera cv. Medjool) Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanfekrrad, Marjan; Zarghami, Reza; Hassani, Hassan; Zakizadeh, Hedayat; Salari, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis techniques are used for cloning a wide range of varieties of date palms around the world. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method with the lowest cost and the greatest potential to obtain in vitro plantlets of date palm cv. Medjool. Also, produce embryogenic callus and somatic embryos without using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). In this study, produced plantlets through somatic embryogenesis were used in vitro roots as explant cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing three level of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) (0, 3 and 6 mg L-1) plus two level of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0 and 2 mg L-1) plus 0.1 mg L-1 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) for callus induction. After 12 weeks of culture, callus induction and after 16 weeks, production of embryogenic callus and embryos were occurred from root explants. According to the results, medium containing 2 mg L-1 BAP and 3 mg L-1 silver nitrate+0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed the highest amount of embryogenic callus fresh weight (1.38 g). This treatment also cause the highest number and length of embryos by production of 90.04 embryogenic callus with length of 11.18 mm. On the other hand, shoots were appeared from germinated embryos and white roots began to appear within 8 weeks. Medium contains 3 mg L-1 BAP and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA with average of 12.27 cm shoot length and 15.48 cm root length was the best. Control treatment had the lowest average shoot (3.71 cm) and root (5.03 cm) length. This study showed that certain concentration of silver nitrate and BAP has stimulating effect on growth of produced embryonic callus from root segments of Medjool cultivar of date palm.

  14. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  15. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed. PMID:24955358

  16. Concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro L. Merrill (Ananas comosus e no cultivo hidropônico das plântulas obtidas in vitro The effect of ANA and BAP concentrations on the micropropagation and hydroponic cultures of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Elizabeth Costa de Macêdo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação do abacaxizeiro, bem como no cultivo em hidroponia das plântulas obtidas in vitro, foram estudados em brotos de abacaxizeiro da variedade Pérola, inoculados em meio de cultura básico MS, suplementado com os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA em diferentes concentrações. Caracteres morfológicos quantitativos relacionados ao crescimento dos brotos e das plântulas de abacaxizeiro foram avaliados respectivamente durante os cultivos in vitro e em hidroponia e mostraram que, o tratamento T1 (BAP = 1,0 mg L-1e ANA = 0,5 mg L-1 proporcionou a maior taxa média de regeneração de brotos e conseqüentemente uma maior produção de matéria fresca. Entretanto, a altura dos brotos e a formação de suas raízes foram maiores nos tratamentos T2 (BAP = 0,5 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,25 mg L-1 e T3 (BAP = 0,25 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,12 mg L-1 . Após sessenta dias de cultivo em hidroponia, todas as plântulas oriundas do tratamento T1 apresentaram um bom desenvolvimento, expresso pela maioria dos caracteres morfológicos avaliados. O sistema de micropropagação utilizado neste trabalho possibilitou a obtenção de brotos de abacaxizeiro Pérola, em quantidade suficiente e ao mesmo tempo de fácil individualização, seguida da regeneração de plântulas que foram cultivadas em hidroponia.The effect of different ANA and BAP concentrations on in vitro and hydroponic cultures were studied. Pineapple shoots derived from Pérola explants variety were inoculated in MS media containing BAP and ANA in different concentrations. Growth parameters of shoots and plantlets were measured for in vitro and hydroponic cultures. Showed a highest multiplication rates of shoots and consequently highest fresh matter production were obtained with BAP and ANA at the concentrations of 1,0 and 0,5 mg L-1 respectively. However, the shoot length as well as the root number formed were higher in the T2 (0,5 de BAP + 0,25 de ANA

  17. Bothrops asper snake venom and its metalloproteinase BaP-1 activate the complement system. Role in leucocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsky, S H; Gonçalves, L R; Gutiérrez, J M; Correa, A P; Rucavado, A; Gasque, P; Tambourgi, D V

    2000-01-01

    The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins--phospholipases and metalloproteinase--activate the complement system and the contribution of the effect on leucocyte recruitment. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Boyden's chamber model to investigate the ability of serum incubated with venom and its purified toxins to induce neutrophil migration. The complement consumption by the venom was evaluated using an in vitro haemolytic assay. The importance of complement activation by the venom on neutrophil migration was investigated in vivo by injecting the venom into the peritoneal cavity of C5-deficient mice. Data obtained demonstrated that serum incubated with crude venom and its purified metalloproteinase BaP-1 are able to induce rat neutrophil chemotaxis, probably mediated by agent(s) derived from the complement system. This hypothesis was corroborated by the capacity of the venom to activate this system in vitro. The involvement of C5a in neutrophil chemotaxis induced by venom-activated serum was demonstrated by abolishing migration when neutrophils were pre-incubated with antirat C5a receptor antibody. The relevance of the complement system in in vivo leucocyte mobilization was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of this response in C5-deficient mice. Pre-incubation of serum with the soluble human recombinant complement receptor type 1 (sCR 1) did not prevent the response induced by the venom, but abolished the migration evoked by metalloproteinase-activated serum. These data show the role of the complement system in bothropic envenomation and the participation of metalloproteinase in the effect. Also, they suggest that the venom may contain other component(s) which can cause direct activation of C5a. PMID:11200361

  18. Phytoextraction of contaminated urban soils by Panicum virgatum L. enhanced with application of a plant growth regulator (BAP) and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina no desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas precoces In vitro effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on early peach and nectarine embryos development

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    Wilson Barbosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando melhorar o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas, de maturação precoce, adicionou-se, em meio básico de cultura, o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP nas concentrações de 0,5,10,15 e 20µM. Esse meio consistiu na solução salina de Murashige & Skoog acrescido de tiamina, 1mg/l; ácido nicotínico, 0,5mg/l; inositol, 100mg/1, glicina, 250mg/l; glutamina, 500mg/l; asparagina, 250mg/l, ácido giberélico, 0,1mg/l; sacarose, 30g/l, e ágar, 6g/l. A melhor taxa de desenvolvimento dos embriões, após 30dias de cultura, ocorreu nas concentrações de 5 e 10µM de BAP, com uma emissão média de 4,5 brotos por embrião. Nas concentrações de 15 e 20mM de BAP, o número de brotações foi maior, porém com menor aproveitamento, devido à presença dos sintomas indesejáveis de vitrificação. O BAP não eliminou, totalmente, a roseta e o ananismo fisiológico dos embriões.Embryos of early peach and nectarine were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3%sacarose,0.6%agar and(in mg/liter 1 thiamin, 0.5 nicotinic acid, 100 inositol, 250 glycin, 500 glutamin, 250 asparagin, 0.1 giberelic acid, and BAP at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20µM. The frequency of growth was as high as 100% when BAP was included in the medium. The best development of the embryos occurred with BAP rates of 5 and 10µM. At these concentrations of BAP, the mean number of adventitious shoots was 4.5 per embryo. The vitrification ratio was higher at concentrations of 15 and 20µM. The inclusion of BAP, consistently reduced but not fully eliminated lhe rosette and dwarf appearances in vitroplantules.

  20. Barium recovery by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor: effects of pH, Ba/P molar ratio and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Chi; Reano, Resmond L; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO₄ crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48 cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO₄ crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseededbarium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba₃(PO₄)₂) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO₄ and BaO were present at a pH of below 10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 2-DE Compared with iTRAQ-based Proteomic Analysis of the Functional Regulation of Proteins in Rhodococcus sp. BAP-1 Response to Fluoranthene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Hongqi; Kong, Dekang

    2018-01-01

    Although the degradation pathways of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively studied in many bacteria, the variations in the expression levels of the key functional regulation of proteins during catabolism are still not quantitatively understood. In this study, we compared two proteomic methods, that one is two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), a traditional widely used way and the other is isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ), an innovative approach, in order to analyze the functional regulation at the protein level in high effective fluoranthene-degrading bacteria named Rhodococcus sp. BAP-1. The number of differentially expressed proteins identified using iTRAQ is much larger than employing 2-DE. Response to fluoranthene, the key over expressed proteins in BAP-1 were NADPH-dependent FMN reductase, 30S ribosomal protein S2, S-ribosylhomocysteinase, etc.; the significant down-regulated proteins were cytochrome ubiquinol oxidase subunit, NAD(P) transhydrogenase subunit alpha, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine methyltransferase, et al.

  2. BAP1 missense mutation c.2054 A>T (p.E685V completely disrupts normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site in a human mesothelioma cell line.

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    Arianne Morrison

    Full Text Available BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lost or deleted in diverse cancers, including uveal mela¬noma, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, clear cell renal carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, BAP1 germline mutations have been reported in families with combinations of these same cancers. A particular challenge for mutation screening is the classification of non-truncating BAP1 sequence variants because it is not known whether these subtle changes can affect the protein function sufficiently to predispose to cancer development. Here we report mRNA splicing analysis on a homozygous substitution mutation, BAP1 c. 2054 A&T (p.Glu685Val, identified in an MPM cell line derived from a mesothelioma patient. The mutation occurred at the 3rd nucleotide from the 3' end of exon 16. RT-PCR, cloning and subsequent sequencing revealed several aberrant splicing products not observed in the controls: 1 a 4 bp deletion at the end of exon 16 in all clones derived from the major splicing product. The BAP1 c. 2054 A&T mutation introduced a new 5' splice site (GU, which resulted in the deletion of 4 base pairs and presumably protein truncation; 2 a variety of alternative splicing products that led to retention of different introns: introns 14-16; introns 15-16; intron 14 and intron 16; 3 partial intron 14 and 15 retentions caused by activation of alternative 3' splice acceptor sites (AG in the introns. Taken together, we were unable to detect any correctly spliced mRNA transcripts in this cell line. These results suggest that aberrant splicing caused by this mutation is quite efficient as it completely abolishes normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site and activation of cryptic splice sites. These data support the conclusion that BAP1 c.2054 A&T (p.E685V variant is a pathogenic mutation and contributes to MPM through disruption of normal splicing.

  3. Influência da benzilaminopurina (BAP NA multiplicação in vitro de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa The influence of benzylaminopurine in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa

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    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da EMBRAPA/CPACT, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de estudar a influência de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa, cv. Tomun. Utilizou-se o meio de cultura MS, acrescido de sacarose, mio-inositol, ágar e das seguintes concentrações de BAP: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 mg/l. Os explantes foram constituídos de microestacas provenientes da coleção in vitro do Laboratório, com aproximadamente 10mm de comprimento. Verificou-se que, para o número e comprimento de brotações, número de gemas e folhas a concentração em torno de 1,5mg/l de BAP proporcionou os memores resultados. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi realizado, pode-se concluir que o BAP foi eficiente na multiplicação in vitro de kiwi, cv. Tomuri.This trial was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory at EMBRAPA/CPACT, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, aiming to study the influence of different 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP concentrations in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi, cv. Tomuri. A MS medium was used adding sucrose, myo-inositol, agar and concentrations of BAP as follows: 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5mg/l. The explants consisting of microshoots of 10mm length were obtained from the in vitro collection at the laboratory. The best results of bud and shoot numbers, shoot length and number of leaves were obtained using about 1.5mg/l BAP. Results of this experiment demonstrated that BAP is efficient in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi, cv. Tomuri.

  4. Amino acid sequence and crystal structure of BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom that exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandra; Shannon, John D.; Valente, Richard H.; Rucavado, Alexandra; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Kamiguti, Aura S.; Theakston, R. David G.; Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María; Arni, Raghuvir K.

    2003-01-01

    BaP1 is a 22.7-kD P-I-type zinc-dependent metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, a medically relevant species in Central America. This enzyme exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities, including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, blistering, and edema. BaP1 is a single chain of 202 amino acids that shows highest sequence identity with metalloproteinases isolated from the venoms of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. It has six Cys residues involved in three disulfide bridges (Cys 117–Cys 197, Cys 159–Cys 181, Cys 157–Cys 164). It has the consensus sequence H142E143XXH146XXGXXH152, as well as the sequence C164I165M166, which characterize the “metzincin” superfamily of metalloproteinases. The active-site cleft separates a major subdomain (residues 1–152), comprising four α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet, from the minor subdomain, which is formed by a single α-helix and several loops. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated by the Nɛ2 nitrogen atoms of His 142, His 146, and His 152, in addition to a solvent water molecule, which in turn is bound to Glu 143. Several conserved residues contribute to the formation of the hydrophobic pocket, and Met 166 serves as a hydrophobic base for the active-site groups. Sequence and structural comparisons of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic P-I metalloproteinases from snake venoms revealed differences in several regions. In particular, the loop comprising residues 153 to 176 has marked structural differences between metalloproteinases with very different hemorrhagic activities. Because this region lies in close proximity to the active-site microenvironment, it may influence the interaction of these enzymes with physiologically relevant substrates in the extracellular matrix. PMID:14500885

  5. Amino acid sequence and crystal structure of BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom that exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandra; Shannon, John D; Valente, Richard H; Rucavado, Alexandra; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Fox, Jay W; Gutiérrez, José María; Arni, Raghuvir K

    2003-10-01

    BaP1 is a 22.7-kD P-I-type zinc-dependent metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, a medically relevant species in Central America. This enzyme exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities, including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, blistering, and edema. BaP1 is a single chain of 202 amino acids that shows highest sequence identity with metalloproteinases isolated from the venoms of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. It has six Cys residues involved in three disulfide bridges (Cys 117-Cys 197, Cys 159-Cys 181, Cys 157-Cys 164). It has the consensus sequence H(142)E(143)XXH(146)XXGXXH(152), as well as the sequence C(164)I(165)M(166), which characterize the "metzincin" superfamily of metalloproteinases. The active-site cleft separates a major subdomain (residues 1-152), comprising four alpha-helices and a five-stranded beta-sheet, from the minor subdomain, which is formed by a single alpha-helix and several loops. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated by the N(epsilon 2) nitrogen atoms of His 142, His 146, and His 152, in addition to a solvent water molecule, which in turn is bound to Glu 143. Several conserved residues contribute to the formation of the hydrophobic pocket, and Met 166 serves as a hydrophobic base for the active-site groups. Sequence and structural comparisons of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic P-I metalloproteinases from snake venoms revealed differences in several regions. In particular, the loop comprising residues 153 to 176 has marked structural differences between metalloproteinases with very different hemorrhagic activities. Because this region lies in close proximity to the active-site microenvironment, it may influence the interaction of these enzymes with physiologically relevant substrates in the extracellular matrix.

  6. Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom: insights from docking and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Rey-Suarez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Henao Castañeda, Isabel Cristina; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) (2-Hydroxyethanoic acid) is widely used as chemical peeling agent in Dermatology and, more recently, as a therapeutic and cosmetic compound in the field of skin care and disease treatment. In this work we tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC₅₀ of 1.67 mM. The compound was also effective at inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of BaP1 in skin and muscle in experiments involving preincubation of enzyme and inhibitor prior to injection. When BaP1 was injected i.m. and then, at the same site, different concentrations of glycolic acid were administered at either 0 or 5 min, 7 mM solutions of the inhibitor partially abrogated hemorrhagic activity when administered at 0 min. Moreover, glycolic acid inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, edema-forming activity of BaP1 in the footpad. In order to have insights on the mode of action of glycolic acid, UV-vis and intrinsic fluorescence studies were performed. Results of these assays suggest that glycolic acid interacts directly with BaP1 and chelates the Zn²⁺ ion at the active site. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that glycolic acid forms hydrogen bonds with residues Glu143, Arg110 and Ala111 of the enzyme. Additionally, molecular modeling results suggest that the inhibitor chelates Zn²⁺, with a distance of 3.58 Å, and may occupy part of substrate binding cleft of BaP1. Our results suggest that glycolic acid is a candidate for the development of inhibitors to be used in snakebite envenomation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estabelecimento in vitro de aroeira da praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi em diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP In vitro establishment of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi at different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine

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    A.M.S. Paiva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aroeira da praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi é Anacardiaceae com propriedades medicinais extensamente exploradas por populares, no tratamento de inflamações uterinas, principalmente na região Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi estabelecer concentrações ideais de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP para o estabelecimento in vitro de Schinus terebinthifolius através de segmentos nodais, internodais, cotiledonares e ápices caulinares. Os explantes foram cultivados em meio MS, suplementado com 3% de sacarose, 0,1 g L-1 de mio-inositol e concentrações distintas de BAP: 0; 2,25; 4,5; 9,0; 18,0 μM. As características avaliadas foram a indução de brotos, número e comprimento dos brotos. Foi observado que, para o estabelecimento in vitro da aroeira da praia, o explante mais indicado é o segmento nodal. Os segmentos internodais desenvolvem apenas calos, não havendo indução de brotos adventícios. O tratamento com 4,5 μM de BAP é o mais responsivo para a regeneração de Schinus terebinthifolius.Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is Anacardiaceae presenting medicinal proprieties which are extensively exploited by common citizens to treat uterine inflammation, especially in the northeast region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to establish ideal concentrations of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP for the in vitro establishment of Schinus terebinthifolius using nodal, internodal, cotyledonary and apical stem segments. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.1 g L-1 myo-inositol and distinct concentrations of BAP: 0, 2.25, 4.5, 9.0 and 18.0 μM. The evaluated parameters were sprout induction, and sprout number and length. Nodal segment is the most suitable explant for the in vitro establishment of Brazilian pepper. Internodal segments only develop callus, not inducing adventitious sprouts. The treatment with 4.5 μM BAP was the most responsive to Schinus terebinthifolius regeneration.

  8. Genetic characterization of Polish ccRCC patients: somatic mutation analysis of PBRM1, BAP1 and KDMC5, genomic SNP array analysis in tumor biopsy and preliminary results of chromosome aberrations analysis in plasma cell free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluzek, Katarzyna; Srebniak, Malgorzata I; Majer, Weronika; Ida, Agnieszka; Milecki, Tomasz; Huminska, Kinga; van der Helm, Robert M; Silesian, Adrian; Wrzesinski, Tomasz M; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Beverloo, Berna H; Kwias, Zbigniew; Bluyssen, Hans A R; Wesoly, Joanna

    2017-04-25

    Mutation analysis and cytogenetic testing in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is not yet implemented in a routine diagnostics of ccRCC. We characterized the chromosomal alterations in 83 ccRCC tumors from Polish patients using whole genome SNP genotyping assay. Moreover, the utility of next generation sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) in patients plasma as a potential tool for non-invasive cytogenetic analysis was tested. Additionally, tumor specific somatic mutations in PBRM1, BAP1 and KDM5C were determined. We confirmed a correlation between deletions at 9p and higher tumor size, and deletion of chromosome 20 and the survival time. In Fuhrman grade 1, only aberrations of 3p and 8p deletion, gain of 5q and 13q and gains of chromosome 7 and 16 were present. The number of aberrations increased with Fuhrman grade, all chromosomes displayed cytogenetic changes in G3 and G4. ccRCC specific chromosome aberrations were observed in cfDNA, although discrepancies were found between cfDNA and tumor samples. In total 12 common and 94 rare variants were detected in PBRM1, BAP1 and KDM5C, with four potentially pathogenic variants. We observed markedly lower mutation load in PBRM1. Cytogenetic analysis of cfDNA may allow more accurate diagnosis of tumor aberrations and therefore the correlation between the chromosome aberrations in cfDNA and clinical outcome should be studied in larger cohorts. The functional studies on in BAP1, KDM5C, PBRM1 mutations in large, independent sample set would be necessary for the assessment of their prognostic and diagnostic potential.

  9. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

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    Fang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment. Results: On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant. Conclusions: It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  10. PENGARUH KOMBINASI ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID (IBA DAN 6-BENZIL AMINO PURIN (BAP PADA KULTUR IN VITRO TUNAS AKSILAR ANGGUR (Vitis vinifera L. VARIETAS PRABU BESTARI DAN JESTRO AG 86

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    Made Wahyu Cerianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation study was carried out at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. It was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with two factors.  The first factor was plant growth regulator (PGR, consist of nine concentration mixture of IBA (0, 0.5, 1 mg/L and BAP (0, 1, 2 mg/L. The second factor was grape varieties, consisted of Prabu Bestari and Jestro Ag 86.  There were five replicates for each treatment combination. Variable observed included presence and absence of callus, percentage of callus growth, percentage of shoot growth, number of shoot per explants, emergence of shoots, percentage of root growth and number of roots per explants.  Data were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.  When treatment showed a significant different (P<0.05 or highly significant (P<0.01 mean separation was conducted following Tukey Test. Data were analyzed using MINITAB Statistical Program. Results showed that PGR and varieties was highly significant for percent of callus growth.  PGR also showed significant effect on shoot growth percentage, while there was significant difference found on root growth percentage.  It can be concluded that combination of 1 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L BAP was able to produce the highest percentage of callus growth. Addition of 2 mg/L BAP without IBA was able to produce the highest percentage of shoot growth. Percentage of root growth of Jestro Ag 86 was higher than Prabu Bestari.

  11. Comparação dos efeitos da mistura de poluentes orgânicos (BAP, DDT e TBT) no metabolismo hepático e na toxicidade em teleósteos de água doce

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Heloisa Helena Paro de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo teve enfoque nos efeitos da mistura de três poluentes orgânicos persistentes (POPs) em peixes de água doce: benzo(a)pireno (BaP), um produto da combustão incompleta de materiais orgânicos e conhecido como carcinógeno humano; diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT), um pesticida organoclorado persistente que causa danos à vida selvagem e também pode ter efeitos negativos na saúde humana; e tributilestanho (TBT), usado em tintas anti-incrustantes e um dos agentes antropogêni...

  12. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  13. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  14. Ácido giberélico (ga3 e 6-benzilaminopurina (bap no crescimento in vitro de macela [Egletes viscosa (L. Less.] Giberelic acid and 6-benzilaminopurine on in vitro growth of macela [Egletes viscosa (L. Less.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Diva Nogueira Diniz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação é uma ferramenta promissora que pode ser utilizada para propagação e preservação de muitas espécies de plantas medicinais que vêm sendo exploradas de forma indiscriminada e que estão em vias de extinção. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de induzir o crescimento in vitro de brotações de macela, em meio de cultura MS com diferentes concentrações de GA3 (0; 0,1 e 0,5 mgL-1 e BAP (0; 1 e 2 mgL-1. Foram utilizadas brotações de macela com diâmetro médio de 1,5 cm, retiradas de plantas preestabelecidas in vitro, inoculadas em frascos contendo 40 ml do meio de cultura e mantidas em sala de crescimento com temperatura média de 26 ± 1oC, fotoperíodo de 16 h e intensidade luminosa em torno de 2000 lux fornecida por lâmpada tipo fluorescente branca fria. Utilizou-se como delineamento experimental um fatorial 3 x 3, num total de nove tratamentos com 15 explantes por tratamento. Aos 30 dias, verificou-se o maior crescimento em altura das plantas, no tratamento com 0,5 mgL-1 de GA3 na ausência de BAP. O maior número de brotações ou crescimento em diâmetro foi observado com maiores concentrações dos reguladores. Porém, na presença dos reguladores ocorreu um maior número de plantas com folhas hiperhídricas e malformadas.Micropropagation is a promising tool that can be utilized for propagation and preservation of many medicinal species that are being explored in an indiscriminated form and are under the risk of extinction. This work had as an objective to induce the growth in vitro of macela clusters in MS culture medium with different concentrations of GA3 (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1 and BAP (0, 1.0 and 2.0 mgL-1. Macela clusters or buddings with 1.5 cm of average diameter obtained from in vitro established plants were inoculated in glass containing 40ml of culture medium and keept in a growing room with light (2000 lux supplied by cool white fluorescent lamps for 16 hours daily at 26 ± 1oC. The experiment

  15. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from cows' milk and environment based on bap, icaA, and mecA genes and phenotypic susceptibility to antimicrobials and teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of

  16. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  17. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeitos do meio de cultura e da relação BAP/ANA na multiplicação in vitro de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla em biorreator de imersão temporária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos individuais com o objetivo de testar diferentes meios de cultura e combinações entre os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA na multiplicação de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, utilizando o biorreator de imersão temporária RITA®. O meio de cultura MS e a frequência de imersão a cada 2 h promoveram maior massa fresca e número de brotos por explantes. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao crescimento das culturas entre os dois clones avaliados. A combinação 1,0 µM de BAP com 0,5 µM de ANA foi a que resultou maiores médias em relação à massa fresca e ao número de brotos. As culturas apresentaram alto percentual de hiper-hidricidade, sendo essa desordem fator limitante nas condições deste estudo para o cultivo de Eucalyptus em biorreatores.

  19. Regulación de los pasos iniciales de la degradación de clorofila durante la senescencia foliar

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Facundo Martin

    2012-01-01

    La clorofila es uno de los compuestos químicos más importantes de la biósfera. Todos los organismos fotosíntéticos, entre los cuales destacamos naturalmente a las plantas, dependen casi exclusivamente de la clorofila como compuesto especializado en la captación y transformación de la energía lumínica en energía química. En las especies vegetales, las reacciones fotosintéticas ocurren principalmente en las células de las hojas, dentro de organelas especializadas denominadas cloroplastos, y por...

  20. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    suggesting a net water deficit during most of the year. The present vegetation is thorn and scrub type and is dominated by Aerva persica, Aerva pseudotomentosa .... of playa sediments, attention has been paid to the relative proportions of the evaporite minerals. (gypsum, halite and calcite) indicating significant changes in ...

  1. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv.Berangan during the ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are ..... Asian J. Plant Sci. 7(1): 116-118. Jalil M, Khalid N, Othman RY (2003). Plant regeneration from embryogenic suspension cultures of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA).

  2. Genetics Home Reference: BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center: Uveal Melanoma (Eye Cancer) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) American Cancer Society Melanoma Research Foundation Ocular Melanoma Foundation Skin Cancer Foundation ...

  3. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Malar and Kanod, have been investigated using palynology, geomorphology, archaeology, AMS-radiocarbon dating, stable isotopes, evaporite mineralogy and geoarchaeology. The principal objective was to obtain a reliable lithostratigraphy of ...

  4. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    well as nodular, over most of the Thar, is a major geomorphic expression of the early Quaternary. (Dhir et al 1999; this volume). By the late middle Pleistocene (> 200ka), the climate became distinctly semi-arid to arid as. Keywords. Palaeoenvironment; Thar desert; playas; pollen analysis; geoarchaeology. Proc. Indian Acad.

  5. Conservación in vitro de Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño (Dioscoreaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo establecer, para Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño, un método eficiente para la conservación in vitro de durante 9 y 12 meses basado en la modificación del medio de cultivo (MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 con distintos niveles de manitol y BAP. Los tratamientos consistieron en la adición en el medio de cultivo de manitol (0; 0,5 y 1,5% y BAP (0; 0,1 mg.L-1. A los 9 y 12 meses de conservación in vitro se realizaron las siguientes evaluaciones: supervivencia (%, senescencia foliar (%, numero de nudos, longitud del vástago, número de microtubérculos. A las 8 semanas de la regeneración de los segmentos nodales (procedentes de vitroplantas conservadas a 9 y 12 meses en el medio de cultivo (MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 se determinó la regeneración de plantas completas (%, número de nudos, número de hojas y longitud del vástago. A las 5 semanas durante la micropropagación convencional se determinó el número de nudos, número de hojas y la longitud del vástago. Las variantes de cultivo formadas por el medio MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 y el MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 + BAP 0,1 mg.L-1 permitió de manera efectiva la conservación de vitroplantas a partir de segmentos uninodales de D. alata clon caraqueño durante 9 y 12 meses con altos porcentajes de supervivencia, un número significativo de microtubérculos, los menores porcentajes de senescencia foliar y 100% de regeneración en plantas completas con un crecimiento normal en condiciones de micropropagación.

  6. Development of Targeted Molecular Therapy for Cancers Harboring BAP1 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    that is frequently mutated in some of the most lethal and treatment -resistant cancers , including melanoma, mesothelioma and kidney cancer . Molecular...identify putative therapeutics to treat human diseases such as melanoma, mesothelioma, lung cancer , breast cancer , kidney cancer , gastric cancer ...mutations of any gene or predisposition of genetic elements has severe consequences on structure and function of protein. Our preliminary data showed that

  7. Hot Spot B[a]P Exposure in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.; Dostál, Miroslav; Dostálová, M.; Gmuender, H.; Krejčík, Z.; Líbalová, Helena; Milcová, Alena; Pastorková, Anna; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Schmuczerová, Jana; Špátová, Milada; Topinka, Jan; Votavová, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl.1 (2012), S23-S23 ISSN 0893-6692. [Annual Meeting of the Environmental-Mutagen-Society (EMS) /43./. 08.09.2012-12.09.2012, Bellevue] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environmental pollutants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  8. Effect of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) on meristem culture for virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Granula and Cardinal for meristem culture and four 6-benzyl aminopurine levels namely 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/l. As a whole, twenty treatments were allotted in complete randomized design with three replications. Resulted in vitro regenerated ...

  9. Regulation Mechanisms of the Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolases UCH-L5 and BAP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Sahtoe (Danny)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe covalent attachment of the small protein ubiquitin to target proteins, ubiquitination, is a major type of modification in cells. This modification can have a vast array of outcomes that allow cells to tightly control processes. Ubiquitination is reversed by deubiquitinating

  10. (BAP) on meristem culture for virus free seed production of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hiru

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... tubers for ware potato production: Influence of size and plant spacing. Asian Potato J. 3:14-17. Sanavy SAMM, Moieni MJ (2003). Effects of different hormone combinations and planting beds on growth of single nodes and plantlets resulted from potato meristem culture. Plant Tissue Cult. 13(2):145-150.

  11. Mesothelioma: Identification of the Key Molecular Events Triggered by BAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent insights emerging from malignant mesothelioma genome sequencing. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Mar ;10(3):409-11. PMID: 25695218 5. Yang H, Pelegrini L...mesothelioma genome sequencing. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Mar ;10(3):409-11. PMID: 25695218 37. Yang H, Pelegrini L, Napolitano A, Giorgi C, Jube S, Preti A...Sandro Jube Vishal Singh Negi 2) Research assistant fellow training: Agata Szymiczek Dusty Behner Elia Bruno Ronghui Xu Shuangjing Li Sylvia

  12. Estudio de las principales vías responsables del efecto terapéutico del sildenafilo sobre el deterioro cognitivo del ratón de senescencia acelerada SAMP8

    OpenAIRE

    Orejana, L. (Lourdes); Puerta, E. (Elena); Aguirre, N. (Norberto)

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of cognitive performance particularly of learning and memory and with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Undoubtedly, identifying the key markers and how they interact to turn benign aging into pathologic seems a crucial step for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent or hinder the progression of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is comprised of 14 strains derived from selective i...

  13. The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project (BAP). Computer aided dispatch and communications system for the Baltimore Fire Department: A case study of urban technology application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    An engineer and a computer expert from Goddard Space Flight Center were assigned to provide technical assistance in the design and installation of a computer assisted system for dispatching and communicating with fire department personnel and equipment in Baltimore City. Primary contributions were in decision making and management processes. The project is analyzed from four perspectives: (1) fire service; (2) technology transfer; (3) public administration; and (5) innovation. The city benefitted substantially from the approach and competence of the NASA personnel. Given the proper conditions, there are distinct advantages in having a nearby Federal laboratory provide assistance to a city on a continuing basis, as is done in the Baltimore Applications Project.

  14. A SIMPLE PROTOCOL FOR SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS INDUCTION OF IN VITRO SUGARCANE ( Saccharum officinarum. L BY 2,4-D AND BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Ilman Widuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Induction of in vitro sugarcane through somatic embryogenesis technique influenced by addition of plant growth regulator. The objective of this research was to determine appropriate formulation medium for indirect somatic embryogenesis induction on two potential sugarcane SUT Event 02 and PS 881. This research carried out in three steps, callus induction, callus proliferation, and shoot regeneration. Explants taken from basal of in vitro plantlet one month SUT Event 02 and PS 881 resulted from shoot regeneration previously. Five different medium formulas applied for callus induction and one formula for proliferation and shoot regeneration. Research using completely randomized design (CRD factorial with five different formulation induction mediums. The result showed that the best respond of indirect somatic embryogenesis on SUT Event 02 and PS 881 was medium containing  3 mgL-1of  2,4-D.

  15. Efecto de la hiperfosfatemia sobre las células del músculo esquelético

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqoob Noah Almarbena, Zeena

    2016-01-01

    Los cambios que tienen lugar durante el proceso de envejecimiento conducen a una disminución funcional de los órganos, entre los que se encuentra el músculo esquelético. El envejecimiento a nivel celular es conocido como senescencia celular. La senescencia celular es una parada irreversible del ciclo celular y puede estar inducida por distintos estímulos ambientales entre los cuales puede estar implicada la hiperfosfatemia. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo muestran que las altas c...

  16. Plankton, temperature and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the BONDY, BAP EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the Coastal S Pacific, South Pacific and other locations from 1961 to 1965 (NODC Accession 0001140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and plankton data were collected using plankton net and bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean from 01 August 1961 to 09 September 1965. Data...

  17. Anaerobic digestion of solid waste in RAS: Effect of reactor type on the biochemical acidogenic potential (BAP) and assessment of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) by a batch assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Lund, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a way to utilize the potential energy contained in solid waste produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), either by providing acidogenic products for driving heterotrophic denitrification on site or by directly producing combustive methane. In this study the bioc......Anaerobic digestion is a way to utilize the potential energy contained in solid waste produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), either by providing acidogenic products for driving heterotrophic denitrification on site or by directly producing combustive methane. In this study...

  18. Informe de las condiciones oceanográficas superficiales entre Chicama y Cabo Blanco. Crucero BAP Ocoña 9510: Del 16 al 23 de Octubre de 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Luis; García Díaz, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Presenta un monitoreo oceanográfico pesquero del 16 al 24 de Octubre de 1995 abarcando las zonas entre Puerto Salaverry y el norte de Cabo Blanco, a fin de analizar la variación horizontal de la temperatura y salinidad del mar.

  19. Quantificação de Benzo(a)Pireno [B(a)P] por GC-MS em solos próximos de termelétricas utilizando processos de biorremediação.

    OpenAIRE

    Possamai, Priscila Santos Marques; Spagiari, Matheus Souza; Waszak, Dafne Quintas; Bizani, Delmar; Cunha, Ana Cristina Borba da

    2012-01-01

    Com a consolidação e crescimento da consciência ecológica em nível mundial, a pressão pela gestão racional e ambientalmente adequada dos recursos e do espaço natural estendeu-se ao setor privado, que passou a desenvolver, de forma complementar aos instrumentos de gestão pública, instrumentos de adoção voluntária como a auditoria ambiental e o sistema de gestão ambiental. Nesse trabalho foi estudado de forma exploratória o potencial da utilização dos microrganismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e B. ...

  20. Trace analysis of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene in urine for the biomonitoring of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, Freek; Hoornweg, Gerard P.; Van De Nesse, Ronald J.; Jukema-Leenstra, Swanette R.; Hofstraat, Johannes W.; Gooijer, Cees; Velthorst, Nel H.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolites in urine can provide direct insight into recent exposure to BaP integrated from all uptake routes. In order to detect 3-OH BaP in human urine after exposure to BaP at the workplace, extremely sensitive methods need to be developed. In this paper, a

  1. Mediastinitis odontogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gay Escoda, Cosme; Garatea Crelgo, Joaquín

    1989-01-01

    Las mediastinitis secundarias a infecciones dentarias ocurren raramente. El diagnóstico es difícil y a menudo se retrasa provocando la muerte del enfermo. A los datos tradicionales de edema y crepitación de cuello y tórax como signos de alarma, hemos sumado el de tos no productiva, obtenido de nuestra propia experiencia. Hemos revisado un total de 25 casos publicados. resaltando el dato de que 22 fueron varones.

  2. El envejecimiento de los clones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippi, Victorio S.

    2007-01-01

    El envejecimiento de los clones se observa en plantas que muestran crecimiento definido por un determinismo genético, cuando se multiplican con tejidos que evolucionan hacia el crecimiento reproductivo. Las plantas fuertemente influenciadas por el ambiente, pueden mostrar fenómenos de senescencia cuando la condición de ambiente determina el crecimiento reproductivo. Los cambios asociados con la edad resultan de alteraciones del citoplasma como un tipo de diferenciación cel...

  3. 319. Señalización alterada de factor de crecimiento transformante SS en células de músculo liso vascular humanas y en arterias mamarias internas de pacientes sometidos a revascularización miocárdica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Redondo

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: En células de músculo liso vascular de pacientes mayores, existe una mayor senescencia celular, asociada a una menor señalización de TGF-β1. Esta señalización defectiva se confirma en arterias mamarias internas de pacientes sometidos a revascularización miocárdica, que presentan además menores niveles séricos de esta citocina.

  4. Modulation of the renin-angiotensin system by food protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    derived BAPs can promote their use as safe antihypertensive agents. Moreover, future studies are needed to elucidate the long-term systemic molecular interactions of antihypertensive BAPs with the human genome, proteome and other cellular ...

  5. POLÍMERO HIDROFÍLICO COMBINADO CON SOLUCIONES PRESERVADORAS EN LA VIDA DE FLORERO DE TALLOS FLORALES DE ROSA Y HELICONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Raul Leyva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En la cadena de distribución de ornamentales, acciones sencillas pueden lograr un eficiente manejo poscosecha; sin embargo, su escaso conocimiento por los usuarios ha limitado su aplicación. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto del hidrogel Carbopol 940® y la adición de tres soluciones preservadoras sobre la vida en florero de rosa y heliconia. Se hicieron evaluaciones sobre la pérdida de humedad de los tallos en seis periodos de tiempo y observaciones de senescencia en cuatro momentos. Se observó una mayor pérdida de agua en los tallos en la combinación de hidrogel y soluciones, y una senescencia acelerada de las flores (33.5 %. La combinación de agua y soluciones tuvo la pérdida de humedad promedio más baja (19.2 %. En las primeras 24 h, los tallos de heliconia perdieron en promedio menos de 5 % de su peso y los de rosa más de 11 %. Los síntomas de senescencia se acentuaron desde las 168 h de iniciado el experimento. Las combinaciones del polímero Carbopol 940® y soluciones preservadoras no mostraron efectividad sobre la vida de florero de las especies utilizadas.

  6. Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Musienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied­. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE BENZO(A)PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE-DNA ADDUCTS IN CALF THYMUS DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[alpyrene-7,8-dione (BPQ) is a reactive aldo-keto reductase-mediated product of B[a]P-7,8-diol, a major P450/epoxide hydrolase metabolite of the multi-species carcinogen, B[a]P. The role of BPQ in B[a]P's genotoxicity and carcinogenesis is evolving. Toxicity pathways involvi...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE BENZOLALPYRENE-7,8-QUINONE-DNA ADDUCTS IN CALF THYMUS DNA AND POLYDEOXYNUCLEOTIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bcnzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (BPQ) is a reactive aldo-keto reductase-mediated product of B[a]P-7,8-diol, a major P450/epoxide hydrolase metabolite of the multi-species carcinogen, B[a]P. The role of BPQ in B[a]P's genotoxicity and carcinogenesis is evolving. Toxicity pathways involvi...

  9. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  10. Implementación de la tecnología analítica de proesos (PAT) en algunos procesos de fabricación farmacéutica. Utilización de la espectroscopia del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) y de técnicas de imagen qimica (CI)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Portugal, Juan Guillermo P.

    2012-01-01

    La industria farmacéutica es objeto de estrictas regulaciones que tienen por objeto asegurar la calidad de los productos que ofrecen al mercado; el aseguramiento de esta calidad se realiza mediante la determinación de parámetros de calidad a través de ensayos off-line en el producto terminado. Sin embargo, la complejidad de los métodos y la variedad de los mismos retrasa de forma importante la liberación del producto con las consiguientes pérdidas económicas y de competitividad para la empres...

  11. Implementación de la tecnología analítica de procesos (PAT) en algunos procesos de fabricación farmacéutica utilización de la espectroscopia del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) y de técnicas de imagen química (CI) /

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Portugal, Juan Guillermo P.

    2013-01-01

    La industria farmacéutica es objeto de estrictas regulaciones que tienen por objeto asegurar la calidad de los productos que ofrecen al mercado; el aseguramiento de esta calidad se realiza mediante la determinación de parámetros de calidad a través de ensayos off-line en el producto terminado. Sin embargo, la complejidad de los métodos y la variedad de los mismos retrasa de forma importante la liberación del producto con las consiguientes pérdidas económicas y de competitividad para la empres...

  12. Método de la lactancia amenorreica (MELA/LAM) o la contracepción natural en el postparto

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Puértolas, Adela; Soler, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    La lactancia materna retrasa el retorno de la fecundidad al demorar la ovulación; cuando el lactante succiona, estimula la producción de la prolactina en la glándula pituitaria y, en muchos casos, ésta inhibe las hormonas (alteración de la secreción pulsátil de LH) que estimulan la maduración y la liberación de óvulos, generando como consecuencia amenorrea. Para suprimir completamente la estimu­lación ovular se requiere una lactancia completa o exclusiva. Hasta los 6 meses, la succión del beb...

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  14. Natural Porphyrins Accelerating the Phototransformation of Benzo[a]pyrene in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhengyu; Chen, Baowei; Cai, Fengshan; Fang, Ling; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang

    2018-02-21

    Phototransformation is one of the most important transformation pathways of organic contaminants in the water environment. However, how active compounds enable and accelerate the phototransformation of organic pollutants remains to be elucidated. In this study, the phototransformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, the first class "human carcinogens") by various natural porphyrins under solar irradiation was investigated, including chlorophyll a, sodium copper chlorophyllin, hematin, cobalamin and pheophorbide a. Transformation efficiency of BaP varied considerably with chemical stabilities of the porphyrins. Porphyrins with a lower stability displayed higher BaP transformation efficiencies. BaP transformation had a significant positive correlation with the production of singlet oxygen. Identical phototransformation products of BaP were observed for all investigated porphyrins, and the main products were identified as BaP-quinones, including BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione and BaP-6,12-dione. The mechanism of natural porphyrins accelerating the BaP phototransformation in water was proposed to proceed via the photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen resulting in the transformation of BaP to quinones.

  15. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3 and PISTILLATA (PI are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  16. Manufacture of low-benzo(a)pyrene sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using a self-designed apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hui Ju; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to lower benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) contents in sesame seed oil (SSO) during manufacture by using a self-designed apparatus, to determine its optimal conditions, and to analyze antioxidants in SSO which might be related to BaP content reduction. Washing and spin-drying steps reduce exogenous BaP contamination, and the reduced moisture in seeds lowered BaP content in final SSO. A ventilation system in the roasting step inhibits BaP formation and reabsorption, followed by a controlled compression step. The optimal condition, a single washing cycle with 2-min spin-drying, 1350-rpm ventilation, and a single compression cycle, reduced the BaP content in SSO to 2.93 μg/kg, where the raw seeds had been spiked with 10-μg/kg BaP. Total phenolic contents showed a reversal pattern to the distribution of BaP contents. Sesamol and sesamolin were quantified by a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector, and it was suggested that sesamol which is a strong antioxidant might have prevented BaP formation during the roasting step. This study enabled the commercial production of low-BaP SSO, and the data could be used in further investigations of the BaP content reduction mechanism with quantitative chemical analysis of the SSO composition.

  17. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  18. The impact of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes on oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M; Stiborová, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study human recombinant CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5) were expressed in Supersomes™ together with their reductases, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase and cytochrome b5 , to investigate BaP metabolism. Human CYPs produced up to eight BaP metabolites. Among these, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol and BaP-9-ol, which are intermediates in BaP-derived DNA adduct formation, were mainly formed by CYP1A1 and 1B1, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C19 and 3A4. BaP-3-ol, a metabolite that is a 'detoxified' product of BaP, was formed by most human CYPs tested, although CYP1A1 and 1B1 produced it the most efficiently. Based on the amounts of the individual BaP metabolites formed by these CYPs and their expression levels in human liver, we determined their contributions to BaP metabolite formation in this organ. Our results indicate that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2C19 are most important in the activation of BaP to BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, whereas CYP2C19, 3A4, and 1A1 are the major enzymes contributing to the formation of BaP-9-ol. BaP-3-ol is predominantly formed by hepatic CYP3A4, while CYP1A1 and 2C19 are less active. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Regulación redox de la Rubisco: Contribución estructural y funcional del par de residuos conservados Cys172 y Cys192.

    OpenAIRE

    García Murria, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN La Ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa oxigenasa (Rubisco) cataliza el primer paso en la fijación fotosintética del CO2 a través del ciclo de Calvin. La estructura del holoenzima activo en organismos eucariotas es un hexadecámero compuesto por 8 subunidades grandes (de 51-58KDa) y 8 subunidades pequeñas (de 12-18KDa). En condiciones de senescencia natural o inducida por estrés la Rubisco sufre una degradación rápida y selectiva. Una de las respuestas más generalizadas ante diferent...

  20. Aplicaciones de la radiación gamma en frutas y hortalizas: Perspectivas agroindustriales para el espárrago peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Johnny; Vivanco, Mónica; Maldonado, Marisela; Linares, Marco; Huamanlazo, Paula; Quispe, Flor de María

    2005-01-01

    Para la conservación y solución de problemas fitosanitarios en alimentos se utilizan aditivos y fumigantes químicos como métodos convencionales en su tratamiento. Sin embargo, estos son muy cuestionados por ser altamente tóxicos y perjudiciales para la salud y el medioambiente. Presentamos algunos resultados de investigaciones realizadas por el IPEN en la conservación de frutas y hortalizas, eliminación de hongos causantes de la pudrición en fresas, retardo en la maduración y/o senescencia en...

  1. Informe científico de investigador: Guiamet, Juan José (2013-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Guiamet, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    En este período he continuado con los estudios sobre el mecanismo y regulación de la degradación del aparato fotosintético durante la senescencia, iniciando el estudio de proteasas involucradas en este proceso, y he mantenido colaboraciones con otros grupos en el INFIVE. Las principales actividades de investigación que realicé en el período 2013-2014 fueron: Continué trabajando en proteasas y degradación de pro...

  2. Integração dos estresses osmótico e do RE no processo de morte celular: reguladores positivos e negativos da via de sinalização são conservados em plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Pedro Augusto Braga dos

    2014-01-01

    A via de resposta mediada por proteinas ricas em asparagina (NRPs), as quais apresentam o dominio de desenvolvimento e morte celular (DCD), foi primeiramente identificadas em soja (Glycine max), pela capacidade de mediar o processo de morte celular derivado de um prolongado estresse no retículo endoplasmatico (RE), estresse osmótico, seca ou senescencia foliar associada ao desenvolvimento. Como um braço da via de resposta de estresse no RE que se conecta com outras respostas induzidas pelo am...

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles As Guardian against Environmental Carcinogen Benzo[alpha]Pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Anupam; Sajid Jamal, Qazi Mohd.; Mir, Snober Shabnam; Bhatt, Madan Lal Bramha; Rahman, Qamar; Gupta, Richa; Siddiqui, Mohd. Haris; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), like Benzo[alpha]Pyrene (BaP) are known to cause a number of toxic manifestations including lung cancer. As Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have recently been shown to adsorb a number of PAHs from soil and water, we investigated whether TiO2 NPs could provide protection against the BaP induced toxicity in biological system. A549 cells when co-exposed with BaP (25 µM, 50 µM and 75 µM) along with 0.1 µg/ml,0.5 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml of TiO2 NPs, showed significant reduction in the toxic effects of BaP, as measured by Micronucleus Assay, MTT Assay and ROS Assay. In order to explore the mechanism of protection by TiO2 NP against BaP, we performed in silico studies. BaP and other PAHs are known to enter the cell via aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12074) as compared to the docking score of BaP with AHR (4600). This indicates a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR, in case if both the TiO2 NP and BaP are present. Further, we have done the docking of BaP with the TiO2 NP bound AHR-complex (score 4710), and observed that BaP showed strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not at its original binding site (at AHR). TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of BaP in to the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by BaP. PMID:25215666

  4. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  5. Dissipation of available benzo[a]pyrene in aging soil co-contaminated with cadmium and pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Xin-xin; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Huang, Hua-gang; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the dissipation of available benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soils co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and pyrene (PYR) during aging process. The available residue of BaP in soil was separated into desorbing and non-desorbing fractions. The desorbing fraction contributed more to the dissipation of available BaP than the non-desorbing fraction did. The concentration of bound-residue fraction of BaP was quite low across all treatments. Within the duration of this study (250 days), transformation of BaP from available fractions to bound-residue fraction was not observed. Microbial degradation was the dominant mechanism of the dissipation of available BaP in the soil. The dissipation of available BaP was significantly inhibited with the increment in Cd level in the soil. The addition of PYR (250 mg kg(-1)) remarkably promoted the dissipation of available BaP without reducing Cd availability in the soil. The calculated half-life of available BaP in the soil prolonged with the increment in Cd level; however, the addition of PYR shortened the half-life of available BaP by 13.1, 12.7, and 32.8% in 0.44, 2.56, and 22 mg Cd kg(-1) soils, respectively. These results demonstrated that the inhibiting effect of Cd and the promoting effect of PYR on the dissipation of available BaP were competitive. Therefore, this study shows that the bioremediation process of BaP can be more complicated in co-contaminated soils.

  6. The metabolism and distribution of 14C-8N6-benzyladenine in lettuce seeds and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeber, R.G. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation sought to follow the uptake of the cytokinin, 14 C-8N 6 -benzyladenine (BAP), by lettuce seeds through time, trace the movement of the metabolites through several areas of the seedling, and identify the BAP metabolites. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) were exposed to a two hour pulse of the radioactive BAP. These seeds were harvested at 4 hour intervals from 2-48 hours. Seedlings incubated from 36-48 hours were cut in two; root, stem, shoot tip and seed coats. Each of these groups were extracted in 70% methanol and their radioactive isolated by high performance liquid chromatography. Radioactive fractions were pooled and reduced for further analysis by thin layer chromatography. The major compound identified throughout the time periods was BAP, exclusively found from 2-20 hours. BAP riboside was found in addition to BAP from 24-32 hours. The 40 and 44 hour extracts contained BAP and its riboside in the shoot and BAP in the seed coat. The 48 hours extract contained BAP and its riboside in both the shoot tip and the seed coat. This study produced information on the following points. A cytokinin exposure of 2 hours or less is needed to break dormancy in these seeds

  7. Testing the feasibility of training peers with a spinal cord injury to learn and implement brief action planning to promote physical activity to people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainforth, Heather L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Davis, Connie; Casemore, Sheila; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested the feasibility of training peers with spinal cord injury (SCI) to learn brief action planning (BAP), an application of motivational interviewing principles, to promote physical activity to mentees with SCI. Thirteen peers with SCI attended a half-day BAP workshop. Using a one-arm, pre-, post-test design, feasibility to learn BAP was assessed in terms of peers' (1) BAP and motivational interviewing spirit competence; (2) training satisfaction; and (3) motivations to use BAP as assessed by measures of the theory of planned behavior constructs. Measures were taken at baseline, immediately post-training, and 1 month follow up. Following the training, participants' BAP and motivational interviewing competence significantly increased (P's 2.27). Training satisfaction was very positive with all means falling above the scale midpoint. Participants' perceived behavioral control to use BAP increased from baseline to post (P 0.05). Training peers with a SCI to learn to use BAP is feasible. BAP is a tool that can be feasibly learned by peers to promote physical activity to their mentees.

  8. Broad autism phenotype features of Chinese parents with autistic children and their associations with severity of social impairment in probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Juan; Ou, Jian-Jun; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Su-Hong; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Zhu, Fu-Rong; Liu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Luo, Xue-Rong

    2015-07-23

    Parents of children with autism have higher rates of broad autism phenotype (BAP) features than parents of typically developing children (TDC) in Western countries. This study was designed to examine the rate of BAP features in parents of children with autism and the relationship between parental BAP and the social impairment of their children in a Chinese sample. A total of 299 families with autistic children and 274 families with TDC participated in this study. Parents were assessed using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), which includes self-report, informant-report, and best-estimate versions. Children were assessed using the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Parents of children with autism were significantly more likely to have BAP features than were parents of TDC; mothers and fathers in families with autistic children had various BAP features. The total scores of the informant and best-estimate BAPQ versions for fathers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the autism group, whereas the total scores of the three BAPQ versions for mothers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the TDC group. In the autism group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents (informant and best-estimate) were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents. In the TDC group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents (best-estimate). Parents of autistic children were found to have higher rates of BAP than parents of TDC in a sample of Chinese parents. The BAP features of parents are associated with their children's social functioning in both autism families and TDC families, but the patterns of the associations are different.

  9. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  10. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Henri; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis

  11. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F.; Muller, Claude P.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  12. Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits and the Relationship to Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F

    2018-04-03

    Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.

  13. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were…

  14. Influence of benzyladenine on condensed tannin formation and callus growth in cultures from sainfoin (Onobrychis viccifolia Scop.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1988-05-01

    Cotyledons from aseptically grown seedlings of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) were used as explant material to grow callus tissue for periods of 21 and 31 days. The formation of cells containing condensed tannins was induced by adding a range of BAP concentrations to an mB5 culture medium containing 2,4-D. After 21 days the fresh weight of calli treated with BAP was much greater than the control and appeared highest at the 0.6 mg/L level. Fresh weight was reduced at high BAP levels (2 to 8 mg/L) but still remained well above the control. The formation of tannin-filled cells was genotype-specific but occurred in all treatments with BAP. After 21 days in culture, fresh weight and tannin formation increased with the BAP level at the lower BAP concentrations. After 31 days, the growth rate slowed in the control and the lower BAP concentration, but continued at a high rate in the remaining treatments; the number of tannin-filled cells appeared to decline. The results show that in sainfoin callus culture, BAP induces the formation of condensed tannin, a secondary metabolite, and concomitantly produces a high growth rate.

  15. Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by two freshwater microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus: a comparative study useful for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Llasera, Martha Patricia; Olmos-Espejel, José de Jesús; Díaz-Flores, Gabriel; Montaño-Montiel, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the removal of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sorption and degradation by two microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus was performed. The monitoring of the amount of BaP remaining in the liquid culture media and the biomass along with the appearance of three metabolites (4,5 dihydrodiol-BaP; 7,8-dihydrodiol-BaP; and 9,10 dihydrodiol-BaP) at short time periods (from 0.25 to 72 h) in cultures exposed to BaP was made by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Complete removal of BaP was achieved by the two live microalgal species: S. capricornutum at 15 h of exposure (99%) and S. acutus at 72 h of exposure (95%). Sorption is an important phenomenon for BaP removal by S. capricornutum but biodegradation is the principal means of removing BaP in live cells. The formation of metabolites by S. capricornutum is rapid and seems to be proportional to the amount of the BaP added to cultures. In contrast, in these bioassays, most of the BaP removal of S. acutus is due to sorption rather than degradation. The appearance of metabolites in the cultures is very slow and at a low amount compared to cultures of S. capricornutum. The similarities and differences existing between the two microalgae are important for the establishment of the conditions for bioremediation.

  16. Influence of growth regulators and physical state of the culture medium on the in vitro multiplication of Colocasia esculenta clone 'INIVIT MC2001'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdada Galvez Guerra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve adequate results in the in vitro multiplication of taro cultivars is required to standardize the culture conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of growth regulators and physical state of the culture medium on in vitro multiplication of Colocasia esculenta clone `INIVITC2001'. Five treatments involving indole acetic acid (IAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP were established: 1.0 mg l-1 IAA + 3.0 mg l-1 6-BAP, 3.0 mg l-1 6-BAP, 4.0 mg l-1 6-BAP, 5.0 mg l-1 6-BAP, 1.0 mg l-1 IAA + 6.0 mg l-1 6-BAP. After 30 days of culture the multiplication coefficient was calculated. Furthermore, the effect on the physical state of the culture medium on this variable during three subcultures was determined. When the culture medium consisting of MS salts and vitamins with 4.0 mg l-1 of 6-BAP was used the greater multiplication coefficient was obtained. Handling the physical state of the culture medium for three subcultures influenced the multiplication coefficient in each subculture, in average coefficient multiplication of three subcultures and the total number of explants obtained after three subcultures. With the culture medium in semisolid state better growth and higher explants multiplication coefficient was achieved. Key words: AIA, 6-BAP, taro, semisolid medium

  17. Direct in vitro regeneration of a medicinal tree Oroxylum indicum (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and reliable protocol was developed through apical and axillary bud explants of Oroxylum indicum for multiple shoot regeneration. Effect of 2 cytokinins; BAP and KN, was studied. BAP at 4.43 μM proved better than KN with highest frequency of shoot initiation and maximum number of shoots initiated. Axillary bud ...

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Saccharide Binding Studies of Bile Acid − Porphyrin Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of bile acid-porphyrin conjugates (BAPs are reported. Binding of saccharides with BAPs in aqueous methanol was studied by monitoring changes in the visible absorption spectral of the porphyrin-moieties. Although these studies clearly showed absorbance changes, suggesting quite high if non-selective binding, the mass spectral studies do not unambiguously support these results.

  19. Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

  20. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  1. Bacterial adherence: the role of serum and wound fluid | Yah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BAP were achieved by exposing the pathogens to freshly excised wounds. The adhered bacteria were then eluded and quantified using log (CFU/cm2) on Mueller Hinton Agar per cm2 of tissue. The results indicated that wound fluid and serum has a remarkable bacterial adherence potential (BAP) when exposed to ...

  2. Effects of Benzoapyrene on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells functioning by TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangqiang; Zhou, Yongchun; Ye, Lianhua; Li, Guangjian; Chen, Xiaobo; Yang, Kaiyun; Huang, Qiubo; Zeng, Yujie; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao

    2018-01-18

    In this study, we attempted to find out the underlying mechanism of Benzoapyrene and metastasis of lung cancer cells. We also did experiments to testify the connection between BaP and its potential target, TNF-α. Cell median lethal dose (IC 50 ) of both cells was measured by crystal violet method. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were employed to detect the expression of TNF-α. Wound healing assay and transwell assay were utilized to testify the impacts of BaP and TNF-α on the metastasis of lung cancer cells. Cell death rate was elevated with the increase of BaP concentration. BaP increased the number of metastatic cells of lung cancer. The expressions of TNF-α pathway-associated protein (TNF-α, NF-kB (P65), Caspase3 and Caspase8) were enhanced by overexpressed BaP. TNF-α shRNA suppressed the positive effects of BaP on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Our study validated the positive effects of BaP on the metastasis of lung cancer cells. We also revealed the instrumental role of TNF-α in helping the development of lung cancer cells induced by BaP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Group Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Maretha; Parr, Jeremy; Rutter, Michael; Wallace, Simon; Kemner, Chantal; Bailey, Anthony; van Engeland, Herman; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of…

  4. Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... The present study examines the effect of explant age and various concentrations of kinetin and BAP on somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis in Solanum trilobatum L. MS medium fortified with 11.1 µM. BAP + 13.95 µM KN produced highest frequency of embryogenesis (97.3%) and average number ...

  5. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), and combinations of NAA with 6-benzylaminpurine (BAP) as the plant growth regulators. It was observed that the C. odorata callus could be induced on media containing the combination of 3 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BAP.

  6. Overexpression of Catalase Enhances Benzo(a)pyrene Detoxification in Endothelial Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Hong; Ramesh, Aramandla; Goodwin, J Shawn; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, ZhongMao

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells. Our data showed that endothelial microsomes were enriched in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and epoxide hydrolase 1 (EH1), and contained considerable levels of quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP). Treatment of wild-type MAECs with 1μM BaP for 2 h increased the expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1 and NQO1 by ~300, 64 and 116%, respectively. However, the same treatment did not significantly alter the expression of EH1 and GSTP. Overexpression of catalase did not significantly increase EH1, but upregulated BaP-induced expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1, NQO1 and GSTP in the following order: 1A1>NQO1>GSTP>1B1. Overexpression of catalase did not alter the distribution of each of these enzymes in the microsomes. In contrast to our previous report showing lower level of BaP phenols versus BaP diols/diones in the whole-cell, this report demonstrated that the sum of microsomal BaP phenolic metabolites were ~60% greater than that of the BaP diols/diones after exposure of microsomes to BaP. Overexpression of catalase reduced the concentrations of microsomal BaP phenols and diols/diones by ~45 and 95%, respectively. This process enhanced the ratio of BaP phenol versus diol/dione metabolites in a potent manner. Taken together, upregulation of phase II XMEs and CYP1 proteins, but not EH1 in the ER might be the mechanism by which overexpression of catalase reduces the levels of all the BaP metabolites, and

  7. Using gridded multimedia model to simulate spatial fate of Benzo[α]pyrene on regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Xie, Shuangwei; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Predicting the environmental multimedia fate is an essential step in the process of assessing the human exposure and health impacts of chemicals released into the environment. Multimedia fate models have been widely applied to calculate the fate and distribution of chemicals in the environment, which can serve as input to a human exposure model. In this study, a grid based multimedia fugacity model at regional scale was developed together with a case study modeling the fate and transfer of Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) in Bohai coastal region, China. Based on the estimated emission and in-site survey in 2008, the BaP concentrations in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water as well as the transfer fluxes were derived under the steady-state assumption. The model results were validated through comparison between the measured and modeled concentrations of BaP. The model results indicated that the predicted concentrations of BaP in air, fresh water, soil and sediment generally agreed with field observations. Model predictions suggest that soil was the dominant sink of BaP in terrestrial systems. Flow from air to soil, vegetation and costal water were three major pathways of BaP inter-media transport processes. Most of the BaP entering the sea was transferred by air flow, which was also the crucial driving force in the spatial distribution processes of BaP. The Yellow River, Liaohe River and Daliao River played an important role in the spatial transformation processes of BaP. Compared with advection outflow, degradation was more important in removal processes of BaP. Sensitivities of the model estimates to input parameters were tested. The result showed that emission rates, compartment dimensions, transport velocity and degradation rates of BaP were the most influential parameters for the model output. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to determine parameter uncertainty, from which the coefficients of variation for the estimated BaP

  8. Extractos fenólicos vegetales como antimicrobinaos en vinificación (y II)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ruiz, Almudena; González-Rompinelli, E.; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    La aplicación tecnológica de extractos fenólicos vegetales para el control de la fermentación maloláctica y el crecimiento de bacterias lácticas y acéticas del vino ha sido evaluada recientemente, comprobándose en un experimento a escala de laboratorio sobre vinos tintos elaborados a nivel industrial que la adición de un extracto de hoja de eucalipto retrasa significativamente la fermentación maloláctica, tanto inducida por un inóculo como llevada a cabo de forma espontánea (Bartolomé y col.,...

  9. Atenuación de paquetes de carga de espacio en LDPE por electrodos de la misma composición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalberto Tamayo Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de dos capas semiconductoras de Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA y negro de humo (Carbon Black, sobre la formación y propagación de carga de espacio cuando se ponen en contacto con el polietileno de baja densidad (LDPE y se le aplican campos eléctricos elevados (100 kV/mm. Estas capas son usadas como contactos interno y externo con el polietileno reticulado (XLPE en cables de media tensión formando interfaces donde se acumula la carga. Si se usan capas semiconductoras de la misma composición química se atenúan los paquetes de carga y se retrasa el tiempo de propagación de los mismos a través del volumen de las muestras de LDPE.

  10. El deportista y el pH: importancia del lactato y la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    No existe evidencia bioquímica clara para sostener que la producción de lactato cause acidosis, sino más bien todo lo contrario, ya que el lactato retrasa y no causa la aparición de dicha acidosis. Además de la manipulación previa a un evento deportivo de las condiciones ácido-básicas del medio interno, mediante el empleo de ayudas ergogénicas como pudiera ser el bicarbonato o el citrato sódico, los hábitos alimenticios del deportista también pueden desempeñar un papel importante. Como ejempl...

  11. Effect of Söderberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eric; Kelly, Peter; Farant, Jean-Pierre

    2005-02-01

    This follow-up study of Farant and Gariepy study investigates the relationship between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar pitch volatiles in two types of Soderberg aluminum smelters-horizontal and vertical stud. The study confirms the strong relationships between B[a]P and total PAHs, and that B[a]P was a good indicator for other PAHs in this industry. The PAH profiles were consistent within each smelter, but the smelter technology used and the changes in the raw material formulation resulted in significantly different profiles. B[a]P toxic equivalency factors for emitted PAH mixtures were greater in the horizontal stud smelter than in the vertical stud smelter. Overall, this study illustrates the potential usefulness of B[a]P relative abundance ratios to simplify exposure assessment in the workplace and reduce associated costs.

  12. Romantic attachment, empathy, and the broader autism phenotype among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Dustin; Turner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mild autistic-like characteristics can be measured among relatives of individuals with autism and in the general population. These characteristics have been referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), and include pragmatic language difficulties, aloofness, and rigidity. Evidence is growing to suggest that individuals with BAP encounter difficulties in their social interactions. Recent work demonstrates that college students scoring high on the BAP report more loneliness (Jobe & Williams White, 2007) and more interpersonal problems (Wainer, Ingersoll, & Hopwood, 2012). Because intimate relationships are important in development and are very salient in emerging adulthood, the authors examined the relation of the BAP to romantic attachment and empathy among young adults. Higher BAP scores were associated with lower empathy and higher attachment anxiety and avoidance. Specifically, pragmatic language difficulties were related to higher rates of avoidant attachment and this relationship was mediated by empathy. In contrast, pragmatic language deficits were directly related to anxious attachment.

  13. Effect of dietary factors on mutagenesis, metabolism, and binding to DNA of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, at concentrations of 5 to 50 μg/plate, inhibited rate liver S9 protein dependent benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 by 30-81% and B[a]P 7,8-dihydrodiol (DHD)-induced mutagenesis by 29 to 75%. EA did not significantly affect the metabolism of B[a]P or B[a]P 7,8-DHD as determined by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the organosoluble fraction and by the quantification of water-soluble conjugates. At these concentrations EA inhibited the covalent binding of [ 3 H] B[a]P and [ 3 H] B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolites to calf thymus DNA by 5 to 42% and 27 to 64%, respectively. Formation of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide:deoxyguanosine (BPDE:dG) adducts was inhibited by 13 to 56% for B[a]P for B[a]P and 11 to 38% for B[a]P 7,8-DHD. These results suggest that the antimutagenic effect of EA and its inhibition of B[a]P and B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolite-binding to DNA is not due to the inhibition of S9-mediated metabolism of these compounds. The inhibitory effect may be by previously described scavenging mechanism or by a DNA-affinity binding mechanism that prevents BPDE:DNA adduct formation

  14. Withania somnifera Leaf Extract Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Behavioral and Neuromorphological Alterations by Improving Brain Antioxidant Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Ratnalipi; Das, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Nihar Ranjan; Patri, Manorama

    2016-06-01

    The aquatic environment provides a sink for the environmental pollutants that have potential to induce oxidative stress by altering neurobehavioral response of aquatic animals. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is known to induce oxidative stress in the brain. Withania somnifera has been used traditionally for its neuroprotective effect in experimental models of neurological disorders. The present study is aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLE) following exposure to waterborne B[a]P. Wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) were designated as naive, control (dimethyl sulfoxide), WSLE, B[a]P, and B[a]P + WSLE groups. Behavioral studies showed reversal in scototaxis (anxiety-like) behavior in B[a]P group and was restored by WSLE cosupplementation in B[a]P + WSLE group. B[a]P-induced altered antioxidant status was ameliorated by WSLE in the B[a]P + WSLE group. Previous studies showed that the periventricular gray zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum in zebrafish brain regulates scototaxis (anxiety-like) behavior. Our histopathological observation showed a significant increase in the pyknotic neuronal counts in PGZ of the B[a]P group and was ameliorated by WSLE cosupplementation. The study showed that the reversal in scototaxis behavior following exposure to waterborne B[a]P might be associated with neuromorphological alterations in PGZ, whereas a pioneer ethnopharmacological approach of WSLE cosupplementation showed its neuroprotective role to restore normal scototaxis of zebrafish. Future research directing toward understanding the role of visual circuit involved with impaired scototaxis behavior in zebrafish might provide new pathological outcomes following exposure to B[a]P.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-protein interactions. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1979-10-01

    As bovine serum albumin (BSA) undergoes acid- or base-induced conformational changes, the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) to BSA, as well as the type II uv fluorescence (380 nm) due to pyrene-like oxidation products, increases. The presence of fatty acids also enhances the binding of BaP to BSA at neutral pH, whereas the visible fluorescence of BaP is effectively quenched by fatty acids. L-Tryptophan, which is specifically bound to BSA, enhances the BaP binding and particularly the formation of pyrene-type products. Upon removal of oxygen, the production of the type I uv fluorescence (340, 357, 378 nm) probably due to BaP radicals is diminished and hydroxy-BaP derivatives are not formed. While BaP undergoes oxygen-dependent reactions with cysteine, non-carcinogenic benzo(e)pyrene does not react with cysteine. The BaP fluorescence of young collagen (from 4 to 6 weeks old rat tail tendon) is more intense than that of old collagen (from about 2 years old rat tail tendon). With increasing temperature, the former fluorescence decreases, whereas the latter increases. The denaturation temperature of both BaP-collagen and uv (365 nm)-irradiated BaP-collagen complexes does not differ from that of collagen itself

  16. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan S. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  17. Microbial transformation of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millner, G.C.; Fu, P.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fungal metabolism of the potent mutagenic and carcinogenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NO 2 -BaP) was investigated. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with 6-NO 2 -BaP for periods ranging between 1 and 7 d, and the metabolites formed were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by their UV-visible absorption, mass, and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results of the study indicate that C. elegans metabolized 6-NO 2 -BaP to glucoside and sulfate conjugates of 1- and 3-hydroxy 6-NO 2 -BaP and suggests that glycosylation and sulfation reactions may represent detoxification pathways in the fungal metabolism of nitro-PAHs. Experiments using [G- 3 H]-6-NO 2 -BaP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 62% of 6-NO 2 -BaP with 168 h. The data also indicated that the nitro group at the C-6 position of benzo[a]pyrene blocked metabolism at the regions peri to the nitro substituent (C-7, C-8 positions) and enhanced metabolism at the C-1 and C-3 positions. The ability of the fungus C. elegans to metabolize 6-NO 2 -BaP to biologically inactive compounds may have practical applications in the detoxification of nitro-PAH-contaminated wastes

  18. Understanding the role of 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid in conditions of oxidative-stress mediated hepatic dysfunction during benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Gurpreet; Bhardwaj, Priti; Dhatwalia, Sunil Kumar; Dhawan, D K

    2017-11-01

    The present study was planned to see whether 3-O-Acetyl-11- keto-β-boswellic acid has any protective effects against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced toxicity or not. In vitro studies show concentration dependent linear association of radical scavenging activity of AK which is comparable to ascorbic acid taken as reference compound. For in vivo studies, the animals were divided randomly into five groups which included a) normal control, b) vehicle treated (olive oil), c) BaP treated, d) AK treated and e) AK + BaP (combined treated). BaP was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg in olive oil twice a week orally for 4 weeks and AK (50mg/kg) was given in olive oil thrice a week for 4 weeks before and after BaP exposure. BaP treated animals showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl contents (PCC) in hepatic tissue. Further, a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the liver marker enzymes as well as citrulline and nitric oxide levels in the hepatic tissue was also observed. Interestingly, AK when supplemented to BaP treated animals ameliorated the above said biochemical indices appreciately. The histopathological observations also showed appreciable improvement when BaP treated animals were supplemented with AK, thus emphasing the protective potential of AK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorimetric recognition of 6-benzylaminopurine in environmental samples by using thioglycolic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingda; He, Jiang; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Chenge; Ma, Shuang; Sun, Xiaohan

    2018-03-01

    A simple and selective colorimetric sensor thioglycolic acid capped silver nanoparticles (TGA-AgNPs) was developed for the detection of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP). The synthesized TGA-AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The TGA-AgNPs as a sensor for binding 6-BAP through hydrogen-bonding and π-π bonding that causes large conjugate clusters, resulting in a color change from yellow to reddish orange. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of TGA-AgNPs at 397 nm is red-shifted to 510 nm, which confirms that 6-BAP induces the aggregation of TGA-AgNPs. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the absorption ratio (A510 nm/A397 nm) and 6-BAP concentration was found in the range of 4-26 μM. The detection limit of 6-BAP was 0.2 μM, which is lower than the other analytical techniques. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully applied for the detection of 6-BAP in environmental samples with good recoveries. The proposed assay provides a simple and cost-effective method for the analysis of 6-BAP in vegetable and water samples.

  20. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski; Fé, Luciana Mara Lopes; da Silva, Maria de Nazaré Paula; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg) or corn oil (control group). We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage. PMID:28486571

  1. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyelle Sebrenski da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg or corn oil (control group. We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage.

  2. The Effects of Benzo(apyrene and 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-diox:in from Automobile Exhaust...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Carević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete combustion process is a potential source ofbenzo(apyrene (BaP and tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD . These compounds have been detected in effluents ofmunicipal incinerators, sewage sludge, cigarette smoke, automobileexhaust etc. Although BaP and TCD have carcinogenicpotential, in recent years these agents have received great attentiondue to their environmental persistence and remarkablyacute toxicity.To assess health risks associated with human exposure toBaP and TCDD, it was of interest to evaluate their effects uponhuman polymorphonuclear leucocytes by measuring the releaseof lysosomal and cytoplasmic enzymes.Suspensions of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes(PMNL were treated with BaP, TCDD and BaP+ TCDD atconcentrations of 1 0·1, 1 Q-6M. These agents provoked a progressivetime- and dose-dependent release of lysosomal enzymebeta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, beta-GLM and LDH respectively. Atconcentrations listed TCDD was much more effective in realisingboth enzymes beta -G LM and LDH than BaP. In the experimentswith the combination of BaP+ TCDD, extracellular releaseof beta-GLM or LDH was significantly higher as comparedto BaP or TCDD-treated samples. lt seems possible thatTCDD affected the solubility of beta-GLM and LDH to agreater extent than the activity of BaP.The observations obtained in these studies suggest that BaPand TCDD damage the lysosomal and cellular membranes.

  3. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski da; Fé, Luciana Mara Lopes; Silva, Maria de Nazaré Paula da; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida E

    2017-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg) or corn oil (control group). We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage.

  4. Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1β secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanjun; Tian Huaijun; Cao Jia; Gao Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1β secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2 + testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1β secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1β secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1β, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1β as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

  5. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B.; Swenberg, James A.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  6. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B; Swenberg, James A; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2009-10-19

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  7. Within-Population Distribution of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli before and after a Community-Wide Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martin; Granholm, Susanne; Naseer, Umaer; Rydén, Patrik; Brolund, Alma; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year prospective intervention on the prescription of trimethoprim reduced the use by 85% in a health care region with 178,000 inhabitants. Here, we performed before-and-after analyses of the within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic and population genetic methods were applied to multilocus sequence typing data of 548 consecutively collected E. coli isolates from clinical urinary specimens. Results were analyzed in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and the presence and genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance gene classes. A total of 163 E. coli sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 68 were previously undescribed. The isolates fell into one of three distinct genetic clusters designated BAPS 1 (E. coli phylogroup B2), BAPS 2 (phylogroup A and B1), and BAPS 3 (phylogroup D), each with a similar frequency before and after the intervention. BAPS 2 and BAPS 3 were positively and BAPS 1 was negatively associated with trimethoprim resistance (odds ratios of 1.97, 3.17, and 0.26, respectively). In before-and-after analyses, trimethoprim resistance frequency increased in BAPS 1 and decreased in BAPS 2. Resistance to antibiotics other than trimethoprim increased in BAPS 2. Analysis of the genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance genes in isolates of ST69, ST58, and ST73 identified multiple independent acquisition events in isolates of the same ST. The results show that despite a stable overall resistance frequency in E. coli before and after the intervention, marked within-population changes occurred. A decrease of resistance in one major genetic cluster was masked by a reciprocal increase in another major cluster. PMID:25288078

  8. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  9. In vitro plant regeneration system for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of N6-benzylaminopurine and adenine sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica Arias,Andrés M; Muñoz Valverde,Jenny; Ramírez Fonseca,Pilar; Valdez Melara,Marta

    2010-01-01

    A method for regeneration of the commercially important common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ) using N6-benzylaminopurine(BAP) and adenine sulphate (AS) was established. Embryogenic axes of the Costa Rican common bean cultivars Bribrí, Brunca, Guaymí, Huetar and Telire were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 100 mgl-1 myo-inositol, 1 mgl-1 thiamine, 30 gl-1 sucrose, BAP (0, 5 and 10 mgl-1), AS (0, 20 and 40 mgl-1) and 8 gl-1 agar. Regardless of the concentration of BAP and AS...

  10. INSUFICIENCIA RENAL AGUDA EN EL ANCIANO. CONSIDERACIONES ACERCA DE SU VALORACIÓN Y TRATAMIENTO.

    OpenAIRE

    Musso CG

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN:La insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) es un trastorno frecuente en los ancianos a raíz de la senescencia renal, la menor metabolización de los fármacos y la mayor exposición a la polifarmacia y enfermedades sistémicas que ellos padecen. Las siguientes son las principales características de la IRA en el anciano: carácter multifactorial, presentación clínica atípica, fragilidad tubular, patrón de síndrome intermedio y poca fiabilidad del examen físico y de los índices urinarios en la inter...

  11. Calidad nutritiva de láminas de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb en rebrotes de verano y otoño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INSUA, J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la morfogénesis y estructura foliar en la calidad de las láminas de rebrotes de verano y otoño de Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado (n=3 en 250 macetas al aire libre sin limitantes hídricas de N y P. En los rebrotes de cada estación se realizaron tres cosechas de 300 macollos/repetición para obtener láminas en tres estados de desarrollo (recientemente expandida,adulta y pre-senescencia, correspondientes a tres generaciones consecutivas de hojas.

  12. Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borrego

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.. Se evaluaron siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Norteña, Gigant, Mondial, Snowden, Alpha, Atlantic y Russett Burbank, bajo criterios de eficiencia y productividad del análisis de crecimiento (seis muestreos, cada 18 días en promedio, como la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo (TCC, tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, tasa de crecimiento relativo foliar (TCRF, relación de área foliar (RAF, índice de area foliar (IAF y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN. Se encontraron diferencias (p≤0,01 para las variables en estudio (a excepción de la TAN, para las fuentes de variación de muestreos (seis a lo largo del ciclo siendo mayor la TCC en el cuarto muestreo con las variedades Norteña y Russett Burbank. La TCR fue mayor en Norteña, Russett Burbank y Alpha, habiendo un incremento considerable del quinto al sexto muestreo. En la RAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Atlantic y Snowden, mostrando Russett Burbank un pronunciado declive del quinto al sexto muestreo, por la senescencia del follaje. Por lo que respecta al IAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Norteña y Gigant, estableciéndose el máximo del cuarto al sexto muestreo, sin senescencia hasta ese muestreo. En la TAN, no se encontraron diferencias entre genotipos, mostrando superioridad la Norteña, siguiendo las otras cinco un patrón de comportamiento muy semejante

  13. EVALUACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DE GENOTIPOS DE SORGO Y MILLO (Sorghum vulgare FORRAJEROS PARA ALIMENTACIÓN DE BOVINOS EN EL MEDIO SINÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cabrales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar siete genotipos de millo y cinco genotipos de sorgo, para determinar el rendimiento forrajero y su utilidad en la alimentación de bovinos en el valle del medio Sinu. Materiales y métodos. Las semillas de sorgo y millo (Sorghum vulgare, fueron materiales híbridos y variedades tipo comercial. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 cuatro repeticiones para millo y tres para sorgo. Resultados. Respecto al vigor los genotipos de millo que mejor comportamiento presentaron fueron el redondo cuba y blanco panoja larga; en sorgo el LC 603, el P-8239 y el DR-1125. Los millos que mostraron mayor senescencia fueron el cuarentano alto, el bastón y el blanco panoja larga; en sorgo los de mayor senescencia fueron el P-8239, el LC603 y el 74 CO. La mayor producción de forraje verde y materia seca la presentaron los genotipos de millo, el batea cuba, el redondo cuba y el blanco panoja larga, los de sorgo fueron el blanco criollo y el DR-1125. El mayor rendimiento de grano fue de los genotipos el batea cuba y bastón en millo, y en sorgo fueron DR-1125 y LC 603. Se seleccionaron como materiales de buen comportamiento dentro de todos los evaluados el batea cuba, redondo cuba, y blanco panoja larga en millo y el blanco criollo y DR-1125 en sorgo. Conclusiones. Los genotipos de millo que mejor comportamiento presentaron fueron en su orden por rendimiento (ton/ha: el batea cuba, el redondo cuba y el blanco panoja larga (ton/ha, obteniéndose una mayor capacidad de carga animal. Los genotipos de mejor comportamiento de sorgo fueron el blanco criollo y el DR-1125.

  14. In vitro propagation of Morus alba L. in semisolid culture medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Salas Barbosa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Apical buds as explants were used with the objective to propagate in vitro mulberry plants in semisolid MS culture medium suplemented with 6-BAP and KIN in their establishment and, with different combinations of 6-BAP with ANA in the multiplication phase. In vitro plants were evaluated during the acclimatization phase. It is necessary to supplement the basal MS culture media with 0.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP to induce the sprouting and, 0.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP and 0.5 mg.l-1 of ANA to multiply the mulberry by nodal segments. In the acclimatization phase a 95% of survival, 30.2 cm of height, 9.8 leaves and 2.02 g.plant-1 of dry mass was observed. In vitro propagation of mulberry was achieved as an alternative for plants production. Key words: acclimatization, apical buds, establishment, explant, shooting

  15. In vitro micropropagation of orchid, Oncidium sp. (Dancing Dolls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncidium sp.). In vitro regeneration multiplication and rooting of plantlets were achieved from the immature seeds on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were then transferred to perforated ...

  16. In vitro regeneration from internodal explants of bitter melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thiru

    2012-04-24

    Table 2). In the present study, TDZ was found to be more effective in shoot regeneration as compared to BAP. The effectiveness of TDZ over other cytokinins has also been reported in other cucurbits such as Cucurbita pepo (Pal.

  17. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Linn.) Schrad (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ramra1986@gmail.com. Abbreviations: MS, Murashige and Skoog; BAP, N6- benzylamino-purine; Kn, kinetin; NAA, α-naphthalene acetic.

  18. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  19. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. Use of benzo[a]pyrene relative abundance ratios to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of a Söderberg aluminum smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E G; Farant, J P

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) relative abundance ratios (RARs) to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban atmospheric air in the vicinity of a horizontal stud Söderberg aluminum reduction facility. The B[a]P RARs refer to the concentration of individual PAHs measured in a given sample divided by the concentration of B[a]P found in the same sample. This study compared the B[a]P RARs calculated for the facility stack and three sites near the Söderberg aluminum smelter for three different sampling periods. Interperiod differences were significant for many of the PAHs, and the differences between the stations proved insignificant at p aluminum refinery for the entire mixture of PAHs present in the ambient atmosphere.

  1. New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype : group differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Maretha; Parr, Jeremy; Rutter, Michael; Wallace, Simon; Kemner, Chantal; Bailey, Anthony; van Engeland, Herman; Pickles, Andrew

    To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of

  2. Chlorophyll catalyse the photo-transformation of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Lai, Xueying; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Fang, Ling; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-08-01

    Algal blooms cause great damage to water quality and aquaculture. However, this study showed that dead algal cells and chlorophyll could accelerate the photo-transformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant with potently mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicities, under visible light irradiation. Chlorophyll was found to be the major active substance in dead algal cells, and generated a high level of singlet oxygen to catalyse the photo-transformation of BaP. According to various BaP metabolites formed, the degradation mechanism was proposed as that chlorophyll in dead algal cells photo-oxidized BaP to quinones via photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen. The results provided a good insight into the role of chlorophyll in the photo-transformation of organic contaminants and could be a possible remediation strategy of organic pollutants in natural environment.

  3. BIOAPATITE MADE FROM CHICKEN FEMUR BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-bioapatite (BAP powder was successfully acquired from chicken femur bones via chemical treatment followed by calcination. The isolation of nano-bioapatite powder from chicken bone has not been published so far. The bioapatite powder was chemically and structurally characterized by elemental analysis (AAS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques. The nano BAP powder showed needleshaped morphology. The crystallite size distribution and specific surface area proved the nanostructured character of the sample. Chemical analysis together with FTIR spectrometry have demonstrated that the BAP powder was Ca-deficient with Na, Mg and carbonate substitutions that make the BAP suitable for application as a filler in biocomposites.

  4. Siim Nestor soovitab : Noor, värske ja psühhedeelne hip-hop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Keskkooli-noorte hip-hop-kollektiiv BAP presenteerib oma vastilmunud albumit "Who Am I?" 28. veebr. Tallinna Kunstigümnaasiumis, kaastegev äsja albumi "Tabamata Ime" ilmutanud ansambel Luarvik-Luarvik

  5. Risk of Air Pollution in Relation to Cancer in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas

    no exceedances of the EU air quality values. The only exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations occurs for the PAH BaP in Denmark. However, the EU target value threshold for BaP is not exceeded. No emission data for BaP are available for the other countries and important uncertainties are still......Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show...... related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure....

  6. Identification of stable benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2013-05-20

    Metabolic activation of the proximate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol (B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol) by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to B[a]P-7,8-dione that is both electrophilic and redox-active. B[a]P-7,8-dione generates reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative DNA damage in human lung cells. However, information on the formation of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in these cells is lacking. We studied stable DNA adduct formation of B[a]P-7,8-dione in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial HBEC-KT cells. After treatment with 2 μM B[a]P-7,8-dione, the cellular DNA was extracted from the cell pellets subjected to enzyme hydrolysis and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. Several stable DNA adducts of B[a]P-7,8-dione were only detected in A549 and HBEC-KT cells. In A549 cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N(2)-2'-deoxyguanosine and hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1-2'-deoxyguanosine. In HBEC-KT cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-2'-deoxyadenosine, hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine, and B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine. In each case, adduct structures were characterized by MS(n) spectra. Adduct structures were also compared to those synthesized from reactions of B[a]P-7,8-dione with either deoxyribonucleosides or salmon testis DNA in vitro but were found to be different.

  7. Immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on magnetic particles by site-specific and covalent cross-linking catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kousuke; Sung, Kyunga; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was site-specifically and covalently immobilized on magnetic particles (MPs) using the enzymatic reaction of microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Immobilization efficiency was affected by the chemical surface treatment of MPs and immobilized BAP exhibited more than 90% of the initial activity after 10 rounds of recycling. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease caused by Western diet containing benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Nebert, Daniel W; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice. A Western diet plus BaP induced lipid-droplet accumulation in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice. The hepatic steatosis observed in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice was associated with increased cholesterol, triglyceride and bile acid levels. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice fed Western diet plus BaP had changes in expression of genes involved in bile acid and lipid metabolism, and showed no increase in Cyp1a2 expression but did exhibit enhanced Cyp1b1 mRNA expression, as well as hepatic inflammation. Enhanced BaP metabolic activation, oxidative stress and inflammation may exacerbate metabolic dysfunction in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice. Thus, Western diet plus BaP induces NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a protective role of CYP1A1 against NAFLD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaf Disc Regeneration of Passion Fruit | Amugune | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A leaf disc regeneration system was developed for passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims. Leaf discs were cultured on a modified MS medium containing 8.90 µM BAP or on 8.90 µM BAP and 2.32 µM KIN. Shoots appeared within four weeks. These could be rooted when transferred to the same medium containing 0.54, 2.69 ...

  11. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma cancer cells through reactive oxygen species-induced endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Min; Lee, Hae-Miru; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 60 well established carcinogens. In this study, we examined the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a main CS component, on the viability and apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines. An MTT assay confirmed that B(a)P decreased the cell viability of JEG-3 and BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blot (WB) assay revealed that protein expression of cyclin D and cyclin E decreased, while protein expression of p21 and p27 was increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. The changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in JEG-3 and BeWo cells exposed to B(a)P were also measured by a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, which revealed that ROS levels increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. WB assay also confirmed that each B(a)P treatment of JEG-3 and BeWo cells for 4 h promoted the expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha protein (p-eIF2α) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which are known to be involved in ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) related apoptosis. Overall, the protein expression of Bax (a pro-apoptosis marker) increased, while the expression of Bcl-xl (an anti-apoptotic marker) decreased and the number of apoptotic cells increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. Taken together, these results suggest that B(a)P has the potential to induce apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cells by increasing the ROS level and simultaneously activating ER-stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    H 5.5, no glycine) in light at 30°C. Callus grew well on any single one of the growth substances NAA (10−5M), 2,4-D (10−6M) or BAP (3 × 10−6M). Growth was less and more erratic on GA or IAA. The callus cultures did not grow significantly better when BAP was combined with one of the auxins or with GA....

  13. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 µM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 µM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  14. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was ...

  15. Phytoremediation for co-contaminated soils of chromium and benzo[a]pyrene using Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2014-02-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the single effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or chromium (Cr) and the joint effect of Cr-B[a]P on the growth of Zea mays, its uptake and accumulation of Cr, and the dissipation of B[a]P over 60 days. Results showed that single or joint contamination of Cr and B[a]P did not affect the plant growth relative to control treatments. However, the occurrence of B[a]P had an enhancing effect on the accumulation and translocation of Cr. The accumulation of Cr in shoot of plant significantly increased by ≥ 79 % in 50 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments and by ≥ 86 % in 100 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments relative to control treatments. The presence of plants did not enhance the dissipation of B[a]P in lower (1and 5 mg kg(-1)) B[a]P contaminated soils; however, over 60 days of planting Z. mays seemed to enhance the dissipation of B[a]P by over 60 % in 10 mg kg(-1) single contaminated soil and by 28 to 41 % in 10 mg kg(-1)B[a]P co-contaminated soil. This suggests that Z. mays might be a useful plant for the remediation of Cr-B[a]P co-contaminated soil.

  16. Indução de brotações em explantes de segmentos de folhas de plântulas de urucueiro em diferentes citocininas Induction of shoot buds in leaf explants of annatto seedlings in differents cytokinins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Leite Almeida

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Segmentos de folhas de plântulas de urucum (Bixa orellana L, foram cultivados in vitro, em um meio básico idealizado por Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com 0,5mg/l dos reguladores do crescimento, benzilaminopurina (BAP, cinetina (KN e isopentenil-adenina (2iP, isolados ou combinados entre si, com o objetivo de avaliar qual a melhor citocinina ou combinação destas para indução de brotações de boa qualidade visando à micropropagação. Após 60 dias de cultivo, as gemas obtidas foram transferidas para um meio MS modificado, contendo a metade da formulação de sais minerais, sem a suplementação de reguladores do crescimento. Gemas de melhor qualidade foram obtidas nos tratamentos onde a KN e o BAP estavam em combinação. A KN sozinha não foi eficiente na indução de brotações. O maior número de gemas por explante foi obtido com KN, BAP e 2iP e no tratamento com apenas BAP.Excised leaf explants of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seedlings were cultivated on a Murashige & Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetin (KN and isopentenyl-adenine (2iP individually or in combination, each at concentration of 0.5mg/l, with the purpose of evaluated the best cytokinins or cytokinins combination for shoot bud formation. After 60 days, regenerated shoots were transferred to half strenght MS medium without growth regulators. Best shoots were observed where KN and BAP were added in combination. Isolated KN was ineffective for shoot bud formation. The maximum average number of shoot buds per leaf explant was obtained on medium with BAP, KN and 2iP in combination and on medium supplied of isolated BAP.

  17. Chronic exposure to low benzo[a]pyrene level causes neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongxu; Wu, Meifang; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Yuanchuan; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiological and animal studies report that exposure to environmental pollutant exposure links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a neurotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been increasingly released into the environment during recent decades. So far, the role of BaP on the development of neurodegenerative diseases remaind unclear. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to low dose BaP would cause neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish, from early embryogenesis to adults, to environmentally relevant concentrations of BaP for 230 days. Our results indicated that BaP decreased the brain weight to body weight ratio, locomotor activity and cognitive ability; induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons; and resulted in neurodegeneration. In addition, obvious cell apoptosis in the brain was found. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the mRNA levels of the genes encoding dopamine transporter, Parkinson protein 7, phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase 2, amyloid precursor protein b, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 were significantly down-regulated by BaP exposure. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low dose BaP could cause the behavioral, neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic features of neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides clues that BaP may constitute an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro propagation of Calla lily: adenine sulphate and 6-benzilaminopurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia De Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calla lily [Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng.] belonging to the Araceae family is appreciated as cut flower and in com­position of gardens. However, the conventional propagation of this plants shows a poor productive. Thus, tissue culture besides allowing fast clonal propagation also provides healthy and uniforms plants. The aim was study the influence of the differents concentrations of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP and adenine sulphate (AS on in vitro multiplication of Calla lily. The explants were maintained in MS medium added with BAP (0.0, 8.9, 17.8 and 26.7 μM and adenine sulphate (0, 54, 108 and 162 μM. The plants were transferred to growth room and maintained at 25±1ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours for 60 days, under luminous intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1, for a period of 60 days. The experimental design was entirely randomized with four repetitions of three seedlings each, resulting in twelve plants per treatment, each tube with one plant. The statistics analysis showed interactive effects for quantify of BAP and AS for leaves number and fresh mass of the aerial parts. The highest number of leaves (4.8 and fresh mass of aerial parts (0.73 g was obtained with 26.7 μM of BAP combined with 108 μM of AS, highest number of shoots (2.6 was obtained with 22,19 μM of BAP and highest lengh of sprouts (5.0 cm was observed in the absence of BAP. The addition of BAP increased the number of shoots per explant. The use of adenine sulphate in combination with BAP had a positive effect for the accumulation of fresh weight and number of leaves in vitro culture.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Topinka, J; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-03

    To study the suspected mechanism of the interaction between tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure in the modulation of cancer risk, the mutagenic potential of asbestos in combination with the tobacco smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was examined in vivo in the rat lung. B[a]P was administered intratracheally in one set of experiments, or by two daily intraperitoneal injections in another set of experiments, to lambdalacI transgenic rats, together with 1, 2 or 4 x 2 mg amosite in one experiment. In the first experiment, the combined action of amosite and B[a]P caused a synergistic (superadditive) increase of mutation frequency in the lung, as compared to groups treated only with asbestos or B[a]P. In the second experiment, i.p. treatment with B[a]P did not significantly alter the mutation frequency induced by amosite, neither after 4 nor after 16 weeks of exposure. The B[a]P-DNA adduct levels were unaffected by amosite co-treatment in both experiments. We assume that the synergistic increase of mutation frequency after intratracheal treatment was due to the mitogenic activities of B[a]P and of amosite. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a weak and delayed mutagenic effect of amosite in rat lung observed in another study was strongly enhanced by the concomitant action of B[a]P. The striking enhancement effect of B[a]P may provide a basis for understanding the suspected synergism of smoking on asbestos carcinogenesis.

  20. Micropropagation of Ocotea porosa (Nees & Martius) Barroso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was the establishment of a micropropagation protocol for Ocotea porosa by multiplication of shoots from axillary buds. Different concentration of BAP (0; 2.5; 5 or 10 ìM) or BAP+KIN (0; 1.25; 2.5 or 5 ìM) were investigated to optimize the multiplication. Shoot growth was stimulated with reduced ...

  1. Induction of microspore-derived embryos by anther culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /L NAA, 1 mg/L BAP, 0.25% activated charcoal, 15 mg/L AgNO3, 30 g/L sucrose) and the Medium IV (modified MS medium containing 0.25% activated charcoal, 15 mg/L AgNO3, 4 mg/L NAA, 0.1mg/L BAP and with 0.5 mg/L ABA). There was ...

  2. Analysis of fish bile with HPLC — fluorescence to determine environmental exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Eric P.; Baumann, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    Brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio, have a high incidence of liver neoplasia which is associated with elevated concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediment. We evaluated the use of biliary concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] equivalents as a means for determining PAH exposure. Bile was collected from 16 brown bullheads and 8 common carp taken from each of two Lake Erie tributaries in Ohio, the industrialized Black River and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek. Hatchery bullhead (n = 8) were used to determine base levels of PAHs. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) — fluorescence technique was used to determine the concentration of B(a)P equivalents in the bile samples. The area of all peaks fluorescing at 380/430 nm was summed to give a single value for B(a)P equivalents in each sample. Concentrations of B(a)P equivalents generally reflected concentrations of PAH in sediment where fish were collected. Bile taken from Black River carp contained the highest concentration of B(a)P equivalents and was significantly different from all other groups. The value obtained for Black River bullhead was also high and was found to be significantly different from hatchery bullhead. B(a)P equivalents varied between carp and bullhead from the same habitat possibly because of differing food habits or metabolic pathways. However, our results indicate that relative levels of B(a)P equivalents in the bile of fish correspond well to B(a)P levels in sediment and may offer a means of determining environmental exposure of fish to the parent compound.

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes): relationship between lymphoid CYP1A activity and humoral immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, E.A.; Li, Y.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to the environmental contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) results in suppression of immune function in both mammalian and fish species. This laboratory has previously demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of BaP reduced lymphocyte proliferation, phagocyte-mediated superoxide generation, and antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The objective of the current study was to determine the role of BaP metabolism in the observed immunosuppression. Results from rodent studies have suggested that BaP elicits its immunotoxic effects via upregulation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and the subsequent production of immunosuppressive BaP metabolites. In this study, exposure of medaka to 200 μg BaP/g BW significantly induced CYP1A expression or activity within lymphoid tissue 48 h post-IP injection; induction was observed specifically within distinct subpopulations of kidney mononuclear cells. Concurrent injection of fish with BaP and the CYP1A1 inhibitors α-naphthoflavone (ANF) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) resulted in inhibition of renal EROD activity and amelioration of BaP-induced suppression of medaka AFC numbers. Results of this study suggest that (1) BaP-induced suppression of medaka humoral immunity relies upon the CYP1A-catalyzed production of immunotoxic BaP metabolites and (2) BaP metabolites may be created in situ, directly by specific cells within kidney lymphoid tissue. Thus, apparently, mechanisms involved in BaP-induced immunosuppression have been phylogenetically conserved from fish to mammals

  4. Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Girish JOSHI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration from leaf explants of Withania somnifera (L. for mass propagation was studied on Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with Kinetin (Kn and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP alone or in combination. Shoot buds were induced from the midrib on the abaxial side in presence of Kn and BAP (4 �M. These shoot buds developed into shoots on the same medium. Rooting of these shoots was achieved in 0.5 �M of IBA.

  5. In vitro shoot multiplication and rooting from seedling explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAP at 5 mg/l gave higher shoot multiplication compared with 0 – 2 mg/l BAP. Although axillary buds opened on cuttings treated with 0.1 to 2 mg/l TDZ, no elongation occurred. Shoots placed on 0.5 – 5 mg/l 2-iP produced roots but no axillary shoots. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were tested for ...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Melanoma Cases in Denmark Suspected of Genetic Predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A. W.; Aoude, Lauren G.; Krogh, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Both environmental and host factors influence risk of cutaneousmelanoma (CM), and worldwide, the incidence varies depending on constitutional determinants of skin type and pigmentation, latitude, and patterns of sun exposure. We performed genetic analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MC1R, and MITFp.E3...... cases of CM. In addition, we recommend that testing of BAP1 should not be conducted routinely in CM families but should be reserved for families with CM and uveal melanoma, or mesothelioma....

  7. Comparative sorption of benzo[alpha]phrene to different humic acids and humin in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghuan; He, Mengchang; Shi, Yehong

    2009-07-30

    Sediment/soil organic matter (SOM) is the predominant sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The identification and comparison of sorption characterization of HOCs by different organic matter fractions are essential to predict the fate and transport of HOCs in soils and sediments. The objectives of this paper are to compare the sorption of benzo[alpha]phrene (BaP) to the humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) extracted from different sediments. The HA and HM were extracted with 0.1M NaOH from five sediments in different areas in China, and their sorption isotherms for BaP were determined. All sorption isotherms were nonlinear and nonlinearity increased in the order HABaP sorption capacities on the HA fractions were significantly related to their aliphaticity, but negatively correlated to aromatic carbon. However, more aromatic carbon in HM fractions can result in higher K(oc) values of BaP than HA. This implied the importance of both aliphatic and aromatic groups in BaP sorption. HM contributed to 54-92% of the total sorption depending on initial concentrations, clearly indicating the dominance of HM in BaP sorption by the sediments.

  8. Mechanisms of biochar assisted immobilization of Pb2+ by bioapatite in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Tian, Da; Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Lingyi; Su, Mu; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhen; Hu, Shuijin; Hou, Deyi

    2018-01-01

    Bioapatite (BAp) is regarded as an effective material to immobilize lead (Pb 2+ ) via the formation of stable pyromorphite. However, when applied in contaminated soil, due to its low surface area and low adsorption capacity, BAp might not sufficiently contact and react with Pb 2+ . Biochar, a carbon storage material, typically has high surface area and high adsorption capacity. This study investigated the feasibility of using biochar as a reaction platform to enhance BAp immobilization of Pb 2+ . An alkaline biochar produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP) and a slightly acidic biochar produced from hardwood (SB) were selected. The results of aqueous adsorption showed the combination of biochar (WSP or SB) and BAp effectively removed Pb 2+ from the aqueous solution containing 1000 ppm Pb 2+ . XRD, ATR-IR, and SEM/EDX results revealed the formation of hydroxypyromorphite on both biochars' surfaces. This study demonstrates that biochars could act as an efficient reaction platform for BAp and Pb 2+ in aqueous solution due to their high surface area, porous structure, and high adsorption capacity. Therefore, it is mechanistically feasible to apply biochar to enhance BAp immobilization of Pb 2+ in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  12. Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.S.; Weyand, E.H.; Safe, S.; Steinberg, M.; Culp, S.J.; Gaylor, D.W.; Beland, F.A.; Rodriguez, L.V. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Current methods to estimate the quantitative cancer risk of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as coal tar assume that overall potency can be derived from knowledge of the concentration of a few carcinogenic components such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Genotoxic damage, such as DNA adducts, is thought to be an essential aspect of PAH-induced tumorigenesis and could be a biomarker for exposure useful for estimating risk. However, the role of B(a)P and the relationship of adduct formation in tumorigenesis have not been tested rigorously in models appropriate for human health risk assessment. This paper compares tumor induction and adduct formation by B(a)P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators. It was found that B(a)P content did not account for tumor incidences after exposure to coal tars. DNA adducts were found in both tumors and tumor-free tissue and tumor outcomes were not predicted by either quantitation of total DNA adducts or by the DNA adduct formed by B(a)P. These data suggest that risk assessments based on B(a)P content may not predict accurately risk to human health posed by environmental PAH.

  13. Different training responses to eccentric endurance exercise at low and moderate altitudes in pre-diabetic men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarod, Kultida; Philippe, Marc; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study aimed (a) to evaluate the effects of eccentric exercise training at low and moderate altitudes on physical fitness in pre-diabetic men and (b) to establish whether or not oxidative stress levels and antioxidant status were associated with performance improvements. In this crossover trial, five pre-diabetic men conducted nine downhill walking sessions (3 days/week, 3 consecutive weeks) at low altitude (from 1360 to 850 m) and one year later at moderate altitude (from 2447 to 2000 m). Exercise testing and the determination of parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were performed pre- and post-training. The biological antioxidant activity of plasma (BAP) increased after eccentric training at moderate altitude ( p  training at moderate-altitude training ( p  = 0.009). Maximum power output improved after training at low altitude and the changes were significantly related to baseline BAP/dROMs ratio ( r  = 0.90). No decrease was seen for fasting plasma glucose. Eccentric exercise training in pre-diabetic men improved performance only when performed at low altitude and this improvement was positively related to the baseline BAP/dROMs ratio. In contrast, 3 weeks of eccentric exercise training increased BAP levels and the BAP/dROMs ratio only at moderate altitude without improving the performance. Thus, one might speculate that the BAP/dROMs ratio has to increase before performance improvements occur at moderate altitude.

  14. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, S.; Ishimoto, T.; Nakano, T.

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography (μCT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  15. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, S; Ishimoto, T; Nakano, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography ({mu}CT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  16. Seed priming with sorghum extracts and benzyl aminopurine improves the tolerance against salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivumL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress impedes the productivity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in many parts of the world. This study evaluated the potential role of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and sorghum water extract (SWE) in improving the wheat performance under saline conditions. Seeds were primed with BAP (5 mg L -1 ), SWE (5% v/v), BAP + SWE, and distilled water (hydropriming). Soil filled pots maintained at the soil salinity levels of 4 and 10 dS m -1 were used for the sowing of primed and non-primed seeds. Salt stress suppressed the wheat growth; seed priming treatments significantly improved the wheat growth under optimal and suboptimal conditions. Total phenolics, total soluble sugars and proteins, α-amylase activity, chlorophyll contents, and tissue potassium ion (K + ) contents were increased by seed priming under salt stress; while, tissue sodium ion (Na + ) contents were decreased. Seed priming with SWE + BAP was the most effective in this regard. Under salt stress, the tissue Na + contents were reduced by 5.78, 28.3, 32.2, 36.7% by hydropriming, seed priming with SWE, seed priming with BAP, and seed priming with SWE + BAP, respectively over the non-primed control. Effectiveness of seed priming techniques followed the order SWE + BAP > BAP > SWE > Hydropriming. In conclusion, seed priming with SWE + BAP may be opted to improve the tolerance against salt stress in wheat.

  17. Design of Test Facility to Evaluate Boric Acid Precipitation Following a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong-Kwan; Song, Yong-Jae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The U.S.NRC has identified a concern that debris associated with generic safety issue (GSI) - 191 may affect the potential precipitation of boric acid due to one or more of the following phenomena: - Reducing mass transport (i.e. mixing) between the core and the lower plenum (should debris accumulate at the core inlet) - Reduced lower plenum volume (should debris settle in the lower plenum), and, - Increased potential for boric acid precipitation (BAP) in the core (should debris accumulate in suspension in the core) To address these BAP issues, KHNP is planning to conduct validation tests by constructing a BAP test facility. This paper describes the design of test facility to evaluate BAP following a LOCA. The design of BAP test facility has been developed by KHNP. To design the test facility, test requirements and success criteria were established, and scaling analysis of power-to-volume method, Ishii-Kataoka method, and hierarchical two-tiered method were investigated. The test section is composed of two fuel assemblies with half of full of prototypic FA height. All the fuel rods are heated by the electric power supplier. The BAP tests in the presence of debris, buffering agents, and boron will be performed following the test matrix.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Chunlan; Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Haiyan [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Huzhou Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Zhang Guanglin [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  19. The differences of standard mortality rates of malignant neoplasms of the lungs (ICD 162/163) between the Federal States of the FRG in comparison with the immission values of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air-borne dust. Die Differenzen der Standardmortalitaetsraten boesartiger Neubildungen der Lunge (ICD 162/163) zwischen den Bundeslaendern der BRD im Vergleich mit den Immissionswerten polycyclischer, aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe im Luftstaub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.

    1988-01-01

    The increased mortality rates in the city states and heavily industrialized states of the FRG suggested to study the issue of a possible connection between the immission of cancerogenic PAH and lung cancer mortality. A correlation was established between age standardized mortality rates (SMR) and immission values of benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) to represent the PAH. Quantity and distribution of BaP measurement values did not allow a quantitative correlation. Both the mortality data and the BaP values were reduced to qualitative assessments in terms of 'high, medium and low' and subsequently correlated. This qualitative correlation between the SMR and BaP levels of the individual states revealed a linear connection. The data as such do not suffice to provide a base and require to be verified by epidemiological studies; nevertheless, this study shows that a positive correlation between low BaP concentration (clean air areas) and low mortality rates, on the one hand, and a high BaP concentration (polluted areas) and high bronchial carcinoma mortality rates, on the other, exists for the states under study. Though a decisive etiological significance must be assigned to smoking, air pollution by PAH needs to be considered as an additional cause. (orig./MG).

  20. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  2. Western diet enhances benzo(a)pyrene-induced colon tumorigenesis in a polyposis in rat coli (PIRC) rat model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelly L; Pulliam, Stephanie R; Okoro, Emmanuel; Guo, Zhongmao; Washington, Mary K; Adunyah, Samuel E; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2016-05-17

    Consumption of Western diet (WD), contaminated with environmental toxicants, has been implicated as one of the risk factors for sporadic colon cancer. Our earlier studies using a mouse model revealed that compared to unsaturated dietary fat, the saturated dietary fat exacerbated the development of colon tumors caused by B(a)P. The objective of this study was to study how WD potentiates B(a)P-induced colon carcinogenesis in the adult male rats that carry a mutation in the Apc locus - the polyposis in the rat colon (PIRC) rats. Groups of PIRC rats were fed with AIN-76A standard diet (RD) or Western diet (WD) and received 25, 50, or 100 μg B(a)P/kg body weight (wt) via oral gavage for 60 days. Subsequent to exposure, rats were euthanized; colons were retrieved and preserved in 10% formalin for counting the polyp numbers, measuring the polyp size, and histological analyses. Blood samples were collected and concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and leptin were measured. Rats that received WD + B(a)P showed increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and leptin in comparison to RD + B(a)P groups or controls. The colon tumor numbers showed a B(a)P dose-response relationship. Adenomas with high grade dysplasia were prominent in B(a)P + WD rats compared to B(a)P + RD rats and controls (p diet - toxicant interactions in sporadic colon tumor development.

  3. Metabolic interactions between low doses of benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus): a long-term in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padros, Jaime; Pelletier, Emilien; Ribeiro, Ciro Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We have previously reported that short-term, single exposure to a high dose of tributyltin (TBT), a widely used antifouling biocide, inhibited both the in vivo metabolism and metabolic activation of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in fish; (BaP), in turn, stimulated TBT metabolism. Here, we provide further mechanistic evidence of mutual metabolic interactions between BaP and TBT in response to long-term, repeated exposures to low doses. Juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) received 10 separate ip injections (a single injection every 6 days) of BaP (3 mg/kg), TBT (0.3 mg/kg), or both in combination; control fish received corn oil vehicle only. Two days after the 2nd (Day 8), 6 th (Day 32), and 10th dose (Day 56), blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers. HPLC/fluorescence analysis indicated that TBT cotreatment inhibited the formation of (+)-anti-BaP diol-epoxide adducts with plasma albumin (53%, Day 8), hepatic DNA (27%, Day 32), or both albumin and globin (50 and 58%, Day 56) compared to BaP alone. This antagonistic interaction was associated with a time-dependent modulation (inhibition at Day 8, enhancement at Day 32) of both cytochrome P450 (P450)1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and biliary BaP metabolite formation. TBT cotreatment also inhibited (39%) the BaP-mediated induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity observed at Day 8. Treatment with TBT alone increased EROD activity (60%) at Day 32, but decreased both GST activity (70 and 37%) and glutathione content (24% and 16%) at Days 32 and 56, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that, at Day 56, BaP cotreatment increased (200%) the levels of biliary butyltin compounds, including mono- and dibutyltin metabolites. This potentiative interaction was associated with a protective effect of BaP cotreatment against the TBT-mediated decreases in GST activity and glutathione content. The

  4. Studies on oxidation of benzo [a] pyrene by sunlight and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, R; Vohra, K G; Rao, A M

    1983-03-01

    The destruction of the carcinogen benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) by light is well known; laboratory workers are routinely advised to cover fluorescent lamps with yellow filters while treating samples containing BaP. However until recently the mechanism of oxidation by sunlight and ozone had not been studied in detail. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in urban air are in the range of 5-10 micrograms/1000 m3. Oxidant concentrations (predominantly in the form of ozone) are reported to be in the range of 0.01 ppm (22 micrograms per m3). Thus a sampling system with a filter paper would filter about 22,000 micrograms of ozone passing through and collect about 5 micrograms of BaP for analysis. The effect of interactions of such large ozone concentrations with BaP deposited on the filter paper is reported; data for the oxidation rates for benzo[a]pyrene coated on quartz surface and exposed to ozone or sunlight are presented. The oxidation products were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. From about eight products detected in these experiments, three have been identified as quinones based on UV-absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Oxidation rates as high as 100% per hour of exposure are observed when less than 0.1 micrograms of BaP is coated inside the quartz tubes and exposed to ozone or sunlight. Oxidation rates for benzo[a]pyrene (using tritiated BaP) were determined for two types of experimental conditions. In the first set, tritiated BaP was spotted onto a glass fibre paper and sampling continued for 24 h; the loss of BaP was found to be 88%. In the second set tritiated BaP was spotted at intervals of one hour, for eight hours, while sampling is being carried out and the loss of BaP during the period was estimated to be 50%.

  5. Influence of cell cycle on responses of MCF-7 cells to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddings Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is a widespread environmental genotoxic carcinogen that damages DNA by forming adducts. This damage along with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR induces complex transcriptional responses in cells. To investigate whether human cells are more susceptible to BaP in a particular phase of the cell cycle, synchronised breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to BaP. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry, DNA adduct formation was assessed by 32P-postlabeling analysis, microarrays of 44K human genome-wide oligos and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression (mRNA changes and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of some proteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are involved in BaP metabolism. Results Following BaP exposure, cells evaded G1 arrest and accumulated in S-phase. Higher levels of DNA damage occurred in S- and G2/M- compared with G0/G1-enriched cultures. Genes that were found to have altered expression included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed the involvement of various signalling pathways in response to BaP exposure, such as the Catenin/Wnt pathway in G1, the ERK pathway in G1 and S, the Nrf2 pathway in S and G2/M and the Akt pathway in G2/M. An important finding was that higher levels of DNA damage in S- and G2/M-enriched cultures correlated with higher levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and proteins. Moreover, exposure of synchronised MCF-7 cells to BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP, did not result in significant changes in DNA adduct levels at different phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions This study characterised the complex gene response to BaP in MCF-7 cells and revealed a strong correlation between the varying efficiency of BaP metabolism and DNA damage in different phases of the cell

  6. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Dutta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our

  7. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  8. Callus induction in leaf segments of Croton urucurana Baill Indução de calos em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água (Croton urucurana Baill

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    Ednabel Caracas Lima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Croton urucurana Baill., a species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, can be useful in the recovery of degraded riparian areas. In the traditional medicine, it is widely used as cicatrizant and in the treatment of rheumatism. However, its seeds present dormancy and low viability, making the propagation of this species a challenge. With the objective of establishing an alternative route for the propagation, the effect of different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with BAP (6-benzylaminopurine or TDZ (thidiazuron and of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid with BAP and their possible combinations were evaluated for callus induction in leaf segments. Callus fresh mass was evaluated forty-five days after inoculation. The isolated use of BAP and the combination of NAA with BAP did not promote calogenesis in leaf segments. Even though the combination of 2,4-D with BAP or TDZ had induced the formation of callus, it was the isolated use of 2,4-D that provided the highest callus fresh mass.A sangra d'água, espécie pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, apresenta potencial na recuperação de matas ciliares degradadas e é extensamente utilizada na medicina tradicional, como cicatrizante e no tratamento de reumatismos. Entretanto, suas sementes apresentam dormência e baixa viabilidade, dificultando a propagação desta espécie. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D e BAP ou TDZ e de ANA e BAP, com suas possíveis combinações, na indução de calos em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água. Quarenta e cinco dias após a inoculação, foi avaliado o peso fresco dos calos. O uso de BAP isoladamente e a combinação entre ANA e BAP não promoveram calogênese em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água. Embora a combinação de 2,4-D e BAP ou TDZ tenha induzido a formação de calos, o uso isolado de 2,4-D proporcionou o maior peso fresco destes.

  9. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  10. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  11. Callus formation in vitro and internodal stem apices in savory = Calogênese in vitro de segmentos apicais caulinares e internodais em segurelha (Satureja hortensis L.

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    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate with this work different growth regulators on callus formation in shoot apical and internodal stem segments of Satureja hortensis. The explants were isolated from in vitro seedlings and cultured on MS nutrient medium supplemented with NAA (0 and 1 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μM. The presence of auxin NAA gave higher marks to the calluses at 30 days of evaluation, these notes also increased with the addition of BAP. There were significant interactions between factors in evaluating NAA and BAP for 60 days, both in apical stem segments as in internodal stem segments. To stemapices percentage of friable callus tends to decrease with increasing concentration of BAP. As for compact calluses increased BAP leads to an increase in the percentage of this type of callus. The presence of NAA increased callus formation in both friable and compact calluses on. This trend was also observed in internodal stem segments. The callus formation was highly rhizogenic observed in the presence of NAA, hardly occurs in the absence of auxin. The use of BAP is recommended in case of regeneration of plants through micropropagation, if the goal is the production of metabolites, the use of BAP can be harmful by reducing the production of friable callus.= Buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar diferentes reguladores de crescimento sobre a calogênese em segmentos caulinares apicais e internodais de Satureja hortensis L.. Os explantes foram isolados de plântulas germinadas in vitro e cultivados em meio nutritivo MS acrescido de ANA (0 e 1 μM e de BAP (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20 μM. A presença da auxina ANA proporcionou notas mais altas para os calos aos 30 dias de avaliação, estas notas também aumentaram com o acréscimo da citocinina BAP. Houve interações significativas entre os fatores ANA e BAP na avaliação aos 60 dias, nos dois tipos de segmentos caulinares(apicais e internodais. Nos segmentos apicais caulinares a porcentagem de calos fri

  12. Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1–14 mg L−1 with or without 0.2 mg L−1 IAA, or BAP at 7–14 mg L−1 with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L−1 (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L−1 (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L−1 (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. BAP at 11 mg L−1 with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. PMID:24575235

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene Induces Autophagic and Pyroptotic Death Simultaneously in HL-7702 Human Normal Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Junyi; Deng, Hong; Gao, Chunxia

    2017-11-08

    As a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is readily produced in processing of oil and fatty foods. It is not only a strong carcinogen but also a substance with strong immunotoxicity and reproduction toxicity. Autophagy and pyroptosis are two types of programmed cell death. Whether or not BaP damages body tissues via autophagy or pyroptosis remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of BaP on autophagy and pyroptosis in HL-7702 cells. The results showed that BaP induced cell death in HL-7702 cells enhanced the intracellular levels of ROS and arrested the cell cycle at the S phase. Additionally, BaP resulted in cell death through autophagy and pyroptosis. Compared with the BaP group, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the release of LDH by 70.53% ± 0.46 and NO by 50.36% ± 0.80, the increase of electrical conductivity by 12.08% ± 0.55, and the expressions of pyroptotic marker proteins (Caspase-1, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-18). The pyroptosis inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CM also notably (p < 0.01) blocked BaP-induced autophagic cell death characterized by the increase of autophagic vacuoles and overexpression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II. In conclusion, BaP led to injury by inducing autophagy and pyroptosis simultaneously, the two of which coexisted and promoted each other in HL-7702 cells.

  14. Nanoporous Gold Films Prepared by a Combination of Sputtering and Dealloying for Trace Detection of Benzo[a]pyrene Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy

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    Li Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wavelength-interrogated surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor based on a nanoporous gold (NPG film has been fabricated for the sensitive detection of trace quantities of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in water. The large-area uniform NPG film was prepared by a two-step process that includes sputtering deposition of a 60-nm-thick AuAg alloy film on a glass substrate and chemical dealloying of the alloy film in nitric acid. For SPR sensor applications, the NPG film plays the dual roles of analyte enrichment and supporting surface plasmon waves, which leads to sensitivity enhancement. In this work, the as-prepared NPG film was first modified with 1-dodecanethiol molecules to make the film hydrophobic so as to improve BaP enrichment from water via hydrophobic interactions. The SPR sensor with the hydrophobic NPG film enables one to detect BaP at concentrations as low as 1 nmol·L−1. In response to this concentration of BaP the sensor produced a resonance-wavelength shift of ΔλR = 2.22 nm. After the NPG film was functionalized with mouse monoclonal IgG1 that is the antibody against BaP, the sensor’s sensitivity was further improved and the BaP detection limit decreased further down to 5 pmol·L−1 (the corresponding ΔλR = 1.77 nm. In contrast, the conventional SPR sensor with an antibody-functionalized dense gold film can give a response of merely ΔλR = 0.9 nm for 100 pmol·L−1 BaP.

  15. Beliefs about penis size: validation of a scale for men ashamed about their penis size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Read, Julie; Miles, Sarah; Troglia, Andrea; Phillips, Rachael; Echeverria, Lina Maria Carmona; Fiorito, Chiara; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    No measures are available for understanding beliefs in men who experience shame about the perceived size of their penis. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was to validate a newly developed measure called the Beliefs about Penis Size Scale (BAPS). One hundred seventy-three male participants completed a new questionnaire consisting of 18 items to be validated and developed into the BAPS, as well as various other standardized measures. A urologist also measured actual penis size. The BAPS was validated against six psychosexual self-report questionnaires as well as penile size measurements. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the number of items in the BAPS from 18 to 10, which was best explained by one factor. The 10-item BAPS had good internal consistency and correlated significantly with measures of depression, anxiety, body image quality of life, social anxiety, erectile function, overall satisfaction, and the importance attached to penis size. The BAPS was not found to correlate with actual penis size. It was able to discriminate between those who had concerns or were dissatisfied about their penis size and those who were not. This is the first study to develop a scale for measurement of beliefs about penis size. It may be used as part of an assessment for men who experience shame about the perceived size of their penis and as an outcome measure after treatment. The BAPS measures various manifestations of masculinity and shame about their perceived penis size including internal self-evaluative beliefs; negative evaluation by others; anticipated consequences of a perceived small penis, and extreme self-consciousness. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Reference intervals for serum reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, and oxidative stress index in adult rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, Ioannis L; Kiosis, Evangelos A; Brozos, Christos N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria G

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish reference intervals for serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and oxidative stress index (OSi) in adult rams by use of controlled preanalytic and analytic procedures. ANIMALS 123 healthy 1- to 4-year-old rams of 2 Greek breeds (Chios [n = 62] and Florina [61]). PROCEDURES 4 hours after rams were fed, a blood sample was obtained from each ram, and serum was harvested. Concentrations of ROMs and BAP were measured colorimetrically on a spectrophotometric analyzer. The OSi was calculated as ROMs concentration divided by BAP concentration. Combined and breed-specific reference intervals were calculated by use of nonparametric and robust methods, respectively. Reference intervals were defined as the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles. RESULTS Reference intervals for ROMs, BAP, and OSi for all rams combined were 65 to 109 Carratelli units, 2,364 to 4,491 μmol/L, and 18.2 to 43.0 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. Reference intervals of Chios rams for ROMs, BAP, and OSi were 56 to 113 Carratelli units, 2,234 to 4,290 μmol/L, and 12.9 to 38.4 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. Reference intervals of Florina rams for ROMs, BAP, and OSi were 68 to 111 Carratelli units, 2,337 to 4,363 μmol/L, and 14.1 to 38.1 Carratelli units/(mmol/L), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Reference intervals calculated in this study can be used as a guide for the interpretation of ROMs, BAP, and OSi results in rams and, under appropriate conditions, can be adopted for use by veterinary laboratories.

  17. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Anke Doyon

    Full Text Available The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort.Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b, sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23 normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group.Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score.Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  18. Hormone regulation of rhizome development in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) associated with proteomic changes controlling respiratory and amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiqing; Xu, Qian; Meyer, William A; Huang, Bingru

    2016-09-01

    Rhizomes are underground stems with meristematic tissues capable of generating shoots and roots. However, mechanisms controlling rhizome formation and growth are yet to be completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether rhizome development could be regulated by cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellic acids (GAs), and determine underlying mechanisms of regulation of rhizome formation and growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by a CK or GA through proteomic and transcript analysis. A rhizomatous genotype of tall fescue ('BR') plants were treated with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a synthetic cytokinin) or GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. Furthermore, comparative proteomic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome number by BAP and rhizome elongation by GA3 KEY RESULTS: BAP stimulated rhizome formation while GA3 promoted rhizome elongation. Proteomic analysis identified 76 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) due to BAP treatment and 37 DEPs due to GA3 treatment. Cytokinin-related genes and cell division-related genes were upregulated in the rhizome node by BAP and gibberellin-related and cell growth-related genes in the rhizome by GA3 CONCLUSIONS: Most of the BAP- or GA-responsive DEPs were involved in respiratory metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Transcription analysis demonstrated that genes involved in hormone metabolism, signalling pathways, cell division and cell-wall loosening were upregulated by BAP or GA3 The CK and GA promoted rhizome formation and growth, respectively, by activating metabolic pathways that supply energy and amino acids to support cell division and expansion during rhizome initiation and elongation in tall fescue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Application of new balloon catheters in the treatment of congenital heart defects

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    Roland Fiszer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Balloon angioplasty (BAP and aortic or pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (BAV, BPV are well-established treatment options in congenital heart defects. Recently, significant technological progress has been made and new catheters have been implemented in clinical practice. Aim: To analyze the results of BAP, BAV and BPV with the new balloon catheter Valver and its second generation Valver II, which the company Balton (Poland launched and developed. These catheters have not been clinically evaluated yet. Material and methods: We performed 64 interventions with Valver I and Valver II. With Valver I the following procedures were performed: 17 BPV (including 9 in tetralogy of Fallot – TOF, 10 BAV and 27 BAP in coarctations of the aorta (CoA – including 9 native and 18 after surgery. With Valver II ten interventions were done – 3 BPV, 2 pulmonary supravalvular BAP (after switch operations, 2 BAP of recoarctations and 3 other BAP. Age of the patients ranged from a few days to 40 years. Results: All procedures were completed successfully, without rupture of any balloon catheters. The pressure gradient drop was statistically significant in all groups: BPV in isolated pulmonary valvular stenosis 28.1 mm Hg (mean, BPV in TOF 18.7 mm Hg, BAV 32.8 mm Hg, BAP in native CoA 15.4 mm Hg and in recoarctations 18.6 mm Hg. In 3 cases during rapid deflation of Valver I, wrinkles of the balloons made it impossible to insert the whole balloon into the vascular sheath (all were removed surgically from the groin. No such complication occured with Valver II. Conclusions : Valver balloon catheters are an effective treatment modality in different valvular and vascular stenoses.

  20. A role for benzo[a]pyrene and Slug in invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential molecular link between smoking and radiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Jeong, Hyemin; Park, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Ji Won; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Joong Kyong; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Koh, Eun-Mi; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a major toxic component of cigarette smoke, on the expression of Slug and to determine the effect of B[a]P/Slug on the invasive properties of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The expression of Slug was measured by real-time PCR following the stimulation of FLS with different concentrations of B[a]P or EGF. The phosphorylation of the key enzymes in the signaling pathway was analyzed by western blots. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were used to confirm the critical pathway for Slug expression. An in vitro cell invasion assay was performed using RA FLS treated with Slug cDNA, Slug small interference RNA, or control. Slug expression increased significantly following treatment with B[a]P or EGF in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulation of FLS with B[a]P or EGF induced the phosphorylation of Akt kinase, but not in ERK, JNK and p38. The Slug mRNA expression induced by B[a]P and EGF decreased significantly following the treatment with PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. Slug overexpression using Slug cDNA upregulated the invasive function of FLS, and Slug depletion using siRNA showed the opposite effect compared with the control. In addition, the stimulation with B[a]P increased the invasive function of the control siRNA-treated FLS but not in the Slug siRNA-treated FLS. Our data showed that B[a]P regulates the invasive properties of RA FLS through Slug expression. This mechanism may provide a novel molecular link underlying the association between smoking and increased radiographic progression in RA. Copyright © 2013 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Utility of bone turnover markers in metabolic bone disease detection in patients with phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Freire Corbacho, Antonio; Rodríguez García, Javier; Leis, Rosaura; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2015-03-09

    Mineral bone disease is more common in phenylketonuric patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the usefulness of biochemical bone markers to identify phenylketonuric patients with mineral bone disease (MBD) and know the underlying bone remodeling alterations. Cross-sectional study of 43 phenylketonuric patients>7 years (range: 7.1-41 years). A nutritional survey was performed and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (PNP-1), beta-crosslaps and ratio calcium/creatinine in urine were determined. A percentage of 20.9 of patients had pathological biochemical bone markers, 90% of them being adults. BAP was decreased in 70% of them and beta-crosslaps in 42.8%. BAP values were more often pathological in phenylketonuric patients with a late diagnosis (41.7 vs. 10.7%; P<.05) and in patients with MBD (60 vs. 14.3%; P<.05). PNP-1 values and calcium/creatinine were similar among all phenylketonuric patients regardless of presenting MBD, late diagnosis or tetrahydrobipterin treatment (enzyme cofactor). Patients with decreased BAP and beta-crosslaps had lower natural protein intake: BAP (0.21 ± 0.13 vs. 0.65 ± 0.65 g/kg; P<.05); beta-crosslaps (0.29 ± 0.23 vs. 0.65 ± 0.66 g/kg; P<.05). None of the tetrahydrobiopterin treated patients showed altered values of BAP, PNP-1 or calcium/creatinine. Adult phenylketonuric patients with lower natural protein intake tend to have lower values of BAP, which is a marker that may be useful to identify patients at risk for MBD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Restricted Gene Flow among Hospital Subpopulations of Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Top, Janetta; van Schaik, Willem; Leavis, Helen; Bonten, Marc; Sirén, Jukka; Hanage, William P.; Corander, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as an important multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. Defining population structure in this species is required to provide insight into the existence, distribution, and dynamics of specific multiresistant or pathogenic lineages in particular environments, like the hospital. Here, we probe the population structure of E. faecium using Bayesian-based population genetic modeling implemented in Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) software. The analysis involved 1,720 isolates belonging to 519 sequence types (STs) (491 for E. faecium and 28 for Enterococcus faecalis). E. faecium isolates grouped into 13 BAPS (sub)groups, but the large majority (80%) of nosocomial isolates clustered in two subgroups (2-1 and 3-3). Phylogenetic and eBURST analysis of BAPS groups 2 and 3 confirmed the existence of three separate hospital lineages (17, 18, and 78), highlighting different evolutionary trajectories for BAPS 2-1 (lineage 78) and 3-3 (lineage 17 and lineage 18) isolates. Phylogenomic analysis of 29 E. faecium isolates showed agreement between BAPS assignment of STs and their relative positions in the phylogenetic tree. Odds ratio calculation confirmed the significant association between hospital isolates with BAPS 3-3 and lineages 17, 18, and 78. Admixture analysis showed a scarce number of recombination events between the different BAPS groups. For the E. faecium hospital population, we propose an evolutionary model in which strains with a high propensity to colonize and infect hospitalized patients arise through horizontal gene transfer. Once adapted to the distinct hospital niche, this subpopulation becomes isolated, and recombination with other populations declines. PMID:22807567

  4. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  5. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on growth, the antioxidant system, and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in 2 different soil types under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochen; Xu, Li; Song, Jing; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to screen for rapid and sensitive biomarkers that can be used to assess the environmental risks of BaP in earthworms in different natural soil types. The authors exposed Eisenia fetida to 2 types of soil (red soil and fluvo-aquic soil) spiked with different concentrations (0 mg kg(-1), 1 mg kg(-1), 10 mg kg(-1), 100 mg kg(-1), and 500 mg kg(-1)) of BaP for 7 d or 14 d. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced weight variation altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD]; catalase [CAT]; and guaiacol peroxidase [POD]) and changed the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, using the comet assay, the authors determined the DNA damage in earthworms. The results revealed that the comet assay was suitable for evaluating the genotoxicity of BaP in the soil, even at the lowest examined concentration. The MDA content was the least sensitive indicator of BaP toxicity. A 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether the soil type, exposure concentration, and duration affected the BaP toxicity. The antioxidant enzyme activities and the MDA content were shown to be significantly correlated with the exposure concentration. The percentage of weight variation (p earthworms is a simple and efficient means of assessing BaP genotoxicity in a terrestrial environment, and the effects of the soil type and exposure time on the other parameters that were investigated in E. fetida, which were used as responsive biomarkers, should be considered. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Organophosphorus pesticides enhance the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene by modulating its metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreljac, Irena; Filipic, Metka

    2009-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are widely used as pesticides. They act primarily as neurotoxins, but there is increasing evidence for secondary mechanisms of their toxicity. We have shown that the model OPs, methyl parathion (PT) and methyl paraoxon (PO), are genotoxic. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a widespread environmental genotoxin found in cigarette smoke, polluted air and grilled food. As people are constantly exposed to low concentrations of BaP and also to OPs, the aim of this study was to determine possible synergistic effects of PT and PO on BaP-induced genotoxicity. In the bacterial reverse mutation assay, PT and PO increased the number of BaP-induced mutations. The comet assay with human hepatoma HepG2 cells showed that BaP-induced DNA strand breaks were increased by PT but slightly decreased by PO. Using the acellular comet assay with UVC-induced DNA strand breaks, we observed a decrease in DNA migration, indicating that OPs cause cross-linking, thus interfering with comet assay results. In HepG2 cells the two OPs induced micronuclei formation at very low doses (0.01 microg/ml) and together with BaP, a more than additive increase of micronuclei was observed, confirming their co-genotoxic effect. We demonstrated for the first time that PT and PO modulate the metabolic activation of BaP. Addition of PT or PO increased aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C1/2) levels in the presence of BaP, while cytochrome 1A (CYP1A) mRNA expression and activity were decreased. Further, specific inhibition of CYP1A had no effect on BaP or OP+BaP-induced micronuclei, whereas inhibition of AKR1C dramatically decreased the number of micronuclei induced by BaP or OP+BaP. Based on these results we propose that co-genotoxicity results from OPs mediated modulation of BaP metabolism, favouring the induction of AKR1C enzymes known to catalyse the formation of DNA reactive BaP o-quinones and the production of reactive oxygen species.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  8. El lecho de Procusto o la convención sobre la competencia humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Fariñas León

    Full Text Available El tema de las competencias ha ganado un gran espacio de debate acerca del desarrollo humano en la actualidad. Este ha reeditado su introducción por D. McClelland en la Psicología de los años 70 con nuevas acepciones y usos que no siempre se ajustan a las exigencias de desarrollo de la Psicología como ciencia y profesión y tampoco a las demandas del perfeccionamiento de la educación, uno de los terrenos de mayor aplicación del concepto. El presente trabajo se plantea un análisis al respecto y persigue esclarecer las implicaciones conceptuales y prácticas del concepto. Se arriba a la conclusión, con argumentos diversos, de que el concepto de competencia, por una parte, tiene un contenido convencional que obedece a fines utilitarios e instrumentales, y por otra, que su empleo retrasa el desarrollo de la Psicología como ciencia y profesión. No obstante, el concepto puede ser utilizado en determinadas circunstancias, que son esclarecidas también. Las fuentes utilizadas para el análisis fueron las observaciones de la autora y la literatura publicada que conducen, a la vez, a un análisis histórico y cultural del término

  9. USO DE ESCHERICHIA COLI PARA BIORREMEDIACIÓN DE EFLUENTES CONTAMINADOS POR CROMO (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Panigatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el uso de la Escherichia coli en la detoxificación de aguas residuales con Cr (VI perteneciente a una planta metalmecánica. Se evaluó el crecimiento y desarrollo de E. coli con distintas concentraciones de Cr (VI, en diferentes tiempos y condiciones de trabajo. Se estudió la biorreducción de cromo utilizando la cepa en estudio, en diferentes soportes y se evaluó la influencia de la presencia de metales tales como plomo, níquel y zinc. La bacteria fue capaz de reducir Cr(VI trabajando con concentraciones de hasta 200 mg . L-1. Se comprobó la adaptabilidad de la cepa para adoptar como mecanismo de detoxificación, la biorreducción del metal pesado. La presencia de otros metales como plomo, níquel y zinc retrasa el proceso, pero no lo inhibe totalmente. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la posibilidad de utilizar E. coli en la biorremediación de un efluente industrial conteniendo Cr(VI.

  10. Del tabaco al uso de otras drogas: ¿el uso temprano de tabaco aumenta la probabilidad de usar otras drogas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Mora Ma. Elena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la probabilidad de abuso de sustancias en relación con la edad de inicio del consumo de tabaco. Material y métodos. Los datos provienen de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (1998 realizada en población urbana. Resultados. La edad de mayor riesgo para experimentar con sustancias es entre los 15 y los 19 años. Solamente en 5.6% de los usuarios de drogas y 13% de los que han consumido alcohol, el uso del tabaco no ocurrió primero. La probabilidad de beber en forma consuetudinaria y de presentar dependencia es mayor cuando la edad de inicio es temprana y disminuye en la medida en que se retrasa la edad de inicio. La experimentación con drogas, el continuar usándolas y el poliuso son más frecuentes entre quienes se iniciaron antes de los 15 años. Conclusiones. El inicio temprano en el consumo de tabaco incrementa la probabilidad de uso y abuso de sustancias.

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction somatic embryogenesis of hybird tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S. A.; Shah, S. H.; Ali, S.; Ali, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90 percentage was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87 percentage was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments. (author)

  12. In Vitro Proliferation of Three Iranian Apricot Varieties by Single Node Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khazaei Kojori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation of three Iranian apricot cultivars, “Ghavami”, “RajabAli” and “Khiveei” was studied by direct micropropagation technique. To optimize sterile manipulation, shoot nods of one year-old dormant vegetative shoots and current growing vegetative shoot were cultured in WPM medium after treatment by HgCl2, citric acid, ethanol and NaClO (10, 15, 20 min. Establishment of buds was tested in the MS and WPM mediums. Proliferation of sprouting buds was evaluated in WPM medium supplemented with three concentrations of (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l BAP and 0.05 mg/l of IBA. A half-Strength MS medium supplemented with three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l of IBA was used as a rooting medium. The greatest number of contamination-free shoots in HgCl2 0.01% and citric acid 0.07% treatments were obtained. No significant difference was found between two different mediums in terms of bud vegetative growth. The shoot number and length were significantly affected by apricot varieties and BAP concentrations. The greatest numbers of proliferated shoot were observed in Rajabali and Ghavami varieties at 1 mg/l of BAP, whereas maximum number of shoot in Khiveei cultivar was observed in 0.5 mg/l of BAP. The maximum shoot length in Rajabali and Ghavami cultivars was obtained in 2 mg/l of BAP.

  13. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  14. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  15. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  16. Chemical sensing of Benzo[a]pyrene using Corchorus depressus fluorescent flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmad, Nasir Mehmood; Hameed, Maryam; Naeem, Ayesha; Tahir, Rabbiya

    2018-04-01

    Plant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids are in use for the development of optical biosensor. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is a pervasive environmental and dietary carcinogen. A fluorescent assay is developed using plant isolated flavonoid for the detection of B[a]P. High content saponins are excluded from the flavonoid-containing methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus by implying reduction of silver ions by saponins resulting in formation of silver nanoparticles. Isolated plant flavonoids are used to develop a spectrofluorometric assay for the detection of B[a]P. Decrease in the flavonoid fluorescence intensity by B[a]P is found to be based on both static and dynamic quenching. Specificity of the assay for B[a]P was tested for other carcinogens belonging to different classes of compounds. Flavonoids-mediated sensing can be implied for the development of new generation of nanoparticle-based biosensors that can be more sensitive and less susceptible to external factors, such as temperature and humidity.

  17. Ambient air levels and health risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric particulate matter samples from low-polluted areas: application of an optimized microwave extraction and HPLC-FL methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Gala Morales, María; Holgado, Fernando Rueda; Marín, Ma Rosario Palomo; Blázquez, Lorenzo Calvo; Gil, Eduardo Pinilla

    2015-04-01

    A new methodology involving a simple and fast pretreatment of the samples by microwave-assisted extraction and concentration by N2 stream, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, was used for determining the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction). Obtained LOD, 1.0 × 10(-3) ng/m(3), was adequate for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in the samples, and BaP recovery from PAH in Fine Dust (PM10-like) certified reference material was nearly quantitative (86%). The validated procedure was applied for analyzing 115 PM10 samples collected at different sampling locations in the low-polluted area of Extremadura (Southwest Spain) during a monitoring campaign carried out in 2011-2012. BaP spatial variations and seasonal variability were investigated as well as the influence of meteorological conditions and different air pollutants concentrations. A normalized protocol for health risk assessment was applied to estimate lifetime cancer risk due to BaP inhalation in the sampling areas, finding that around eight inhabitants per million people may develop lung cancer due to the exposition to BaP in atmospheric particulates emitted by the investigated sources.

  18. Fate and cometabolic degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2012-03-01

    Armillaria sp. F022, a white-rot fungus isolated from a tropical rain forest in Samarinda, Indonesia, was used to biodegrade benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Transformation of BaP, a 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by Armillaria sp. F022, which uses BaP as a source of carbon and energy, was investigated. However, biodegradation of BaP has been limited because of its bioavailability and toxicity. Five cosubstrates were selected as cometabolic carbon and energy sources. The results showed that Armillaria sp. F022 used BaP with and without cosubstrates. A 2.5-fold increase in degradation efficiency was achieved after addition of glucose. Meanwhile, the use of glucose as a cosubstrate could significantly stimulate laccase production compared with other cosubstrates and not using any cosubstrate. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, conducting biotransformation studies, and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The degradation mechanism was determined through the identification of several metabolites: benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-quinone, 1-hydroxy-2-benzoic acid, and benzoic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alterations to proteome and tissue recovery responses in fish liver caused by a short-term combination treatment with cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Chicano-Galvez, E.; Lopez Barea, J.; DelValls, T.A.; Costa, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The livers of soles (Solea senegalensis) injected with subacute doses of cadmium (Cd), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or their combination, were screened for alterations to cytosolic protein expression patterns, complemented by cytological and histological analyses. Cadmium and B[a]P, but not combined, induced hepatocyte apoptosis and Kupfer cell hyperplasia. Proteomics, however, suggested that apoptosis was triggered through distinct pathways. Cadmium and B[a]P caused upregulation of different anti-oxidative enzymes (peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) although co-exposure impaired induction. Similarly, apoptosis was inhibited by co-exposure, to which may have contributed a synergistic upregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, β-actin and a lipid transport protein. The regulation factors of nine out of eleven identified proteins of different types revealed antagonistic or synergistic effects between Cd and B[a]P at the prospected doses after 24 h of exposure. The results indicate that co-exposure to Cd and B[a]P may enhance toxicity by impairing specific responses and not through cumulative damage. - The interaction between cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene impairs specific responses to toxicity and tissue repair mechanisms.

  20. Aquatic predicted no-effect concentration for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and probabilistic ecological risk assessment in Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Juying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Lin, Zhongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) is often used in ecological risk assessment to determine low-risk concentrations for chemicals. In the present study, native marine species were selected for toxicity testing. The PNECs for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), specifically phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were derived from chronic and acute toxicity data with log-normal statistical methods. The achieved PNECs for Phe, Pyr, and BaP were 2.33, 1.09, and 0.011 μg/L, respectively. In Jinzhou Bay and the Shuangtaizi River Estuary of Liaodong Bay in the Bohai Sea, China, the surface water concentrations of the three PAHs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on two probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) methods, namely probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve, the potential risk of Phe, Pyr, and BaP in Jinzhou Bay and Shuangtaizi River Estuary was assessed. The same order of ecological risk (BaP > Phe > Pyr) was found by both models. Our study considered regional characteristics of marine biota during the calculation of PNECs, and the PERA methods provided probabilities of potential ecological risks of chemicals. Within the study area, further research on BaP is required due to its high potential ecological risk.

  1. Impacts of lake water environmental condition on bioavailable-phosphorus of surface sediments in Lixia River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailable-phosphorus (BAP fractions of the lake surface sediments (the upper 0−5cm depth and environmental indicators of the related lake water column were investigated in five lakes in Lixia River basin during three seasons in order to evaluate the impacts of environmental indicators of the water column on the BAP fractions of surface sediments. The concentration of BAP varied significantly in different seasons. Factor analysis was used to identify the factors which influence sedimentary BAP significantly in the different seasons. The results showed that AAP and Olsen-P were significantly affected by the chemical oxygen demand through the bacterial activity in summer. The high intensity of bacterial activity and density of algae, and low concentrations of NO3-N and dissolved oxygen under high temperature enhanced the BAP released from anaerobic sediment and significantly contributed to the eutrophication of the lake, especially in summer. In addition, macrophyte roots were beneficial to absorption of AAP and Olsen-P.

  2. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Ren, Jiayun; Zheng, Debin

    2009-02-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  3. Induction of Biological Apatite Orientation as a Bone Quality Parameter in Bone Regeneration Using Hydroxyapatite/Poly ɛ-Caprolactone Composite Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Wook; Yun, Hui-Suk; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation were investigated as a bone quality parameter in bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite/poly ɛ-caprolactone (HA/PCL) composite scaffolds. Three-dimensional (3D) HA/PCL composite scaffolds were fabricated using a layer manufacturing process in three grid sizes (200-, 600-, and 1000 μm) and grafted into the forearm ulna of New Zealand white rabbits. The cross-sectional areas of the bones regenerated from the scaffolds with 600- and 1000-μm grid sizes were significantly larger than those from the scaffold with 200-μm grid sizes, whereas bone mineral density in the regenerated regions did not differ between the three grid sizes. Moreover, the BAp c-axis orientation in the bones regenerated from the scaffolds with grid sizes of 600- and 1000 μm was not significantly different; however, both scaffolds showed enhanced BAp orientation, although the degree of BAp orientation was lower than that in intact bones. In conclusion, HA/PCL composite 3D scaffolds with 600- and 1000-μm grid sizes induced BAp c-axis orientation and showed good bone regeneration behavior in vivo.

  4. Transport of benzo[alpha]pyrene in the dually perfused human placenta perfusion model: effect of albumin in the perfusion medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Transport of benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) across the placenta was examined because it is a ubiquitous and highly carcinogenic substance found in tobacco smoke, polluted air and certain foods. Foetal exposure to this substance is highly relevant but is difficult to estimate. The human placenta is unique...... compared to other species; since it is available without major ethical obstacles, we have used the human placenta perfusion model to study transport from mother to foetus. Placentas were donated after births at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen from pregnant mothers who signed an informed consent. Ba......P is lipophilic and studies using cell culture medium in 6-hr placenta perfusions showed minimal transport through the placenta. To increase the solubility of BaP in perfusion medium and to increase physiological relevance, perfusions were also performed with albumin added to the perfusion medium [2 and 30 mg...

  5. Antimutagenic activity of some naturally occurring compounds towards cigarette-smoke condensate and benzo(a)pyrene in the Salmonella/microsome assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwel, L.; van der Hoeven, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    Several compounds, occurring in food, were tested for antimutagenic activity towards cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Antimutagenicity was determined in the Salmonella/microsome test, with tester strain TA98, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. Dose-response curves did show reduction of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity by ellagic acid, riboflavin and chlorophyllin. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, although less distinct, also inhibited CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, tocopherol acetate, chlorogenic acid and butyl hydroxyanisole did not have any influence on the mutagenicity of CSC and BaP. The similarity in results for cigarette-smoke condensate and for BaP indicates that a general mechanism may be involved in the inhibition of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity.

  6. Benzilaminopurina e ácido naftaleno acético na indução e multiplicação in vitro de gemas de abacaxizeiro da cultivar 'IAC Gomo-de-mel' In vitro bud induction and multiplication of cv. 'IAC Gomo-de-mel' pineapple fruit with benzyl amino purine and n aphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Borges Fráguas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e NAA (ácido naftaleno acético na indução, na multiplicação in vitro de gemas, nas brotações de Ananas comosus da cultivar 'IAC Gomo-de-mel' e a correlação desses efeitos com a atividade de peroxidase e o teor de proteína solúvel total. Foram utilizadas gemas axilares retiradas da coroa de frutos sadios, inoculadas em tubo de ensaio contendo meio de cultura MS solidificado com ágar a 5%, pH ajustado para 5,7, contendo os tratamentos que incluíam diferentes concentrações e combinações de BAP (0, 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5mg L-1 e NAA (0, 0,5 e 1,0mg L-1. Nessa fase, aos 65 dias, ocorreu a formação de 2,24 brotações, utilizando-se 1mg L-1 de BAP. Após o desenvolvimento, as gemas foram inoculadas em meio MS líquido associado a dois tratamentos (1,0mg L-1 BAP + 0,5mg L-1 NAA e 1,0mg L-1 BAP + 1,0mg L-1 NAA e, aos 95 dias, o meio de cultura mais adequado foi aquele que continha 1,0mg L-1 BAP + 0,5mg L-1 NAA, proporcionando 7,42 brotações, menor porcentagem de hiper-hidricidade, maior número de brotações e indução de gemas. As proteínas solúveis apresentaram relação negativa com hiper-hidricidade e comprimento de brotações. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior em plantas com maior número de brotos e com maior porcentagem de hiper-hidricidade.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of BAP (6-benzyl amino purine and NAA (naphthalene acetic acid on in vitro buds induction and multiplication on Ananas comosus cv. 'IAC Gomo-de-mel' shoots and its correlation with the peroxidase activity and soluble protein content. Axillary buds were excised from the healthy fruits crown and inoculated in MS solidified with agar at 5 % and pH adjusted to 5.7 with the treatments that included different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg L-1 and NAA (0, 0.5 and 1.0mg L-1. At, 65 days stage, 2.24 shoots were formatted using BAP 1

  7. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  8. Ratings of Broader Autism Phenotype and Personality Traits in Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joyce; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Fein, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The study examines whether "optimal outcome" (OO) children, despite no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), exhibit personality traits often found in those with ASD. Nine zero acquaintance raters evaluated Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and Big Five personality traits of 22 OO individuals, 27 high functioning individuals with ASD (HFA), and 23 typically developing (TD) peers. HFA children displayed higher ratings than their peers on all BAP traits. OO were indistinguishable from TD, with the exception of greater extraversion (e.g., increased talkativeness), a potential tendency to be less emotionally stable, and pragmatic language deficits such as getting sidetracked in conversation. Overall, OO individuals are not showing BAP characteristics, but may be subject to other mild ADHD-like characteristics.

  9. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  10. Establecimiento de un cultivo de células en suspensión de Eucalyptus cinerea y evaluación de la producción de 1,8 cineol y otros terpenoides

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Sánchez, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Resumen: se desarrollo un protocolo para la obtención y establecimiento de suspensiones celulares de Eucalyptus cinerea. La concentración de las hormonas 2,4D y BAP tuvo un efecto significativo en la formación de callos friables de E. cinerea. Pudo obtenerse hasta un 90 % de formación de callos friables con varias combinaciones hormonales: primero con concentraciones de 3,0 mg/L de 2,4 D Y 1,0 mg/L de BAP y segundo, con 6,0 mg/L de 2,4 D y 1,0 mg/L de BAP. Los callos anteriores se subcultivar...

  11. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotic strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Manirul; Mun, Hong-Seok; Sim, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2014-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens probiotic (BAP) as a direct-fed microbial on growth performance, cecal microflora, serum immunoglobulin levels, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. A total of 400 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment diets formulated to supply 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 g/kg of BAP and were fed for 35 d. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens with 10 birds per replicate. On completion of the growth trial, fecal samples were collected, and ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions were measured. Increasing concentration of BAP had positive linear effect on the ADG of broilers (P Bacillus content, but exerted negative linear effect on cecal Escherichia coli (P Bacillus amyloliquefaciens could be suggested as a potential feed additive of broiler diets. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. VIA ORGANOGENESIS FROM PETIOLE EXPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita VELTCHEVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A system for somatic organogenesis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was developed. Precultivation of seeds on different media was investigated for the ability to influence the process of in vitro regeneration. Leave petioles excised from in vitro derived seedlings at different ages (7 and 14 days-old, were used as primary explants. Precultivation of the seedlings on medium MS-BAP 1 μM for 7 days and dark cultivation of their leave petioles on medium MSI (2 μM TDZ, 0.6 μM NAA and 2 μM paclobutrazol benefit the process of shoot initiation in all investigated genotypes. Shoot elongation took place on MSE (22.2 μM BAP and 0.057 μM IAA medium. Plant recovery was established on MSG3 (4.44 μM BAP and 0.58 μM GA3 medium.

  13. Calidad nutritiva de láminas de dos cultivares de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INSUA, J.R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad nutritiva de dos cultivares de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb durante unrebrote estival (temperatura media: 21±2.8 °C, en relación a la morfogénesis de dos cultivares (Tradicional:El Palenque PlusINTA y Hojas flexibles: Grasslands AdvanceGentos. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado(n=3 en 250 macetas/cultivar al aire libre, sin limitantes hídricas ni de N y P. Se realizaron 8 cosechas destructivasde 300 macollos vegetativos/cosecha en un período 14 semanas. La frecuencia se ajustó al estadoontogénico de las hojas para obtener láminas en 6 estados de similar edad térmica (desde el inicio de crecimientoa la senescencia completa de 3 generaciones consecutivas de hojas (G1, G2 y G3. Las variables demorfogénesis se midieron en 15 macollos marcados por cultivar. La edad, Vida Media Foliar (VMF e Intervalode Aparición de Hoja (IAH se expresaron en Grados Días de Crecimiento (GDC: ΣTem½ - 4 ºC. En las hojasse midió la longitud de las láminas y vainas; y en las láminas el contenido de Fibra Detergente Neutro (FDN yla digestibilidad in vitro de la FDN (DFDN y de la MS (DAMS por incubación a 24 horas en digestor DaisyII. Lasvariables de morfogénesis se evaluaron como medidas repetidas en el tiempo; y para las de calidad se ajustaronfunciones lineales con la edad y el largo foliar, y se compararon mediante análisis de variables dummy.Los cultivares no se diferenciaron en morfogénesis, con excepción de la VMF y el Número de Hojas Vivas pormacollo (NHV que fueron menores para Advance. La DFDN de ambos cultivares disminuyó linealmente conla edad y con el aumento del largo foliar entre hojas sucesivas de rebrote, con mayor tasa en Advance. Peroel contenido de FDN no se diferenció entre cultivares, sino que se mantuvo constante durante la vida foliar(54,5±3,2% y aumentó durante la senescencia (64,9±0,8%. Los cultivares no se diferenciaron en calidadal mismo estado ontogénico, lo cual indica que

  14. Effects of PI and PIII Snake Venom Haemorrhagic Metalloproteinases on the Microvasculature: A Confocal Microscopy Study on the Mouse Cremaster Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    Full Text Available The precise mechanisms by which Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs disrupt the microvasculature and cause haemorrhage have not been completely elucidated, and novel in vivo models are needed. In the present study, we compared the effects induced by BaP1, a PI SVMP isolated from Bothrops asper venom, and CsH1, a PIII SVMP from Crotalus simus venom, on cremaster muscle microvasculature by topical application of the toxins on isolated tissue (i.e., ex vivo model, and by intra-scrotal administration of the toxins (i.e., in vivo model. The whole tissue was fixed and immunostained to visualize the three components of blood vessels by confocal microscopy. In the ex vivo model, BaP1 was able to degrade type IV collagen and laminin from the BM of microvessels. Moreover, both SVMPs degraded type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries to a higher extent than in PCV and arterioles. CsH1 had a stronger effect on type IV collagen than BaP1. In the in vivo model, the effect of BaP1 on type IV collagen was widespread to the BM of arterioles and PCV. On the other hand, BaP1 was able to disrupt the endothelial barrier in PCV and to increase vascular permeability. Moreover, this toxin increased the size of gaps between pericytes in PCV and created new gaps between smooth muscle cells in arterioles in ex vivo conditions. These effects were not observed in the case of CsH1. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that both SVMPs degrade type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries in vivo. Moreover, while the action of CsH1 is more directed to the BM of microvessels, the effects of BaP1 are widespread to other microvascular components. This study provides new insights in the mechanism of haemorrhage and other pathological effects induced by these toxins.

  15. The Impact of Carbon Source, Explants and Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Organogenesis of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita GHASSEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. plant is known for its antimalarial activity. The low content of artemisinin has stimulated researchers to enhance its production through biotechnological approaches such as tissue culture. The present study was initiated to study the effect of some important factors alone and in combination, on the callogenesis and organogenesis of Artemisia annua. The type of carbon source had a significant effect on NAA efficiency to callogenesis of A. annua, whereas the best callogenesis of A. absinthium was observed at 2 mg/L BAP + 30 g/L sucrose and in the absence of NAA, with root explants. Presence of BAP also had an important effect on callogenesis, especially in high concentrations. A suitable suspension culture was obtained in the MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and BAP, with 30 g/L glucose. Artemisinin was naturally production was at least 0.03 mg/g (w.dt at the first day and peaked on the 16th day with 0.31 mg/g (w.dt in the cell culture of A. annua. The maximum number of shoots (2.167 ± 1.484 was induced at 0.5 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA + glucose (30 g/L with leaf explants. However, treatments containing glucose did not show a good shoot induction. Longer shoots were induced in the medium containing either 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP + sucrose with leaf explants (1.493 cm ± 0.342 or 0.5 mg/l NAA + sucrose with stem explants (0.697 cm ± 0.930. Medium containing 0.5 or 2 mg/l NAA and sucrose (without BAP induced more roots though.

  16. The Impact of Carbon Source, Explants and Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Organogenesis of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita GHASSEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. plant is known for its antimalarial activity. The low content of artemisinin has stimulated researchers to enhance its production through biotechnological approaches such as tissue culture. The present study was initiated to study the effect of some important factors alone and in combination, on the callogenesis and organogenesis of Artemisia annua. The type of carbon source had a significant effect on NAA efficiency to callogenesis of A. annua, whereas the best callogenesis of A. absinthium was observed at 2 mg/L BAP + 30 g/L sucrose and in the absence of NAA, with root explants. Presence of BAP also had an important effect on callogenesis, especially in high concentrations. A suitable suspension culture was obtained in the MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and BAP, with 30 g/L glucose. Artemisinin was naturally production was at least 0.03 mg/g (w.dt at the first day and peaked on the 16th day with 0.31 mg/g (w.dt in the cell culture of A. annua. The maximum number of shoots (2.167 ± 1.484 was induced at 0.5 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA + glucose (30 g/L with leaf explants. However, treatments containing glucose did not show a good shoot induction. Longer shoots were induced in the medium containing either 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP + sucrose with leaf explants (1.493 cm ± 0.342 or 0.5 mg/l NAA + sucrose with stem explants (0.697 cm ± 0.930. Medium containing 0.5 or 2 mg/l NAA and sucrose (without BAP induced more roots though.

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced pulmonary inflammation, edema, surfactant dysfunction, and injuries in rats: alleviation by farnesol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Khan, Rehan; Lateef, Abdul; Tahir, Mir; Rehman, Muneeb U; Ali, Farrah; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is a well-known environmental contaminant and carcinogen. Its sources include tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, forest fire, and other combustion processes. Farnesol, an active principle of Vachellia farnesiana and other aromatic plants, possesses preventive properties against various toxicities. Present study was designed to estimate chemopreventive effects of farnesol against B(a)P-induced pulmonary injuries. To determine the protective effects of farnesol, it was administered orally at 2 doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) once daily for 14 days. Rats were exposed intratracheally to B(a)P, 5 mg/kg b.w. on days 12 and 14, thereafter assessed for pulmonary toxicities 24 hours post last dose of B(a)P. B(a)P-induced edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, and consequent damages in lungs were assessed in terms of total protein, total cell count, nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). B(a)P also reduced the levels of phospholipids (lung surfactants) in BALF. However, pretreatment with farnesol at both the doses significantly reduced the lung injuries and inflammatory responses. Farnesol also protected the levels of phospholipids to normal when compared with control. It also modified the activities of B(a)P metabolizing enzymes NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in lung tissue of rats. Present findings suggest a prominent role of farnesol against B(a)P-induced lung inflammation, edema, surfactant dysfunction, and epithelial damages in Wistar rats. In conclusion, farnesol shows lung protection against B(a)P toxicities in Wistar rats.

  18. Toxicity evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene on the polychaete Perinereis nuntia using subtractive cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Senlin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Bin; Yu, Xingguang; Lin, Kangli; Bian, Mei; Liu, Zhenghua; Huang, Hao; Yu, Weiwei

    2011-10-01

    To gain insight into the toxic effects of the carcinogenic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the typical marine benthic polychaete Perinereis nuntia, we amplified and sequenced genes by creating subtractive cDNA libraries between worms exposed to BaP and solvent control. We assigned functions to the identified sequences and further analyzed the transcriptional profile changes of a set of 50 selected potential marker genes using quantitative real time PCR. A total of 2422 new high quality ESTs (GenBank accession number GT629654-GT632075) were obtained in the P. nuntia subtracted cDNA libraries, and assembled into 1594 unique sequences. Blastx results showed 700 of the unique sequences shared high similarity with existing genes in the GenBank nr database. Functional annotation of these enriched gene segments suggested that P. nuntia shows a wide range of toxicological responses to BaP. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of the 50 potential marker genes in worms exposed to BaP and the control suggested that BaP significantly changed the expression of genes involved in xenobiotics metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell division cycle, neurodegeneration, neurotransmitter metabolism and carcinogenesis. It also shows that there are significant correlations between these potential marker genes. The results support the prediction that the polychaete P. nuntia also has a set of tumor-related genes, while other responses influenced by BaP involve detoxification, antioxidation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis for Survival after Enucleation of Uveal Melanoma in Chinese Patients: Long-term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Zhang, Rui; Bi, Yingwen; Meng, Fengxi; Xuan, Yi

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of uveal melanoma (UM) after enucleation in Chinese patients. Between 2003 and 2012, a series of 171 patients with UM received enucleation at the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Patient clinical information was collected. Pathological examination and BAP1 staining of the enucleated eyes were conducted. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regressions were conducted to determine the risk factors, and the survival rates were calculated and compared. The study included 83 (49%) men and 88 (51%) women, with a mean age of 48.6 years. The mean largest basal tumor diameter and mean largest tumor thickness were 11.8 and 8.6 mm, respectively. Ciliary body involvement was observed in 19 tumors (11%). Spindle and nonspindle patterns were observed in 100 (58%) and 71 eyes (42%), respectively. Extrascleral extension was observed in three eyes (2%). BAP1 staining was negative in 34% (53/156) of all tumors and 53% (19/36) of the cases with melanoma-related metastasis. The mean follow-up period was 63.4 months for all patients with the exception of 11 patients, who were excluded because they were lost during follow-up. A large basal tumor diameter, ciliary body involvement, nonspindle cell type, extrascleral extension, and negative BAP1 staining were associated with a worse prognosis. The survival curves significantly differed between the BAP1-negative and BAP1-positive groups (P = 0.004). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 5- and 10-year metastasis-free survival rates were 80% and 70%, respectively. A large basal tumor diameter, ciliary body involvement, nonspindle cell type, extrascleral extension, and negative BAP1 staining may be risk factors for the prediction of the UM prognosis. A younger age at diagnosis and a similar prognosis between genders may be unique features in Asian patients compared to the Caucasian population.

  20. Comparison of two indices of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a retrospective aluminium smelter cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Demers, Paul A; Spinelli, John J; Lorenzi, Maria F; Le, Nhu D

    2007-04-01

    The association between coal tar-derived substances, a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cancer is well established. However, the specific aetiological agents are unknown. To compare the dose-response relationships for two common measures of coal tar-derived substances, benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to evaluate which among these is more strongly related to the health outcomes. The study population consisted of 6423 men with > or =3 years of work experience at an aluminium smelter (1954-97). Three health outcomes identified from national mortality and cancer databases were evaluated: incidence of bladder cancer (n = 90), incidence of lung cancer (n = 147) and mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 184). The shape, magnitude and precision of the dose-response relationships and cumulative exposure levels for BSM and BaP were evaluated. Two model structures were assessed, where 1n(relative risk) increased with cumulative exposure (log-linear model) or with log-transformed cumulative exposure (log-log model). The BaP and BSM cumulative exposure metrics were highly correlated (r = 0.94). The increase in model precision using BaP over BSM was 14% for bladder cancer and 5% for lung cancer; no difference was observed for AMI. The log-linear BaP model provided the best fit for bladder cancer. The log-log dose-response models, where risk of disease plateaus at high exposure levels, were the best-fitting models for lung cancer and AMI. BaP and BSM were both strongly associated with bladder and lung cancer and modestly associated with AMI. Similar conclusions regarding the associations could be made regardless of the exposure metric.

  1. Properties of an ionic liquid-tolerant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1 and its extracellular protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Atsushi; Senoo, Humiya; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Kaida, Hideaki; Matsuhara, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2016-07-01

    An ionic liquid-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1, was isolated from a Japanese fermented soybean paste. Strain CMW1 grew in the presence of 10 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), a commonly used ionic liquid. Additionally, strain CMW1 grew adequately in the presence of the hydrophilic ionic liquids 10 % (v/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM]CF3SO3) or 2.5 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([BMIM]CF3SO3). Strain CMW1 produced an extracellular protease (BapIL) in the culture medium. BapIL was stable in the presence of 80 % (v/v) ionic liquids, [EMIM]CF3SO3, [BMIM]Cl, [BMIM]CF3SO3, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and functioned in 10 % (v/v) these ionic liquids. BapIL was stable at pH 4.0-12.6 or in 4004 mM NaCl solution, and exhibited activity in the presence of 50 % (v/v) hydrophilic or hydrophobic organic solvents. BapIL was completely inhibited by 1 mM PMSF and partially by 5 mM EDTA. BapIL belongs to the true subtilisins according to analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. We showed that BapIL from the ionic liquid-tolerant B. amyloliquefaciens CMW1 exhibited tolerance to ionic liquid and halo, alkaline, and organic solvents.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  3. DNA oxidation and DNA repair in gills of zebra mussels exposed to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater bivalve molluscs are considered as effective indicators of environmental pollution. The comet assay allows the detection of DNA damage such as DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. The main oxidative lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a pre-mutagenic lesion, can be detected by the comet assay coupled with the hOGG1 DNA repair enzyme. With this modified assay we recently observed that BaP induced 8-oxodG lesions and with the modified comet-Fpg assay we observed that Cd induced oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of DNA lesions in Cd and BaP exposed zebra mussels using the comet-hOGG1 assay. Mussels were exposed for 24 h to these two chemicals and then placed in clean water for 6 days. We observed that BaP (7, 12 and 18 µg/L) induced an increase of DNA strand break levels as soon as 6 h of exposure and that the two highest concentrations of BaP induced a low level of hOGG1-sensitive sites. After 2 days of depuration, BaP induced DNA lesions returned to the basal level, indicating an effective DNA repair. Cd (3, 32 and 81 µg/L) induced an increase of the DNA strand break levels and a low level of hOGG1-sensitive sites. This study revealed that BaP-induced DNA lesions are repaired more efficiently than Cd-induced DNA lesions. As the level of hOGG1 sensitive sites was increased in Cd and BaP exposed mussels, it seems that these chemicals induce 8-oxo-dG.

  4. Dose-related carcinogenic effects of water-borne benzo(a)pyrene on livers of two small fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Walker, W.W.; Overstreet, R.M.; Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administered by water-borne exposures caused dose-related carcinogenic effects in livers of two small fish species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Medaka and guppies each were given two 6-h exposures. The first exposure was conducted on 6- to 10-day-old specimens. The second exposure was given 7 days later. The tests incorporated five treatment groups: (1) control, (2) carrier (dimethylformamide) control, (3) low BaP dose (not detectable--4 ppb), (4) intermediate BaP dose (about 8-47 ppb BaP), and (5) high BaP dose (200-270 ppb). Following the high-dose exposure, hepatocellular lesions classified as foci of cellular alteration (altered foci), adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in both species. In medaka, the lesions appeared to develop sequentially with the appearance of altered foci followed by adenomas and then hepatocellular carcinomas. Most lesions in guppies, however, were classified as altered foci although a few adenomas occurred in the early (24-week) sample and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in the late (52-week) sample. When total lesions were combined, medaka had an 11% incidence at 24 weeks after the initial exposure and 36% incidence at 36 weeks. In guppies, 8% had liver lesions at 24 weeks, 19% at 36 weeks, and 20% at 52 weeks. A single extrahepatic neoplasm, a capillary hemangioma in a gill filament, occurred in a medaka from the 36-week high-dose sample. The results suggest that the medaka and guppy are capable of metabolizing water-borne BaP to carcinogenic metabolites which initiate hepatic tumor development.

  5. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  6. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  7. Induksi Tunas Ubi Kayu (Mannihot EsculentaCrantz.) Var. Adira 2 secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Khumaida, Nurul; Fauzi, Ahmad Rifqi

    2013-01-01

    The research aim was to evaluate the effect of culture medium compositon and BAP concentration on growth and shoot multiplication of in vitro-grown cassava (Mannihot esculentaCrantz.) var. €˜Adira 2€™. The experimental design was completely randomize design with two factors. The first factor was composition of basal medium including MS and ½ MS (half of macro and micro nutrients), and the second factor was concentration of BAP (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 ppm). The result showed that basal medium M...

  8. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  9. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Miaud, Claude, E-mail: claude.miaud@univ-savoie.fr [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Ficetola, Gentile Francesco [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Department of Biology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bocher, Aurore [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Mouchet, Florence [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR CNRS-UPS-INPT 5245, Institut National Polytechnique-ENSAT, Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Guittonneau, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Devaux, Alain [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, INRA-EFPA, Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2009-11-08

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a

  10. In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum Daniel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... sour lime, lemon, grape fruits and even vinegar to taste sweet (Rehm and Espig, 1991). Various studies ... 10% coconut water. T. 30% coconut water. U. 0.5 NAA + 0.2 BAP. V. 0.1 NAA + 0.3 BAP. W. 0.5 2,4–D + 0.4 Kinetin. X. 0.2 2,4–D + 0.1 Kinetin. Y. 0.02 2,4–D + 0.01 Kinetin. Z. 0 supplement (control).

  11. Studies on the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in biological samples by using high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Shin, Hye Seung; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, Yun Je

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its hydroxylated metabolites, 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (1-OHBaP), 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-dihydrodial(4,5-diolBaP) and benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-diolBaP), in rat urine and plasma has been developed by HPLC/FLD and GC/MS. The derivatization with alkyl iodide was employed to improve the resolution and the detection of two mono hydroxylated metabolites, 1-OHBaP and 3-OHBaP, in LC and GC. BaP and its four metabolites in spiked urine were successfully separated by gradient elution on reverse phase ODS C 18 column (4.6 mm I.D., 100 mm length, particle size 5μm) using a binary mixture of MeOH/H 2 O (85/15, v/v) as mobile phase after ethylation at 90 .deg. C for 10 min. The extraction recoveries of BaP and its metabolites in spiked samples with liquid-liquid extraction, which was better than solid phase extraction, were in the range of 90.3-101.6% in n-hexane for urine and 95.7-106.3% in acetone for plasma, respectively. The calibration curves has shown good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) varying from 0.992 to 1.000 for urine and from 0.996 to 1.000 for plasma, respectively. The detection limits of all analytes were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL for urine and 0.1-0.4ng/mL for plasma, respectively. The metabolites of BaP were excreted as mono hydroxy and dihydrodiol forms after intraperitoneal infection of 20 mg/kg of BaP to rats. The total amounts of BaP and four metabolites excreted in dosed rat urine were 3.79 ng over the 0 - 96 hr period from administration and the excretional recovery was less than 0.065% of the injection amounts of BaP. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BaP and its hydroxylated metabolites in rat urine and plasma for the pharmacokinetic studies

  12. Brotações adventícias de abacaxizeiro ornamental sob o efeito de benzilaminopurina, ácido naftalenoacético e períodos de subcultivo Adventitious shoot of ornamental pineapple under benzylaminopurine, naphthalene acetic acid and subculture period effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Desterro Mendes Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adição de benzilaminopurina (BAP, em combinação com o ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, e dos períodos de subcultivo, na formação de brotações in vitro de abacaxizeiro ornamental. O meio básico líquido consistiu de sais minerais MS e vitaminas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6x2x4, com seis concentrações de BAP (0, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2 mg L-1 e duas de ANA (0 e 0,1 mg L-1, e quatro períodos de subcultivo (30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. Os explantes consistiram de brotações individuais de 1 cm de comprimento, oriundas da cultura in vitro. A formação de novas brotações foi observada em meio suplementado com BAP, em todos os períodos de subcultivo. O maior número médio de brotos por explante foi obtido em meio com a concentração de 1,2 mg L-1 de BAP e 120 dias de subcultivo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP additions, in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, and of subcultures periods on in vitro shoot formation of ornamental pineapple. The basal liquid medium consisted of MS salts and vitamins. The experiment was a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement 6x2x4, with six concentrations of BAP (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, e 2 mg L-1 and two of NAA (0 and 0.1 mg L-1, and four subculturing periods (30, 60, 90 e 120 days. The explants consisted of individualized shoots with 1 cm length from in vitro cultures. Shoot formation was observed in medium supplemented with BAP in all subculturing periods. The greatest average number of shoots per explant was obtained with BAP concentration of 1.2 mg L-1 and 120 days of subcultive.

  13. Conversão in vitro de raízes e folhas de Miltonia flavescens Lindl. em protocormos e regeneração de plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello,Suzana; Karsten,Juliane; Müller,Taina Soraia; Tomczak,Ana Paula; Bonett,Lucimar Pereira; Schuelter,Adilson Ricken

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito do 2,4-D e do BAP na formação de protocormos a partir de regiões meristemáticas da raiz e segmentos foliares de Miltonia flavescens Lindl., bem como testar o efeito de concentrações de sacarose e níveis de pH no crescimento in vitro dos protocormos. Ápices radiculares e segmentos de folhas de plantas germinadas in vitro foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS/2 suplementado com 2,4-D e BAP onde permaneceram por 210 dias no escuro, sendo tran...

  14. Micropropagation of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. via direct organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Borda-Yepez, Charlotte Cesty [UNESP; Tejada, Erik C. Saenz [UNESP; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    The present research was aimed at standardizing the protocol of seed disinfection, seed germination and organogenesis via callus of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq.The germinated seeds were inoculated in different concentrations of BAP (benzylamine purine) and NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) in order to stimulate the callus induction. After 60 days of culture, the calluses with some shoots were taken to an organogenesis medium (GA3 0.1 mg.L -1, BAP 0.5 mg.L-1) during 40 days, to be transferred l...

  15. The multi-port berth allocation problem with speed optimization and emission considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturini, Giada; Iris, Cagatay; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2017-01-01

    achieve a sustainable supply chain, and on the other side, the optimization of operations and sailing times leads to reductions in bunker consumption and, thus, to fuel cost and air emissions reductions. To that effect, there is an increasing need to address the integration opportunities and environmental...... issues related to container shipping through optimization. This paper focuses on the well known Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), an optimization problem assigning berthing times and positions to vessels in container terminals. We introduce a novel mathematical formulation that extends the classical BAP...... and emissions. Furthermore, the model implementation shows that an accurate speed discretization can result in far better economic and environmental results....

  16. Multiplicação in vitro de amoreira-preta cultivar Brazos In vitro multiplication of blackberry cv. Brazos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Villa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação da amoreira-preta pode gerar plantas livres de vírus e em curto espaço de tempo. Com o objetivo de aprimorar técnicas de micropropagação de amoreira-preta cultivar Brazos (Rubus idaeus L., segmentos nodais, oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro foram excisados e inoculados em meio WPM (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200%, suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os explantes foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC, irradiância de 35 mmol m² s¹ e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se de quatro repetições com quatro explantes cada. Maior número de brotos foi proporcionado com 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP associado a 100% de meio WPM e maior comprimento médio dos brotos após 60 dias foi verificado em 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP associado a 200% de meio WPM. Maior peso de matéria seca da parte aérea foi obtido em meio WPM 200% acrescido de 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP.With the objective of multiplying blackberry cv. Brazos, nodal segments, coming from in vitro plants previously selected, were excised and inoculated in WPM culture medium (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200%, supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg L-1. After inoculation, the explants were transferred to culture room, at 27±1ºC temperature, 35 mmol m² s¹ ofirradiance and photoperiod of 16 hours, for 60 days. The experimental was a design randomized complete block, with four replications and four explants each. Greater number of sprouts was provided with 1,0 mg L-1 of BAP associated with 100% WPM culture medium and larger sprouts length average after 60 days were verified in 1,0 mg L-1 of BAP associated with 200% WPM culture medium. Higher dry matter weight of the aerial part was obtained in 200% WPM culture medium added with 0,5 mg L-1 of BAP.

  17. Vitellogenin induction and increased plasma 17beta-estradiol concentrations in male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to organochlorine pollutants and polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Ortíz, Juan Pablo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Chan-Cocom, Maria Eulalia; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were used as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in mature male nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from three lakes (Rio, Enmedio and Limon) in Chiapas, Mexico. Vitellogenesis induction was found in tilapias from Rio and Limon, moderately high E(2) levels in Rio and Limon tilapias, compared with controls (cultured tilapias). Significant correlations between benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolites and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) with Vtg and E(2) were found. The results of this study indicate that endocrine disruption exists in tilapias from Rio and Limon lakes, and that exposure to HCB and BaP could be causing these alterations.

  18. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  19. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (Phorses.

  20. Dissolved organic phosphorus and its bioavailable fraction in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, M.; Nausch, G.; Setzkorn, D.; Welz, Ä.

    2009-04-01

    In general, it is accepted that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) is besides dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) a source for phosphorus nutrition of phyto- and bacterioplankton. If available, DIP is usually preferred to DOP. DOP becomes the most important source under DIP depleted conditions occurring in the Baltic Sea in summer. However, its contribution to nutrition and consequently its significance is very difficult to appraise because only the bioavailable fraction (BAP = bioavailable phosphorus) can be used by organisms. DOP comprises also inert compounds which persist over longer periods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to quantify the bioavailable DOP. In 2004 and 2005, DOP and BAP concentrations were detected in surface water at three stations in the central Baltic Sea from May until July. In June/July 2008 an intensive measuring campaign was performed throughout the whole Baltic Sea. DOP measurements were done from the entrance to the North Sea in the West until the innermost parts of the Gulf of Bothnia in the North and the Gulf of Finland in the East. BAP was determined at 14 stations in the central and northern parts. DOP was determined using the alkaline potassium peroxidisulphate oxidation method followed by the manual DIP determination. BAP has been detected in time course experiments using 0.8 µm filtered sea water containing free-living heterotrophic bacteria and amended with 7 µM ammonium chloride and 1mg l-1 D-(+) glucosemonohydrate to prevent nitrogen and carbon limitation and increase the phosphorus demand in bacteria. BAP is defined as that proportion of DOP which is used by bacteria and calculated as the difference of DOP concentrations at the beginning and the lowest concentrations during an incubation for 4-6 days. In 2004 and 2005, most DOP concentrations ranged between 0.18 and 0.32 µM, with a declining tendency from spring to summer probably due to elevated uptake compared to its release caused by higher temperatures and DIP

  1. Incontinência urinária em mulheres idosas: determinantes, consequências e diagnósticos de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara de Sá Neves Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Revisión sistemática que tuvo como objetivo identificar determinantes, consecuencias y diagnósticos de enfermería en mujeres ancianas con incontinencia urinaria. Considerando los determinantes, se observó: restricción de movilidad, multipartdad vaginal, deficiencia de estrógeno, alteraciones neurológícas, comorbllídad, infección urinaria, obesidad, constipación intestinal, uso excesivo de cafeína, uso de múltiples medicamentos, tabaquismo, antecedentes de cirugía ginecológica y alteraciones de senescencia. En cuanto a las consecuencias, se observó: aislamiento social, disminución de la autoestíma, depresión, interferencia en la vida SeA'11al, percepción negativa del estado de salud, vergüenza, problemas psicológicos-emocionales, alteraciones del sueño, institucionalización y perjuicio en la calidad de vida. Los diagnósticos de enfermería identificados fueron: Sueño perjudicado, Ansiedad, Manutención de la salud perjudicada, Cognición perjudicada, Constipación, Depresión, Infección urinaria, Aislamiento social, Miedo, Movilidad restricta, Socialización perjudicada, Régimen medicinal complejo. Se concluye que la incontinencia urinaria en mujeres ancianas acarrea daños en la calidad de vida.

  2. Telomerasa y telómero: su estructura y dinámica en salud y enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Mengual Gómez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La telomerasa es la enzima responsable del mantenimiento de la longitud de los telómeros mediante la adición de secuencias repetitivas ricas en guanina, y su actividad se observa principalmente en gametos, células madre y células tumorales. En las células somáticas humanas el potencial de proliferación es limitado, alcanzando la senescencia luego de 50-70 divisiones celulares, debido a que la ADN polimerasa no es capaz de copiar el ADN en los extremos de los cromosomas. Por el contrario, en la mayoría de las células tumorales el potencial de replicación es ilimitado debido al mantenimiento de la longitud telomérica dado por la telomerasa. Los telómeros tienen proteínas adicionales que regulan la unión de la telomerasa. De la misma manera la telomerasa también se asocia con un complejo de proteínas que regulan su actividad. Este trabajo se centra en la estructura y función del complejo telómero/telomerasa y a cómo las alteraciones en su comportamiento conducen al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades, principalmente cáncer. El desarrollo de inhibidores del sistema telómero / telomerasa podría ser un blanco con posibilidades prometedoras.

  3. La lipoxigenasa en el reino vegetal, asignadas. II. Funciones fisiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, L. C.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the large number of publications about lipoxygenase, little definitive information is available concerning physiological roles for plant lipoxygenase. There are three major areas of plant physiology where lipoxygenase has been mainly implicated: 1 growth and development, 2 senescence, and 3 wound response and pest resistance. This section summarizes results from the areas of investigation which are most likely to elucidate the role of lipoxygenase in higher plants.

    A pesar del elevado número de publicaciones que existe sobre lipoxigenasa, muy poca información se puede extraer respecto al papel fisiológico de la lipoxigenasa en el reino vegetal. Existen principalmente tres grandes áreas de la fisiología vegetal donde la lipoxigenasa ha sido implicada: 1 crecimiento y desarrollo, 2 senescencia, y 3 respuesta a daño y resistencia a plagas. Esta parte trata de recoger los datos obtenidos en las áreas de investigación que más probablemente puedan permitir elucidar el papel de la lipoxigenasa en plantas superiores.

  4. First record and ecological features of Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae mining Eichhornia crassipes in the Middle Paraná River floodplain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana MONTALTO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer registro para Argentina de Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, especie cuyos estadios inmaduros minan dentro de los pecíolos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms, en humedales del río Paraná Medio. Las larvas y pupas de G. petiolicola fueron recolectadas estacionalmente durante 2005, de los stands de E. crassipes y en muestras de sedimento en diferentes ambientes de la llanura. Ejemplares de la especie fueron criados en laboratorio a fin de completar su ciclo de vida. G. petiolicola fue el quironómido más abundante que habita en el interior de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, se registraron los estadios de larva III y IV y pupa durante todas las estaciones. No fueron registrados los estadios larvales I y II. Las mayores densidades medias de G. petiolicola fueron obtenidas en otoño-invierno (588,5 ind.kg-1 dw - 778,7 ind.kg-1 dw, esto sugiere que presentan mejores condiciones para la supervivencia, lo que permite a los individuos obtener un desarrollo más lento hasta el próximo período de inundación, con mayores temperaturas. El valor calculado de r (Dyar fue 1,66. G. petiolicola mina dentro de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, principalmente, durante el inicio del proceso de senescencia del vegetal, por lo que no provoca daños importantes.

  5. Estimadores anatómicos y edad a la muerte: resultados de su aplicación a los materiales del sitio Sutil.43 (Tílcara, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barboza, María Carolina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una experiencia con marcadores osteológicos de edad sobre una muestra correspondiente al Período Hispano-Indígena, con notorio grado de integridad y asociación contextual. La misma se compone de un total de treinta y un individuos entre maduros e inmaduros, los cuales son considerados a su vez en subrangos de edad. Los complejos anatómicos considerados comprenden pelvis, cráneo, dentición, fusión epifisiaria, y aspectos métricos. Se observan concordancias y discrepancias en las asignaciones; se discuten los resultados para cada método por individuo y para el conjunto analizado; y se realizan recomendaciones instrumentales para la aplicación técnica. Los resultados, son interpretados en función de los referentes teóricos disponibles para la biología del crecimiento y desarrollo, señalándose la necesidad de focalizar los aspectos vinculados con la biología de la senescencia del sistema esqueletal humano.

  6. Evaluación de métodos de propagación, fertilización nitrogenada y fenología de estevia en condiciones del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Bonilla C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira se evaluó el prendimiento de estacas apicales y basales de Stevia rebaudiana en tres sustratos de enraizamiento (carbonilla-arena, carbonilla-compost y arena-compost y tres fuentes de nitrógeno (urea 46%N, compost 1.5%N y gallinaza 1% N. El mejor método de propagación fue la estaca apical en sustrato carbonilla-arena 1:1, volumen; las fuentes de nitrógeno no presentaron diferencias significativas en la acumulación de materia seca de hojas. Se diferenciaron los siguientes periodos fenológicos: Emergencia: 6 días después de la siembra (dís, Estado vegetativo: 17 dias, Floración: 71 dís, Fructificación: 115 dís, Senescencia: 169 dís y Rebrote: 201 dís

  7. Producción y propiedades químicas del caucho en clones de Hevea según los estados fenológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Quarteroli Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño productivo y el contenido de macronutrientes del caucho extraído de cuatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis, en diferentes sistemas de sangría y estados fenológicos de las plantas. El experimento fue realizado en los años agrícolas de 2010 y 2011, en diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, en parcelas subdivididas, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos principales - clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 - fueron ubicados en las parcelas, y los subtratamientos, que fueron los sistemas de sangría ½S d/2, ½S d/4 ET 2,5% y ½S d/7 ET 2,5%, se ubicaron en las subparcelas. Las variables analizadas fueron producción y contenido de macronutrientes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en los estados fenológicos de brotación foliar, hojas maduras y senescencia foliar. La producción y los contenidos de macronutrientes del caucho son más influenciados por la práctica de sangría que por el material genético en los estados fenológicos más restrictivos para el follaje de caucho.

  8. Guia del cuidado de enfermería en el abordaje anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marina Vega-Angarita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Para algunos la longevidad conlleva una mayor fragilidad y morbilidad. Los ancianos de hoy viven masque antes, y hay mos casos de enfermedades y discapacidades que requieren cuidados en vez de curación. El anciano tiene multiples necesidades y problemas que requieren comprension y cuidados por parte de la enfermera para promover la salud, el bienestar, la recuperation de la enfermedad o incapacidad y el exito en la evolution hacia la senescencia. El articulo presenta una recopilacion bibliografica efectuada por la autora y se constituye en un material de referencia que ayuda a concebir el fenomeno del envejecimiento desde una perspectiva multidimensional y bosqueja una propuesta de practica profesional desde la vision etica del ser humano. Para ello plantea la descripcion de un cuidado generic° estandarizado reconociendo la individualidad del adulto mayor, el cual se fundamenta en el: - Establecimiento de diagnosticos de enfermeria propuestos por la NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, sobre la base de los problemas mos frecuentes en las personas ancianas y que se asocian con esta etapa de la vida. Clasificados según los patrones funcionales de Maryory Gordon. - Description de la actuacion profesional con la utilization de la Gula (5 de intervention basada en la evidencia cientifica, asi como en la clasificacion de intervenciones de enfermeria propuestas en el (NIC.

  9. Ratings of Broader Autism Phenotype and Personality Traits in Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joyce; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The study examines whether "optimal outcome" (OO) children, despite no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), exhibit personality traits often found in those with ASD. Nine zero acquaintance raters evaluated Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and Big Five personality traits of 22 OO individuals, 27 high…

  10. People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths to Rhythms: Hip-Hop's Continuation of the Enduring Tradition of African and African American Rhetorical Forms and Tropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Timothy N.

    2017-01-01

    Hip-hop is an African folk art birthed in America. Whether one simply observes the tonal language that puffs the breath of life into the lyric prose of rap music, the poly-rhythms of the "boom-bap" rhythmic phrasings that became a fixture of New York rap music in the late 1980s, the winding syncopation from the pounding "808"…

  11. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species Organogênese in vitro em algumas espécies de cítrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.A organogênese in vitro

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acheampong, E. Vol 11, No 2 (2009) - Articles Effect of BAP on shoot proliferation of in vitro cultured pineapple (Ananas comosus) Abstract · Vol 13, No 2 (2011) - Articles Effects of sucrose on development of cultures of some accessions of Dioscorea spp. Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bissah, M. Vol 11, No 2 (2009) - Articles Effect of BAP on shoot proliferation of in vitro cultured pineapple (Ananas comosus) Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  14. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or radiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 μg/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10 7 nuclei of control, BHA-(20 μg/ml) and p-MP-(10 μg/ml) treated cultures, respectively

  15. Why We Should Study the Broader Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a term applied to individuals with personality and cognitive traits that are similar to but milder than those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle autistic traits in the core diagnostic domains of social communication and rigid behavior were described in family members of people with an ASD even…

  16. Changes of Bone Turnover Markers in Long Bone Nonunions Treated with a Regenerative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this clinical trial, we investigated if biochemical bone turnover markers (BTM changed according to the progression of bone healing induced by autologous expanded MSC combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate in patients with delayed union or nonunion of long bone fractures. Bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and osteoclast regulatory proteins were measured by enzymatic immunoassay before surgery and after 6, 12, and 24 weeks. A satisfactory bone healing was obtained in 23 out of 24 patients. Nine subjects reached a good consolidation already at 12 weeks, and they were considered as the “early consolidation” group. We found that bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP, C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP, and beta crosslaps collagen (CTX changed after the regenerative treatment, BAP and CTX correlated to the imaging results collected at 12 and 24 weeks, and BAP variation along the healing course differed in patients who had an “early consolidation.” A remarkable decrease in BAP and PICP was observed at all time points in a single patient who experienced a treatment failure, but the predictive value of BTM changes cannot be determined. Our findings suggest that BTM are promising tools for monitoring cell therapy efficacy in bone nonunions, but studies with larger patient numbers are required to confirm these preliminary results.

  17. Changes of Bone Turnover Markers in Long Bone Nonunions Treated with a Regenerative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granchi, Donatella; Rojewski, Markus; Rosset, Philippe; Layrolle, Pierre; Spazzoli, Benedetta; Donati, Davide Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this clinical trial, we investigated if biochemical bone turnover markers (BTM) changed according to the progression of bone healing induced by autologous expanded MSC combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate in patients with delayed union or nonunion of long bone fractures. Bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and osteoclast regulatory proteins were measured by enzymatic immunoassay before surgery and after 6, 12, and 24 weeks. A satisfactory bone healing was obtained in 23 out of 24 patients. Nine subjects reached a good consolidation already at 12 weeks, and they were considered as the “early consolidation” group. We found that bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and beta crosslaps collagen (CTX) changed after the regenerative treatment, BAP and CTX correlated to the imaging results collected at 12 and 24 weeks, and BAP variation along the healing course differed in patients who had an “early consolidation.” A remarkable decrease in BAP and PICP was observed at all time points in a single patient who experienced a treatment failure, but the predictive value of BTM changes cannot be determined. Our findings suggest that BTM are promising tools for monitoring cell therapy efficacy in bone nonunions, but studies with larger patient numbers are required to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:28744314

  18. In vitro callus formation in cultivated and wild species of Cyamopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the concentration of NAA is increased to 1 mg/l and concentration of BAP is decreased with 0.5 mg/l, response was decreased in wild species of C. senegalensis whereas no change in response was found in the other two species. Keywords: Callus induction, cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), Cyamopsis ...

  19. An indigoidine biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 contains an unusual IndB homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Valiente, Jonathan; Wang, Siyuan; Zhan, Jixun

    2013-01-01

    A putative indigoidine biosynthetic gene cluster was located in the genome of Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982. The silent 9.4-kb gene cluster consists of five open reading frames, named orf1, Sc-indC, Sc-indA, Sc-indB, and orf2, respectively. Sc-IndC was functionally characterized as an indigoidine synthase through heterologous expression of the enzyme in both Streptomyces coelicolor CH999 and Escherichia coli BAP1. The yield of indigoidine in E. coli BAP1 reached 2.78 g/l under the optimized conditions. The predicted protein product of Sc-indB is unusual and much larger than any other reported IndB-like protein. The N-terminal portion of this enzyme resembles IdgB and the C-terminal portion is a hypothetical protein. Sc-IndA and/or Sc-IndB were co-expressed with Sc-IndC in E. coli BAP1, which demonstrated the involvement of Sc-IndB, but not Sc-IndA, in the biosynthetic pathway of indigoidine. The yield of indigoidine was dramatically increased by 41.4 % (3.93 g/l) when Sc-IndB was co-expressed with Sc-IndC in E. coli BAP1. Indigoidine is more stable at low temperatures.

  20. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S.

    2006-01-01

    %, BAP (55%), CTX-I (33%), and YKL-40 (43%). Univariate analysis showed an association to survival: PINP (HR = 1.6, P 4, P 4, P = 0.004). In multivariate Cox analysis performance status, WHO grade, Soloway score, PINP...

  1. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem were cultured on Murashige and. Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0.0, ...

  2. Gait rehabilitation for a patient with an osseointegrated prosthesis following transfemoral amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijendekkers, R.A.; Hinte, G.J. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Staal, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with a transfemoral amputation socket-related problems are associated with reduced prosthetic use, activity, and quality of life. Furthermore, gait asymmetries are present that may explain secondary complaints. Bone-anchored prostheses (BAPs) may help these patients. Two

  3. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-30

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a Black Carbon-Substituted Multimedia Model for Simulating the PAH Distributions in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhui; Zhou, Shenglu; He, Yue; Wang, Junxiao; Wang, Fei; Wu, Shaohua

    2017-11-06

    A multimedia fugacity model with spatially resolved environmental phases at an urban scale was developed. In this model, the key parameter, organic matter, was replaced with black carbon (BC) and applied to simulate the distributions of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) in Nanjing, China. Based on the estimated emissions and measured inflows of air and water, the Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations in different environment media were calculated under steady-state assumptions. The original model (OC-Model), BC-inclusive model (dual C-Model) and improved model (BC-Model) were validated by comparing observed and predicted Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations. Our results suggested that lighter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more affected by BC substitution than their heavier counterparts. We advocate the utilization of sorption with BC in future multimedia fate models for lighter PAHs based on the comparison of the calculated and observed values from measured and published sources. The spatial distributions of the Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations in all phases were rationally mapped based on the calculated concentrations from the BC-Model, indicating that soil was the dominant sink of PAHs in terrestrial systems, while sediment was the dominant sink of PAHs in aquatic systems.

  5. Predictors of Mental Health in Chinese Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueyun; Cai, Ru Ying; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of parental intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), sensory sensitivity (SS) and Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP), as well as the severity of their children's autism symptoms and co-morbid symptoms, on the mental health of Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One hundred and…

  6. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  7. [Effects of subchronic benzo[a]pyrene exposure on hippocampal cholinergic system in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Wang, Xin; Li, Jin-yan; Liang, Hua-shan; Jiang, Yong; Chang, Shan-shan; Song, Yu-jing; Cheng, Li; Zheng, Jin-ping

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effects of subchronic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure on the neurobehavior and hippocampal acetylcholine (Ach) level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and mRNA and protein expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype (nAChR α7) in rats, and to investigate the neurotoxic mechanism of B[a]P. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent control group, and B [a]P exposure groups. Each rat in the exposure groups was intraperitoneally injected with B[a]P at 1.0, 2.5, or 6.25 mg/kg once every other day for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of the rats was examined by Morris water maze test and step-down test; the hippocampal Ach level was measured by alkaline hydroxylamine method; the AChE activity was measured by DNTB method; the mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal nAChR α7 were measured by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The 2.5 and 6.25 mg/kg B[a]P exposure groups showed significantly lower learning and memory abilities than the blank control group and solvent control group (P 0.05). The hippocampal Ach level was negatively correlated with the mean escape latency period and total distance travelled (r = -0.567, P memory ability in rats, which is related to the downregulation of hippocampal Ach level.

  8. Genotoxicity evaluation of multi-component mixtures of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arsenic, cadmium, and lead using flow cytometry based micronucleus test in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Sasikumar; Peng, Cheng; Ng, Jack C

    2018-03-01

    Some polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals are known human carcinogens and the combined toxicity data of these co-contaminants are important for assessing their health risk. In this study, we have evaluated the combined genotoxicity, AhR activity and cell cycle parameters of four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (Ba]P), naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr)) and three metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)) in HepG2 cells using a flow cytometry based micronucleus (MN) test CAFLUX assay and nuclear fluorescence assay, respectively. The mixtures of B[a]P and metals induced a maximum of four fold increase in the MN formation compared to B[a]P alone. The higher combination of PAHs and metals did not significantly increase the MN formation. The mixtures of metals or non-carcinogenic PAHs were found to increase or decrease the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation of B[a]P in HepG2 cell based CAFLUX assay. Overall, the results showed that combined genotoxicity of PAHs and metals in HepG2 cells vary depending on the concentrations and number of the chemicals that are present in the mixtures and the effects of higher order combinations appear to be largely unpredictable from binary combinations. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of flow cytometry based MN test to screen the genotoxicity of environmental chemicals and its mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface runoff and phosphorus (P) loss from bamboo (Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The average bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) concentration of the runoff was 0.23 mg/l and the various phosphorus ... Key words: Phyllostachys pubescens, ecosystem, surface runoff, phosphorus (P) loss. INTRODUCTION .... runoff samples were used for total P (TP) determination following perchloric acid ...

  10. Determination of benzo(apyrene content in PM10 using regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Gębicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an attempt of application of multidimensional linear regression to estimation of an empirical model describing the factors influencing on B(aP content in suspended dust PM10 in Olsztyn and Elbląg city regions between 2010 and 2013. During this period annual average concentration of B(aP in PM10 exceeded the admissible level 1.5-3 times. Conducted investigations confirm that the reasons of B(aP concentration increase are low-efficiency individual home heat stations or low-temperature heat sources, which are responsible for so-called low emission during heating period. Dependences between the following quantities were analysed: concentration of PM10 dust in air, air temperature, wind velocity, air humidity. A measure of model fitting to actual B(aP concentration in PM10 was the coefficient of determination of the model. Application of multidimensional linear regression yielded the equations characterized by high values of the coefficient of determination of the model, especially during heating season. This parameter ranged from 0.54 to 0.80 during the analyzed period.

  11. The short-term effects of a body awareness program : better self-management of health problems for individuals with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW; Rispens, P

    2004-01-01

    A three-day residential Body Awareness Program (BAP) was developed to teach people with Chronic A-specific Psychosomatic Symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The short-term effects of the program for people with

  12. Improvement of balance between work stress and recovery after a body awareness program for chronic aspecific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW

    Objective: A 3-day residential body awareness program (BAP) was developed to teach people with chronic aspecific psychosomatic symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The long-term effects of the program in

  13. The long-term lasting effectiveness on self-efficacy, attribution style, expression of emotions and quality of life of a body awareness program for chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW

    Objective: A 3-day residential body awareness program (BAP) was developed to teach people with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The long-term effects of the program on body

  14. Identifying Neurobiological Markers of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    with ASD and their families. Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP), nonverbal emotions , social cognition... emotional recall/imagery (Beauregard, et al., 2001; Eippert, et al., 2007; Phan, et al., 2002; Schutter & Honk, 2009). Our findings may therefore reflect...vocal emotions expressed by others (Aziz-Zadeh, et al., 2010; Gallese, 2007). Accordingly, our neuroimaging paradigm provides an exciting new

  15. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing ...

  16. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... mgl-1 NAA and 0.1 mgl-1 BAP. Bacteria strain and plasmid vector. Genetic transformation was performed using the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 containing the binary plasmid pADI (Figure 1) that carries a neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene under the control of CaMV promoter (Hernould et al., ...

  17. IN VITRO CULTURE OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Pod yields remain low and unpredictable (650 - 850 kg.ha-1), because of ..... and shoot bud (b, green arrow) on a same piece of callus, or root induction (c, arrowed). Induction et différenciation de cals à partir d'explants issus de ..... from pea hypocotyls (Ochatt et al., 2000). Moreover, increasing concentrations of BAP from.

  18. Evidence for chromatin-remodeling complex PBAP-controlled maintenance of the Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila oogenesis, germline stem cells (GSCs continuously self-renew and differentiate into daughter cells for consecutive germline lineage commitment. This developmental process has become an in vivo working platform for studying adult stem cell fate regulation. An increasing number of studies have shown that while concerted actions of extrinsic signals from the niche and intrinsic regulatory machineries control GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation, epigenetic regulation is implicated in the process. Here, we report that Brahma (Brm, the ATPase subunit of the Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes, is required for maintaining GSC fate. Removal or knockdown of Brm function in either germline or niche cells causes a GSC loss, but does not disrupt normal germline differentiation within the germarium evidenced at the molecular and morphological levels. There are two Drosophila SWI/SNF complexes: the Brm-associated protein (BAP complex and the polybromo-containing BAP (PBAP complex. More genetic studies reveal that mutations in polybromo/bap180, rather than gene encoding Osa, the BAP complex-specific subunit, elicit a defect in GSC maintenance reminiscent of the brm mutant phenotype. Further genetic interaction test suggests a functional association between brm and polybromo in controlling GSC self-renewal. Taken together, studies in this paper provide the first demonstration that Brm in the form of the PBAP complex functions in the GSC fate regulation.

  19. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  20. The Relationship between the Broader Autism Phenotype, Child Severity, and Stress and Depression in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child symptom severity, parent broader autism phenotype (BAP), and stress and depression in parents of children with ASD. One hundred and forty-nine parents of children with ASD completed a survey of parenting stress, depression, broader autism phenotype, coping styles, perceived social support, and…

  1. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalisx;schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP...

  2. in vitro production of virus-free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: Viral disease is the major factor causing significant yield loss in sweet potato. Production of disease-free clones by tissue culture technique increases yield and income of farmers. Meristems from three varieties of sweet potato were cultured at different combinations of BAP, GA3 and NAA in MS basal medium.

  3. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  4. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samrat1765

    2013-03-20

    . The shoot tip explants of this ... observed on MS+ BAP (2 mg/l) + NAA (0.5 mg/l) (4 shoots/ culture). The shoot multiplication started ... throughout the world ranging from southern Asia to New. Guinea and Australia (Luo et al., ...

  5. Pembangunan Aplikasi Perhitungan Honor dan Pengukuran Kinerja Asisten Praktikum Berbasis SaaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Susanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bagi suatu perguruan tinggi, kegiatan praktikum sangat penting untuk mendukung pembelajaran di kelas. Beberapa masalah yang muncul dalam pengelolaan kegiatan praktikum seperti keterlambatan pengumpulan berita acara praktikum (BAP sehingga memperlambat perhitungan, pembayaran dan pelaporan honor asprak. Dibutuhkan waktu sekitar dua minggu untuk rekapitulasi dan validasi ratusan lembar BAP yang telah terkumpul setiap bulannya. Dibutuhkan pengolahan data lebih lanjut untuk menilai kinerja asprak berdasarkan data BAP. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan di atas maka dibangun aplikasi perhitungan honor dan kinerja asprak. Aplikasi ini digunakan untuk mengelola data BAP, perhitungan dan pelaporan honor, perhitungan nilai transkrip aktivitas kemahasiswaan (TAK dan pencetakan sertifikat asprak. Keterbatasan SDM atau biaya menyebabkan tidak semua perguruan tinggi dapat langsung membuat aplikasi yang dibutuhkan. Oleh karena itu aplikasi ini dibangun berbasis Software as A Service (SaaS. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan dengan metode analisis perancangan terstruktur dengan model waterfall. Pengumpulan data kebutuhan aplikasi dilakukan dengan survey ke fakultas-fakultas di Universitas Telkom. Hasilnya dianalisis dan dikembangkan menjadi rancangan aplikasi. Aplikasi diimplementasikan pada pemrograman PHP. Pengujian dilakukan dengan metode black box testing. Hasilnya berupa aplikasi SaaS untuk perhitungan honor dan pengukuran kinerja asisten praktikum. Perguruan tinggi pengguna aplikasi SaaS ini dapat melakukan kostumisasi terhadap fitur yang ada sesuai dengan kebutuhan.

  6. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  7. Micropropagación y estimativa de producción de mudas de bananos para la Amazonia Occidental Micropropagation and estimates of banana plantlets production for Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue de determinar tasas de multiplicación y estimar la producción in vitro de microplantas de las cultivares del banano Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken y Japira, durante seis subcultivos y con diferentes concentraciones de BAP. Después de multiplicadas, las microplantas enraizadas fueron aclimatadas, y la sobrevivencia fue determinada después de 30 días. Las tasas de multiplicación fueron de 2,3 y 2,1 brotes por explante de 'Preciosa' y 'Maravilha', respectivamente, y 2,7 brotes por explante de 'Pacovan Ken' y 'Japira', en 4 mg L-1 de BAP. Las pérdidas por contaminación fueron de 22,4%, y la sobrevivencia por lo menos 96%.The objective of this work was to determine multiplication rates and to estimate the in vitro plantlets production of the banana cultivars Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken and Japira, during six subcultures at different BAP concentrations. After the multiplication, the rooted microplants were acclimatized, and the survival was determined after 30 days. Multiplication rates reached 2.3 and 2.1 shoots per explant of 'Preciosa' and 'Maravilha', respectively, and 2.7 shoots per explant for 'Pacovan Ken' and 'Japira', in 4 mg L-1 of BAP. Losses due contamination were 22.4%, and seedlings survival was superior to 96%.

  8. In vitro mass multiplication of pomegranate from cotyledonary nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For surface sterilization of explants, treatment involving HgCl2 (0.1 %) for 3 min gave better sterilization of cotyledonary nodal explants. The maximum percentage establishment of cotyledonary node explants was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + 1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg/l ...

  9. Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene in Malaysian commercialized coffee powder using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Kasim; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Licaberth Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a non desirable product of incomplete combustion at temperatures between 300 and 600 degree Celsius and may be produced during roasting step. In this study, selected samples of roasted coffee powder were analysed for BaP. Extraction of BaP was achieved using C 18 solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by gas chromatography. Calibration curve prepared with concentrations ranged between 3 - 50 ppm showed good linearity with r = 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.25 ppm and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.85 ppm. Recovery of BaP obtained from spiked sample (3 ppm) was 88.7 % with RSD (n=3) of 5.4 %. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples, at level ranging from 0.14 to 0.62 ppb. (author)

  10. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu ( Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... In order to fulfill high demand towards this plant, tissue culture technique is applied to highly .... MS media in absence of BAP was used as control. The ... l traits. It is important that mical content as the plant the propagation technique grown explant is having erefore, this will benefits tical value as the shoots.

  12. Smoke carcinogens cause bone loss through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induction of CYP1 enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture. Here, we show that smoke toxins and environmental chemicals such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD), and 3-methyl cholanthrene, which are well known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, induce osteocla...

  13. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... were induced in proliferated calluses on MS3 (MS salts, 0.5 mg L-1; BAP, 0.4 mg L-1; kin, 0.3 g L-1; casein hydrolysate, 3% sucrose) medium under dark condition for 2 weeks. ... Unfortunately, a number of disease and abiotic factors such as cold, drought and salinity have been reducing its vegetative.

  14. Polyphenol inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced oxidative stress and neoplastic transformation in an in vitro model of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidian, Kosar; Rafiei, Hossein; Bandy, Brian

    2017-08-01

    While dietary polyphenols are widely recognized for cancer-preventing characteristics, the relative effectiveness and mechanisms of action of different polyphenols is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of six different polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced oxidative stress and neoplastic transformation in the Bhas 42 cell carcinogenesis assay. All of the polyphenols completely prevented the increased intracellular ROS generation by B[a]P at 12 h, and most inhibited after 3 days. B[a]P increased mitochondrial superoxide generation at 12 h, which was inhibited by the anthocyanins and berberine. B[a]P increased expression of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammation (Nrf2, UCP2, and TNF-α) after 24 h. Polyphenols strongly inhibited the increase in TNF-α and also several polyphenols inhibited the increase in UCP2. At 21 days after 72 h treatment, B[a]P produced a large increase in the number of neoplastic colonies. This transformation was inhibited by most polyphenols, and strongly by resveratrol. In summary, all tested polyphenols were able to inhibit B[a]P-induced increases in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, and to inhibit cellular transformation, with resveratrol being notable for the strongest preventive effect on cell transformation. The results support a role for dietary polyphenols in protecting against B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Micropropagation of banana varieties ( Musa spp. ) using shoot-tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot initiation was greater on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/l N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for Dwarf and Giant Cavendish while 2 mg/l for Poyo varieties. Among the different concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) tested, MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP ...

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Basal Medium and Plant Growth Regulators on in Vitro Growth of Hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Daryani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of different basal medium and plant growth regulators on in vitro establishment and growth of hazelnut were investigated. For this, the spring apical and auxiliary buds of cv. Fertile were sterilized and cultured on NRM, MS and 1/2MS basal media containing 0.01 mg/l IBA and different levels of BAP. The results indicated that percentage of explant growth (shooting, number of leaves per explant and shoot length influenced significantly by basal media and concentration of plant growth regulator. Based on orthogonal contrasts analysis, although the highest percentage of shooting was obtained on MS medium, shoot length of explants cultured on NRM basal medium were significantly higher than those of MS and 1/2MS. The best growth response of explants in establishment stage (50% shooting, 5.33 leaves per shoot and 1.6 cm shoot length were obtained with NRM medium supplemented with 0.01 mg/l IBA and 1 mg/l BAP. Shoots derived from establishment stage were cut to single-node explants and transferred on NRM medium supplemented with 0.05 mg/l IBA and different levels of BAP and TDZ. The highest percentage of explants growth with lowest callgenesis and explnt browning were obtained on NRM medium containing 0.05 mg/l IBA and 5 mg/l BAP.

  17. Toxic effects of some major polyaromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil and aquatic sediments on Scenedesmus subspicatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomo, J.E. [Universite de Dschang Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie Animale; Dauta, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). CESAC; Ferrier, V. [UMR-CNRS 9925 affiliee a l' INSERM, Toulouse (France); Narbonne, J.F. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). Laboratoire de Toxicologie Alimentaire; Monkiedje, A.; Njine, T. [Universite de Yaounde 1, Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Animales; Garrigues, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). UPRES A 5472 CNRS

    2004-04-01

    The green alga, Scenedesmus subspicatus was exposed for 7 days to a series of PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) of increased molecular weight from two to five rings [naphthalene (Nap), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)]. The toxicity measured as population growth inhibition by individual PAH to the S. subspicatus followed the order: BaP>Pyr>Ant>Phe>Nap. These results confirmed that the toxicity potential of PAHs seems to be strongly influenced by their physico-chemical properties (aqueous solubility, K{sub ow}, coefficient of volatilization, etc.) and the conditions of algae culture (light, presence of nitrate ions, etc.). Consequently, Nap, Phe and Ant having low K{sub ow} values and low coefficient of volatilization values were less toxic than BaP with the highest k{sub ow} value, indicating for example why Nap with the lowest EC{sub 50} value was nearly 2x10{sup 5} times lower than that of BaP. Moreover, nitrate ions seemed to act directly on the degree of hydroxylated radical reactivity of PAHs, since BaP always remained the most toxic of the compounds tested. The results were also agreed with the QSAR model for toxicity prediction of PAHs to many aquatic organisms. (author)

  18. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to bind benzo(a)pyrene and the mechanism of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Zhou, Fang; Qi, Yeqiong; Dziugan, Piotr; Bai, Fengling; Walczak, Piotr; Zhang, Bolin

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the binding ability of Lactobacillus strains to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 15 strains were analysed. L. plantarum CICC 22135 and L. pentosus CICC 23163 exhibited high efficiency in removing BaP from aqueous medium; the binding rates were 66.76% and 64.31%, respectively. This process was affected by temperature, incubation time and pH, and cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. Additionally, both strains, especially strain CICC 23163 showed high specificity in binding BaP. The cell-BaP complexes were stable in aqueous medium. The mechanism of binding was investigated by examining the binding ability of different components of the microorganism cells. The results revealed that peptidoglycans played an important role in binding BaP and its structural integrity was required. Consequently, we proposed that the mechanism of this process was a physisorption and peptidoglycan was the main binding site. These two strains may be used for dietary detoxification in human diet and animal feed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in ...

  20. Callus and azadirachtin related limonoids production through in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol was established for the induction of callus and suspension cultures for azadirachtin production from neem explants. Different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, NAA, IAA and BAP) were supplemented in MS medium. Immature flowers, nodular stem sections, leaves immature ...

  1. Propagação de orquídea Gongora quinquenervis por semeadura in vitro Propagation of orchid Gongora quinquenervis by in vitro germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cavalcante Martini

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação e a organogênese in vitro em Gongora quinquenervis em dois meios nutritivos, Knudson "C" e Murashige & Skoog, com três concentrações de BAP (0,0, 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1. Os protocormos cultivados no meio Knudson "C" necrosaram. A maioria dos embriões cultivados em meio Murashige & Skoog tendeu a diferenciar-se em calos. Estes calos apresentaram alto potencial morfogenético, regenerando grande número de plantas via organogênese indireta, sobretudo no material proveniente do tratamento desprovido de BAP. Foram formadas 41 plantas pela rota normal de germinação, contrastando com 715 plantas regeneradas via organogênese indireta.The aim of this experiment was to study in vitro germination and organogenesis of Gongora quinquenervis in two culture media (Knudson "C" and Murashige & Skoog on three concentrations of BAP (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1. The protocorms cultured on Knudson "C" medium died. The majority of the embryos cultured on the Murashige & Skoog medium formed calli. The calli presented a high morfogenetic potential, regenerating great number of plant through indirect organogenesis, and the treatment without BAP presented the highest regeneration frequency. Few plants were germinated through the normal route, performing a total of 41 plants, which contrasts with the 715 plants regenerated through indirect organogenesis.

  2. Effect of different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at the Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute Tissue culture Laboratory, Ethiopia from April to June 2012 to investigate the effect of different concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on virus free plant regeneration and shoot multiplication.

  3. In vitro regeneration and induction of multiple shooting in Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum efficiency of multiple shooting was obtained at 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D). For root induction, well developed shoots were transferred into rooting medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); maximum response was found at ...

  4. Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fernand., a rare potent medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Mohan, J S S

    2006-06-01

    Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots derived from shoot bases and immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis used as explants of C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin) + 0.1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) from shoot bases and inflorescence axis respectively. Best multiplication rates were obtained from both the explants on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) BAP. Vitrification of shoots in cultures appeared during the multiplication stage. Culture bottles with aerated caps reduced the vitrification to 80%. Reduction of BAP concentration from 2 mg l(-1) to zero during subsequent subcultures also minimized vitrification. Use of 0.5-2 mg l(-1) Kin produced healthy shoots when compared to BAP. In vitro raised shoots rooted on Knop salts containing iron and vitamins of MS medium, 2 mg l(-1) IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. About 80% plantlets survived upon soil transfer. Scanning electron microscopic and image analyzer studies reveal the morphological structural differences between the leaves of normal and vitrified plantlets.

  5. Extensive regeneration of the stomach using bioabsorbable polymer sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Aikawa, Masayasu; Watanabe, Yukihiro; Takase, Ken-ichiro; Okamoto, Kojun; Shrestha, Santosh; Okada, Katsuya; Koyama, Isamu; Ikada, Yoshito

    2015-11-01

    The growing prevalence of endoscopic surgery in recent years has led to the minimization of postoperative scarring. However, this procedure does not allow for the regeneration of the resected digestive tract, which compromises the postoperative maintenance of digestive function. In this preliminary study, we developed an artificial gastric wall (AGW) using bioabsorbable polymer (BAP), and evaluated the ability of this BAP patch to repair and regenerate a widely defective gastric wall in an animal model. Pigs were laparotomized under general anesthesia. An 8 × 8-cm, round portion of the anterior gastric wall was excised and replaced by an AGW. The AGW was composed of a copolymer comprising 50% lactic acid and 50% caprolactone. The animals were relaparotomized 4, 8, or 12 weeks after implantation, after which they underwent resection of the entire stomach for gross and histologic evaluation of the graft sites. All recipient pigs survived until killing. By 4-8 weeks, the graft site revealed progressively fewer mucosal defect after each day. Moreover, the grafted area was indistinguishable from the native stomach 12 weeks after AGW implantation. The structures of the regenerated mucous membrane and muscle layers were identical to those of the native stomach. Furthermore, proton pumps were found in the regenerated tissue. The BAP sheets helped to restore extensive gastric defects without causing any deformation. The use of BAP sheets may become a new therapeutic method that prevents alterations of gastric volume after extensive gastrectomy for stomach cancer and other diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of tobacco axillary bud differentiation by silencing CUP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... exhibited some important phenotypes, such as leaf fusion, leaf curl and incomplete leaf. CUC3 in N. tabacum was silenced successfully by RNA interference (RNAi), which .... 0.1 mg NAA L-1 and 1.0 mg BAP L-1 was used as co-culture medium. Co-culture medium with hygromycin B 50 mg hygromycin.

  7. Effects of hypoxia condition in embryogenic callus growth of soybean cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Manurung, B. H.; Bayu, E. S.

    2018-02-01

    The study was performed at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Department, University of Sumatera Utara, to investigate the effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) and embryogenic callus performance soybean cultivars on hypoxia condition. This research had two stages, induction of embryogenic callus and analysis metabolism of callus after hypoxic condition with T-test. The analysis was used factorial Completely Randomized Design with two factors. The first factors were cultivars of soybean (Baluran, Gepak Kuning, and Grobogan) and the second factors were combinations of PGR (5 mg/l 2,4-D + 1 mg/l BAP, 10 mg/l 2,4-D + 1.5 mg/l BAP, and 15 mg/l 2,4-D + 2 mg/l BAP). The result showed the cultivars, combination of PGR, and interaction between cultivars and PGR gave significant effect to weight callus. The result of T-test showed that in hypoxic condition, POD enzyme exercise on Gepak Kuning’s callus in 5 mg/l 2,4-D + 1 mg/l BAP was different before and after hypoxic condition.

  8. Optimization of a plant regeneration protocol for broccoli | Huang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors which influence the regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were studied using an orthogonal design. The results showed that the major factor was the explant type, followed by naphthylacetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP), sucrose and AgNO3 in turn. The maximum regeneration was on ...

  9. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  10. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the effect of vitamin D (VITD) supplementation on tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C telopeptide (CTX) in HIV-infected youth receiving and not receiving tenofovir-containing cART (TDF). Design: Ra...

  11. Hybridization of several Aerides species and in vitro germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wild species of Aerides namely Aerides odorata, A. odorata var.'Yellow', Aerides flabellata and Aerides quinquevulnera var. calayana are fragrant and distributed in Malaysia. Crosses among them attempted to produce primary hybrids which were used to investigate the effects of kinetin and BAP concentrations on seed ...

  12. Siim Nestor soovitab : Teenage Kicks. Bängin / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    12. aprillil alustatakse Pif-Pafi klubis live-muusikale orienteeritud muusikaõhtute sarjaga Teenage Kicks. Esinevad ansamblid BAP ja Id Rev ( andis 2001. aasta suvel välja albumi "Sina Ei"). Bängin on väike technopidu 13. apr. Wimbledonis, kus valivad technot Erkki Tero, Orav, Ilmar Kerm ja Raul Saaremets

  13. Towards the management of hypertension: Modulation of the renin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the side effects of antihypertensive drugs, dietary and lifestyle modification approaches have become alternative strategies for prevention and modulation of mild hypertension. Moreover, the use of low molecular size bioactive peptides (BAPs) as antihypertensive agents has gained particular attention as a ...

  14. Evaluation of anticarcinogenicity of natural products by medium-term bioassay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Taik Koo; Lee, Yun Sil; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate anticarcinogenicity of various year of red ginsengs on benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P) induced lung tumor in newborn mice, NIH(GP) newborn mice after injection of 0.5 mg of B(a)P in subscapular region, were administered the powders of 1.5 years, 3 years, 4 years, 5 years or 6 year of red ginseng for 6 weeks after they were weaned. Each group of mice was sacrificed at 9th week to observe the incidence of lung adenoma. Major organs were examined grossly and histopathologically. The results were summerized as follows: 1. The pulmonary adenoma incidence was 48.6% in B(a)P alone group. 2. The pulmonary adenoma incidence was 37.9% or 41.7% in 1.5 years or 3 years of red ginseng powders, respectively. These result did not show any significant difference from B(a)P alone group. 3. The pulmonary adenoma incidence was 31.7% (P<0.05), 28.3% (P<0.02), or 25.5% (P<0.01) in 4 years 5 years or 6 years of red ginseng powders, respectively. These results showed statistical difference from B(a)P alone group. (Author)

  15. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A micropropagation method is described for banana (Musa Spp.) Cv. Grand Naine. Suckers were surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + BAP 4.00 mg/l with IAA 2.00 ...

  16. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or raddiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 ..mu..g/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10/sup 7/ nuclei of control, BHA-(20 ..mu..g/ml) and p-MP-(10 ..mu..g/ml) treated cultures, respectively.

  17. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  18. A rapid two step protocol of in vitro propagation of an important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro technology to conserve, as well as, mass propagate this valuable medicinal herb in very short duration. The combinations of ... MS media supplemented with BAP with IBA (4:0.5 and 5:0.5) resulted in shooting, as well as, rooting simultaneously. Micro propagated plantlets were ...

  19. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  20. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus ( Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing vitamins and MS ...

  1. Applicability of the black slug Arion ater for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent bioactivation into DNA binding metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Maas, L.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of terrestrial black slugs Arion ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda) was studied for biomonitoring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In laboratory experiments, slugs were orally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a short term (3 days) or a long term (119

  2. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , and mixtures of B[a]P and Aroclor 1254. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46, 1285–1293. Sweetman, S.F., Strain, J.J., McKelvey-Martin, V.J., 1997. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on DNA damage and repair in human lymphoblastoid cells. Nutrit. Cancer 27, 122...

  3. Phosphorus fractionation and bio-availability in Taihu Lake (China) sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-Min; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Tang, Hong-Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Typical sediments from Taihu Lake, a meso-to-hypereutrophic lake, were collected and examined on the basis of P-fractionation by sequential extraction scheme. Sedimentary inorganic phosphorus were fractioned into four forms and the rank order according to the mean concentration of P-fractions in Taihu Lake was NaOH-P > BD-P > HCI-P > NH4Cl-P. The concentrations of BD-P were linearly correlated with the content of active Fe (R2 = 0.96). Also, the linear relationship between the sum of BD-P and NaOH-P and the sum of active Fe and active Al content was observed within the six sediments investigated (R2 = 0.96). Moreover, the bio-available phosphorus (BAP) content was estimated by the sum of NH4 Cl-P, BD-P, and NaOH-P, viz. BAP = NH4 Cl-P + NaOH-P + BD-P. In Taihu Lake, the BAP contents are ranging from 0.10 mg/g dw to 1.25 mg/g dw, and average 0.40 mg/g dw for all sediment samples. The relative contributions of BAP to total sedimentary phosphorus (TP) and inorganic sedimentary phosphorus (IP) range from 18.67% to 50.79% (33.61% on average) and from 52.82% to 82.09% (67.81% on average), respectively.

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 13 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot multiplication of Musa acuminata (banana) cv. Berangan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Jafari, RY Othman, N Khalid, 2446-2450 ...

  5. Effect of benzylaminopurine on in vivo multiplication of French ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the appropriate concentration of BAP for enhancing in vivo macropropagation of French plantain cv. 'Itoke Sege'. Methodology and results: Sword suckers of about 70 - 80 cm tall and 14 -16 cm collar diameter were obtained from farmers' fields in Rungwe district in Mbeya, Tanzania.

  6. Effect of two cytokinins in combination with acetic acid α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two growth regulator combinations was studied on the morphogenesis in vitro of 3 genotypes of yams (Kounondakou, Gnon-boya and RB 89579). Benzyl aminopurin (BAP) and zeatin (ZEAT) were tested, respectively at a concentration of 0.5 mg/l with the galzy glutamine basic medium containing naphtalene ...

  7. Serum levels of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone in patients with biliogenic and hyperlipidaemic acute pancreatitis: Difference and value in predicting disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zhang, Dong-Lei; Hao, Jian-Yu; Wang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    To compare retrospectively serum levels of thyroid hormones (THs) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) between patients with biliogenic acute pancreatitis (BAP) and those with hyperlipidaemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP), in order to assess their value for predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Patients with AP were divided into BAP and HLAP groups, then further divided into either a mild AP (MAP) group or a moderately severe AP (MSAP) group. Routine blood parameters were measured. Free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and TSH levels were measured. Seventy-six patients with AP were enrolled in the study. FT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher in patients with MAP than in patients with MSAP. FT4 and TSH levels were significantly lower in the HLAP group than in the BAP group. TSH levels in both MAP and MSAP patients were significantly lower in the HLAP group than in the BAP group. TSH was inversely correlated with triglyceride levels in patients with HLAP. FT3 was a risk factor for MSAP in patients with AP and also demonstrated moderate accuracy in predicting AP severity. THs and TSH decrease with the severity of AP, especially in patients with HLAP. FT3 may be a useful biomarker for the early assessment of the severity of AP. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Photoperiod on In

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahin

    In vitro microtuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Sante and Savalan were studied on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium applying different plant growth regulators 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzylamino purine (2,4-D and BAP) and photoperiods. Cultures were exposed to 16, 8 ...

  9. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mukhtar, F.B.. Vol 10, No 1 (2017) - Articles Effects of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) on mineral elements and lipid content in relation to senescence of two cowpea varieties. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adventitious shoots were formed on leaf explants within three weeks in culture. The best shoot proliferation was observed among explants cultured on MS medium with 0.1 mg/ml NAA + 3.0 mg/ml BAP. Regenerated shoots were multiplicated by subculture. Then they were cultured on MS with 0.1% (w/v) activated charcoal ...

  12. Callus initiation and regeneration in a minor tuber crop 'Rizga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esculentus. From tuber cutting, calli were formed when explants were cultured on MS basal salts supplemented with differing regimes of either 2, 4-D and NAA separately or in combination with 0.5mgl-1 BAP. Initiation of callus was best when ...

  13. Modeling airborne benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zalel, A.; Yuval, M.; Švecová, Vlasta; Šrám, Radim; Bartoňová, A.; Broday, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 101, JAN (2015), s. 166-176 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * B[a]P * Multivariate linear regression * Classification trees * Air pollution monitoring Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2015

  14. Regenerating plants from in vitro culture of Erigeron breviscapus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... 2Department of Horticultural Sciences, Jintanglang School of Architecture and Urban Environment, Soochow University,. Suzhou .... the culture medium. BAP and IAA were effective for shoot initiation at relative high concentrations (22.2 and 5.7 μM, respectively) under light. However, the rate of shoot.

  15. Comparative efficacy of progressive resistance exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of this study. Methods: ...

  16. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... BACKGROUND: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and. Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of ...

  17. Effect of culture conditions on the plant regeneration via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cotyledonary node explants excised from 4 days old seedlings, placed in vitro on medium containing salts of Murashige and Skoog and vitamins of Gamborg's media (MSB5). Adventitious shoots occurred at the basal end of the initiated axillary buds that preexisted at the node regions. BAP at 1.25 mg/l was the optimum ...

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 403-425 Special Section on: Quaternary History and Palaeoenvironmental Record of the Thar Desert in India. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of western Rajasthan, Thar desert · B C Deotare M D Kajale S N Rajaguru S Kusumgar A J T Jull J D Donahue · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  19. Date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) in vitro morphogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to test the effect of different growth regulators, sucrose and nitrogen on Phoenix dactylifera L. explants cultured on Eeuwen's basal medium. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was very effective for callus induction. Addition of cytokinins (BAP and Kinetin) to NAA containing media did not enhance actual ...

  20. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  1. Efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration in Populus euphratica Oliver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populus euphratica Oliver is highly tolerant against salt stress and thus very important for afforestation efforts of saline soils in sandy desert regions. Even if protocols already exist for the regeneration of shoots from leaf explants for this species, all are based on the hormones 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) and ...

  2. Sex-specific biotransformation and detoxification after xenobiotic exposure of primary cultured hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, Katja; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Köhler, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Sex-specific effects of sublethal concentrations of known effective pro-oxidants such as 100, 200 and 400 muM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p), 50 M nitrofurantoin (NF) and 100 muM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on biotransformation pathways were studied in isolated hepatocytes of immature female and male European

  3. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  4. Metallothionein mRNA induction is correlated with the decrease of DNA strand breaks in cadmium exposed zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Châtel, Amélie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2014-05-15

    We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: Effects of growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzylaminopurine (BAP), the position of the explants and the effect of lighting in the regeneration of A. othonianum Rizz. stem segments. The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) medium was used in the first test, amended with nine combinations of ...

  6. Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip (Tulipa tarda Stapf.) from seed-derived explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Małgorzata; Bach, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip ( Tulipa tarda Stapf). Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Some explants were subjected to chilling at 5°C for 12 wk. The culture media contained 3 or 6% sucrose and was supplemented with either no growth regulators, either 0.5 μM 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) or 18.9 or 94.6 μM abscisic acid (ABA). Cultures were maintained in the dark at 20°C. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP. Callus was formed from up to 96% of explants derived from non-chilled adventitious bulbs that were treated with 3% sucrose and 0.5 μM BAP. Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants. Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. The media with BAP promoted the formation of adventitious bulbs at a rate of 56-92% from non-chilled explants, whereas a maximum rate of 36% was observed from chilled explants. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus. The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly.

  7. In vitro propagation of Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed), a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IAA and 1 mg/l BAP showed maximum shoot multiplication. For rooting, the optimal medium was half strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA. Rooted plantlets were then transferred to sunbag vessels which provided the high humidity environment. The hardened plants were ...

  8. Effects of plant growth regulators and photoperiod on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro microtuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Sante and Savalan were studied on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium applying different plant growth regulators 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzylamino purine (2,4-D and BAP) and photoperiods. Cultures were exposed to 16, 8 and ...

  9. PDB73 – The Expected Value Of Bio-Artificial Pancreas Development In View Of Endocrinologists' And Patients' Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, T.B.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Islet transplantation is an accepted transplantation method in type I Diabetes Mellitus, yet islet survival is hampered due to an insufficient transplantation site and severe immunological and inflammatory responses. The development of a bio-artificial pancreas (BAP) may contribute to

  10. Characterisation of botanical starches as potential substitutes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each type of starch was tested for ability to support in vitro plant growth and 0.8% agar (w/v) was used as standard. Nodal explants cultures were initiated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.5 mg/l benzylaminopurine (BAP). After 21 days, number of leaves and nodes, plant height and ...

  11. Brown-Like Adipocyte Progenitors Derived from Human iPS Cells: A New Tool for Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Cell-Based Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Salingova, Barbara; Dani, Christian

    2018-04-10

    Alternative strategies are urgently required to fight obesity and associated metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Brown and brown-like adipocytes (BAs) store fat, but in contrast to white adipocytes, activated BAs are equipped to dissipate energy stored. Therefore, BAs represent promising cell targets to counteract obesity. However, the scarcity of BAs in adults is a major limitation for a BA-based therapy of obesity, and the notion to increase the BA mass by transplanting BA progenitors (BAPs) in obese patients recently emerged. The next challenge is to identify an abundant and reliable source of BAPs. In this chapter, we describe the capacity of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to generate BAPs able to differentiate at a high efficiency with no gene transfer. This cell model represents an unlimited source of human BAPs that in a near future may be a suitable tool for both therapeutic transplantation and for the discovery of novel efficient and safe anti-obesity drugs. The generation of a relevant cell model, such as hiPSC-BAs in 3D adipospheres enriched with macrophages and endothelial cells to better mimic the microenvironment within the adipose tissue, will be the next critical step.

  12. superoxide dismutase mRNA in Phascolosoma esculenta exposed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    pyrene (BaP). Li Yu-hong1, Wang Ke-jian2, Wu Sui-jie3, Harrison I. Atagana4*, Wu Wen-lin1 and Tian Yun2. 1Department of Biology, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou 362000, China. 2State Key Laboratory of Marine ...

  13. In vitro regeneration, flowering, and cell culture of Centaurea species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg/L indole-3- acetic acid (IAA). In vitro flowering and seed set occurred in C. cyanus when the shoots were incubated on MS basal medium supplemented with B5 vitamins, 100 mg/L myo-inositol and 30 g/L ...

  14. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nor Asmah binti Hassan

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... Forestry Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. ... preservation of true-to-type genetic characteristics with .... Effect of different BAP concentrations in the culture medium on synthetic seed germination in the light and darkness [Basal modified.

  15. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats — impact of bacterial mass, intestinal absorptive area and reduction of bone turn-over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina E. Scholz-Ahrens

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: SYN exerted a synergistic effect on bone mineralization, presumably due to changes in gut microbiota and ecology associated with large bowel digesta weight (most likely reflecting microbial mass and with large bowel weight (reflecting absorptive area, while bone turnover tended to be reduced as indicated by BAP.

  16. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  17. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  18. Exposure of rats to exogenous endocrine disruptors 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and benzo(a)pyrene and an estrogenic hormone estradiol induces expression of cytochromes P450 involved in their metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek-Dohalska, Lucie; Klusonova, Zuzana; Holecova, Jana; Martinkova, Marketa; Barta, Frantisek; Dracinska, Helena; Cajthaml, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie

    2016-12-18

    The term "endocrine disruptor" (ED) is used for compounds that mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones. Synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and a human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are assigned as exogenous endocrine disruptors and an estrogenic hormone estradiol is a natural endogenous disruptor. Here, the potency of these three disruptors administered to rats individually and in combination to induce expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in their own metabolism (CYP1A1, 2C and 3A) in vivo was investigated. Changes in CYP protein expression after exposure of rats to BaP, EE2 or estradiol were analyzed by Western blotting. Using the HPLC method, CYP1A1, 2C and 3A specific activities in hepatic microsomes isolated from exposed rats were analyzed. Whereas exposure to BaP induces expression of CYP1A1 protein and its marker activity (Sudan I oxidation) in liver, kidney and lung of rats, no significant induction of this CYP and its enzyme activity was produced by EE2 and estradiol. Treatment of BaP in combination with EE2 and/or estradiol decreased the BaP-mediated CYP1A1 induction in liver of exposed rats. BaP also induces CYP2C11 protein in rat liver and kidney, but does not increase its enzyme activity measured as testosterone 16α-hydroxylation. The enzyme activity of another enzyme of the 2C subfamily, CYP2C6, diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, is even decreased by BaP. The CYP2C11 protein expression and/or its activity are also increased in liver of rats treated with EE2 and estradiol, but its expression is significantly decreased in lung. The CYP2C6 activity is also elevated by treatment of rats with EE2 and estradiol administered individually as well as in their combination. Whereas only a slight increase in CYP3A protein expression was found by BaP in rat liver, its enzyme activity, testosterone 6β-hydroxyalation, increased significantly in this organ. In contrast, no effect or even a decrease in CYP3A expression and its

  19. Development of a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of benzo[a]pyrene in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschulat, Diana; Deng, Anping; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2005-07-01

    In Europe, a limit value of 10 ng L(-1) was set by the European Commission for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in water intended for human consumption (Council Directive 98/83/EC) and, therefore, sensitive and reliable methods are needed to evaluate its presence. We report here on the development of a highly sensitive indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of B[a]P in potable water. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice using novel B[a]P derivatives. The immunoassay with the least interference and the best sensitivity was optimized and characterized. As co-solvent, ten percent methanol (v/v) was determined as the optimum concentration for B[a]P solubilization for use with the developed ELISA. With the purified antibody (clone 22F12) the average IC50 for B[a]P and corresponding detection limit at a signal:noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 65 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1), respectively. From the 16 EPA-designated PAHs, only chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene showed a cross-reactivity (CR) higher than 20%. No CR was observed for two- and three-ringed aromatics as well as dibenz[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene. The effect of pH value (range 6.5-9.5), ionic strength (specific electric conductivity 1 microS cm(-1)-2.5 mS cm(-1)), and inorganic ions (sodium, copper, iron, aluminium, manganese, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite at maximum permissible levels according to the Council Directive) on both signal and sensitivity of the ELISA was studied. No significant influence of these parameters on the ELISA competition curve was found. We suggest that the optimized ELISA can be used to monitor potable water samples without previous extraction from the samples. The assay should facilitate the cleanup of B[a]P contaminated sites where B[a]P levels fall close to the limit value of the new drinking water directive.

  20. Reference intervals for serum concentrations of three bone turnover markers for men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, J; Wallaschofski, H; Friedrich, N; Spielhagen, C; Rettig, R; Ittermann, T; Nauck, M; Hannemann, A

    2013-12-01

    Bone turnover markers (BTMs) reflect the metabolic activity of bone tissue and can be used to monitor osteoporosis therapy. To adequately interpret BTMs, method-specific reference intervals are needed. We aimed to determine reference intervals for serum concentrations of intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). We established a healthy reference population of 1107 men as well as 382 pre- and 450 postmenopausal women, who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum PINP, BAP and CTX concentrations were measured on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range. We determined age-specific reference intervals for PINP, BAP, and CTX for men by quantile regression. Reference intervals for women were age-independent. Reference intervals for men for PINP and CTX decreased with age (25-29year-old men: PINP 31.1-95.9ng/mL, CTX 0.12-0.83ng/mL; 75-79year-old men: PINP 15.7-68.1ng/mL, CTX 0.05-0.58ng/mL). The reference interval for men for BAP did not significantly change with age (25-29year-old men: 7.4-27.7ng/mL; 75-79year-old men: 7.6-24.4ng/mL). The reference intervals for 30-54year-old premenopausal women were: PINP 19.3-76.3ng/mL, BAP 6.0-22.7ng/mL, and CTX 0.05-0.67ng/mL. The reference intervals for 50-79year-old postmenopausal women were: PINP 18.2-102.3ng/mL, BAP 8.1-31.6ng/mL, and CTX 0.09-1.05ng/mL. An intensively characterized, large reference population free of bone-related diseases allowed us to determine robust reference intervals for serum concentrations of PINP, BAP and CTX. Our normative data may aid to interpret bone turnover in adult men and pre- and postmenopausal women. © 2013.

  1. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  2. The relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. Although cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (non-parametric trend z=3.50, P<0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z=1.63, P=0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model, we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m(3). The calculated fetal/maternal blood adduct ratio (FMR) linearly increased with B[a]P exposure (z=1.99, P=0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m(3). In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a]P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern, particularly in the highly polluted areas, because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA. The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on the health of children and help in

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) AND PAH-DNA ADDUCTS IN CORD BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne PAH exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. While cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (nonparametric trend z = 3.50, p < 0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z = 1.63, p = 0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m3. The calculated fetal/maternal blood adducts ratio (FMR) linearly increased with the B[a]P exposure (z = 1.99, p = 0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m3. In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a[P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern particularly in the highly polluted areas because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on health of children and help in

  4. EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF CASSAVA VARIETIES CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNI WIDHIASTUTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on propagation of three superior cassava ( Crant varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i shoot multiplication, (ii roots induction, and (iii acclimatization.The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS basal mediasupplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP combined with 0.0,0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/Lof IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containingsoil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1 covered with plastic sheets and transferred to agreenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for DarulHidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L +thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the mediaof BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes producedwas 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L,and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L + thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAAor NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase thesuccess of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of eachculture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture couldproduce around 37 000 plants/year.

  5. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Escalante

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM and associated extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a, from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of

  6. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  7. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  8. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  9. Complementación energética y proteínica en corderas Blackbelly x Pelibuey en pastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Zamora-Zepeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las corderas alimentadas con base en el pastoreo sin complementación alimenticia muestran una baja ganancia diaria de peso (GDP. Esta situación retrasa el crecimiento y puede influir la edad y peso vivo (PV a la pubertad así como la edad a un PV especifico de sacrificio. El objetivo del estudio consistió en determinar la influencia de la complementación alimenticia (CA sobre la eficiencia postdestete de corderas Blackbelly x Pelibuey (Bb x Pb. Se utilizaron 16 corderas, bajo un diseño factorial de dos factores y con medidas repetidas en un factor. Los factores fueron CA [complementación alimenticia baja (CAB: 0.26 Mcal EM y 11.7 g PC/cordera/d y complementación alimenticia creciente (CAC: al inicio como CAB más incrementos de 0.13Mcal EM y 5.85 g PC/cordera/d cada 40 d] y número de período de evaluación (P. El modelo incluyó los efectos de CA, P y la interacción CA x P. Las variables estudiadas fueron PV y GDP. La CA no afectó (P>0.05 el PV y GDP. Sin embargo, P y CA x P influyeron en el PV y GDP (P<0.05. En conclusión, en corderas Bb x Pb en pastoreo la CAC no incrementó la GDP con respecto a una CAB.

  10. Germination and dormancy-breaking of Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae seeds from northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae es un arbusto de hoja perenne utilizado ampliamente como planta ornamental y en la industria farmacéutica de China. La planta exhibe latencia que retrasa y reduce la germinación. Este estudio determinó los efectos del tratamiento químico, la estratificación y el tratamiento de siembra de semillas para interrumpir la latencia de D. giraldii. Los resultados mostraron que el pretratamiento químico fue el menos eficaz. El mejor porcentaje de germinación (GP fue 52.33 % y solamente se observó una tasa de germinación (GR de 1.19 después de 70 días de la estratificación de semillas a una temperatura de 5 °C. Esto indica que el comportamiento de la germinación de D. giraldii no se vio afectado significativamente por la estratificación. La latencia fisiológica de semillas de D. giraldii se mitigó durante la siembra de semillas. Las semillas enterradas a 100 cm de profundidad por 170 días germinaron exitosamente con 86.5 % e índice de germinación de 10.11, por lo que fue el tratamiento más eficaz para mitigar la latencia de las semillas. Esta información puede ser útil para restaurar y conservar otros arbustos que crecen en el noroeste de China y dilucidar su supervivencia en condiciones extremas similares.

  11. Del tabaco al uso de otras drogas: ¿el uso temprano de tabaco aumenta la probabilidad de usar otras drogas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Medina-Mora

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la probabilidad de abuso de sustancias en relación con la edad de inicio del consumo de tabaco. Material y métodos. Los datos provienen de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (1998 realizada en población urbana. Resultados. La edad de mayor riesgo para experimentar con sustancias es entre los 15 y los 19 años. Solamente en 5.6% de los usuarios de drogas y 13% de los que han consumido alcohol, el uso del tabaco no ocurrió primero. La probabilidad de beber en forma consuetudinaria y de presentar dependencia es mayor cuando la edad de inicio es temprana y disminuye en la medida en que se retrasa la edad de inicio. La experimentación con drogas, el continuar usándolas y el poliuso son más frecuentes entre quienes se iniciaron antes de los 15 años. Conclusiones. El inicio temprano en el consumo de tabaco incrementa la probabilidad de uso y abuso de sustancias.Objective. To assess the likelihood of substance abuse predicted by age of first exposure to tobacco. Material and Methods. Data from the 1998 National Household Survey on Addictions in urban areas were analyzed. Results. The age period of greater likelihood of drug experimentation is between 15 and 19 years; only 5.6% of drug users and 13% of alcohol beverage drinkers reported having experimented with drugs before trying tobacco. The probability of heavy drinking and dependence was higher at early ages of first exposure to tobacco and decreased with increasing age. Experimentation with drugs, continued use, and multiple drug use, are more frequent among smokers who started before 15 years of age. Conclusions. Early tobacco use increases the likelihood of substance abuse.

  12. Benzopyrene promotes lung cancer A549 cell migration and invasion through up-regulating cytokine IL8 and chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Chang, Li; Jin, Hanyu; Xia, Yaoxiong; Wang, Li; He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Chen, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco-sourced carcinogen including benzopyrene (B[a]P) in lung cancer metastasis has not been fully reported. In this study, lung carcinoma A549 cell line was used to investigate the potential roles of tobacco-sourced B[a]P on cell metastasis and invasion and to assess its underlying mechanism. Effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on A549 cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch method, respectively. The effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on cytokines and chemokines secretion were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, correlation between inflammatory factor expression and cancer cell migration and invasion was assessed using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Data showed that both B[a]P and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone either at high or low dose performed no significant difference on A549 cell proliferation with time increasing. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone performed no significant difference on A549 cell migration and invasion while B[a]P significantly increased A549 cell migration and invasion compared to the control group (P A549 cells were significantly decreased compared to the control, respectively (P < 0.05), while silenced IL-8 drastically decreased the migrated and invasive cells compared to the control (P < 0.01). Taken together, this study illustrated that there may be significant correlation between smoking and lung cancer metastasis. B[a]P maybe an excellent contributor for lung cancer metastasis through up-regulating IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3 expression. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. BENZO[a]PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE PERTURBATION OF CELL CYCLE KINETICS OF SYNCHRONIZED MOUSE LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, A.L.; Navsky, B.N.; Bartholomew, J.C

    1980-07-01

    A cell cycle synchronization system is described for the analysis of the perturbation of cell cycle kinetics and the cycle-phase specificity of chemicals and other agents. We used the system to study the effects of ({+-})r-7, t-8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BaP diol epoxide) upon the cell cycle of mouse liver epithelial cells(NMuLi). BaP diol epoxide(0.6 uM) was added to replated cultures of NMuLi cells that had been synchronized in various stages of the cell cycle by centrifugal elutriation. DNA histograms were obtained by flow cytometry as a function of time after replating. The data were analyzed by a computer modeling routine and reduced to a few graphs illustrating the 'net effects' of the BaP diol epoxide relative to controls. BaP diol epoxide slowed S-phase traversal in all samples relative to their respective control. Traversal through G{sub 2}M was also slowed by at least 50%. BaP diol epoxide had no apparent effect upon G{sub 1} traversal by cycling cells, but delayed the recruitment of quiescent G{sub 0} cells by about 2 hrs. The methods described constitute a powerful new approach for probing the cell cycle effects of a wide variety of agents. The present system appears to be extremely sensitive and capable of characterizing the action of agents on each phase of the cell cycle. The methods are automatable and would allow for the assay and possible differential characterization of mutagens and carcinogens.

  14. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  15. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  16. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  17. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  19. Preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, Susan Ritger; Amin, Shantu G.; Anderson, Kim A.; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; Sharma, Arun K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Williams, David E.; Corley, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts of natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Despite significant public health concern, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling efforts for PAHs have so far been limited to naphthalene, plus simpler PK models for pyrene, nitropyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The dearth of published models is due in part to the high lipophilicity, low volatility, and myriad metabolic pathways for PAHs, all of which present analytical and experimental challenges. Our research efforts have focused upon experimental approaches and initial development of PBPK models for the prototypic PAH, B[a]P, and the more potent, albeit less studied transplacental carcinogen, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). For both compounds, model compartments included arterial and venous blood, flow limited lung, liver, richly perfused and poorly perfused tissues, diffusion limited fat, and a two compartment theoretical gut (for oral exposures). Hepatic and pulmonary metabolism was described for both compounds, as were fractional binding in blood and fecal clearance. Partition coefficients for parent PAH along with their diol and tetraol metabolites were estimated using published algorithms and verified experimentally for the hydroxylated metabolites. The preliminary PBPK models were able to describe many, but not all, of the available data sets, comprising multiple routes of exposure (oral, intravenous) and nominal doses spanning several orders of magnitude. Supported by Award Number P42 ES016465 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. -- Highlights: ► We present PBPK models for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). ► B[a]P model accurately predicts data from multiple sources over a wide dose range. ► DBC model was based on the B[a]P model as less chemical specific data is available. ► DBC model accurately predicted preliminary

  20. Bacillus anthracis Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Interacts with and Modifies Elongation Factor Tu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnicker, Nicholas J. [Department; Razzaghi, Mortezaali [Department; Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta [Department; Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Biophysics; Dey, Mishtu [Department

    2017-10-17

    Prolyl hydroxylation is a very common post-translational modification and plays many roles in eukaryotes such as collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and controlling protein transcription and translation. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that prokaryotes contain prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) homologous to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act on elongation factor Tu (EFTu) and are likely involved in the regulation of bacterial translation. Recent biochemical and structural studies with a PHD from Pseudomonas putida (PPHD) determined that it forms a complex with EFTu and hydroxylates a prolyl residue of EFTu. Moreover, while animal, plant, and viral P4Hs act on peptidyl proline, most prokaryotic P4Hs have been known to target free l-proline; the exceptions include PPHD and a P4H from Bacillus anthracis (BaP4H) that modifies collagen-like proline-rich peptides. Here we use biophysical and mass spectrometric methods to demonstrate that BaP4H recognizes full-length BaEFTu and a BaEFTu 9-mer peptide for site-specific proline hydroxylation. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled small-angle X-ray scattering (SEC–SAXS) and binding studies, we determined that BaP4H forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with BaEFTu. The SEC–SAXS studies reveal dissociation of BaP4H dimeric subunits upon interaction with BaEFTu. While BaP4H is unusual within bacteria in that it is structurally and functionally similar to the animal PHDs and collagen P4Hs, respectively, this work provides further evidence of its promiscuous substrate recognition. It is possible that the enzyme might have evolved to hydroxylate a universally conserved protein in prokaryotes, similar to the PHDs, and implies a functional role in B. anthracis.

  1. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  2. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-02-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

  3. A study of the association between serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus concentration or dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraikawa, Mayu; Tanabe, Rieko; Sogabe, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Aoi; Kawamura, Yuka; Michigami, Toshimi; Hosoi, Takayuki; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes a variety of monophosphate esters into phosphoric acid and alcohol at a high optimum pH (pH 8-10). Human ALPs are classified into four types: tissue-non specific (TNSALP, liver/bone/kidney), intestinal, placental, and germ cell types. Based on studies of hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is a systemic bone disease caused by the presence of either one or two pathologic mutations in ALPL that encodes TNSALP, TNSALP was suggested to be indispensable for skeletal mineralization. In this study, we explored the possibility that dietary nutrients contribute to regulate serum bone-specific ALP (BAP) activity. Serum biochemical parameters, such as serum ALP, BAP, osteocalcin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), were measured in healthy young subjects (n=193). Dietary nutrient intakes were measured based on 3-d food records before the day of blood examinations. The presence of a carrier of the deletion of T at nucleotide 1559 (c.1559delT), which has been reported to be the most frequent in Japanese HPP, was not detected in any subject. By the analysis of BAP activity and other biochemical parameters or dietary nutrient intakes, we obtained significant correlations between BAP activity and serum phosphorus (r=-0.165, p=0.022), calcium intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.186, p=0.010), or phosphorus intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.226, p=0.002). Further study on the regulation of BAP activity and calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis will provide useful data for improving skeletal health.

  4. Insight into the transgenerational effect of benzo[a]pyrene on bone formation in a teleost fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Peterson, Drew R; Witten, P Eckhard; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Shanthanagouda, Adamane H; Ye, Rui R; Zhang, Ge; Au, Doris W T

    2015-12-01

    Recent cross-generational studies in teleost fish have raised the awareness that high levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could affect skeletal integrity in the directly exposed F0 and their F1-F2. However, no further details were provided about the causes for abnormalities on the molecular and cellular level and the persistence of such sub-organismal impairments at the transgenerational scale (beyond F2). Adult Oryzias latipes were exposed to 1μg/L BaP for 21days. The F1-F3 were examined for skeletal deformities, histopathological alterations of vertebral bodies and differential expression of key genes of bone metabolism. Significant increase of dorsal-ventral vertebral compression was evident in ancestrally exposed larvae. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormal loss of notochord sheath, a lack of notochord epithelial integrity, reduced bone tissue and decreased osteoblast abundance. A significant downregulation of ATF4 and/or osterix and a high biological variability of COL10, coupled with a significant deregulation of SOX9a/b in the F1-F3 suggest that ancestral BaP exposure most likely perturbed chordoblasts, chondroblast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in defective notochord sheath repair and rendering the vertebral column more vulnerable to compression. The present findings provide novel molecular and cellular insights into BaP-induced transgenerational bone impairment in the unexposed F3. From the ecological risk assessment perspective, BaP needs to be regarded as a transgenerational skeletal toxicant, which exerts a far-reaching impact on fish survival and fitness. Given that basic mechanisms of cartilage/bone formation are conserved between medaka and mammals, the results may also shed light on the potential transgenerational effect of BaP on the genesis of skeletal diseases in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  6. Receptor activator of NF(Kappa)B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system and osteopontin (OPN) serum levels in a population of apulian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, M; Fanelli, M; D'Amore, S; Fontana, A; Minenna, G

    2006-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease, characterized by a reduction of bone resistance; in postmenopausal period bone metabolism is imbalanced. Several parameters have been proposed as markers of bone metabolism; the attention have been recently placed on the receptor of activator of NF(Kappa)B ligand receptor (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), namely RANKL/OPG system. The aim of this paper is to evaluate changes in postmenopausal women in serum concentration of OPG, RANKL, and their ratio (i.e. RANKL/OPG ratio), osteopontin (OPN), bone-type alcaline phosphatase (BAP), serum-N-Telopeptide of type I collagen (serum-NTX); and their correlations with bone mineral density (BMD). An Apulian population group of 163 native postmenopausal women were followed at the Osteoporosis Centre of Policlinico of Bari (Southenrn Italy). Patients were classified into 3 separate groups, according to T-score: osteoporotic, osteopenic and control group. Serum concentrations of OPG, RANKL, RANKL/OPG ratio, BAP and NTX have been calculated. No differences were found in OPG and BAP values. Significant correlations were found in the osteopenic group between OPG and RANKL (negative), and between RANKL and OPN or serum-NTX, OPN and serum-NTX or RANKL/OPG ratio, BAP and serum-NTX, serum-NTX and RANKL/OPG ratio (positive). In the other groups a significant correlation was observed between BAP and NTX. In postmenopausal women, important modifications of bone metabolism markers (i.e. RANKL, OPG and OPN) could be due to serious engagement of bone turnover, especially in the pre-osteoporotic phase. Low bone density in postmenopausal women should be identified as soon as possible, and urgent measures are needed to reverse the process. Parameters namely RANKL e OPG may become an important index for the evaluation of the activity of drugs against osteoporosis, old and new like AMG 162 (anti-RANKL action).

  7. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

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    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  8. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

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    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4 anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward′s triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause.

  9. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

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    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  10. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

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    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  11. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

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    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  12. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  13. Toxic effects of various pollutants in 11B7501 lymphoma B cell line from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Fortier, Marlene; Fournier, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Although, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported at high levels in marine mammals, little is known about the toxic effects of some of these contaminants. In this study, we assessed the immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of seven heavy metals (arsenic, vanadium, selenium, iron, zinc, silver and chromium) and one PAH (benzo[a]pyrene or B[a]P) on a lymphoma B cell line from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). A significant reduction in lymphocyte proliferation was registered following an exposure to 0.05 μM of B[a]P, 5 μM of arsenic or selenium, 50 μM of vanadium, 100 μM of silver and 200 μM of iron. On the contrary, zinc increased the lymphoproliferative response at 200 μM. Decreased phagocytosis was observed at 20 μM of arsenic, 50 μM of B[a]P or selenium, 200 μM of zinc and 500 μM of vanadium. Micronuclei induction occurred with 0.2 μM of B[a]P, 100 μM of vanadium and with 200 μM of arsenic or selenium. Exposure to 50 μM of arsenic decreased G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Chromium did not induce any effects at the concentrations tested. Concentrations of heavy metals (except silver and vanadium) and B[a]P inducing an toxic effect are within the environmental ranges reported in the blood tissue of pinnipeds. The reduction of some functional activities of the harbour seal immune system may cause a significant weakness capable of altering host resistance to disease in free-ranging pinnipeds.

  14. Callus induction and bioactive phenolic compounds production from Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. (Malpighiaceae

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    Ana Hortência Fonsêca Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study developed a methodology for callus induction in leaf segments of B. verbascifolia and evaluated the bioactive phenolic compounds production. Leaf explants were cultured in MS medium with 30 g L-1 sucrose, solidified with 7 g L- 1 agar supplemented with 2,4-D (0; 4.52; 9.05; 18.10 µM and BAP (0; 4.44; 8.88; 17.75 µM in the presence and absence of light. Forty-five days after inoculation we assessed the percentage of callus induction, color, consistency, fresh and dry matter, total phenols, flavonoids, tannins contents, and chromatographic profile by HPLC-DAD method. Callus induction occurred only in medium with growth regulators. Maximal induction (100% was found in medium containing 2,4-D combined with BAP in the presence and absence of light. We obtained friable and compact callus in yellow, green, and red. Culture media containing 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.44 µM BAP induced 100% of friable callus with higher fresh and dry weight in the absence of light. The callus produced higher amounts of total phenols and flavonoids than the initial explant. Total tannins were detected only in callus induced in media containing 17.75 µM BAP and 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 17.75 µM BAP, and were not found in the initial explant. The bioactive phenolic compounds detected are derived from benzoic, p-coumaric, cinnamic, gallic acids, and catechins.

  15. Removal and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K T; Hatakka, A; Hofrichter, M

    2002-10-01

    Nine strains of litter-decomposing fungi, representing eight species of agaric basidiomycetes, were tested for their ability to remove a mixture of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (total 60 mg l(-1)) comprising anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. All strains were able to convert this mixture to some extent, but considerable differences in degradative activity were observed depending on the species, the Mn(II) concentration, and the particular PAH. Stropharia rugosoannulata was the most efficient degrader, removing or transforming BaP almost completely and about 95% of anthracene and 85% of pyrene, in cultures supplemented with 200 micro M Mn(II), within 6 weeks. In contrast less than 40, 18, and 50% BaP, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, were degraded in the absence of supplemental Mn(II). In the case of Stropharia coronilla, the presence of Mn(II) led to a 20-fold increase of anthracene conversion. The effect of manganese could be attributed to the stimulation of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The maximum activity of MnP increased in S. rugosoannulata cultures from 10 U l(-1) in the absence of Mn(II) to 320 U l(-1) in Mn(II)-supplemented cultures. The latter degraded about 6% of a (14)C-labeled BaP into (14)CO(2) whereas only 0.7% was mineralized in the absence of Mn(II). In solid-state straw cultures, S. rugosoannulata, S. coronilla and Agrocybe praecox mineralized between 4 and 6% of (14)C-labeled BaP within 12 weeks.

  16. Axenic Seed Culture and in vitro mass propagation of Malaysian Wild Orchid Cymbidium finlaysonianum LINDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, T.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Islam, S. M. S.; Uddain, J.; Subramaniam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Under this study an efficient protocol on mass propagation of Cymbidium finlaysonianum an epiphytic Malaysian wild orchid has been established using axenic culture. To obtain an axenic seed culture, it is important to perform an adequate a disinfection procedure in tissue culture. Four nutrient media viz. MS, 0.5MS, KC and VW were evaluated on In vitro seed germination with callus initiation. The maximum seed germination with callus initiation (100 percentage) was recorded in MS basal medium with a short span of time (40 days after culture). After 45 days of callus initiation the effect of eight different treatments (T /sub 1/-T /sub 8/) on callus size and nature were also studied. The experiment revealed that in T /sub 3/ (MS + 2.0 mgl /sup -1/ BAP + 0.5 mg /sup -1/ NAA) was found to be the best for callus development (1.98 cm length and 1.01 cm breadth). The effect of different concentration of BAP was evaluated on protocorm formation and its proliferation. Maximum number (7.75) and percentage (81.40) of PLBs was recorded in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg-1 BAP. Very good PLBs development was recorded also in MS + BAP 1.0 mg-1 + NAA 0.5 mg /sup -1/. The highest elongation of shoot (3.80 cm) was observed in MS + 1.0 mg-1 BAP + 0.50 mg /sup -1/ NAA. For root induction 1.0 mg-1 NAA has proven to the best in 0.5 MS medium. The In developed seedlings were finally transferred to pots by successive phases of acclimatization. (author)

  17. CULTURA IN VITRO DE EMBRIÕES ZIGÓTICOS DE AÇAIZEIRO IN VITRO CULTURE OF ASSAI PALM ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS

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    ANA DA SILVA LEDO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer o protocolo para a produção de plântulas in vitro a partir da conversão de embriões zigóticos de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart.. Os embriões zigóticos maduros foram excisados sob condições assépticas, a partir de sementes obtidas de frutos maduros, e cultivados em tubos de ensaio com 10 mL de meio MS modificado pela presença de 0,17 g.L-1 de NaH2PO4, com 0,6 % de ágar, 0,25 % de carvão ativado e 3 % de sacarose. Foram testadas diferentes combinações de ANA (0,54; 2,68 e 5,37 miM e BAP (0,44; 1,11; 1,55 e 2,22 miM e uma testemunha adicional. Em média, os tratamentos constituídos da combinação de ANA e BAP foram superiores à testemunha para todas as variáveis avaliadas. As concentrações de 0,54 e 2,68 miM de ANA promoveram, em média, maior formação de plântulas normais quando comparado com 5,37 miM de ANA. O maior comprimento da parte aérea foi induzido pela presença de 2,68 miM de ANA combinado com 1,11; 1,55 e 2,22 miM de BAP. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre as concentrações de ANA e BAP para a percentagem de conversão de embriões e número de raízes por plântulaThis work had as objective to establish protocol for the production of seedlings in vitro from of the conversion of assai palm zygotic embryos (Euterpe oleracea Mart.. The mature zygotic embryos obtained of seeds of mature fruits were excised under aseptic conditions, and cultivated in rehearsal tubes with 10 mL of a MS medium modified by the presence of 0,17 g.L-1 of NaH2PO4, with agar 0,6%, 0,25% activated charcoal and 3% sucrose. Different combinations of NAA were tested (0,54; 2,68 and 5,37 muM and BAP (0,44; 1,11; 1,55 and 2,22 muM and a treatment without growth regulator. On the average, the constituted treatments of ANA and BAP were superiors the to a treatment without growth regulator to all the parameters. The concentrations of 0,54 and 2,68 muM of NAA promoted, on the

  18. Assessment of contamination source and quality control approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood-pressed rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruijie; Zhang, Youfeng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiqi; Luo, Yingqi; Sun, Yujie; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2018-03-14

    Contamination sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the raw material, oil production and storage processes of wood-pressed rapeseed oil were investigated in this study. The results showed that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of BaP, benzo[a]fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene) were unevenly distributed in the kernel (0.56-0.98 and 2.84-8.64 μg/kg, respectively) and hull (1.53-3.17 and 13.49-22.31 μg/kg, respectively) of the rapeseed raw materials. The contents of BaP and PAH4 continuously increased during the process of wood-pressed rapeseed oil, ranging from 2.21 to 10.93 and 9.36 to 40.03 μg/kg, thus demonstrating that a wide range of pollution sources of PAHs existed for the test wood-pressed rapeseed oils. The initial temperature and time of roasting should be controlled at oil (from the mill), heat-transfer oil (from roasting machine), rubber gaskets and straws should be properly screened. The BaP and PAH4 of rapeseed placed in the roasting area increased from 0.5 to 2.24 and from 2.08 to 9.03 μg/kg, respectively. Therefore, roasting fume control and treatment systems are necessary and the roasting section should be strictly isolated from the other stages. Storage can slightly lower the PAHs amounts in the rapeseed oil, which made the contents of BaP and PAH4 decrease from 27.00 to 24.70 and from 138.63 to 117.58 μg/kg, respectively. Quality control measures of PAHs in wood-pressed rapeseed oil were proposed and implemented, and the final oil products' BaP and PAH4 were kept below 2 and 10 μg/kg, respectively, which meets the European Commission Regulation No. 835/2011.

  19. Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Lucia Pittura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub-lethal effects, and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(apyrene (BaP, chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for 4 weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LDPE microparticles (2.34 * 107 particles/L, size range 20–25 μm, both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15 μg/g. Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in hemolymph, gills, and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of

  20. temperatura

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    Alirio Yovany Benavides

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El biodiesel de aceite de palma (BAP posee excelentes propiedades como combustible para motores. Sin embargo, asociado con su composición química altamente saturada, este biocombustible presenta un deficiente desempeño a temperaturas cercanas a la temperatura ambiente de varias ciudades colombianas. A 16 ºC, el BAP empieza a formar pequeños cristales, los cuales, a medida que la temperatura sigue disminuyendo, aceleran su crecimiento y se aglomeran, de tal modo, que a una temperatura entre 12 y 9 ºC pueden llegar a impedir completamente el flujo del combustible. En este trabajo se evaluó la técnica del fraccionamiento del BAP mediante cristalización inducida por enfriamiento para mejorar sus propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura (PFBT. Las variables tenidas en cuenta para dicho proceso fueron la temperatura de enfriamiento o de winterization (Tw y el tiempo de estabilización (tp. De acuerdo con los punto de nube (PN y fluidez (PF del BAP, el rango de temperaturas de enfriamiento que se pudo ensayar fue muy limitado (12 ºC-16 ºC. El proceso permitió obtener una fracción líquida a la Tw con mejores PFBT que el BAP original. Para las condiciones extremas probadas (tp=24 horas y Tw=14 ºC se obtuvo una fracción líquida con un PN 6 ºC menor que el del BAP sin fraccionar. Dicho cambio en el PN correspondió a un aumento en el contenido de metilésteres insaturados de 4,7% y una reducción en el contenido de metilésteres del ácido palmítico de 5,29%. Los cambios inducidos en la composición química de las fracciones líquidas no alcanzaron a tener efectos significativos en sus propiedades básicas como combustibles.