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Sample records for bank vole myodes

  1. Magnetic orientation in the bank vole (\\kur{Myodes glareolus})

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic orientation was established in several species of rodents, but the mechanism of its perception has not been determined. Aim of this work was to verify magnetic sense in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and try to solve the nature of its magnetoreception in tests carried out in total darkness and when the horizontal component was reversed and the vertical component was inverted. A spontaneous directional preference in the magnetic field was tested in circular arena.

  2. Reduced helminth parasitism in the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus): More parasites lost than gained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Karen C; Lawton, Colin; Stafford, Peter; Holland, Celia V

    2016-08-01

    Introduced species are often less parasitised compared to their native counterparts and to ecologically similar hosts in the new environment. Reduced parasitism may come about due to both the loss of original parasites and low acquisition of novel parasites. In this study we investigated the intestinal helminth parasites of the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. Results were compared to data from other European studies and to the intestinal helminth fauna of an ecologically similar native rodent in Ireland, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). The helminth fauna of introduced bank voles exhibited low diversity with only 3 species recovered: Aspiculuris tianjinensis; Aonchotheca murissylvatici and Taenia martis larvae. In particular, no adult parasites with indirect life-cycles were found in bank voles suggesting that indirectly transmitted parasites are less likely to establish in invasive hosts. Also, the results of this study add support to the enemy release hypothesis. PMID:27408800

  3. Reduced helminth parasitism in the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus): More parasites lost than gained

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, Karen C.; Colin Lawton; Peter Stafford; Celia V. Holland

    2016-01-01

    Introduced species are often less parasitised compared to their native counterparts and to ecologically similar hosts in the new environment. Reduced parasitism may come about due to both the loss of original parasites and low acquisition of novel parasites. In this study we investigated the intestinal helminth parasites of the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. Results were compared to data from other European studies and to the intestinal helminth fauna of an ecologically s...

  4. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  5. Adaptive evolution during an ongoing range expansion: the invasive bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas A; Perkins, Sarah E; Heckel, Gerald; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-06-01

    Range expansions are extremely common, but have only recently begun to attract attention in terms of their genetic consequences. As populations expand, demes at the wave front experience strong genetic drift, which is expected to reduce genetic diversity and potentially cause 'allele surfing', where alleles may become fixed over a wide geographical area even if their effects are deleterious. Previous simulation models show that range expansions can generate very strong selective gradients on dispersal, reproduction, competition and immunity. To investigate the effects of range expansion on genetic diversity and adaptation, we studied the population genomics of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. The bank vole was likely introduced in the late 1920s and is expanding its range at a rate of ~2.5 km/year. Using genotyping-by-sequencing, we genotyped 281 bank voles at 5979 SNP loci. Fourteen sample sites were arranged in three transects running from the introduction site to the wave front of the expansion. We found significant declines in genetic diversity along all three transects. However, there was no evidence that sites at the wave front had accumulated more deleterious mutations. We looked for outlier loci with strong correlations between allele frequency and distance from the introduction site, where the direction of correlation was the same in all three transects. Amongst these outliers, we found significant enrichment for genic SNPs, suggesting the action of selection. Candidates for selection included several genes with immunological functions and several genes that could influence behaviour.

  6. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in local bank vole Myodes glareolus populations in an area with low human PUUV infection (nephropathia epidemica [NE]) incidence in northern Belgium was monitored for 2 consecutive years. Bank voles were trapped in preferred...

  7. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. PMID:25701819

  8. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a complete population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus.

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    Maria Razzauti

    Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.

  9. Physiological condition of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) during the increase and decline phases of the population cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Huitu, Otso; Henttonen, Heikki; Finnilä, Mikko A J; Voutilainen, Liina; Itämies, Juhani; Kärjä, Vesa; Saarela, Seppo; Halonen, Toivo; Aho, Jari; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of animal populations are greatly influenced by interactions with their natural enemies and food resources. However, quantifying the relative effects of these factors on demographic rates remains a perpetual challenge for animal population ecology. Food scarcity is assumed to limit the growth and to initiate the decline of cyclic herbivore populations, but this has not been verified with physiological health indices. We hypothesized that individuals in declining populations would exhibit signs of malnutrition-induced deterioration of physiological condition. We evaluated the association of body condition with population cycle phase in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) during the increase and decline phases of a population cycle. The bank voles had lower body masses, condition indices and absolute masses of particular organs during the decline. Simultaneously, they had lower femoral masses, mineral contents and densities. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values and several parameters known to respond to food deprivation were unaffected by the population phase. There were no signs of lymphopenia, eosinophilia, granulocytosis or monocytosis. Erythrocyte counts were higher and plasma total protein levels and tissue proportions of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids lower in the population decline. Ectoparasite load was lower and adrenal gland masses or catecholamine concentrations did not suggest higher stress levels. Food availability seems to limit the size of voles during the decline but they can adapt to the prevailing conditions without clear deleterious health effects. This highlights the importance of quantifying individual health state when evaluating the effects of complex trophic interactions on the dynamics of wild animal populations. PMID:26006298

  10. Increased radiation from Chernobyl decreases the expression of red colouration in natural populations of bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Lehmann, Philipp; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-01-01

    Pheomelanin is a pink to red version of melanin pigment deposited in skin and hair. Due to its bright colour, pheomelanin plays a crucial function in signalling, in particular sexual signalling. However, production of pheomelanin, as opposed to its dark alternative, eumelanin, bears costs in terms of consumption of antioxidants important for protection of DNA against naturally produced reactive oxidative species. Therefore, decreased expression of pheomelanin is expected in organisms exposed to severe oxidative stress such as that caused by exposure to chronic ionizing radiation. We tested if variable exposure to radiation among natural populations of bank voles Myodes glareolus in Chernobyl affected expression of red colouration in their dorsal fur. The relative redness of dorsal fur was positively correlated with weight, but also negatively correlated with the level of background radiation. These results suggest that the development of the natural red colouration in adult bank voles is affected by ionizing background radiation, and potentially causing elevated levels of oxidative stress. Reduced production of pheomelanin allows more antioxidants to mitigate the oxidative stress caused by radiation. However, changing natural animal colouration for physiological reasons can have ecological costs, if e.g. it causes mismatch with habitat colouration and conspicuousness for predators. PMID:25413373

  11. Interspecific relations of parasites of bank vole Myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780

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    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Adaptation to coexistence had a tendency to the balancing of a pathogenic action of a parasite complex with an immunophysiological status of the host. The observed frequency distribution of the number of parasites in the bank vole complies with a lognormal distribution (Fig. 1. The analysis of co-occurrence of bank vole parasites showed that the presence or absence of one parasite in the host does not affect the presence of another. The results on the co-occurrence of parasites indicate that they don’t influence each other negatively (Table 1. Correlation of abundance in the concurrent infections were statistically reliable (p<0.05 for 6 of 55 examined parasite pairs. There were H. glareoly – I. trianguliceps (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.21, I. persulcatus - Hi. isabellinus (0.12, I. persulcatus – Ct. uncinatus (0.35, Hg. nidi - E. stabularis (0.13, E. stabularis - M. rectangulatus (0.25, M. rectangulatus - P. silvatici (0.52. All significant associations were positive (Table 2–4. It might be explained by the similar requirements of the parasites to the conditions of their habitat.

  12. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus as zoomonitors of environmental contamination at a polluted area in Slovakia

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    Jančová Alena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living wild rodents are often used as zoomonitors of environmental contamination. In the present study, accumulation of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn in critical organs of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus trapped in a polluted area in Nováky, Slovakia was investigated. Methods Yellow-necked mice (n = 8 and bank voles (n = 10 were collected using standard theriological methods for wood ecosystems. All animals were adult males in good physical condition. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the liver, kidney, and bone were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of both species while Cu and Fe accumulated mainly in kidney or liver. Significant higher concentrations of Cd and Cu were detected in the liver of bank voles than in yellow-necked mice. Similar significant higher levels of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of bank voles. In contrast, significant higher concentrations of Cu and Fe were present in the kidney of yellow-necked mice. Conclusions In the yellow-necked mouse and bank vole, bone seems to accumulate Cd and Zn following prolonged exposure. On the contrary, kidney and liver store Cu and Fe after a long-term environmental exposure. In the present study, bank voles seemed to be more heavy metal loaded zoomonitors than yellow-necked mice.

  13. Heart transcriptome of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus: towards understanding the evolutionary variation in metabolic rate

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    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive changes has been a major goal of evolutionary biology. In complex organisms without sequenced genomes, de novo transcriptome assembly using a longer read sequencing technology followed by expression profiling using short reads is likely to provide comprehensive identification of adaptive variation at the expression level and sequence polymorphisms in coding regions. We performed sequencing and de novo assembly of the bank vole heart transcriptome in lines selected for high metabolism and unselected controls. Results A single 454 Titanium run produced over million reads, which were assembled into 63,581 contigs. Searches against the SwissProt protein database and the ENSEMBL collection of mouse transcripts detected similarity to 11,181 and 14,051 genes, respectively. As judged by the representation of genes from the heart-related Gene Ontology categories and UniGenes detected in the mouse heart, our detection of the genes expressed in the heart was nearly complete (> 95% and almost 90% respectively. On average, 38.7% of the transcript length was covered by our sequences, with notably higher (45.0% coverage of coding regions than of untranslated regions (24.5% of 5' and 32.7% of 3'UTRs. Lower sequence conservation between mouse and bank vole in untranslated regions was found to be partially responsible for poorer UTR representation. Our data might suggest a widespread transcription from noncoding genomic regions, a finding not reported in previous studies regarding transcriptomes in non-model organisms. We also identified over 19 thousand putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A much higher fraction of the SNPs than expected by chance exhibited variant frequency differences between selection regimes. Conclusion Longer reads and higher sequence yield per run provided by the 454 Titanium technology in comparison to earlier generations of pyrosequencing proved beneficial for the

  14. Susceptibility to and transmission of H5N1 and H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Tejeda, Aurora; Aiello, Roberta; Salomoni, Angela; Berton, Valeria; Vascellari, Marta; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The study of influenza type A (IA) infections in wild mammals populations is a critical gap in our knowledge of how IA viruses evolve in novel hosts that could be in close contact with avian reservoir species and other wild animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to infection, the nasal shedding and the transmissibility of the H7N1 and H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a wild rodent common throughout Europe and Asia. Two out of 24 H5N1-infected voles displayed evident respiratory distress, while H7N1-infected voles remained asymptomatic. Viable virus was isolated from nasal washes collected from animals infected with both HPAI viruses, and extra-pulmonary infection was confirmed in both experimental groups. Histopathological lesions were evident in the respiratory tract of infected animals, although immunohistochemistry positivity was only detected in lungs and trachea of two H7N1-infected voles. Both HPAI viruses were transmitted by direct contact, and seroconversion was confirmed in 50% and 12.5% of the asymptomatic sentinels in the H7N1 and H5N1 groups, respectively. Interestingly, viable virus was isolated from lungs and nasal washes collected from contact sentinels of both groups. The present study demonstrated that two non-rodent adapted HPAI viruses caused asymptomatic infection in bank voles, which shed high amounts of the viruses and were able to infect contact voles. Further investigations are needed to determine whether bank voles could be involved as silent hosts in the transmission of HPAI viruses to other mammals and domestic poultry. PMID:25963535

  15. Novel OBP genes similar to hamster Aphrodisin in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus

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    Šandera Martin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical communication in mammals involves globular lipocalins that protect and transport pheromones during their passage out of the body. Efficient communication via this protein - pheromone complex is essential for triggering multiple responses including aggression, mate choice, copulatory behaviour, and onset and synchronization of oestrus. The roles of lipocalins in communication were studied in many organisms and especially in mice (i.e. Mus musculus domesticus which excrete Major Urinary Proteins (Mup in excessive amounts in saliva and urine. Other mammals, however, often lack the genes for Mups or their expression is very low. Therefore, we aimed at characterization of candidate lipocalins in Myodes glareolus which are potentially linked to chemical communication. One of them is Aphrodisin which is a unique lipocalin that was previously described from hamster vaginal discharge and is known to carry pheromones stimulating copulatory behaviour in males. Results Here we show that Aphrodisin-like proteins exist in other species, belong to a group of Odorant Binding Proteins (Obp, and contrary to the expression of Aphrodisin only in hamster genital tract and parotid glands of females, we have detected these transcripts in both sexes of M. glareolus with the expression confirmed in various tissues including prostate, prepucial and salivary glands, liver and uterus. On the level of mRNA, we have detected three different gene variants. To assess their relevance for chemical communication we investigated the occurrence of particular proteins in saliva, urine and vaginal discharge. On the protein level we confirmed the presence of Obp2 and Obp3 in both saliva and urine. Appropriate bands in the range of 17-20 kDa from vaginal discharge were, however, beyond the MS detection limits. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that three novel Obps (Obp1, Obp2, and Obp3 are predominant lipocalins in Myodes urine and saliva. On the protein

  16. Selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman;

    2012-01-01

    years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...... numbers of parasite species. Differential predation of tawny owls on yellow-necked mice and bank voles seems to reflect higher exposure to predator encounters of prime individuals rather than selection for substandard individuals....

  17. Selective Predation of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman;

    2012-01-01

    years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...... numbers of parasite species. Differential predation of tawny owls on yellow-necked mice and bank voles seems to reflect higher exposure to predator encounters of prime individuals rather than selection for substandard individuals....

  18. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA among Myodes voles: consequences for energetics?

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    Boratyński Zbyszek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is among the most frequently described cases of reticulate evolution. The tendency of mtDNA to cross interspecific barriers is somewhat counter-intuitive considering the key function of enzymes that it encodes in the oxidative-phosphorylation process, which could give rise to hybrid dysfunction. How mtDNA reticulation affects the evolution of metabolic functions is, however, uncertain. Here we investigated how morpho-physiological traits vary in natural populations of a common rodent (the bank vole, Myodes glareolus and whether this variation could be associated with mtDNA introgression. First, we confirmed that M. glareolus harbour mtDNA introgressed from M. rutilus by analyzing mtDNA (cytochrome b, 954 bp and nuclear DNA (four markers; 2333 bp in total sequence variation and reconstructing loci phylogenies among six natural populations in Finland. We then studied geographic variation in body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR among the populations of M. glareolus and tested its relationship with mtDNA type. Results Myodes glareolus and its arctic neighbour, M. rutilus, are reciprocally monophyletic at the analyzed nuclear DNA loci. In contrast, the two northernmost populations of M. glareolus have a fixed mitotype that is shared with M. rutilus, likely due to introgressive hybridization. The analyses of phenotypic traits revealed that the body mass and whole-body, but not mass corrected, BMR are significantly reduced in M. glareolus females from northern Finland that also have the introgressed mitotype. Restricting the analysis to the single population where the mitotypes coexist, the association of mtDNA type with whole-body BMR remained but those with mass corrected BMR and body mass did not. Mitochondrial sequence variation in the introgressed haplotypes is compatible with demographic growth of the populations, but may also be a result of positive selection. Conclusion Our

  19. Ecological niche modelling of bank voles in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Amirpour Haredasht; Miguel Barrios; Jamshid Farifteh; Piet Maes; Jan Clement; Willem W. Verstraeten; Katrien Tersago; Marc Van Ranst; Pol Coppin; Daniel Berckmans; Jean-Marie Aerts

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the natural host of Puumala virus (PUUV) in vast areas of Europe. PUUV is one of the hantaviruses which are transmitted to humans by infected rodents. PUUV causes a general mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) called nephropathia epidemica (NE). Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover influences disease transmission by controlling both the...

  20. Ecological Niche Modelling of Bank Voles in Western Europe

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    Sara Amirpour Haredasht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bank vole (Myodes glareolus is the natural host of Puumala virus (PUUV in vast areas of Europe. PUUV is one of the hantaviruses which are transmitted to humans by infected rodents. PUUV causes a general mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS called nephropathia epidemica (NE. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover influences disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, as well as by facilitating the human contact with them. In this study the use of ecological niche modelling (ENM for predicting the geographical distribution of bank vole population on the basis of spatial climate information is tested. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP is used to model the ecological niche of bank voles in Western Europe. The meteorological data, land cover types and geo-referenced points representing the locations of the bank voles (latitude/longitude in the study area are used as the primary model input value. The predictive accuracy of the bank vole ecologic niche model was significant (training accuracy of 86%. The output of the GARP models based on the 50% subsets of points used for testing the model showed an accuracy of 75%. Compared with random models, the probability of such high predictivity was low (χ2 tests, p < 10−6. As such, the GARP models were predictive and the used ecologic niche model indeed indicates the ecologic requirements of bank voles. This approach successfully identified the areas of infection risk across the study area. The result suggests that the niche modelling approach can be implemented in a next step towards the development of new tools for monitoring the bank vole’s population.

  1. Kinship, dispersal and hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Galan, M; Gauffre, B; Morand, S; Henttonen, H; Laakkonen, J; Voutilainen, L; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the main emerging infectious agents in Europe. Their mode of transmission in natura is still not well known. In particular, social features and behaviours could be crucial for understanding the persistence and the spread of hantaviruses in rodent populations. Here, we investigated the importance of kinclustering and dispersal in hantavirus transmission by combining a fine-scale spatiotemporal survey (4 km2) and a population genetics approach. Two specific host-hantavirus systems were identified and monitored: the bank vole Myodes, earlier Clethrionomys glareolus--Puumala virus and the common vole Microtus arvalis--Tula virus. Sex, age and landscape characteristics significantly influenced the spatial distribution of infections in voles. The absence of temporal stability in the spatial distributions of viruses suggested that dispersal is likely to play a role in virus propagation. Analysing vole kinship from microsatellite markers, we found that infected voles were more closely related to each other than non-infected ones. Winter kin-clustering, shared colonies within matrilineages or delayed dispersal could explain this pattern. These two last results hold, whatever the host-hantavirus system considered. This supports the roles of relatedness and dispersal as general features for hantavirus transmission.

  2. Diabetes in Danish Bank Voles (M. glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønecker, Bryan; Freimanis, Tonny; Sørensen, Irene Vejgaard

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that the development of polydipsia (PD, a daily water intake ≥21 ml) among captive Danish bank voles, is associated with the development of a type 1 diabetes (T1D), based on findings of hyperglycaemia, glucosuria, ketonuria/-emia, lipemia, destroyed beta cells....... Data also indicates that diabetes in Danish bank is not associated with a higher body weight. Finally, the method of using measurements of daily water intake to screen for voles with a high probability of hyperglycaemia constitutes a considerable refinement when compared to the usual, invasive, methods....

  3. Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles.

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    Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank voles were most abundant in mid-winter months during years of increasing or peak host density. Prevalence of PUUV infection in bank voles exhibited a regular, seasonal pattern reflecting the annual population turnover and accumulation of infections within each year cohort. In autumn, the PUUV transmission rate tracked increasing host abundance, suggesting a density-dependent transmission. However, prevalence of PUUV infection was similar during the increase and peak years of the density cycle despite a twofold difference in host density. This may result from the high proportion of individuals carrying maternal antibodies constraining transmission during the cycle peak years. Our exceptionally intensive and long-term dataset provides a solid basis on which to develop models to predict the dynamic public health threat posed by PUUV in northern Europe. PMID:26887639

  4. Differential marking, investigation and motor activity in presence of conspecific odours differing on their population of origin in bank voles

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    Geraldine Verplancke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Odours emitted by rodent species convey cues about their overall body conditions and provide valuable information intervening in many aspects of their social relationships such as territorial and mating activities. Although bank vole is one of the primary models for studying chemical communication in wild rodents, literature is scarce about its reactivity to odours of conspecifics from its population compared to those of conspecifics from a different population. Here we tested the effect of the population of origin on the behaviour of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus through 30min tests in laboratory. We observed both males and females differential marking (i.e. by urine or glandular secretions, motor activity and investigation (i.e. sniffing events in presence of conspecific whole body odours coming from either the Same Population of Origin (SPO or from a Different Population of Origin (DPO. Our results showed that both male and female bank voles react differently to odours of conspecifics according to the population of origin of the latter. Both motor activity and marking were more important when voles were confronted to odours from DPO donors than SPO ones. These effects were independent of the sex of the subjects. Moreover, male subjects tended to investigate more odours from DPO conspecifics than odours from SPO ones. Causes underlying apparent between-populations differences in the bank voles' body odours are discussed.

  5. Temporal variation in individual factors associated with hantavirus infection in bank voles during an epizootic: implications for Puumala virus transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersago, Katrien; Verhagen, Ron; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-06-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), the causal agent of nephropathia epidemica in humans, is one of the many hantaviruses included in the list of emerging pathogens. Hantavirus infection is not distributed evenly among PUUV reservoir hosts (i.e., bank voles [Myodes glareolus]). Besides environmental factors and local population features, individual characteristics play an important role in vole PUUV infection risk. Identifying the relative importance of these individual characteristics can provide crucial information on PUUV transmission processes. In the present study, bank voles were monitored during the nephropathia epidemica outbreak of 2005 in Belgium. Vole sera were tested for presence of immunoglobulin G against PUUV, and a logistic mixed model was built to investigate the temporal variation in individual characteristics and their relative importance to PUUV infection risk in bank voles. Relative risk calculations for individual vole characteristics related to PUUV infection in the reservoir host show that reproductive activity dominates infection risk. The gender effect is only found in reproductively active voles, where reproductively active males have the highest infection risk. Results also revealed a clear seasonal variation in the importance of reproductive activity linked to PUUV infection. In contrast to the main effect found in other trapping sessions, no difference in infection risk ratio was found between reproductively active and nonactive voles in the spring period. Combined with increased infection risk for the reproductively nonactive group at that time, these results indicate a shift in the transmission process due to changes in bank vole behavior, physiology, or climate conditions. Hence, our results suggest that mathematical models should take into account seasonal shifts in transmission mechanisms. When these results are combined with the seasonal changes in population structure during the epizootic period, we identify vole reproductive activity and

  6. The importance of bank vole density and rainy winters in predicting nephropathia epidemica incidence in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hjertqvist, Marika; Magnusson, Magnus; Löfvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are rodent-borne viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe, there are more than 10,000 yearly cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV). The common and widely distributed bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the host of PUUV. In this study, we aim to explain and predict NE incidence in boreal Sweden using bank vole densities. We tested whether the number of rainy days in winter contributed to variation in NE incidence. We forecast NE incidence in July 2013-June 2014 using projected autumn vole density, and then considering two climatic scenarios: 1) rain-free winter and 2) winter with many rainy days. Autumn vole density was a strong explanatory variable of NE incidence in boreal Sweden in 1990-2012 (R2 = 79%, p<0.001). Adding the number of rainy winter days improved the model (R2 = 84%, p<0.05). We report for the first time that risk of NE is higher in winters with many rainy days. Rain on snow and ground icing may block vole access to subnivean space. Seeking refuge from adverse conditions and shelter from predators, voles may infest buildings, increasing infection risk. In a rainy winter scenario, we predicted 812 NE cases in boreal Sweden, triple the number of cases predicted in a rain-free winter in 2013/2014. Our model enables identification of high risk years when preparedness in the public health sector is crucial, as a rainy winter would accentuate risk.

  7. Stimulation of serotonin (5-HT) activity reduces spontaneous stereotypies in female but not in male bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) Stereotyping female voles as a new animal model for human anxiety and mood disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønecker, Bryan; Heller, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders......Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders...

  8. Is reproduction costly? No increase of oxidative damage in breeding bank voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Chrzaácik, Katarzyna M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł; Taylor, Jan R E

    2012-06-01

    According to life-history theory, investment in reproduction is associated with costs, which should appear as decreased survival to the next reproduction or lower future reproductive success. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may be the proximate mechanism of these trade-offs. Despite numerous studies of the defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reproduction, very little is known about the damage caused by ROS to the tissues of wild breeding animals. We measured oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in breeding bank vole (Myodes glareolus) females after rearing one and two litters, and in non-breeding females. We used bank voles from lines selected for high maximum aerobic metabolic rates (which also had high resting metabolic rates and food intake) and non-selected control lines. The oxidative damage was determined in heart, kidneys and skeletal muscles by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, as markers of lipid peroxidation, and carbonyl groups in proteins, as markers of protein oxidation. Surprisingly, we found that the oxidative damage to lipids in kidneys and muscles was actually lower in breeding than in non-breeding voles, and it did not differ between animals from the selected and control lines. Thus, contrary to our predictions, females that bred suffered lower levels of oxidative stress than those that did not reproduce. Elevated production of antioxidant enzymes and the protective role of sex hormones may explain the results. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that oxidative damage to tissues is the proximate mechanism of reproduction costs.

  9. A northern glacial refugium for bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlík, Petr; Deffontaine, Valérie; Mascheretti, Silvia; Zima, Jan; Michaux, Johan R; Searle, Jeremy B

    2006-10-01

    There is controversy and uncertainty on how far north there were glacial refugia for temperate species during the Pleistocene glaciations and in the extent of the contribution of such refugia to present-day populations. We examined these issues using phylogeographic analysis of a European woodland mammal, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). A Bayesian coalescence analysis indicates that a bank vole population survived the height of the last glaciation (approximately 25,000-10,000 years B.P.) in the vicinity of the Carpathians, a major central European mountain chain well north of the Mediterranean areas typically regarded as glacial refugia for temperate species. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation with migration model show that the divergence of the Carpathian population started at least 22,000 years ago, and it was likely followed by only negligible immigration from adjacent regions, suggesting the persistence of bank voles in the Carpathians through the height of the last glaciation. On the contrary, there is clear evidence for gene flow out of the Carpathians, demonstrating the contribution of the Carpathian population to the colonization of Europe after the Pleistocene. These findings are consistent with data from animal and plant fossils recovered in the Carpathians and provide the clearest phylogeographic evidence to date of a northern glacial refugium for temperate species in Europe. PMID:17001012

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  11. Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bari, Di M.A.; Nonno, R.; Castilla, J.; Augostino, D' C.; Pirisinu, L.; Riccardi, G.; Conte, M.; Richt, J.A.; Kunkle, R.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Vaccari, G.; Agrimi, U.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with

  12. Infanticide in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus): Occurrence and the effect of familiarity on female infanticide

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, H.; Koskela, E; Mappes, T.

    1997-01-01

    We studied infanticide in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), in a species whose social organization is characterized by strict female territoriality during the breeding season. One possible origin of female territoriality could be to protect the nest site and pups from potentially infanticidal conspecifics. However, direct evidence of the occurrence of infanticide, and thus of its possible role in territorial behaviour of the bank vole females, is totally lacking. Observations in the la...

  13. Time series analysis performed on nephropathia epidemica in humans of northern Sweden in relation to bank vole population dynamic and the NAO index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, R Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Time series analysis was performed on two data series of human nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in northern Sweden between the years 1959-1975 and 1985-2006. The analysis confirms that the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), the main reservoir species, shows regular peaks in population density approximately every fourth year. The periodicity in NE cases of the more recent time period (1985-2006) is 2.8-3.3 years and the older period shows a periodicity ranging 3.4-4.2 years, but this is not significantly different from that expected by vole dynamics. A comparison of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index between the two periods reveals higher mean winter NAO index in the period 1985-2006 than in 1959-1975. No difference was found in frequency of the NAO index between the older period (2.8-3.4 years) compared with the recent period (2.4-2.8 years). Cross-correlation revealed a delayed effect by NAO index on vole abundance but a multivariate model showed that NAO index did not explain the variation in NE cases. Vole index was the only factor that contributed significantly to the variation in numbers of NE cases and that no climate effect could be detected. The climate signal from NAO index does not appear to significantly affect the human NE cases and this suggests that the transmission of disease to man is not particularly sensitive to variations in weather factors. The results favour the hypothesis that higher NAO index will not increase the likelihood of virus transmission from voles to man in northern Sweden under present climatic conditions.

  14. Revision of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 (Mammalia, Rodentia distribution in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m. On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.

  15. Selective predation on hantavirus-infected voles by owls and confounding effects from landscape properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that predators may protect human health through reducing disease-host densities or selectively preying on infected individuals from the population. However, this has not been tested empirically. We hypothesized that Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) selectively preys on hantavirus-infected individuals of its staple prey, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Bank voles are hosts of Puumala hantavirus, which causes a form of hemorrhagic fever in humans. Selective predation by owls on infected voles may reduce human disease risk. We compared the prevalence of anti-Puumala hantavirus antibodies (seroprevalence), in bank voles cached by owls in nest boxes to seroprevalence in voles trapped in closed-canopy forest around each nest box. We found no general difference in seroprevalence. Forest landscape structure could partly account for the observed patterns in seroprevalence. Only in more connected forest patches was seroprevalence in bank voles cached in nest boxes higher than seroprevalence in trapped voles. This effect disappeared with increasing forest patch isolation, as seroprevalence in trapped voles increased with forest patch isolation, but did not in cached voles. Our results suggest a complex relationship between zoonotic disease prevalence in hosts, their predators, and landscape structure. Some mechanisms that may have caused the seroprevalence patterns in our results include higher bank vole density in isolated forest patches. This study offers future research potential to shed further light on the contribution of predators and landscape properties to human health. PMID:26873607

  16. Efficient transmission and characterization of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  17. Efficient transmission and characterization of creutzfeldt-jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  18. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; Němec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedláček, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  19. [Biological activity of soils in the settlements of southern (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) and bank (Clethrionomys glareolus) voles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaeva, E S; Kostina, N V; Gorlenko, M V; Lomovtseva, N O; Umarov, M M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of southern (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) and bank (Clethrionomys glareolus) voles on the biological activity of soddy-podzolic soil and culturozem has been studied. To estimate this effect, the activity of nitrogen and carbon transformation in the soil taken from the paths and different chambers of the holes of these rodents, as well as from the control plots where there were no voles, has been determined. The contents of organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil have been found. The parameters of functional diversity of the microbial community of soil have been studied. It has been noted that the effect of voles on the biological activity of the above soils manifested itself in increased intensity of aerobic and anaerobic destruction of organic matter and changes in the parameters of functional diversity of the microbial community of soils. PMID:24459855

  20. Implantation and early postimplantation development of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdzeński, W; Mystkowska, E T

    1976-06-01

    The development of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus is described from implantation to the formation of the foetal membranes. The embryonic development of this species combines features of primitive rodent species, for example Geomys bursarius and highly specialized ones, for examples Mus musculus. The egg-cylinder is formed by invagination into the blastocoelic cavity of the inner cell mass and polar trophoblast overlying it; this resembles in many respects the early stages of development of primitive species. The fully formed egg-cylinder, however, resembles that of the mouse and the formation of foetal membranes is also similar to that in Muridae. It is concluded that in the bank vole and also in other rodents, the extra-embryonic ectoderm of the egg-cylinder is derived from the polar trophoblast rather than from the inner cell mass.

  1. Maternal effort and male quality in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus.

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, T A; Alatalo, R V; Horne, T J; Koskela, E; Mappes, J.; Mappes, T.

    1999-01-01

    Parental investment in reproduction is adjusted according to potential benefits in terms of offspring survival and/or mating success. If male quality affects the reproductive success of a female, then females mating with high-quality males should invest more in reproduction. Although the subject has been of general interest, further experimental verification of the hypothesis is needed. We studied whether female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) adjusted their maternal effort according to ...

  2. Broadening diversity in the Arostrilepis horrida complex: Arostrilepis kontrimavichusi n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) in the western red-backed vole Myodes californicus (Merriam) (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae) from temperate latitudes of the Pacific Northwest, North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Hoberg, Eric P

    2016-06-01

    Specimens originally identified provisionally as Hymenolepis horrida (Linstow, 1901) [later Arostrilepis horrida (Linstow, 1901)] in Myodes californicus (Merriam) from near the Pacific coastal zone of southern Oregon are revised. Specimens in western red-backed voles represent an undescribed species of Arostrilepis Mas Coma & Tenora, 1997, contributing to recognition and resolution of a broadening complex encompassing cryptic diversity for these hymenolepidid tapeworms distributed across the Holarctic region. Consistent with recent studies defining diversity in the genus, the form, dimensions, and spination (pattern, shape and size) of the cirrus are diagnostic. Among 12 nominal congeners, specimens of A. kontrimavichusi n. sp. are further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac, arrangement of the testes and relative size of the external seminal vesicle and seminal receptacle. Specimens from Oregon voles represent the fifth endemic hymenolepidid in this genus from the Nearctic. Host range for the North American assemblage of species includes Cricetidae (Arvicolinae and Neotominae), Heteromyidae, Geomyidae, and rarely Sciuridae. PMID:27221000

  3. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  4. Evidence that bank vole PrP is a universal acceptor for prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP, we inoculated Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD subtype MM1, into Tg(M109 mice gave incubation periods of ∼200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ∼250 days, which shortened to ∼150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109 mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109 mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates--including the size of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability--were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109 mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions.

  5. [Ecological aspects of infection of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) with Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) evotomys Hadwen, 1912].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, G; Wita, I

    2001-01-01

    The studies were carried out in Kosewo Górne in the Mazurian District (North-East region of Poland), in September 1995, September 1996 and between May 1997 and June 1998 each month. The animals were trapped in live traps, and after study they were marked and released. The infection of trypanosomes was detected using microhaematocrit centrifugation technique and in blood smears. The intensity of infection had the range from 50 to 150 000 individuals in 1 ml of blood. The maximal prevalence of infection was in August and September and there were 45% and 38% of infected voles respectively. The infection was detected also in May 1998, in other months the prevalence had low level. There were no individuals of bank vole infected in succeeding months. The females of bank vole are more often infected with trypanosomes than males.

  6. Experimental Infection of voles with Francisella tularensis indicates their amplification role in tularemia outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Rossow

    Full Text Available Tularemia outbreaks in humans have been linked to fluctuations in rodent population density, but the mode of bacterial maintenance in nature is unclear. Here we report on an experiment to investigate the pathogenesis of Francisella tularensis infection in wild rodents, and thereby assess their potential to spread the bacterium. We infected 20 field voles (Microtus agrestis and 12 bank voles (Myodes glareolus with a strain of F. tularensis ssp. holarctica isolated from a human patient. Upon euthanasia or death, voles were necropsied and specimens collected for histological assessment and identification of bacteria by immunohistology and PCR. Bacterial excretion and a rapid lethal clinical course with pathological changes consistent with bacteremia and tissue necrosis were observed in infected animals. The results support a role for voles as an amplification host of F. tularensis, as excreta and, in particular, carcasses with high bacterial burden could serve as a source for environmental contamination.

  7. Explaining bank vole cycles in southern Norway 1980-2004 from bilberry reports 1932-1977 and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selås, Vidar

    2006-04-01

    Correlations between mast fruiting of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and peak levels of Clethrionomys-voles have been reported from both Norway and Finland, but there has been a discussion whether this is a bottom-up or a top-down relationship. In a multiple regression model, 65% of the variation in a bilberry production index calculated from game reports from southern Norway 1932-1977 could be explained by the berry index of the two preceding years and climate factors acting during key stages of the flowering cycle. High vole populations in previous years did not contribute to explain the fluctuation in berry production. I used the selected model and climate data to predict bilberry production for the period 1978-2004. Predicted berry indices of the current and previous year explained 38% and the total amount of precipitation in May-June explained 16% of the variation in a log-transformed snap-trapping index of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus 1980-2004. The vole index was not related to any of the climate variables used to predict berry production. This pattern supports the hypothesis that vole cycles are generated by changes in plant chemistry due to climate-synchronized mast fruiting.

  8. Environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident: mutagenesis in bank voles from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made in Sweden of the possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl fallout on wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreb). The results showed a positive correlation between the increase of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE/1000 PCE) and both 137Cs content in muscle and in soil contamination. The estimated doses absorbed by the animals were far lower than those required for the same effect in laboratory experiments. An explanation of this discrepancy between dose and measured biological effect is not available, yet similar results have been repeatedly reported after the Chernobyl accident and should be a matter for further discussion. An increased frequency of micronucleated cells might occur at minimal dose gradients, and the micronucleus test appears to be a valid tool to show such effects. (author)

  9. Prey selection of Tawny owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow necked mouse and Bank Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsom, H. M.; Sunde, P.; Overskaug, K.

    As predators owls may have a strong impact on mortality of their favourite prey, and may therefore act as important selective agents on their prey species. Little is known, however, about whether owls choose prey randomly or if some prey items suffer a higher risk of predation due to certain life...... history traits. The aim of this master thesis study was to investigate any prey selection of tawny owls on two prey species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Our hypotheses were that the level of exposure might differ between prey items of different sex......, age, and size, causing some individuals to suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than others.The results suggest that males suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than females, and that the different age groups may also experience different risk of predation. It also suggests...

  10. Nematofauna of bank vole: Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 from Mt. Fruška gora (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić-Čabrilo Olivera N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematofauna of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus was analyzed for the first time from samples collected in our country. The specimens were collected in Fruška Gora National Park (locality of Brankovac. The number of collected specimens was 138, and infestation with seven nematode species was determined: Heligmosomum mixtum (Schulz, 1954, Heligmosomoides glareoli (Baylis, 1928, Syphacia petrusewiczi (Bernard, 1966, S. stroma (Linstow, 1884, Capillaria murissylvatici (Dieseng, 1851, Trichocephalus muris Schrank, 1788, and Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821. The species Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, and Syphacia petrusewiczi represent the first records for the territory of our country. The species best represented in the sample were H. glareoli and S. petrusewiczi. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes of host species regarding the prevalence, mean intensity, or mean abundance of parasite invasion.

  11. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity. PMID:15836645

  12. Parasite fauna of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in an urban region of Germany: reservoir host of zoonotic metazoan parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, 29 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of ten different parasite species were identified: four endoparasite (four Nematoda) and six ectoparasite (three Insecta, three Arachnida) species. The predominant endoparasite was the nematode Aonchotheca murissylvatici, followed by the nematode Heligmosomum costellatum, while the flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite. C. glareolus usually carried one to five different parasite species (mean 2.2). The bank voles were infected only by Nematoda, while Digenea or Cestoda species were not detected. The present findings are in clear contrast to the results obtained in other geographical regions of Germany and Europe, where eight different Cestoda species constituted the main part of the helminth parasites in C. glareolus. In the area investigated, the bank voles harbored no zoonotic parasites, and therefore, they play not a role as potential reservoir host for these parasite species.

  13. [Evaluation of abundance of residents and immigration by irretrievable requisitioning of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipanov, N A; Liapina, M G

    2011-01-01

    The activity of average statistical species was approximated by normal distribution. This is provided by calculation of the part of resident animals without repeated hatching, i.e., the edge effect. Residence beyond the space covering 99% of species activity was considered as nonresidence. The appearance of nonresidence in general can be considered as "excursions" and "resettlement." The experiments on requisitioning of small settled animals from a preliminary marked site were carried out. It was shown that the number of settled small animals calculated using results of requisitioning corresponds to the number found during labeling with amendment to the edge effect, and immigration was constant and is not initiated by requisitioning. Only resettlements had an influence on the settlement of free space. The expected velocity of settling of the free space was calculated according to evaluation of the value of settlement and the share of "migrants" among immigrants. Second labeling of the place of hatching has shown that the expected and real paces of settlement are close.

  14. Characterization of Puumala hantavirus in bank voles from two regions in the Netherlands where human cases occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, A; Vennema, H; Bekker, D L; Maas, M; Adema, J; Opsteegh, M; van der Giessen, J W B; Reusken, C B E M

    2016-07-01

    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the most common and widespread hantavirus in Europe and is associated with a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, called nephropathia epidemica. This study presents the molecular characterization of PUUV circulating in bank voles in two regions of the Netherlands. Most human cases of hantavirus infection are from these two regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the (partial) S, M and L-segments indicated that the Dutch strains belong to the CE lineage, which includes PUUV strains from France, Germany and Belgium. We have identified two distinct groups of PUUV, corresponding with their geographic origin and with adjoining regions in neighbouring countries. PMID:27075118

  15. [Genetic variation and phylogeography of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicolinae, Rodentia) in Russia with special reference to the introgression of the mtDNA of a closely related species, red-backed vole (C. rutilus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, N I; Rodchenkova, E N; Kostygov, A Iu

    2009-05-01

    Totally, 294 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and 18 red-backed voles (C. rutilus) from 62 sites of European Russia were studied. Incomplete sequences (967 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were determined for 93 C. glareolus individuals from 56 sites and 18 C. rutilus individuals from the same habitats. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation has demonstrated that practically the entire European part of Russia, Ural, and a considerable part of Western Europe are inhabited by bank voles of the same phylogroup, displaying an extremely low genetic differentiation. Our data suggest that C. glareolus very rapidly colonized over the presently occupied territory in the post-Pleistocene period from no more than two (central European and western European) refugia for ancestral populations with a small efficient size. PCR typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene allowed us to assess the scale of mtDNA introgression from a closely related species, C. rutilus, and to outline the geographical zone of this introgression. Comparison with the red-backed vole haplotypes in the habitats shared by both species favors the hypothesis of an ancient hybridization event (mid-Holocene) and a subsequent introgression. These results suggest that the hybridization took place in the southern and middle Pre-Ural region. PMID:19534420

  16. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested.

  17. Time-course of micronucleated erythrocytes in response to whole-body gamma irradiation in a model mammalian species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Igor I; Savina, Natalya V; Ryabokon, Nadezhda I

    2011-01-01

    The time course of the formation of micronucleated polychromatic (MNPCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) in the bone marrow of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber), a model mouse-like species, was studied using the standard micronucleus test at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 hr following whole-body acute γ-irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Based on the existing literature on laboratory mice, it was suggested that such a dose will not have significant effect on erythroid cell proliferation in the bank vole and hence on the time course of the rise of micronucleated cells. In total, ∼905,000 polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) from 82 adult bank voles were analyzed. Although the mean frequencies of MNNCEs were too low to allow for the correct assessment of their time course, an analysis of PCEs showed an increasing rate of MNPCE appearance at 6 hr that reached a maximum at 18-24 hr after irradiation and subsequently decreased. Because the kinetics of MNPCEs reflects the process of erythropoiesis, the current results regarding the time points of appearance of radiation-induced MNPCEs provide the first information on the prolongation of one of the terminal stages of erythrocyte formation in bank vole specimens, namely the stage of maturation of PCEs from erythroblasts. Moreover, the observed time-course data, as well as the low-background frequencies of MNPCEs and characteristic level of PCEs response to radiation, showed similarities between the two model species: bank vole (this study) and laboratory mice (literature data).

  18. Testicular steroid metabolism in juvenile bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber) exposed to different photoperiods: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänkä, K M; Teräväinen, T; Wallgren, H

    1983-09-01

    Juvenile male bank voles (18-22 days of age) were either sacrificed immediately (Group C) or subjected first to a long (18L:6D, lights on 0600-2400; Group L) or a short (6L:18D, lights on 0800-1400; Group S) photoperiod for 1 week. The animal were killed by decapitation, the gonads were excised, and minced, and the conversion of [4-14C]pregnenolone (delta 3P) and [4-14C]dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) to metabolites was studied in vitro. The radioactive steroids formed were separated and identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The conversion of delta 3P to C19-steroids increased markedly from 35 (Group C) to 86% (Group L) during the first week in the long photoperiod whereas in the short photoperiod a decrease to 14.42% (Group S) was observed. The reduced production of C19-steroids in the more inactive testes was accompanied by the accumulation of progesterone (delta 4P) (52.98% Group S and 24.9% Group C) and small amounts of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OH-delta 4P) (2.5 and 4.5%, respectively), whereas in Group L only trace amounts of these metabolites were encountered. No marked differences in the metabolism of [4-14C]DHA between the photoperiodic groups were observed. These results seem to indicate that at least in vitro marked changes in C17-C20-lyase and/or 17 alpha-hydroxylase activities occur in this seasonally breeding species during testicular maturation and photoperiodically induced regression.

  19. Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, Maud; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Vourc'H, Gwenaël

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  20. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Harbor More-Diverse Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Genospecies than Native Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, M.; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Cornet, M.; Vourc'h, G

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  1. Clutch size of a vole-eating bird of prey as an indicator of vole abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonen, Tapio; Ahola, Kari; Karstinen, Teuvo

    2015-09-01

    Voles are often considered as harmful pests in agriculture and silviculture. Then, the knowledge of their abundance may be of considerable economical importance. Commonly used methods in the monitoring of vole abundances are relatively laborious, expensive, and spatially quite restricted. We demonstrate how the mean clutch size of the tawny owl Strix aluco may be cost-effectively used to predict relative densities of voles over large areas. Besides installing a number of suitable nest boxes, this vole monitoring system primarily includes only the inspection of the nest boxes and counting the number of tawny owl eggs found two times during a few weeks period in spring. Our results showed a considerable agreement between the fluctuations in the mean clutch size of tawny owls and the late spring abundance indices of small voles (Myodes, Microtus) in our study areas in southern Finland. The mean clutch size of the tawny owl reflected spring vole abundance over the spatial range examined, suggesting its suitability for general forecasting purposes. From the pest management point of view, an additional merit of the present method is that it may increase numbers of vole-eaters that provide biological control of vole populations. PMID:26307687

  2. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  3. The long-term effect of cadmium exposure through food on the postnatal development of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białońska, Dobrosława; Zakrzewska, Marta; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Konior, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is well known for its toxicity to the animal body. However, its effect on pregnancy and the development of young animals is still not well understood. This study examined such effects, using bank voles captured from the wild to make the results closer to those which could be expected in the natural environment. One group of animals was fed 7 microg g(-1) cadmium in the food, a second 35 microg g(-1), and a third no cadmium, as a control. The concentrations of cadmium in the whole bodies of young bank voles were determined on the 3rd, 5th, or 10th day of life. The cadmium level in the bodies of animals exposed to 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium was significantly higher than in those from either the control group or the group receiving 7 microg g(-1) of cadmium, which did not differ from each other. The cadmium level did not change with animal age in any of the study groups. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe were also determined in the whole body of young animals, as cadmium is known to disturb the metabolism of these essential metals through antagonistic activity. Both Cu and Fe levels were negatively correlated with cadmium concentrations, while a positive correlation was found between zinc and cadmium in the young animal bodies. Also found was higher offspring mortality in the group receiving 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium in food. There was no difference in young animal body weight between the study groups.

  4. De novo lipogenesis is suppressed during fasting but upregulated at population decline in cyclic voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Huitu, Otso; Henttonen, Heikki; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2016-04-01

    Arvicolines are susceptible to the development of fatty liver during short-term fasting. We examined the potential role of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) (i) in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver and (ii) during a population cycle by measuring the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Laboratory voles (Microtus oeconomus and Microtus arvalis) were fed or fasted for 12 or 18 h and their liver mRNA levels were determined. Both species showed decreased mRNA expression of ACC1 and FAS during fasting. This suggests that DNL does not participate in the development of fatty liver in voles, different from human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus), the mRNA levels of the genes of interest were higher during the population decline compared to the increase phase. In conclusion, DNL was suppressed during acute fasting but upregulated during a long-term population decline-a period of purported scarcity of high-quality food. PMID:26892709

  5. [Biological effects in natural populations of small rodents in radiation-polluted territories. Dynamics of chromosome aberration frequency in a number of generations of European bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, R I; Riabokon', N I

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of chromosome aberration frequency in bone marrow cells of many generations (14) of bank vole living in the radioactive trace of the Chernobyl catastrophe (1986-1992) has been analysed. The study revealed that the chromosome aberration frequency in voles in the areas with radio-contamination density 220 and 1526 kBq/m2 (for 137Cs) significantly exceeds the control level 3-7 times over the whole period under investigation. The dynamics of the frequency of structural chromosome injuries from 1986 to 1991-1992 is characterised by the tendency to increase in all populations inhabiting the areas with various radio-contamination density (8-1526 kBq/m2).

  6. Predicting grey-sided vole occurrence in northern Sweden at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Magnus; Bergsten, Arvid; Ecke, Frauke; Bodin, Orjan; Bodin, Lennart; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2013-11-01

    Forestry is continually changing the habitats for many forest-dwelling species around the world. The grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) has declined since the 1970s in forests of northern Sweden. Previous studies suggested that this might partly be caused by reduced focal forest patch size due to clear-cutting. Proximity and access to old pine forest and that microhabitats often contains stones have also been suggested previously but never been evaluated at multiple spatial scales. In a field study in 2010-2011 in northern Sweden, we investigated whether occurrence of grey-sided voles would be higher in (1) large focal patches of >60 years old forest, (2) in patches with high connectivity to surrounding patches, and (3) in patches in proximity to stone fields. We trapped animals in forest patches in two study areas (Västerbotten and Norrbotten). At each trap station, we surveyed structural microhabitat characteristics. Landscape-scale features were investigated using satellite-based forest data combined with geological maps. Unexpectedly, the vole was almost completely absent in Norrbotten. The trap sites in Norrbotten had a considerably lower amount of stone holes compared with sites with voles in Västerbotten. We suggest this might help to explain the absence in Norrbotten. In Västerbotten, the distance from forest patches with voles to stone fields was significantly shorter than from patches without voles. In addition, connectivity to surrounding patches and size of the focal forest patches was indeed related to the occurrence of grey-sided voles, with connectivity being the overall best predictor. Our results support previous findings on the importance of large forest patches, but also highlight the importance of connectivity for occurrence of grey-sided voles. The results further suggest that proximity to stone fields increase habitat quality of the forests for the vole and that the presence of stone fields enhances the voles' ability to move between nearby

  7. How expensive is vole damage?

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, B; Fülling, O.; Malevez, J.; Pelz, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Vole species, especially Arvicola terrestris and Microtus arvalis cause significant economical damage in organic pomiculture by gnawing the root system of trees. The importance of voles as pest organisms is well known. Nevertheless, the estimation of financial loss caused by voles is difficult for German fruit growers. We conducted a survey among organic fruit growers to get data on kind and amount of annual damage. Using the available publications and official statistics we calculated econom...

  8. Analysis list: Myod1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Myod1 Adipocyte,Embryonic fibroblast,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myod1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/My...od1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myod1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myod1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/My...od1.Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myod1.Musc

  9. MyoD is a tumor suppressor gene in Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Joyoti; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Pedro, Kyle D.; Thirstrup, Derek; Mecham, Brig; Northcott, Paul A.; Wu, Xiaochong; Shih, David; Tapscott, Stephen J.; LeBlanc, Michael; Taylor, Michael D.; Olson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    While medulloblastoma, a pediatric tumor of the cerebellum, is characterized by aberrations in developmental pathways, the majority of genetic determinants remain unknown. An unbiased Sleeping Beauty transposon screen revealed MyoD as a putative medulloblastoma tumor suppressor. This was unexpected, as MyoD is a muscle differentiation factor and not previously known to be expressed in cerebellum or medulloblastoma. In response to deletion of one allele of MyoD, two other Sonic hedgehog-driven...

  10. File list: Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Myod1 Muscle SRX142536,SRX142537,SRX142...534,SRX328690,SRX497483,SRX328691,SRX029146,SRX246928,SRX497482,SRX142516,SRX029145,SRX029144 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Myod1 Muscle SRX142537,SRX328690,SRX142...536,SRX246928,SRX328691,SRX142534,SRX497483,SRX497482,SRX029146,SRX142516,SRX029145,SRX029144 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell.bed ...

  12. The SNPs Analysis of the Exons of Three Genes of MyoD Gene Family in Seven Swine Breeds (Line)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-fen; LIU Di; YU Hao

    2005-01-01

    The study objects includes seven swine breeds: Minzhu, Sanjiangbaizhu, Yorkshire, Landrace, Junmuyihao, Duroc and Double muscle Yorkshire. According to the sequences of MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 of swine in GenBank, seventeen pairs of primers for MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 were designed. PCR-SSCP technology was applied to detect SNPs of the exons of the three genes. The results showed that no polymorphism was in MyoG and MyoD, and some SNPs were in three exons of Myf5. There was one mutant site in the first exon of Myf5 (G → C), three mutant sites in the second exon of Myf5 (C → A, A → G and G → A); in the third exon of Myf5, there was one base A deficiency at 3 387 bp, three bases T deficiency at 3 417 bp, one mutant site at 3 443 bp (T → C).This study obtained a tendency conclusion that gene frequency of allele M of Myf5 on the one hand is positively correlated with lean meat percentage, on the other hand is correlated with the orientation of selective breeding; it also deduced that allele F is possibly correlated with high lean meat percentage. Through statistical analysis, allele A, B, C of Myf5 have no obvious correlation with lean meat percentage of different swine breeds, In addition, the high polymorphism of Myf5 showed that seven swine breeds are rich in genetic variation, and have high selective competency.

  13. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  14. Myogenic program induction in mature fat tissue (with MyoD expression)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MyoD exerts a master transcriptional control over the myogenic differentiation cascade. Here, we study different approaches to induce myogenic transdifferentiation in mature adipocytes utilizing MyoD gene transfer. Organotypic cultures of fat tissue and a long-term culture of in vitro differentiated adipocytes deduced that MyoD provoked morphological changes in mature adipocytes that can be summarized as loss of fat content, acquisition of a fusiform shape and eventual fusion with committed neighbor cells. In vivo, MyoD gene transfer into rat interscapular and inguinal fat pads demonstrated that while structural proteins of muscle lineage were expressed, they co-existed with specific adipocyte proteins. Expression of these proteins diminished over time likewise the fat content. The transdifferentiation process initiated by MyoD did not require cell cycle progression and was well tolerated by the fully differentiated and mature adipocytes

  15. Taxonomic relationships among Phenacomys voles as inferred by cytochrome b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, M.R.; Haig, S.M.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    Taxonomic relationships among red tree voles (Phenacomys longicaudus longicaudus, P. l. silvicola), the Sonoma tree vole (P. pomo), the white-footed vole (P. albipes), and the heather vole (P. intermedius) were examined using 664 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results indicate specific differences among red tree voles, Sonoma tree voles, white-footed voles, and heather voles, but no clear difference between the 2 Oregon subspecies of red tree voles (P. l. longicaudus and P. l. silvicola). Our data further indicated a close relationship between tree voles and albipes, validating inclusion of albipes in the subgenus Arborimus. These 3 congeners shared a closer relationship to P. intermedius than to other arvicolids. A moderate association between porno and albipes was indicated by maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses. Molecular clock estimates suggest a Pleistocene radiation of the Arborimus clade, which is concordant with pulses of diversification observed in other murid rodents. The generic rank of Arborimus is subject to interpretation of data.

  16. Ret finger protein mediates Pax7-induced ubiquitination of MyoD in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hosouk; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Choe, Nakwon; Lee, Hye Mi; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyunki; Shin, Sera; Kook, Jeewon; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Jeong Chul; Seo, Sang Beom; Baik, Yung Hong; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy results from the net loss of muscular proteins and organelles and is caused by pathologic conditions such as nerve injury, immobilization, cancer, and other metabolic diseases. Recently, ubiquitination-mediated degradation of skeletal-muscle-specific transcription factors was shown to be involved in muscle atrophy, although the mechanisms have yet to be defined. Here we report that ret finger protein (RFP), also known as TRIM27, works as an E3 ligase in Pax7-induced degradation of MyoD. Muscle injury induced by sciatic nerve transection up-regulated RFP and RFP physically interacted with both Pax7 and MyoD. RFP and Pax7 synergistically reduced the protein amounts of MyoD but not the mRNA. RFP-induced reduction of MyoD protein was blocked by proteasome inhibitors. The Pax7-induced reduction MyoD was attenuated by RFP siRNA and by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. RFPΔR, an RFP construct that lacks the RING domain, failed to reduce MyoD amounts. RFP ubiquitinated MyoD, but RFPΔR failed to do so. Forced expression of RFP, but not RFPΔR, enhanced Pax7-induced ubiquitination of MyoD, whereas RFP siRNA blocked the ubiquitination. Sciatic nerve injury-induced muscle atrophy as well the reduction in MyoD was attenuated in RFP knockout mice. Taken together, our results show that RFP works as a novel E3 ligase in the Pax7-mediated degradation of MyoD in response to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25025573

  17. Six1 regulates MyoD expression in adult muscle progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Liu

    Full Text Available Quiescent satellite cells are myogenic progenitors that enable regeneration of skeletal muscle. One of the early events of satellite cell activation following myotrauma is the induction of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, which eventually induces terminal differentiation and muscle function gene expression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which MyoD is induced during activation of satellite cells in mouse muscle undergoing regeneration. We show that Six1, a transcription factor essential for embryonic myogenesis, also regulates MyoD expression in muscle progenitor cells. Six1 knock-down by RNA interference leads to decreased expression of MyoD in myoblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that Six1 binds the Core Enhancer Region of MyoD. Further, transcriptional reporter assays demonstrate that Core Enhancer Region reporter gene activity in myoblasts and in regenerating muscle depends on the expression of Six1 and on Six1 binding sites. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that Six1 is required for the proper chromatin structure at the Core Enhancer Region, as well as for MyoD binding at its own enhancer. Together, our results reveal that MyoD expression in satellite cells depends on Six1, supporting the idea that Six1 plays an important role in adult myogenesis, in addition to its role in embryonic muscle formation.

  18. Are water vole resistant to anticoagulant rodenticides following field treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vein, Julie; Grandemange, Agnès; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoit, Etienne; Berny, Philippe J

    2011-08-01

    The anti-vitamin Ks (AVKs) are widely used to control rodent populations. They inhibit Vitamin K regeneration by the Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR) and cause a fatal hemorrhagic syndrome. Because of repeated use, some populations of commensal rodents have expressed resistance to these compounds. In Franche-Comté (France), the water vole exhibits cyclic population outbreaks. A second generation AVK, bromadiolone, has been used for the last 20 years to control vole populations. The aim of this study is to determine whether these repeated treatments could have led to the development of resistance to AVKs in water vole populations. We conducted enzymatic and genetic studies on water voles trapped in treated and non treated plot. The results indicate that voles from the most heavily treated area exhibit enzymatic changes in VKOR activity hence arguing for resistance to AVKs and that an intronic haplotype on the vkorc1 gene seems to be associated with these enzymatic changes.

  19. Conversion of MyoD to a Neurogenic Factor: Binding Site Specificity Determines Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Fong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MyoD and NeuroD2, master regulators of myogenesis and neurogenesis, bind to a “shared” E-box sequence (CAGCTG and a “private” sequence (CAGGTG or CAGATG, respectively. To determine whether private-site recognition is sufficient to confer lineage specification, we generated a MyoD mutant with the DNA-binding specificity of NeuroD2. This chimeric mutant gained binding to NeuroD2 private sites but maintained binding to a subset of MyoD-specific sites, activating part of both the muscle and neuronal programs. Sequence analysis revealed an enrichment for PBX/MEIS motifs at the subset of MyoD-specific sites bound by the chimera, and point mutations that prevent MyoD interaction with PBX/MEIS converted the chimera to a pure neurogenic factor. Therefore, redirecting MyoD binding from MyoD private sites to NeuroD2 private sites, despite preserved binding to the MyoD/NeuroD2 shared sites, is sufficient to change MyoD from a master regulator of myogenesis to a master regulator of neurogenesis.

  20. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  1. Diet quality limits summer growth of field vole populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian M Forbes

    Full Text Available Marked variation occurs in both seasonal and multiannual population density peaks of northern European small mammal species, including voles. The availability of dietary proteins is a key factor limiting the population growth of herbivore species. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which protein availability influences the growth of increasing vole populations. We hypothesise that the summer growth of folivorous vole populations is positively associated with dietary protein availability. A field experiment was conducted over a summer reproductive period in 18 vegetated enclosures. Populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis were randomised amongst three treatment groups: 1 food supplementation with ad libitum high protein (30% dry weight pellets, 2 food supplementation with ad libitum low protein (1% dry weight; both supplemented foods had equivalent energy content pellets, and 3 control (no food supplementation, n = 6 per treatment. Vole density, survival, demographic attributes and condition indicators were monitored with live-trapping and blood sampling. Highest final vole densities were attained in populations that received high protein supplementation and lowest in low protein populations. Control populations displayed intermediate densities. The survival rate of voles was similar in all treatment groups. The proportion of females, and of those that were pregnant or lactating, was highest in the high protein supplemented populations. This suggests that variation in reproductive, rather than survival rates of voles, accounted for density differences between the treatment groups. We found no clear association between population demography and individual physiological condition. Our results demonstrate that dietary protein availability limits vole population growth during the summer growing season. This suggests that the nutritional quality of forage may be an underestimated source of interannual variation in the

  2. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  3. Increased survival of muscle stem cells lacking the MyoD gene after transplantation into regenerating skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Kablar, Boris; Morita, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Jeff; Piras, Bryan A.; Christ, Amanda J.; Verma, Mayank; Vineretsky, Karin A.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    MyoD is a myogenic master transcription factor that plays an essential role in muscle satellite cell (muscle stem cell) differentiation. To further investigate the function of MyoD in satellite cells, we examined the transplantation of satellite cell-derived myoblasts lacking the MyoD gene into regenerating skeletal muscle. After injection into injured muscle, MyoD−/− myoblasts engrafted with significantly higher efficiency compared with wild-type myoblasts. In addition, MyoD−/− myoblast-deri...

  4. Description of Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in France, with a review of anoplocephaud cestodes of snow voles in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, V; Henttonen, H

    2005-09-01

    We describe Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in Bourg-Saint-Maurice, French Alps, compare it with several related species from rodents, and review the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe. Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. is primarily distinguished from the related species by its large scolex of characteristic shape, robust neck region, and the structure of the cirrus sac, vitellarium and vagina. We show that the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe, representing the genera Anoplocephaloides and Paranoplocephala, include at least seven species. This fauna consists primarily of species that snow voles share with other voles inhabiting the high-mountain areas. Some of the species, including P. yoccozi n. sp., appear to have a very localized distribution, which is assumed to be a consequence of the historical fragmentation of snow vole populations. PMID:16218207

  5. Description of Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in France, with a review of anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukisalmi V.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in Bourg-Saint-Maurice, French Alps, compare it with several related species from rodents, and review the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe. Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. is primarily distinguished from the related species by its large scolex of characteristic shape, robust neck region, and the structure of the cirrus sac, vitellarium and vagina. We show that the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe, representing the genera Anoplocephaloides and Paranoplocephala, include at least seven species. This fauna consists primarily of species that snow voles share with other voles inhabiting the high-mountain areas. Some of the species, including P. yoccozi n. sp., appear to have a very localized distribution, which is assumed to be a consequence of the historical fragmentation of snow vole populations.

  6. How Predation and Landscape Fragmentation Affect Vole Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Sibly, Richard M.; Topping, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    population cycles. Because these factors covary along the gradient it is difficult to distinguish their effects experimentally in the field. The distinction is here attempted using realistic agent-based modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings: By using a spatially explicit computer simulation model based...... on behavioural and ecological data from the field vole (Microtus agrestis), we generated a number of repeated time series of vole densities whose mean population size and amplitude were measured. Subsequently, these time series were subjected to statistical autoregressive modelling, to investigate the effects...... on vole population dynamics of making predators more specialised, of altering the breeding season, and increasing the level of habitat fragmentation. We found that fragmentation as well as the presence of specialist predators are necessary for the occurrence of population cycles. Habitat fragmentation...

  7. How Predation and Landscape Fragmentation Affect Vole Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Sibly, Richard M.; Topping, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    population cycles. Because these factors covary along the gradient it is difficult to distinguish their effects experimentally in the field. The distinction is here attempted using realistic agent-based modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings: By using a spatially explicit computer simulation model based...... on behavioural and ecological data from the field vole (Microtus agrestis), we generated a number of repeated time series of vole densities whose mean population size and amplitude were measured. Subsequently, these time series were subjected to statistical autoregressive modelling, to investigate the effects...

  8. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs

  9. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Deng, Bing [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Wen, Jianghui [Wu Han University of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Kun [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Jiang, Siwen, E-mail: jiangsiwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Xiong, Yuanzhu, E-mail: xiongyzhu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  10. Expression of Myod and myogenin in muscles of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Z; Matsuo A; Nakada T.; Nagano I; Takahashi Y

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detection system for myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD and myogenin. Adapting the method we performed a longitudinal analysis of such regulatory factors after infection with T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. MyoD and myogenin were expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis in T. spiralis infection. The expression returned to the normal level after 18 days from the infection when the cyst was complete. In T. pseudospiralis infection, they were also expressed from the...

  11. Experimental study on MyoD gene induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into myoblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 邹仲敏; 郭朝华; 周进明; 王劲; 范文辉; 罗成基; 程天民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of the transfection of MyoD gene induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into myoblasts in vitro.Methods: The eukaryotic expression plasmid vector pIRES2-EGFP-MyoD was transfected into MSCs with lipotransfection method, and the positive cells were selected by G418; The expression of MyoD was detected in the transfected MSCs with RT-PCR and the amplified, purified product was identified by sequencing; The reporter gene enhanced green fluorescence protein (EFGP) was observed in the transfected cells under a fluorescent and a laser confocal microscopes; Immunohistochemical methods was used to examine the expressions of MyoD, myogenin, myosin, myoglobin and desmin in the differentiated cells.The ultrastructure changes of the cells before and after transfection were observed with electron microscopy.Results: The expression of MyoD was detected in the transfected MSCs with RT-PCR and the amplified, purified product was as same in sequence as that from Genbank; Green fluorescence was observed in the transfected cells under a fluorescent and a laser confocal microscopes; Immunohistochemical methods indicated that MyoD, myogenin, myosin, myoglobin and desmin were expressed in the transfected cells; The transfected cells showed the morphological characteristics of mature cells with filaments in their cytoplasm.Conclusion: MyoD gene can induce cultured MSCs to successfully differentiate into myoblasts, probably providing an experimental foundation for trauma repair.

  12. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  13. Small activating RNA induces myogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by upregulating MyoD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs, also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs. Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.

  14. Development of genomic resources for the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster: construction of a BAC library and vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is a premier animal model for understanding the genetic and neurological basis of social behaviors. Unlike other biomedical models, prairie voles display a rich repertoire of social behaviors including the formation of long-term pair bonds and biparental care. However, due to a lack of genomic resources for this species, studies have been limited to a handful of candidate genes. To provide a substrate for future development of genomic resources for this unique model organism, we report the construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library from a single male prairie vole and a prairie vole-mouse (Mus musculus comparative cytogenetic map. Results We constructed a prairie vole BAC library (CHORI-232 consisting of 194,267 recombinant clones with an average insert size of 139 kb. Hybridization-based screening of the gridded library at 19 loci established that the library has an average depth of coverage of ~10×. To obtain a small-scale sampling of the prairie vole genome, we generated 3884 BAC end-sequences totaling ~2.8 Mb. One-third of these BAC-end sequences could be mapped to unique locations in the mouse genome, thereby anchoring 1003 prairie vole BAC clones to an orthologous position in the mouse genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH mapping of 62 prairie vole clones with BAC-end sequences mapping to orthologous positions in the mouse genome was used to develop a first-generation genome-wide prairie vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map. While conserved synteny was observed between this pair of rodent genomes, rearrangements between the prairie vole and mouse genomes were detected, including a minimum of five inversions and 16 inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions The construction of the prairie vole BAC library and the vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map represent the first genome-wide modern genomic resources developed for this

  15. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  16. Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHA, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.

  17. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  18. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. PMID:22554470

  19. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Duprez, Delphine

    2004-02-01

    Forced expression of the bHLH myogenic factors, Myf5 and MyoD, in various mammalian cell lines induces the full program of myogenic differentiation. However, this property has not been extensively explored in vivo. We have taken advantage of the chick model to investigate the effect of electroporation of the mouse Myf5 and MyoD genes in the embryonic neural tube. We found that misexpression of either mouse Myf5 or MyoD in the chick neural tube leads to ectopic skeletal muscle differentiation, assayed by the expression of the myosin heavy chains in the neural tube and neural crest derivatives. We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD. We used this new system to analyse, in vivo, the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors. We found that MyoD and Myogenin expression can be activated by ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD, while Myf5 expression cannot be activated either by mouse MyoD or by itself. We also analysed the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors and the different genes involved in myogenesis, such as Mef2c, Pax3, Paraxis, Six1, Mox1, Mox2 and FgfR4. We established the existence of an unexpected regulatory loop between MyoD and FgfR4. The consequences for myogenesis are discussed.

  20. Warning against an unseen predator : a functional aspect of synchronous feeding in the common vole, Microtus arvalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Verhulst, Simon

    1990-01-01

    Escape responses of common voles exposed either to a kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, model 'flown' overhead or to neighbouring voles from the same family responding to such a model were investigated. The majority of voles (81%) either froze or ran for cover when exposed to the sight of the kestrel model

  1. Expression of Myod and myogenin in muscles of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Z.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a detection system for myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD and myogenin. Adapting the method we performed a longitudinal analysis of such regulatory factors after infection with T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. MyoD and myogenin were expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis in T. spiralis infection. The expression returned to the normal level after 18 days from the infection when the cyst was complete. In T. pseudospiralis infection, they were also expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis, but continuously expressed at least up to 43 days post infection.

  2. MyoD regulates apoptosis of myoblasts through microRNA-mediated down-regulation of Pax3

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Verma, Mayank; Watanabe, Shuichi; Tastad, Christopher; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The molecules that regulate the apoptosis cascade are also involved in differentiation and syncytial fusion in skeletal muscle. MyoD is a myogenic transcription factor that plays essential roles in muscle differentiation. We noticed that MyoD−/− myoblasts display remarkable resistance to apoptosis by down-regulation of miR-1 (microRNA-1) and miR-206 and by up-regulation of Pax3. This resulted in transcriptional activation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Forced MyoD expression induc...

  3. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  4. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundkvist Åke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region. Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area. Our data (i confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.

  5. NFATc1 Controls Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type and Is a Negative Regulator of MyoD Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Ehlers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle comprises a heterogeneous population of fibers with important physiological differences. Fast fibers are glycolytic and fatigue rapidly. Slow fibers utilize oxidative metabolism and are fatigue resistant. Muscle diseases such as sarcopenia and atrophy selectively affect fast fibers, but the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber type-specific gene expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor NFATc1 controls fiber type composition and is required for fast-to-slow fiber type switching in response to exercise in vivo. Moreover, MyoD is a crucial transcriptional effector of the fast fiber phenotype, and we show that NFATc1 inhibits MyoD-dependent fast fiber gene promoters by physically interacting with the N-terminal activation domain of MyoD and blocking recruitment of the essential transcriptional coactivator p300. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for fiber type switching through direct inhibition of MyoD to control the opposing roles of MyoD and NFATc1 in fast versus slow fiber phenotypes.

  6. Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichiro; Manabe, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yumi; Relaix, Frédéric; Oishi, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells. Klf5 knockdown suppressed induction of muscle differentiation-related genes, including myogenin. Klf5 ChIP-seq revealed that Klf5 binding overlaps that of MyoD and Mef2, and Klf5 physically associates with both MyoD and Mef2. In addition, MyoD recruitment was greatly reduced in the absence of Klf5. These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17462.001 PMID:27743478

  7. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  8. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-12-13

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection.

  9. Analysis of genetic distribution and population genetic structure of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHU; Xuewei LI; Surong SHUAI; Mingzhou LI; Fangqiong LI; Lei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data was applied to analyze the distribution of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds and pig breed crosses.The population genetic information about genetic distribution,variation,and heterozygosity of the MyoD gene in different breed populations were analyzed.Based on the allele frequency,genetic distance and evolution distance among each breed populations were calculated and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree was gained based on the evolution distances between populations.The results indicated that the distribution of the MyoD genotype kept in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most tested groups but not in Duroc (D) and Duroc × (Landrance × Yorkshire)(DLY) population.Generally,the genetic diversity of the MyoD gene was abundant and these tested breed populations had high genetic variations.The evolution of the MyoD gene was under natural selection pressure.On the phylogenetic tree,10 pig breeds were divided into 4 clusters.The first cluster consisted of four breeds developed from Landrace.The second cluster was two indigenous Chinese pig breeds.The third cluster was three breeds developed from Duroc.The fourth cluster was a Tibetan pig breed.The constitution of the topology of the phylogenetic tree was consistent with the breeding history of each pig breed.From this experiment,we can conclude that some RFLP data obtained from functional gene can be used in the genetic deviation research between some closely related species or between different populations in certain species.

  10. Establishment of superovulation procedure in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tanaka, Minako; Morita, Mami; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Tomogane, Hiroshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-08-01

    Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli) is a wild-derived rodent and have unique characteristic. Thus, these species have been expected as model animal. This study was performed to develop novel superovulation procedure for Japanese field vole. First, when 30 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 30 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were administrated 48 hours apart, females showed higher response to hCG compared with three concentrations of PMSG. Second, to effectively induce ovulation on females after vaginal opening, they were mated with vasectomized male instead of hCG administration. Average number of ovulated oocytes using PMSG mating (13.9 ± 1.9 oocytes) was higher than PMSG-hCG (control; 6.9 ± 2.3 oocytes) or PMSG-hCG mating (6.8 ± 0.8 oocytes). Finally, we attempted superovulation using GnRH agonist (GnRHa). With this treatment, we speculated that GnRHa might induce endogenous luteinizing hormone releasing to cause ovulation. Such superovulation was performed with 30 IU PMSG and different concentration of 20% polyvinylpyrrolidone-GnRHa (15, 30, 45, and 60 μg/kg). As results, average number of ovulated oocytes was highest with 30 μg/kg GnRHa (14.5 ± 4.1 oocytes). The numbers of ovulated oocytes of other concentrations were 5.0 ± 1.4 (15 μg/kg), 12.8 ± 2.7 (45 μg/kg), and 8.8 ± 3.7 oocytes (60 μg/kg). Nuclear status of most collected oocytes was the second meiotic division (range, 94.3%-100%). These superovulation procedures will be useful for development of in vitro culture systems and assisted reproductive technologies for not only Japanese field vole but also other voles. PMID:27118387

  11. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The "dilution effect" implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may "dilute" infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003-2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm's owl decline in 1980-2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003-2013 compared to 1979-1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  12. Effects of short term bioturbation by common voles on biogeochemical soil variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Wilske

    Full Text Available Bioturbation contributes to soil formation and ecosystem functioning. With respect to the active transport of matter by voles, bioturbation may be considered as a very dynamic process among those shaping soil formation and biogeochemistry. The present study aimed at characterizing and quantifying the effects of bioturbation by voles on soil water relations and carbon and nitrogen stocks. Bioturbation effects were examined based on a field set up in a luvic arenosol comprising of eight 50 × 50 m enclosures with greatly different numbers of common vole (Microtus arvalis L., ca. 35-150 individuals ha-1 mth-1. Eleven key soil variables were analyzed: bulk density, infiltration rate, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water holding capacity, contents of soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (N, CO2 emission potential, C/N ratio, the stable isotopic signatures of 13C and 15N, and pH. The highest vole densities were hypothesized to cause significant changes in some variables within 21 months. Results showed that land history had still a major influence, as eight key variables displayed an additional or sole influence of topography. However, the δ15N at depths of 10-20 and 20-30 cm decreased and increased with increasing vole numbers, respectively. Also the CO2 emission potential from soil collected at a depth of 15-30 cm decreased and the C/N ratio at 5-10 cm depth narrowed with increasing vole numbers. These variables indicated the first influence of voles on the respective mineralization processes in some soil layers. Tendencies of vole activity homogenizing SOC and N contents across layers were not significant. The results of the other seven key variables did not confirm significant effects of voles. Thus overall, we found mainly a first response of variables that are indicative for changes in biogeochemical dynamics but not yet of those representing changes in pools.

  13. The snow vole (Chionomys nivalis) as an appropriate environmental bioindicator in alpine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcheva, Roumiana [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, Tzar Osvoboditel blvd., Sofia, 1000 Bulgaria (Bulgaria)], E-mail: rummech@yahoo.com; Beltcheva, Michaela; Chassovnikarova, Tsenka [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, Tzar Osvoboditel blvd., Sofia, 1000 Bulgaria (Bulgaria)

    2008-03-01

    The snow vole (Chionomys nivalis, Martins, 1842) is a common species in the Bulgarian high mountains. Its populations are distributed in different altitudes, regions, and keep stable population density. This is the reason the species has been tested as a bioindicator for environmental quality in alpine ecosystems. The cumulative environmental impact in snow vole populations was evaluated using cytogenetical, hematological, ecotoxicological, radiometrical, ecophysiological, and morphophysiological indices. Standard karyotype, chromosomal aberrations, and other diversions have been observed. These investigations reveal that the snow vole is one of the most appropriate species that can be used as a biomonitor for environmental assessment in mountain areas.

  14. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  15. A regulatory potential of the Xist gene promoter in vole M. rossiaemeridionalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin E Orishchenko

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation takes place in the early development of female mammals and depends on the Xist gene expression. The mechanisms of Xist expression regulation have not been well understood so far. In this work, we compared Xist promoter region of vole Microtus rossiaemeridionalis and other mammalian species. We observed three conserved regions which were characterized by computational analysis, DNaseI in vitro footprinting, and reporter construct assay. Regulatory factors potentially involved in Xist activation and repression in voles were determined. The role of CpG methylation in vole Xist expression regulation was established. A CTCF binding site was found in the 5' flanking region of the Xist promoter on the active X chromosome in both males and females. We suggest that CTCF acts as an insulator which defines an inactive Xist domain on the active X chromosome in voles.

  16. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew H Jheon; Michaela Prochazkova; Michael Sherman; Devanand S Manoli; Nirao M Shah; Lawrence Carbone; Ophir Klein

    2015-01-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.

  17. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  18. BOLD fMRI in awake prairie voles: A platform for translational social and affective neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, J R; Kenkel, W M; Kulkarni, P; Moore, K; Perkeybile, A M; Toddes, S; Amacker, J A; Carter, C S; Ferris, C F

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of neuroscience depends on continued improvement in methods and models. Here, we present novel techniques for the use of awake functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) - an important step forward in minimally-invasive measurement of neural activity in a non-traditional animal model. Imaging neural responses in prairie voles, a species studied for its propensity to form strong and selective social bonds, is expected to greatly advance our mechanistic understanding of complex social and affective processes. The use of ultra-high-field fMRI allows for recording changes in region-specific activity throughout the entire brain simultaneously and with high temporal and spatial resolutions. By imaging neural responses in awake animals, with minimal invasiveness, we are able to avoid the confound of anesthesia, broaden the scope of possible stimuli, and potentially make use of repeated scans from the same animals. These methods are made possible by the development of an annotated and segmented 3D vole brain atlas and software for image analysis. The use of these methods in the prairie vole provides an opportunity to broaden neuroscientific investigation of behavior via a comparative approach, which highlights the ethological relevance of pro-social behaviors shared between voles and humans, such as communal breeding, selective social bonds, social buffering of stress, and caregiving behaviors. Results using these methods show that fMRI in the prairie vole is capable of yielding robust blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in response to hypercapnic challenge (inhaled 5% CO2), region-specific physical challenge (unilateral whisker stimulation), and presentation of a set of novel odors. Complementary analyses of repeated restraint sessions in the imaging hardware suggest that voles do not require acclimation to this procedure. Taken together, awake vole fMRI represents a new arena of neurobiological

  19. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  20. Genome-wide association between Six4, MyoD, and the histone demethylase Utx during myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Imane; Yang, Dabo; Girgis, John; Gunasekharan, Atchayaa; Phenix, Hilary; Kærn, Mads; Blais, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    Adult skeletal muscles can regenerate after injury, due to the presence of satellite cells, a quiescent population of myogenic progenitor cells. Once activated, satellite cells repair the muscle damage by undergoing myogenic differentiation. The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) coordinate the process of progenitor differentiation in cooperation with other families of transcription factors (TFs). The Six1 and Six4 homeodomain TFs are expressed in developing and adult muscle and Six1 is critical for embryonic and adult myogenesis. However, the lack of a muscle developmental phenotype in Six4-null mice, which has been attributed to compensation by other Six family members, has discouraged further assessment of the role of Six4 during adult muscle regeneration. By employing genome-wide approaches to address the function of Six4 during adult skeletal myogenesis, we have identified a core set of muscle genes coordinately regulated in adult muscle precursors by Six4 and the MRF MyoD. Throughout the genome of differentiating adult myoblasts, the cooperation between Six4 and MyoD is associated with chromatin repressive mark removal by Utx, a demethylase of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27. Among the genes coordinately regulated by Six4 and MyoD are several genes critical for proper in vivo muscle regeneration, implicating a role of Six4 in this process. Using in vivo RNA interference of Six4, we expose an uncompensated function of this TF during muscle regeneration. Together, our results reveal a role for Six4 during adult muscle regeneration and suggest a widespread mechanism of cooperation between Six4 and MyoD. PMID:26229056

  1. Variation in Oxytocin Receptor Density in the Nucleus Accumbens has Differential Effects on Affiliative Behaviors in Monogamous and Polygamous Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Heather E.; Freeman, Sara M.; Spiegel, Lauren L.; Ren, Xianghui; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Young, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens have been implicated in the regulation of alloparental behavior and pair bond formation in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Oxytocin receptor density in the nucleus accumbens is positively correlated with alloparenting in juvenile and adult female prairie voles, and oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into the nucleus accumbens blocks this behavior. Furthermore, prairie voles have higher densities of oxytocin receptors in the accumbens than no...

  2. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  3. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  4. Comparative in silico analysis identifies bona fide MyoD binding sites within the Myocyte Stress 1 gene promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbalzano Anthony N

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocyte stress 1 (MS1 is a striated muscle actin binding protein required for the muscle specific activity of the evolutionary ancient myocardin related transcription factor (MRTF/serum response factor (SRF transcriptional pathway. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern skeletal muscle specific expression of MS1. Such mechanisms are likely to play a major role in modulating SRF activity and therefore muscle determination, differentiation and regeneration. In this study we employed a comparative in silico analysis coupled with an experimental promoter characterisation to delineate these mechanisms. Results Analysis of MS1 expression in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells demonstrated a temporal differentiation dependent up-regulation in ms1 mRNA. An in silico comparative sequence analysis identified two conserved putative myogenic regulatory domains within the proximal 1.5 kbp of 5' upstream sequence. Co-transfecting C2C12 myoblasts with ms1 promoter/luciferase reporters and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF over-expression plasmids revealed specific sensitivity of the ms1 promoter to MyoD. Subsequent mutagenesis and EMSA analysis demonstrated specific targeting of MyoD at two distinct E-Boxes (E1 and E2 within identified evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs, α and β. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis indicates that co-ordinated binding of MyoD at E-Boxes located within ECRs α and β correlates with the temporal induction in ms1 mRNA. Conclusion These findings suggest that the tissue specific and differentiation dependent up-regulation in ms1 mRNA is mediated by temporal binding of MyoD at distinct evolutionary conserved E-Boxes within the ms1 5' upstream sequence. We believe, through its activation of ms1, this is the first study to demonstrate a direct link between MyoD activity and SRF transcriptional signalling, with clear implications for the understanding of muscle determination

  5. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  6. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  7. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success. PMID:22019786

  8. Comparative distribution of central neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Hitchcock, Leah N; Anacker, Allison M J; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated as a modulator of social behavior, often in a species-specific manner. Comparative studies of closely related vole species are particularly useful for identifying neural systems involved in social behaviors in both voles and humans. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was performed to compare NPY-like immunoreactivity (-ir) in brain tissue of the socially monogamous prairie vole and non-monogamous meadow vole. Species differences in NPY-ir were observed in a number of regions including the cortex, extended amygdala, septal area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and intergeniculate leaf. Meadow voles had higher NPY-ir in all these regions as compared to prairie voles. No differences were observed in the striatum or hippocampus. The extended amygdala and lateral septum are regions that play a key role in regulation of monogamous behaviors such as pair bonding and paternal care. The present study suggests NPY in these regions may be an additional modulator of these species-specific social behaviors. Meadow voles had moderately higher NPY-ir in a number of hypothalamic regions, especially in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Meadow voles also had much higher levels of NPY-ir in the intergeniculate leaflet, another key region in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Overall, species differences in NPY-ir were observed in a number of brain regions implicated in emotion, stress, circadian, and social behaviors. These findings provide additional support for a role for the NPY system in species-typical social behaviors.

  9. Reproductive characteristics of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis calamorum) under laboratory feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Han, Qunhua; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Zhou, Xunjun

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive characteristics of a laboratory population of the vole Microtus fortis calamorum were examined. Voles were allowed to breed under laboratory feeding conditions. Over a period of 3 months, 61.82% of the 110 vole pairs examined produced 3 or 4 litters. There were 1-9 voles in each litter and the mean litter size was 4.67±0.28 (mean±SE). Most litters included 3-7 young voles, accounting for 83.62% of all litters. The mean farrowing interval was 25.9 days (range from 19 to 95 days), and the most farrowing intervals were 20-25 days, accounting for 79.9% of the total. When based on litter size, the reproductive index was 6.23, but was 3.42 when based on pup survival. The survival rate of offspring to weaning was 55.03%. The high rate of infanticide that occurred after removal of males from cages indicates that, in the laboratory, both parents need to be present prior to weaning. PMID:26617078

  10. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Infection of SARS-CoV on juvenile and adult Brandt's vole Microtus brandtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; PENG Jingpian; DENG Wei; SHI Dazhao; BAO Linlin; WANG Dehua; ZHANG Binglin; QIN Chuan; ZHANG Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    We studied the infectious effect of SARS-CoV virus on juvenile and adult Brandt's Vole (Microtus brandtii) by nasal cavity spraying method (CCID50 is 105.7). SARS virus caused serious deaths in adults. The death adults demonstrated hemorrhage from mouth, nasal cavity and intestine, hemorrhageious interstitial pneumonia and gore in liver, spleen and kidney. The survival adults demonstrated local hemorrhagic spot in lung and emphysema, but the other organs showed no pathological abnormality. SARS virus caused no deaths in juveniles, but locomotion of infected juveniles became slower. In the early stage, there was local pneumonia in lung and SARS viruses were isolated from the pathological tissue. Only one control juvenile lived and the infected juvenile showed local pneumonia in lung. The results demonstrated that SARS-CoV infected Brandt's vole seriously and adults were more susceptive to SARS-CoV than juveniles. The Brandt's vole may be a potential animal model for SARS research.

  12. Fox faeces and vole distribution on a local range: ecological data in a parasitological perspective for Echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guislain M.H.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis needs a spatial overlap between intermediate host species (voles and definitive host (fox faeces. Factors influencing the importance of this overlap were investigated in north eastern France. Kilometric transects were walked to collect fox faeces and to estimate vole relative densities through surface indices. Habitat and climatic conditions were the strongest predictors of the number of faeces collected, while vole densities had no predictive power. Densities of both Microtus sp. and fox faeces were higher in medium-height vegetation edge. The consequences of such results to understand local transmission processes and human exposure are discussed.

  13. Septal oxytocin administration impairs peer affiliation via V1a receptors in female meadow voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Christensen, Jennifer D; LaFlamme, Elyssa M; Grunberg, Diana M; Beery, Annaliese K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in social behaviors, including social bond formation. In different contexts, however, OT is also associated with aggression, social selectivity, and reduced affiliation. Female meadow voles form social preferences for familiar same-sex peers under short, winter-like day lengths in the laboratory, and provide a means of studying affiliation outside the context of reproductive pair bonds. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the actions of OT in the lateral septum (LS) may decrease affiliative behavior, including greater density of OT receptors in the LS of meadow voles that huddle less. We infused OT into the LS of female meadow voles immediately prior to cohabitation with a social partner to determine its effects on partner preference formation. OT prevented the formation of preferences for the partner female. Co-administration of OT with a specific OT receptor antagonist did not reverse the effect, but co-administration of OT with a specific vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist did, indicating that OT in the LS likely acted through V1aRs to decrease partner preference. Receptor autoradiography revealed dense V1aR binding in the LS of female meadow voles. These results suggest that the LS is a brain region that may be responsible for inhibitory effects of OT administration on affiliation, which will be important to consider in therapeutic administrations of OT. PMID:26974500

  14. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predato

  15. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles.

  16. Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with pulmonary disease in mountain voles (Microtus montanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Duncan, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the lungs of all of six mountain voles (Microtus montanus) found dead or dying of pulmonary infection near the Bear River Research Station in northern Utah in January, 1973. The possibility of concomitant viral or mycoplasmal infection was not ruled out.

  17. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P palm oil level. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), while a negative correlation existed between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mRNA expressions of LPL and MyoD in muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  18. Differential mesodermal expression of two amphioxus MyoD family members (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Nicholas D.

    2003-01-01

    To explore the evolution of myogenic regulatory factors in chordates, we isolated two MyoD family genes (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2) from amphioxus. AmphiMRF1 is first expressed at the late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm. As the first somites form, expression is restricted to their myotomal region. In the early larva, expression is strongest in the most anterior and most posterior somites. AmphiMRF2 transcription begins at mid/late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm, but never spreads into its most anterior region. Through much of the neurula stage, AmphiMRF2 expression is strong in the myotomal region of all somites except the most anterior pair; by late neurula expression is downregulated except in the most posterior somites forming just rostral to the tail bud. These two MRF genes of amphioxus have partly overlapping patterns of mesodermal expression and evidently duplicated independent of the diversification of the vertebrate MRF family.

  19. Accumulation of moisture and soil erosion in the territory of social vole ( Microtus socialis) settlements in the northern Caspian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. V.; Kolesnikov, A. V.; Kulakova, N. Yu.; Shabanova, N. P.

    2008-08-01

    In the clay semidesert of the Caspian Lowland, the surface runoff is transformed to soil runoff due to the presence of a system of social vole ( Microtus socialis Pall.) passageways in the soils that promotes the retention of soil moisture and prevents the development of soil erosion. A quantitative assessment of this process is given. We describe the mechanism of intense soil erosion arising after the disturbance of vole underground passageways responsible for the formation of specific relief elements and plant communities.

  20. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  1. A trade-off between current and future sex allocation revealed by maternal energy budget in a small mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Speakman, John R

    2011-01-01

    Sex-allocation theories generally assume differential fitness costs of raising sons and daughters. Yet, experimental confirmation of such costs is scarce and potential mechanisms are rarely addressed. While the most universal measure of physiological costs is energy expenditure, only one study has related the maternal energy budget to experimentally controlled offspring sex. Here, we experimentally test this in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) by simultaneously manipulating the litter's size ...

  2. Mast Pulses Shape Trophic Interactions between Fluctuating Rodent Populations in a Primeval Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Selva; Keith A Hobson; Ainara Cortés-Avizanda; Andrzej Zalewski; José Antonio Donázar

    2012-01-01

    How different functional responses of consumers exploiting pulsed resources affect community dynamics is an ongoing question in ecology. Tree masting is a common resource pulse in terrestrial ecosystems that can drive rodent population cycles. Using stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) analyses, we investigated the dietary response of two fluctuating rodent species, the yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and the bank vole Myodes glareolus, to mast events in Białowieża Forest (NE Poland). Rod...

  3. Lithuania : Banking System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  5. Landscape structure mediates the effects of a stressor on field vole populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Sibly, Richard M.; Topping, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal landscape heterogeneity has rarely been considered in population-level impact assessments. Here we test whether landscape heterogeneity is important by examining the case of a pesticide applied seasonally to orchards which may affect non-target vole populations, using a validated...... results show that accurate prediction of population impact cannot be achieved without taking account of landscape structure. The specifics of landscape structure and habitat connectivity are likely always important in mediating the effects of stressors....

  6. Costs of Pair Bonding and Paternal Care in Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, JC; Laugero, KD; van Westerhuyzen, JA; Hostetler, CM; Cohen, JD; Bales, KL

    2009-01-01

    The direct costs of paternal care are relatively well documented in primates, however little research has explored these effects in monogamous rodents. The present study examines the long-term effects that pairing and parenting have on male prairie voles. We hypothesized that there would be a significant weight loss over the course of pairing and parenting, presumably from the energetic demands that accompany these changes in social condition. In a longitudinal study, we followed ten male pra...

  7. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    AllisonM.J.Anacker

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored ...

  8. Cardiac dysfunction and hypothalamic activation during a social crowding stressor in prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Sgoifo, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; McNeal, Neal; Trahanas, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction and hypothalamic activation during a social crowding stressor in prairie voles. – Negative social interactions produce several detrimental consequences in humans and non-human animals; and conversely, positive social interactions may have stress-buffering effects on both behavior and physiology. However, the mechanisms underlying specific stressor-responsiveness in the context of the social environment are not well understood. The present study investigated the integration...

  9. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  10. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

  11. Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

  12. Seasonal and annual variation in activity in wild male meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project ZEUS was designed to characterize the effects of long-term gamma irradiation on free-ranging meadow voles, and to determine the lowest level of radiation at which biological effects are discernible in the population. Behavioural tests are considered important since recent testing has shown that behavioural effects occur at lower levels of a given toxicant than do pathological ones, and radiation effects may be similar. Overnight activity of wild male voles was investigated to see whether sufficient variability exists in this activity to suggest its retention as a routine test of these irradiated animals. Variables determined included number of activity periods, total amount of activity, and statistical measures derived from these. Results from nearly 2500 activity tests recorded during a seven-year period indicated the annual pattern of activity is more closely associated with the photo-period than to reproductive maturity. There was little variability in activity among years, limiting the usefulness of this test in the context of Project ZEUS, and further suggesting behaviour may have little relationship to the population density fluctuations occurring in meadow voles. Consequently, the recording of this behaviour has been terminated in favour of emphasizing aggression and open-field tests as the behavioural component of the Project ZEUS. (auth)

  13. Ist die Bank der Zukunft eine Bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.

  14. A Study of Changes in Uterine Leucocytes During Early Pregnancy in the Mouse-vole Interspesific Pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diah Tri Widayati; Tatsuya Tada; Naoko Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Mouse and vole embryos were allogeneically and xenogeneically transferred into pseudopregnant CD.1 and immunodeficient (seid)female mice,and we investigated the distribution of uterine leucocytes cells in the implantation sites on days 5,6,and 7 of pregnancy. Maerophages were evenly distributed in the endometrium on days 5-7.Neutrophils were rarely seen on days 5-7,but lymphocytes were found throughout the endometrium,often in groups associated with glands or the luminal epithelium.The number of uNK cells increased markedly at the mesometrial uriangle and the outer decidual area in the CD-1 uteri containing vole embryos;by contrast,seid uteri having vole embryos showed almost the same number as those having mouse embryos.Mast cells were present in large numbers at the myometrium,but rarely in the decidua in all types of pregnant uteri.Cells at the myometrium were more numerous in xenogeneic than in allogeneic transfer.Maay mast cells appeared in the inner decidua where xenogeneically transferred vole embryos were dead and aborted.These results suggest the possibility that uterine leucocytes mediate various immunological events in the mouse-vole interspesific pregnancies.

  15. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  16. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  17. Molecular characterization of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) from Taiwan voles (Microtus kikuchii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Lin, En-Chung; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that senses and adapts cells to hypoxic environmental conditions. HIF-1 is composed of an oxygen-regulated α subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutively expressed β subunit (HIF-1β). Taiwan voles (Microtus kikuchii) are an endemic species in Taiwan, found only in mountainous areas greater than 2000m above sea level. In this study, the full-length HIF-1α cDNA was cloned and sequenced from liver tissues of Taiwan voles. We found that HIF-1α of Taiwan voles had high sequence similarity to HIF-1α of other species. Sequence alignment of HIF-1α functional domains indicated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) and C-terminal transactivation (TAD-C) domains were conserved among species, but sequence variations were found between the oxygen-dependent degradation domains (ODDD). To measure Taiwan vole HIF-1α responses to hypoxia, animals were challenged with cobalt chloride, and HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression in brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and muscle was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Upon induction of hypoxic stress with cobalt chloride, an increase in HIF-1α mRNA levels was detected in lung, heart, kidney, and muscle tissue. In contrast, protein expression levels showed greater variation between individual animals. These results suggest that the regulation of HIF-1α may be important to the Taiwan vole under cobalt chloride treatments. But more details regarding the evolutionary effect of environmental pressure on HIF-1α primary sequence, HIF-1α function and regulation in Taiwan voles remain to be identified.

  18. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. Does the Abundance of Voles Microtus spp. Still Determine a Number of Wintering Long-Eared Owls Asio Otus?

    OpenAIRE

    Grzędzicka Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Long-eared owl Asio otus is a specialist predator, hunting primarily upon voles Microtus spp. Be-cause size of the territory and breeding success of the predator depend on food availability, the number of long-eared owls wintering in a given locality is likely determined by the local abun-dance of voles. The amplitude and regularity of their cycle have been recently diminished and quantitative assessment of such a cycle is currently unavailable. Diet and number of wintering owls were monitore...

  1. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  2. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  3. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation. PMID:17825994

  5. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  6. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  8. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-01-01

    The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...

  9. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  10. Acute exhaustive exercise regulates IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD in skeletal muscle but not adipose tissue in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seelaender Marília; Santos Ronaldo VT; Pimentel Gustavo D; Oyama Lila M; Zanchi Nelo E; Lira Fábio S; Rosa Neto José C; Oller do Nascimento Cláudia M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exhaustive exercise on proteins associated with muscle damage and regeneration, including IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD, in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles and mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissues (RPAT). Methods Rats were killed by decapitation immediately (E0 group, n = 6), 2 (E2 group, n = 6) or 6 (E6 group, n = 6) hours after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadm...

  11. Selling Failed Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru

    2014-01-01

    We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...

  12. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  13. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  14. Oman; Banking Sector Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna

    2010-01-01

    This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...

  15. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  16. Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Bolle, L; Visser, GH; Masman, D; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate in the field vole (Microtus agrestis) was studied in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field Daily energy expenditure was measured by means of doubly labelled water ((D2O)-O-18). In the same individuals, basal metabolic rate was subsequently derive

  17. Temporal niche switching and reduced nest attendance in response to heat dissipation limits in lactating common voles (Microtus arvalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Simons, Mirre J.P.; Reimert, Inonge; Gerkema, Menno P.

    2014-01-01

    According to the heat dissipation limit theory, maximum metabolic turnover is limited by the capacity of the body to dissipate excess heat. Small mammals, including common voles (Microtus arvalis), face a heat dissipation limitation during lactation. Pup growth and milk production are reduced under

  18. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. PMID:26850644

  19. Does the Abundance of Voles Microtus spp. Still Determine a Number of Wintering Long-Eared Owls Asio Otus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzędzicka Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-eared owl Asio otus is a specialist predator, hunting primarily upon voles Microtus spp. Be-cause size of the territory and breeding success of the predator depend on food availability, the number of long-eared owls wintering in a given locality is likely determined by the local abun-dance of voles. The amplitude and regularity of their cycle have been recently diminished and quantitative assessment of such a cycle is currently unavailable. Diet and number of wintering owls were monitored during two winters (2005/06 and 2006/07 in Busko-Zdrój and Pińczów (south-central Poland. It was found that number of voles is still a factor determining number of wintering owls, also every fock in particular locality has its’ own dynamics of owl number. Research on predators’ diet − especially specialists like long-eared owl − is nowadays very important because of vole fluctuation cycle disturbances caused mainly by global warming.

  20. Flooding ecology of voles, mice and shrews: the importance of geomorphological and vegetational heterogeneity in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Velde, G. van der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Smits, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Since voles, mice and shrews are important animals in food chains of river floodplains, there is a need for data on their spatial and temporal distribution in periodically flooded areas. During a live trapping study between two successive floods in an embanked river floodplain, the ’Afferdensche en

  1. Noise trauma induced by a mousetrap--sound pressure level measurement of vole captive bolt devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Napp, Matthias; Lange, Joern; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Beule, Achim G

    2010-05-01

    While ballistic parameters of vole captive bolt devices have been reported, there is no investigation on their hazardous potential to cause noise trauma. The aim of this experimental study was to measure the sound pressure levels of vole captive bolt devices. Two different shooting devices were examined with a modular precision sound level meter on an outdoor firing range. Measurements were taken in a semi-circular configuration with measuring points 0 degrees in front of the muzzle, 90 degrees at right angle of the muzzle, and 180 degrees behind the shooting device. Distances between muzzle and microphone were 0.5, 1, 2, 10, and 20 m. Sound pressure levels exceeded 130 dB(C) at any measuring point within the 20-m area. Highest measurements (more than 172 dB[C]) were taken in the 0 degrees direction at the 0.5-m distance for both shooting devices proving the hazardous potential of these gadgets to cause noise trauma. PMID:20345785

  2. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  3. Cardiac dysfunction and hypothalamic activation during a social crowding stressor in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Sgoifo, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; McNeal, Neal; Trahanas, Diane M

    2010-08-25

    Negative social interactions produce several detrimental consequences in humans and non-human animals; and conversely, positive social interactions may have stress-buffering effects on both behavior and physiology. However, the mechanisms underlying specific stressor-responsiveness in the context of the social environment are not well understood. The present study investigated the integration of behavior, cardiac function, and Fos-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus during an acute social stressor in female, socially monogamous prairie voles exposed to previous long-term pairing (control conditions) or isolation. Animals previously exposed to social isolation displayed increased heart rate, attenuated heart rate variability, and increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during an acute crowding stressor versus animals previously exposed to social pairing; these cardiac alterations were not secondary to behavioral changes during the crowding stressor. Furthermore, social isolation was associated with increased c-Fos-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus following the crowding stressor, versus social pairing. The prairie vole provides a useful model for understanding how the social environment contributes to changes in behavior, cardiac function, and central stress-regulatory processes in humans. PMID:20347401

  4. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  5. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.; Phalen, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  6. Regulation of body mass and adiposity in the field vole, Microtus agrestis: a model of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2007-02-01

    Adult mammals are typically highly resistant to perturbations in their energy balance. In obese humans, however, this control appears to be lost. Apart from a few exceptional cases, this loss of control occurs despite appropriate levels of circulating leptin -- suggesting that elevated adiposity may be a consequence of failure to respond to the leptin signal: leptin resistance. When cold-acclimated male field voles (Microtus agrestis) are transferred from short (SD, 8 h light) to long (LD, 16 h light) photoperiods, they increase dramatically in body mass and fatness for about 4 weeks. After this period, their mass stabilizes at a new plateau about 25% higher than animals maintained in SD. The increase in adiposity is not caused by significant increases in food intake, but reflects an increase in digestive efficiency. Measures of circulating leptin reveal that the increased adiposity is matched by increased circulating leptin. By infusing voles with exogenous leptin, we have demonstrated that SD voles are leptin sensitive (reducing both body mass and food intake), whereas LD animals are leptin resistant. Voles may therefore be a useful model for understanding the process of leptin resistance. The change in leptin sensitivity in voles was not associated with changes in the levels of gene expression of the orexogenic or anorexogenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, measured in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). During the phase that body mass was increasing, however, there was a transient increase in the ARC expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS3). These data suggest that the changes in the expression of SOCS3 in the ARC may be involved in leptin resistance. However, the mechanism by which these changes may be linked to alterations in digestive efficiency that underpin the changes in adiposity, or how the differences are signalled by changes in photoperiod

  7. Mobile banking: near future of banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gentiana Gjino; Orkida Ilollari (Findiku)

    2014-01-01

    Banks are now being prepared to take advantage of another profit opportunity which is another product usable by all of us, the 'Mobile phone'. The interest over 'Mobile Banking' product is becoming increasingly intense. Applications and new technologies are spreading through European banks mobilized to embrace this profitable product. It is common knowledge that many users of mobile telephony are actively shifted from PC to mobile devices. It still remains to understand: to what extent this n...

  8. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A. Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals

  9. Acute exhaustive exercise regulates IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD in skeletal muscle but not adipose tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seelaender Marília

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exhaustive exercise on proteins associated with muscle damage and regeneration, including IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD, in extensor digitorum longus (EDL and soleus muscles and mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal adipose tissues (RPAT. Methods Rats were killed by decapitation immediately (E0 group, n = 6, 2 (E2 group, n = 6 or 6 (E6 group, n = 6 hours after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadmill at approximately 70% of VO2max for fifty minutes and then at an elevated rate that increased at one m/min every minute, until exhaustion. Results The control group (C group, n = 6 was not subjected to exercise. IL-2 protein expression increased at E0 in the soleus and EDL; at E2, this cytokine returned to control levels in both tissues. In the soleus, IL-2 protein expression was lower than that in the control at E6. IL-4 protein levels increased in EDL at E6, but the opposite result was observed in the soleus. MyoD expression increased at E6 in EDL. Conclusion Exhaustive exercise was unable to modify IL-2 and IL-4 levels in MEAT and RPAT. The results show that exhaustive exercise has different effects depending on which muscle is analysed.

  10. Snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) affects the redistribution of soil organic matter and hormone‐like activity in the alpine ecosystem: ecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzeghello, Diego; Cocco, Stefania; Francioso, Ornella; Ferrari, Erika; Cardinali, Alessandra; Nardi, Serenella; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In alpine environments, colonies of snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) cause strong pedoturbation, which may affect humification process and soil organic matter (SOM) cycling, with repercussions on the hormone‐like activity of organics. We investigated the effect of snow vole pedoturbation on the chemical and spectroscopic features of soil organic fractions, and the potential hormone‐like activity of humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). The study site was located on the high‐mountain ...

  11. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  12. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  13. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  14. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  15. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  16. Securitization and Bank Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Casu, B; Clare, A; Sarkisyan, A.; Thomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using predominantly precrisis U.S. commercial bank data, this paper employs a propensity score matching approach to analyze whether individual banks did improve their performance through securitization. On average, our results show that securitizing banks tend to be more profitable institutions, with higher credit risk exposure. Despite a more diversified funding structure, they face higher funding costs. We also find that securitizing banks tend to hold larger and less diversified loan portf...

  17. Bank Funding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart I. Greenbaum; Anjan V. Thakor

    2004-01-01

    We examine a bank's choice of whether to fund the loans it originates by emitting deposits or to sell the loans to investors. With common knowledge of loan quality and laissez faire banking, we find that the choice is irrelevant. With asymmetric information but without government intervention, we find that better quality assets will be sold (securitized) and poorer quality assets will be funded with deposits. Public regulation can influence the bank's choice; subsidies can cause a bank to fav...

  18. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger

    2011-01-01

    We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...

  19. Early public banks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberds, William; Velde, François R.

    2014-01-01

    Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...

  20. The Shanxi Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Fan Yang

    2010-01-01

    The remote inland province of Shanxi was late Qing dynasty China's paramount banking center. Its remoteness and China's almost complete isolation from foreign influence at the time lead historians to posit a Chinese invention of modern banking. However, Shanxi merchants ran a tea trade north into Siberia, travelled to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and may well have observed Western banking there. Nonetheless, the Shanxi banks were unique. Their dual class shares let owners vote only on insiders'...

  1. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations. The last chapter is joint work with Hans Degryse, Jose Liberti and Steven Ongena and studies how banks use ‘soft information’ to monitor small firms. This dissertation uses hand collected internal...

  2. The evolutionary radiation of Arvicolinae rodents (voles and lemmings: relative contribution of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Emmanuel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial and nuclear genes have generally been employed for different purposes in molecular systematics, the former to resolve relationships within recently evolved groups and the latter to investigate phylogenies at a deeper level. In the case of rapid and recent evolutionary radiations, mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (CYB are often inefficient for resolving phylogenetic relationships. One of the best examples is illustrated by Arvicolinae rodents (Rodentia; Muridae, the most impressive mammalian radiation of the Northern Hemisphere which produced voles, lemmings and muskrats. Here, we compare the relative contribution of a nuclear marker – the exon 10 of the growth hormone receptor (GHR gene – to the one of the mitochondrial CYB for inferring phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of arvicoline rodents. Results The analysis of GHR sequences improves the overall resolution of the Arvicolinae phylogeny. Our results show that the Caucasian long-clawed vole (Prometheomys schaposnikowi is one of the basalmost arvicolines, and confirm that true lemmings (Lemmus and collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx are not closely related as suggested by morphology. Red-backed voles (Myodini are found as the sister-group of a clade encompassing water vole (Arvicola, snow vole (Chionomys, and meadow voles (Microtus and allies. Within the latter, no support is recovered for the generic recognition of Blanfordimys, Lasiopodomys, Neodon, and Phaiomys as suggested by morphology. Comparisons of parameter estimates for branch lengths, base composition, among sites rate heterogeneity, and GTR relative substitution rates indicate that CYB sequences consistently exhibit more heterogeneity among codon positions than GHR. By analyzing the contribution of each codon position to node resolution, we show that the apparent higher efficiency of GHR is due to their third positions. Although we focus on speciation events spanning the last

  3. Entraide bénévole Suisse - Thaïlande

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Qui sommes-nous ? Une équipe de bénévoles désireux d’améliorer le quotidien de familles productrices, au sud-est de la Thaïlande, en vous offrant une production artisanale d’excellentes épices et tisanes de première qualité. CULTIVÉES SANS PESTICIDES NI ENGRAIS. Nous vous offrons plus de 30 moyens de prendre soin de vous et de ceux que vous aimez! Rejoignez-nous sur : www.saveursdusiam.net  Nous serons le jeudi 1er décembre dans le Bâtiment principal de 10 h 00 à 16 h 00. Les Saveurs du Siam sont parties intégrantes de la FONDATION HOPE-HOUSE «SAWATDI» www.hopehouse.ch

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longqing; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Hao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhiyu; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene) belongs to the subfamily Arvicolinae, which is restricted to mountain areas at high altitudes (2800-4000). In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of N. irene. It was determined to be 16,367 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of N. irene and other 22 rodents were used for phylogenetic analysis. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) were used. Both the BI and ML trees demonstrated that Microtus rossiaemeridionalis and Microtus kikuchii did not cluster together with each other. On the contrary, M. rossiaemeridionalis showed close relationship with N. irene. In the present study, only one sequence from Neodon and two sequences from Microtus were included in the phylogenetic analysis which should contribute to the unusual relationship. Therefore, in order to better understand the phylogenetic relationship within Rodentia, more rodents' complete mitochondrial genomes are required.

  5. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  6. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  7. More Localized Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign

  8. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  9. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  10. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  11. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  12. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  13. Early experiences can alter the size of cortical fields in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelke, A.M.H.; Yuan, S.-M.; Perkeybile, A.M.; Krubitzer, L.A.; Bales, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth. When animals reached adulthood, their brains were removed, the cortex was flattened, cut parallel to the pial surface, and stained for myelin to identify the architectonic boundaries of sensory and motor areas. We measured the overall proportion of cortex that was myelinated, as well as the proportion of cortex devoted to the sensory and motor areas. Both the chronic and acute manipulations were linked to significant alterations in areal boundaries of cortical fields, but the areas affected differed with different conditions. Thus, differences in parental care and early exposure to OT can both change cortical organization, but their effects are not identical. Furthermore, the effects of both manipulations were sexually dimorphic, with a greater number of statistically significant differences in females than in males. These results indicate that early environmental experience, both through exposure to exogenous neuropeptides and parental contact, can alter the size of cortical fields.

  14. Pika and vole mitochondrial genomes increase support for both rodent monophyly and glires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Waddell, Peter J; Penny, David

    2002-07-10

    Complete mitochondrial genomes are reported for a pika (Ochotona collaris) and a vole (Volemys kikuchii) then analysed together with 35 other mitochondrial genomes from mammals. With standard phylogenetic methods the pika joins with the other lagomorph (rabbit) and the vole with the other murid rodents (rat and mouse). In addition, with hedgehog excluded, the seven rodent genomes consistently form a homogeneous group in the unrooted placental tree. Except for uncertainty of the position of tree shrew, the clade Glires (monophyletic rodents plus lagomorphs) is consistently found. The unrooted tree obtained by ProtML (Protein Maximum Likelihood, a program in MOLPHY) is compatible with a reclassification of mammals [Syst. Biol. 48, 1-5 (1999)] which is also supported by other recent studies. However, when this tree is rooted with marsupials plus platypus, the outgroup often joins the lineage leading to the three murid rodents, so the rodents are no longer monophyletic. Apart from misplacing the root, the presence of the outgroups also distorts other parts of the unrooted tree. Either constraining the tree to maintain rodents monophyletic, or omitting murids, maintains the ingroup tree and sees the outgroup join on the edge to Xenarthra, to Afrotheria, or to these two groups together. This emphasises the importance of carrying out both an unrooted and a rooted analysis. It is known from cancer research that murid rodents have reduced activity in some DNA repair mechanisms and this alters their substitution pattern - this may be the case for mitochnodrial DNA as well. Comparing nucleotide compositions may identify taxa that differ in aspects of their DNA repair mechanisms.

  15. 棕色田鼠洞群内社会组织%SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF MANDARIN VOLES IN BURROW SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰发道; 王廷正

    2001-01-01

    The colonial structure of mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus )varies from month to month.Mandarin vole had a large family size which consisted of several adult males and females and many offsprings in April and October.From June to September,it consisted of one adult male and one adult female and had offsprings or not.So social organization of mandarin voles consisted of communal groups,male-female pairs and single female breeding unit.Male-female pairs displayed behavioral traits associated with monogamy, including sharing a common nest and home range.In April and October ,there are more communal groups(60%,61.5%).In June and September,there are more male-female pairs(80%,75%).The percents of communal groups were positively correlated with the densities of the voles and the percents of male-female pairs were negatively correlated with the densities of the voles . The burrow index ( number of voles/number of burrows) were different in different seasons.The burrow index were positively correlated with the density of voles.So it infers that the changes of the colonial structure of voles were caused mainly by reproduction and joining of new members.%每月选取农田样方,用洞道内置夹及挖捕法对棕色田鼠洞群内的群体结构进行调查发现,棕色田鼠在不同的季节,洞群内个体组成不同。在4月和10月,同洞群内成年雄性和雌性的数量较多,往往有两个以上的雌性个体参与繁殖,而且亚成体和幼体的数量也较多;而6月至9月,棕色田鼠多呈雌雄一一配对,有些洞群内也有幼体和亚成体,雌雄共巢,而呈现单配制特征。所以其社会组织呈现群居家庭、双亲家庭和单亲家庭3种类型。4月和10月群居家庭最多(60%,61.53%),6月和9月双亲家庭较多(80%,75%),双亲家庭所占比例和密度呈负相关,而群居家庭所占比例和密度呈正相关。在不同的季节洞口系数不同,洞口系数和密度呈正相关。

  16. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  17. Do females influence paternal responsiveness in male prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster by increasing the salience of infant odors?

    OpenAIRE

    Damaris-Lois LANG YAMOAH,Wilhemina LARYEA, Fiker FASSIL, Maryam BAMSHAD

    2013-01-01

    Male prairie voles become more responsive to infants following cohabitation with a female. Exposure to female sensory cues prior to offspring birth may influence male paternal tendencies by modifying his response to infant odors in particular or to odors in general. To test these hypotheses, males were housed with an unfamiliar female or a same-sex sibling for 13 days then examined for their response towards either live infants or infant-like inanimate objects covered with one of three odors:...

  18. Brain mast cells are influenced by chemosensory cues associated with estrus induction in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Hotchkiss, Andrew K.; Demas, Gregory E.; Silverman, Ann-Judith; Silver, Rae; Nelson, Randy J.

    2003-01-01

    Historically, the brain has been viewed as protected from the infiltration of peripheral hematopoietic cells by the blood-brain barrier. However, numerous immune cell types have been found in the central nervous system (CNS). Mast cells, granulocytic immune cells, are found in the CNS of birds and mammals and their numbers and location are influenced by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including reproductive behavior and endocrine status. The present study used female prairie voles (Micr...

  19. Density, diet and productivity of Long-eared Owls Asio otus in the Italian Alps: The importance of Microtus voles

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Marchesi, Luigi; Pedrini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Capsule: Relatively large populations, feeding predominantly upon voles, were present at higher elevations. Aims: To determine the density, productivity and diet composition of Long-eared Owls breeding at higher elevations. Methods: Population census and breeding biology were investigated, and dietary analysis performed for 32 Long-eared Owl territories that were occupied over a six-year period (2000-05), in a 155 km2 study area located in the Noce Valley of the central-eastern Italian Alps. ...

  20. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Cargill, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  1. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9......) with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus) and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi). C57BL/6j mice (n = 4) were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi...... of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001) and growth (p ≤ 0.0001). No lesions were found in all 11...

  2. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to absorb...

  3. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient...

  4. Manifestations of Fasting-Induced Fatty Liver and Rapid Recovery from Steatosis in Voles Fed Lard or Flaxseed Oil Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kärjä, Vesa; Kilpiö, Michael; Tammi, Raija; Tammi, Markku; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Halonen, Toivo; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can have beneficial effects against fat deposition, cardiovascular diseases, and liver steatosis. We investigated how diets based on lard (predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) or flaxseed oil (rich in 18:3n-3) affect liver fat-% and fatty acid profiles of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus). We also studied potential participation of hyaluronan (HA) in the pathology of fatty liver and whether the development and recovery of fasting-induced steatosis are influenced by n-3 PUFA. The dietary fatty acid composition was manifested in the liver fatty acid signatures. Fasting for 18 h induced macrovesicular steatosis and the liver fat-% increased to 22% independent of the preceding diet. Fasting-induced steatosis did not involve inflammation or connective tissue activation indicated by the absence of both leukocyte accumulation and increased HA. Food deprivation modified the liver fatty acid signatures to resemble more closely the diets. Fasting reduced the proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA in both dietary regimes and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios in the lard-fed voles. Decreases in long-chain n-3 PUFA may promote lipid accumulation by modulating the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes. Dietary 18:3n-3 did not prevent the development or attenuate the manifestation of steatosis in the fasted voles or promote the recovery. PMID:24152753

  5. Manifestations of Fasting-Induced Fatty Liver and Rapid Recovery from Steatosis in Voles Fed Lard or Flaxseed Oil Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toivo Halonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA can have beneficial effects against fat deposition, cardiovascular diseases, and liver steatosis. We investigated how diets based on lard (predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids or flaxseed oil (rich in 18:3n-3 affect liver fat-% and fatty acid profiles of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus. We also studied potential participation of hyaluronan (HA in the pathology of fatty liver and whether the development and recovery of fasting-induced steatosis are influenced by n-3 PUFA. The dietary fatty acid composition was manifested in the liver fatty acid signatures. Fasting for 18 h induced macrovesicular steatosis and the liver fat-% increased to 22% independent of the preceding diet. Fasting-induced steatosis did not involve inflammation or connective tissue activation indicated by the absence of both leukocyte accumulation and increased HA. Food deprivation modified the liver fatty acid signatures to resemble more closely the diets. Fasting reduced the proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA in both dietary regimes and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios in the lard-fed voles. Decreases in long-chain n-3 PUFA may promote lipid accumulation by modulating the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes. Dietary 18:3n-3 did not prevent the development or attenuate the manifestation of steatosis in the fasted voles or promote the recovery.

  6. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  7. Customer Experience in Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...

  8. Do Foreign Banks Lead in Internet Banking Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooi Guan CHEAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.

  9. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  10. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  11. Islamic Banking and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    AlFarra, Diaa M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...

  12. Method of Banks Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Horvátová

    2010-01-01

    Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...

  13. Essays on Bank Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cabiles, Neil Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This PhD Thesis is composed of three chapters, each discussing a specific type of risk that banks face. The first chapter talks about Systemic Risk and how banks get exposed to it through the Interbank Funding Market. Exposures in the said market have Systemic Risk implications because the market creates linkages, where the failure of one party can affect the others in the market. By showing that CDS Spreads, as bank risk indicators, are positively related to their Net Interbank Funding ...

  14. Bank Customers Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is A...

  15. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  16. Banks on Board

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fear; Christopher Kobrak

    2007-01-01

    As part of a series of related papers, the authors examine the conceptual foundations of German and American corporate governance, specifically highlighting the role of banks' relationships to corporations and the stock market. This paper focuses on how the regulatory and macroeconomic environments of the two countries helped shape how banks, especially money-centred bankers, actually interacted with their clients. Prior to 1914, despite many regulatory obstacles, American banks wielded more ...

  17. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  18. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  19. Bank Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jokipii, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...

  20. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  1. Influence of photoperiod and sex on locomotor behavior of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in an automated light-dark 'anxiety' test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; van Anders, Sari M; Engeland, Christopher G; Kavaliers, Martin

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the influence of photoperiod on affective behavior (anxiety) of adult male and female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), maintained in either a long or short day photoperiod, when tested in an automated (VersaMax) light-dark test. The light-dark test is based on an innate aversion of rodents to novel, brightly illuminated spaces and has been used with laboratory raised species, such as mice, to assess anxiety and/or fear related behaviors. Male and female meadow voles, housed either in a long day (LD: 16 h light) or short day (SD: 8 h light) photoperiod, were tested in the light-dark apparatus for 30 min on 3 consecutive days. All animals spent significantly (p test day but the most active group in the light area, despite spending the least amount of time in this area on the second and third test days. The present results show that LD voles exhibit more anxiety related behaviors in this test situation than do SD voles. LD females avoided the brightly lit area the most, particularly when the apparatus was novel. Thus, both photoperiod and sex influence situation-based anxiety in this species. These findings suggest that meadow voles are an excellent animal model in which to examine the role of gonadal hormones, and their modulation of defence related neural systems, in the induction of anxiety.

  2. Essays on banking and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, R.I.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions

  3. Identification of variables contributing to superovulation efficiency for production of transgenic prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keebaugh Alaine C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an emerging animal model for biomedical research because of its rich sociobehavioral repertoire. Recently, lentiviral transgenic technology has been used to introduce the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP into the prairie vole germline. However, the efficiency of transgenesis in this species is limited by the inability to reliably produce large numbers of fertilized embryos. Here we examined several factors that may contribute to variability in superovulation success including, age and parentage of the female, and latency to mating after being placed with the male. Methods Females produced from 5 genetically distinct breeder lines were treated with 100 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and immediately housed with a male separated by a perforated Plexiglas divider. Ovulation was induced 72 hr later with 30 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and 2 hrs later mating was allowed. Results Superovulation was most efficient in young females. For example, females aged 6-11 weeks produced more embryos (14 +/- 1.4 embryos as compared to females aged 12-20 weeks (4 +/- 1.6 embryos. Females aged 4-5 weeks did not produce embryos. Further, females that mated within 15 min of male exposure produced significantly more embryos than those that did not. Interestingly, there was a significant effect of parentage. For example, 12 out of 12 females from one breeder pair superovulated (defined as producing 5 or more embryos, while only 2 out of 10 females for other lines superovulated. Conclusions The results of this work suggest that age and genetic background of the female are the most important factors contributing to superovulation success and that latency to mating is a good predictor of the number of embryos to be recovered. Surprisingly we found that cohabitation with the male prior to mating is not necessary for the recovery of embryos but is necessary to recover

  4. Polyandrous females produce sons that are successful at post-copulatory competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, I; Bäumer, J; Eccard, J A; Ylönen, H

    2014-03-01

    Some of the genetic benefit hypotheses put forward to explain multiple male mating (polyandry) predict that sons of polyandrous females will have an increased competitive ability under precopulatory or post-copulatory competition via paternally inherited traits, such as attractiveness or fertilization efficiency. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing the competitive ability of sons of experimentally monandrous and polyandrous female bank voles (Myodes glareolus), while controlling for potential material and maternal effects. In female choice experiments, we found no clear preference for sons of either monandrous or polyandrous mothers. Moreover, neither male type was dominant over the other, indicating no advantage in precopulatory male contest competition. However, in competitive matings, sons of polyandrous mothers significantly increased their mating efforts (mating duration, intromission number). In line with this, paternity success was biased towards sons of polyandrous mothers. Because there was no evidence for maternal effects, our results suggest that female bank voles gain genetic benefits from polyandry.

  5. Impact of E-Banking on Traditional Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpan Vyas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking is changing the banking industry, having the major effects on banking relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a "need to have" than a "nice to have" service. The net banking, thus, now is more of a norm rather than an exception in many developed countries due to the fact that it is the cheapest way of providing banking services.This research paper will introduce you to e-banking, giving the meaning, functions, types, advantages and limitations of e-banking. It will also show the impact of e-banking on traditional services and finally the result documentation.

  6. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  7. Private Banking and Wealth Management Services Offered by Banks

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  8. Bank Lending and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Chilean Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Repetto; Sergio Rodríguez; Valdés, Rodrigo O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we empirically study bank-client relationships using a sample of manufacturing Chilean firms. We examine whether concentration and the duration of bank-firm relationships affect the terms of bank financing, evaluating both the volume of bank lending and bank loan costs. Our results indicate that lower concentration, measured by the number of banks a firm borrows from, is associated with lower costs of loans and with a large and positive non-lincar effect on borrowing. The length...

  9. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  10. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Federal Register on January 10, 2013 (78 FR 2290). The subject firm supplies banking and financial... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

  11. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  12. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; A. Schmeits

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge relatio

  13. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  14. On competition and banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda Adriana

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discussed several aspects of bank behavior under imperfect competition. As we argued in chapters 1 and 2, the loss of production and growth and the suboptimal welfare level resulting from imperfections in banking can only partly be explained by transaction costs and asymmetric info

  15. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t

  16. Innovative strategies of bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Peresadko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.

  17. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  18. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  19. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L. Hoogduin

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  20. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L.H. Hoogduin

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  1. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; L. Ratnovski

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  2. iBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  3. Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dufour, Brett D; Smith, Monique L; Cocking, Davelle L; Li, Ju; Young, Larry J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-04-22

    Alcohol use and abuse profoundly influences a variety of behaviors, including social interactions. In some cases, it erodes social relationships; in others, it facilitates sociality. Here, we show that voluntary alcohol consumption can inhibit male partner preference (PP) formation (a laboratory proxy for pair bonding) in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Conversely, female PP is not inhibited, and may be facilitated by alcohol. Behavior and neurochemical analysis suggests that the effects of alcohol on social bonding are mediated by neural mechanisms regulating pair bond formation and not alcohol's effects on mating, locomotor, or aggressive behaviors. Several neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of social behavior (especially neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor) are modulated by alcohol drinking during cohabitation. These findings provide the first evidence to our knowledge that alcohol has a direct impact on the neural systems involved in social bonding in a sex-specific manner, providing an opportunity to explore the mechanisms by which alcohol affects social relationships. PMID:24711424

  4. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Rice; Cyril Peter

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their...

  5. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  6. Banking union and bank regulation: Banking sector stability in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bremus, Franziska M.; Lambert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the most recent period of calm on the financial markets, the long-term resilience of the European financial system is not yet assured, even several years after the financial crisis began. However, the stability of the financial system playsa crucial role for real economic development and consequently for growth and prosperity. The financial crisis has shown that stricter regulation is required to improve the stability and resilience of the banking system. Further, it has become eviden...

  7. Description of Paranoplocephala etholeni n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae in the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, with a synopsis of Paranoplocephala s. l. in Holarctic rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukisalmi V.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Paranoplocephala etholeni n. sp., parasitizing the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus in Alaska and Wisconsin, USA is described. Paranoplocephala etholeni is morphologically most closely related to the Nearctic Paranoplocephala ondatrae (Rausch, 1948. Available data suggest that P. etholeni is a host-specific, locally rare species that may have a wide but sporadic geographical distribution in North America. The finding of P. ondatrae-like cestodes in Microtus spp. suggests that this poorly known species may actually be a parasite of voles rather than muskrat (type host. A tabular synopsis of all the known species of Paranoplocephala s. l. in the Holarctic region with their main morphological features is presented.

  8. The long-term decline of the grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus) in boreal Sweden: importance of focal forest patch and matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Pernilla

    2006-01-01

    There has been a long-term decline in number of cyclic vole populations in boreal Sweden since the 1970s. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this decline. Commonly for C. glareolus, C. rufocanus and M. agrestis, the decline has followed upon an increased frequency and severeness of winter declines and has shown up as a drop in spring densities. The spring decline is most pronounced for C. rufocanus. In contrast to other voles, C. rufocanus also show a decline in fall densities,...

  9. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Keuangan Antara Bank Syariah Dengan Bank Konvensional Yang Terdaftar Di Bank Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Arie Firmansyah

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparative performance of Islamic banking and conventional banking which are listed in Bank of Indonesia. The parameters used to compare the financial performance of banks is to use the financial ratios include capital adequacy ratio(CAR),return on asset (ROA),return on equity (ROE), and loan to deposit ratio (LDR). The results showed that ROA, ROE, and LDR do not differ significantly between Islamic banks and the conventional banks, only CAR that showed ...

  10. Using GenBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . PMID:26519398

  11. Soundness of Ethiopian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdu Kedir Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.

  12. Establishment and development of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in the common vole (Microtus arvalis) after oral inoculation with parasite eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-12-01

    Transmission of the zoonotic tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis mainly occurs between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of vole. Microtus arvalis is considered one of the key intermediate hosts in Europe. We infected 21 M. arvalis aged 35 days (n=2), 56 days (n=6), 84 days (n=4) and 263 days (n=9) with 100 E. multilocularis eggs. Four voles aged 263 days were euthanized at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) with the remainder euthanized 10 wpi for analysis of metacestode growth and protoscolex development. Eight C57BL/6j mice (age 35-231 days) were included as controls for egg viability (they have been shown to exhibit visible infection after 4 wpi) and dissected at 6 (n=2) and 10 (n=6) wpi. M. arvalis had significantly higher metacestode establishment (p=0.008) 6 wpi with 27.5±6.63S.D. compared to C57BL/6j with 15.5±0.71S.D. Multivesiculation precluded enumeration at 10 wpi in M. arvalis. No protoscolices were found in metacestodes in M. arvalis 6 wpi or C57BL/6j at any time point but were found in all infected voles 10 wpi (48,056±52,574 S.D.). It has been reported that glucocorticoid (GC) profile can affect E. multilocularis establishment. This was assessed by measuring corticosterone in rodent hair to determine if parasite establishment or fertility was related to this stress hormone. No significant differences were found. Data presented here provides, for the first time, a protoscolex development window in this species that has the potential to shed light on the epizootiology of this parasite. PMID:26279253

  13. Captive housing during water vole (Arvicola terrestris reintroduction: does short-term social stress impact on animal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals captive bred for reintroduction are often housed under conditions which are not representative of their preferred social structure for at least part of the reintroduction process. Specifically, this is most likely to occur during the final stages of the release programme, whilst being housed during transportation to the release site. The degree of social stress experienced by individuals during this time may negatively impact upon their immunocompetence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined two measure of stress--body weight and Leukocyte Coping Capacity (LCC--to investigate the effects of group size upon captive-bred water voles destined for release within a reintroduction program. Water voles were housed in laboratory cages containing between one and eight individuals. LCC scores were negatively correlated with group size, suggesting that individuals in larger groups experienced a larger degree of immuno-suppression than did individuals housed in smaller groups or individually. During the course of the study mean body weights increased, in contrast to expectations from a previous study. This was attributed to the individuals sampled being sub-adults and thus growing in length and weight during the course of the investigation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reintroduction process will inevitably cause some stress to the release cohort. However, for water voles we conclude that the stress experienced may be reduced by decreasing group size within captive colony and/or transportation housing practises. These findings are of significance to other species' reintroductions, in highlighting the need to consider life-history strategies when choosing housing systems for animals being maintained in captivity prior to release to the wild. A reduction in stress experienced at the pre-release stage may improve immunocompetence and thus animal welfare and initial survival post-release.

  14. Effects of sex and reproductive experience on the number of orexin A-immunoreactive cells in the prairie vole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlin, Michael; Cavanaugh, Breyanna L; Spagnuolo, Olivia S; Yan, Lily; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2014-07-01

    Large populations of cells synthesizing the neuropeptide orexin (OX) exist in the caudal hypothalamus of all species examined and are implicated in physiological and behavioral processes including arousal, stress, anxiety and depression, reproduction, and goal-directed behaviors. Hypothalamic OX expression is sexually dimorphic in different directions in laboratory rats (F>M) and mice (M>F), suggesting different roles in male and female physiology and behavior that are species-specific. We here examined if the number of hypothalamic cells immunoreactive for orexin A (OXA) differs between male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a socially monogamous species that pairbonds after mating and in which both sexes care for offspring, and if reproductive experience influences their number of OXA-immunoreactive (OXA-ir) cells. It was found that the total number of OXA-ir cells did not differ between the sexes, but females had more OXA-ir cells than males in anterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus, while males had more OXA-ir cells posteriorly. Sexually experienced females sacrificed 12 days after the birth of their first litter, or one day after birth of a second litter, had more OXA-ir cells in anterior levels but not posterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus compared to females housed with a brother (incest avoidance prevents sibling mating). Male prairie voles showed no effect of reproductive experience but showed an unexpected effect of cohabitation duration regardless of mating. The sex difference in the distribution of OXA-ir cells, and their increased number in anterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus of reproductively experienced female prairie voles, may reflect a sex-specific mechanism involved in pairbonding, parenting, or lactation in this species. PMID:24874707

  15. Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon

    2004-01-01

    The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.

  16. Selective predation on common voles by Tawny Owls and Long-eared Owls in winter and spring

    OpenAIRE

    Balciauskas, Linas; BALCIAUSKIENE, Laima

    2014-01-01

    We studied size preferences of Tawny (Strix aluco) and Long-eared (Asio otus) Owls preying on common voles (Microtus arvalis) in the winter and spring seasons in Central Lithuania. Regression equations were used for body mass estimations. We found that both A. otus and S. aluco preferred larger M. arvalis than the average available in the population (the average body mass of predated individuals was 21.45 ± 0.12 g compared to 16.42 ± 0.16 g of snap-trapped individuals). Irrespective of the ow...

  17. Swiss Bank Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martin; Döbeli, Barbara; Sauré, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We examine the origin of deposits with Swiss banks on a country-by-country basis for the period 1987-2007. We relate the volume of Swiss bank deposits for 99 countries to the taxation of personal income as well as to political governance in these countries. Our results suggest that higher taxation in origin countries is not associated with a larger volume of deposits with Swiss banks. Our results do show however that countries with weak political governance, e.g. corruption, internal conflict...

  18. PERCEIVED BARRIERS OF INNOVATIVE BANKING AMONG MALAYSIAN RETAIL BANKING CUSTOMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman Munusamy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify perceptual barriers of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The per ceptual barrier factors that analyzed were difficulty to operate, hassle to use, unreliable, perceived risk and high connection fees. This study employs a quantitative approach using questionnaire survey at selected banks in Malaysia. The results indicate that there are significant barriers exist in the perception of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The results indicate several implications for bank managers to change the perceptions of retail internet banking customers.

  19. Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.

  20. Varying Impacts of Electronic Banking on the Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Bakare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT. Electronic banking (EB is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans to conduct financial activities. This paper explores a few published articles that reported on the impacts of electronic banking on the banking industry. The articles vary in their findings. Impacts on the banking industry from the points of view of consumers and bank employees were reported. This paper examines the study of few other articles to propose that more research be conducted utilizing a different research methodology such as qualitative method to fully understand how EB impacts the banking industry and address cyber crime threats.

  1. Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M. Shabri Abd. Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...

  2. Statistical comparison of comparable banking products in selected banks

    OpenAIRE

    Elstnerová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis describes the current situation in the market of commercial banks in the Czech Republic, analyzes products offer in selected banks depending on the client preferences of individual commercial banks, and evaluates the influences and circumstances that determine the behavior of clients in relation to banks and financial products. Furthermore, it assesses the impact of demographic, social and economic factors on the usage of offered banking products. The thesis also includes a...

  3. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2016-08-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9) with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus) and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi). C57BL/6j mice (n = 4) were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3%) at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi) the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001) and growth (p ≤ 0.0001). No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus. PMID:27330986

  4. Heterogeneity of myotubes generated by the MyoD and E12 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in otherwise non-differentiation growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubišić, Vladimir; Gottipati, Manoj K; Stout, Randy F; Grammer, J Robert; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    We used a synthetic biology approach to produce myotubes from mammalian C2C12 myoblasts in non-differentiation growth conditions using the expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, MyoD and E12, in various combinations and configurations. Our approach not only recapitulated the basics of muscle development and physiology, as the obtained myotubes showed qualities similar to those seen in striated muscle fibers in vivo, but also allowed for the synthesis of populations of myotubes which assumed distinct morphology, myofibrillar development and Ca(2+) dynamics. This fashioned class of biomaterials is suitable for the building blocks of soft actuators in micro-scale biomimetic robotics. This production line strategy can be embraced in reparative medicine as synthetic human myotubes with predetermined morphological/functional properties could be obtained using this very approach. This methodology can be adopted beyond striated muscle for the engineering of other tissue components/cells whose differentiation is governed by the principles of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, as in the case, for example, of neural or immune cell types.

  5. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  6. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  7. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.

  8. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  9. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  10. Litter size variation in hypothalamic gene expression determines adult metabolic phenotype in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10-12 and small (3-4 litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood.

  11. Consumer protection in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pohanková, Martina

    2013-01-01

    In real world, a market functioning is not perfect. Usually, there is one party in a contract that has weaker position than the other one. In a consumer contract it is a consumer who does not have sufficient information and knowledge. In developed countries, a consumer protection is therefore a part of law regulation. The thesis deals with the consumer protection in banking. It focuses on general topics as well as specific topics, such as banking accounts, electronic fund transfers and consum...

  12. Securitization and Bank Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of CDO issuance on the risk of default of banks. Previous literature showed that the overall riskiness of a bank can increase when it sells part of the loans in its portfolio by issuing a CDO of which it retains the equity tranche. Using Monte Carlo simulations, this paper confirms previous results but also highlights that they can change substantially if one modifies the hypothesis regarding how the proceeds of securitizations are reinvested. The assessment of...

  13. International Banking in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Yiallouros, Kristie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the sector of the Cyprus economy that deals with the International Banking or Offshore Banking as otherwise is being called in Cyprus. During the last two decades the island of Cyprus has managed to establish itself as a reputable international financial centre. Therefore the literature review of this paper examines the research theme from two different aspects. First it examines the financial system of Cyprus as related to international ban...

  14. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  15. Debt, Taxes, and Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Keen; Ruud A. de Mooij

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the asymmetric tax treatment of debt and equity on the capital structures of financial institutions is critical to shaping and assessing responses to the problem of excessive leverage that underlay the 2009 financial crisis - but there is no empirical evidence to draw on. Guided by a simple model of banks? financing decisions in the presence of both regulatory constraints and tax asymmetries, this paper explores the impact of corporate tax bias on bank leverage, th...

  16. Corporate governance and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kern

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...

  17. The Banks and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of the banks in supporting sustainable development. Its objective is to examine recent trends in banking and sustainable development, as well as to assess the implementation and application of the sustainable development policies adopted by the banks in the banking sector in Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose it is made a comprehensive analysis on the trends of “sustainable finance”, as well as research on the practices in the Macedonian banking sector in s...

  18. INTERNAL AUDIT APPROACH IN BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU

    2008-01-01

    Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and ...

  19. Public Disclosure and Bank Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...

  20. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  1. Risk Assessment for Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...

  2. Cost leadership and bank internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...

  3. Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole ( Lasiopodomys brandtii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4 ± 1 °C) and warm (23 ± 1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.

  4. [Influence of the phase of the number and demographic structure of the water vole population on its infection by helminthes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechulin, A I; Guliaev, V D; Panov, V V; Krivopalov, A V

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed results of the long-term investigations of the helminthes distribution in the various demography groups of the water vole population (Arvicola terrestris L.) in North Baraba (Novosibirsk region). The data on the dominant parasites of these rodents: trematodes Notocotylus noyeri (Joyeux, 1922), cestodes Limnolepis transfuga Spassky et Merkuscheva, 1967, nematodes Capillaria wioletti Ruchljadeva, 1950, Longistriata minuta (Dujarden, 1845) and Heligmosomum costellatum (Dujarden, 1845) have shown that the number of parasites in biocenosis are connected with different factors, such as the demographic structure of the host population, the alternation of hosts number and conditions of the environment (dry and damp phases of the climatic cycle). In the dry phase the main parasitize load N. noyeri, L. transfuga and C. wioletti connects with the breeding group; in the damp period - with immature rodents. Independently of the phase climatic cycle and the density of the water vole population the great bulk of nematodes L. minuta and H. costellatum was uncovered of the immature individuals. In any case the number of helminthes changed synchronously with such of the its host. PMID:16316057

  5. Prairie vole pups show potentiated isolation-induced vocalizations following isolation from their mother, but not their father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W Theodore; Myers, Michael M; Hofer, Myron A; Shair, Harry N; Welch, Martha G

    2016-09-01

    Vocalizations can be markers of emotional social communication. Maternal potentiation was originally described as an increased rate of vocalization by isolated rat pups following an interaction with their mothers, but not with other social companions. Here we asked if potentiation in prairie voles, a species with pair-bonding and bi-parental rearing, is parent-specific. We found that isolated, 8-11-day-old voles exhibited potentiation following reunions with the dam, but not the sire. These responses were present whether parents were anesthetized or active during the reunion. There were no significant correlations between parental behaviors during reunions and pup vocalization rates during re-isolation. The absence of potentiation to the sire contrasts to findings in bi-parentally reared rat pups, which do potentiate vocalizations to the sire. We interpret these results to be consistent with the idea that potentiation reflects disruption of mother-infant coregulation and is dependent upon the unique biology of mothering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:687-699, 2016. PMID:26990108

  6. How environment and vole behaviour may impact rodenticide bromadiolone persistence in wheat baits after field controls of Arvicola terrestris?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate whether environmental factors affect the persistence of bromadiolone in baits in field treatment. Baits were distributed in three soils according to two types of distribution: (1) artificial galleries conform to agricultural practices; (2) storage cavities to mimic bait storage by voles. Persistence was evaluated for 30 days in galleries and 80 days in storage cavities in autumn and spring. The decrease of bromadiolone concentrations was described by a first-order kinetic model. In galleries, the half-lives ranged from 3.0 to 5.1 days in autumn and from 5.4 to 6.2 days in spring. The half-lives were similar between soils and seasons but the pattern of persistence differed lightly for two soils between seasons. Half-lives in storage cavities, 42.7 and 24.6 days in autumn and spring respectively, were longer than in galleries. To conclude, both soil characteristics and climatic conditions weakly influence persistence, while bait storage lengthens it dramatically. - After field treatment, both soil characteristics and climate conditions influence weakly the persistence of bromadiolone while it is dramatically increased by vole storage of baits

  7. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  8. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  9. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  10. Materials information data bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.E.

    1978-03-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system.

  11. Materials information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system

  12. MANAGING BANK SERVICES QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Mandić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become the basicfactor of economic efficiency and the basicprinciple of business activities of successfulorganizations. Its consequence is revolution in thearea of quality that has comprised all kinds ofproducts and services including the bank servicesas well. To understand the present and future needsof clients and to know how to fulfill and try toexceed their expectations is the task of everyefficient economy. Therefore, the banks in thedeveloped economies try to re-orientateorganizationally, technologically andinformatically their business activities placing theclient in the core of this business activity.Significant indicators of quality services that banksoffer are measured by the time clients wait for theprovision of the desired service and the number ofclients who give up to enter the bank due to thelong waiting for provision of the desired serviceand the number of clients who give up to enter thebank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfiedclient is the worst result of the bank's work andactivity. The great effort is made to improve thequality of services, which means professionalismand communication of personnel with whom theclients come in contact, giving punctual and clearinformation and short waiting period of standing inthe queues. The aim of this paper is to present anddescribe the functioning of the bank system underthe conditions of establishing quality in provision ofservices to clients and to recognize basic guidelinesfor improvement of quality in the work of thebanking sector.

  13. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  14. Identification of novel anelloviruses with broad diversity in UK rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Dutia, Bernadette M; Stewart, James P; Meredith, Anna L; Shaw, Darren J; Simmonds, Peter; Sharp, Colin P

    2014-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a family of small circular ssDNA viruses with a vast genetic diversity. Human infections with the prototype anellovirus, torque teno virus (TTV), are ubiquitous and related viruses have been described in a number of other mammalian hosts. Despite over 15 years of investigation, there is still little known about the pathogenesis and possible disease associations of anellovirus infections, arising in part due to the lack of a robust cell culture system for viral replication or tractable small-animal model. We report the identification of diverse anelloviruses in several species of wild rodents. The viruses are highly prevalent in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (Microtus agrestis), detectable at a low frequency in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), but absent from house mice (Mus musculus). The viruses identified have a genomic organization consistent with other anelloviruses, but form two clear phylogenetic groups that are as distinct from each other as from defined genera.

  15. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  16. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision in the informa......Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision...... Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...

  17. On Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Jarrett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to note the likelihood of continued growth of internet banking and commerce as individual consumers purchase more and more products to access the internet and complete both financial and consumer transactions. The growth is commercial and banking services on-line will grow as long as the hardware producers innovate with new faster and easy to use products. The pitfalls include attacks by savage interventionists who attempt to steal information and prevent end-users from employing the internet for purposes with good intentions. A challenge is made to software and hardware producers to use modern methods and techniques to predict where problems exist in internet banking and commerce. Serious solutions are necessary.

  18. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  19. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  20. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An earlier version of this paper won the Best Paper Award of the Corporate Governance SIG at EURAM. Abstract We construct a comprehensive data set with detailed biographic data on 12,010 board directors working for 740 large banks from 41 countries over the period 2000-2008. The data allow us to create a novel and reliable measure of director independence. We report many new findings. Bank board independence increases rapidly and substantially in the pre-crisis period, peaking at abou...

  1. The Effect of Banks Merger on Electronic Banking Services Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Z. Siam

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study is conducted to present benefits and consequences of latest technology used in banking industries. In addition, it has focused on the dynamics of banking sector, electronic banking services and new courses especially with mergers that constitute most of these mechanisms. Approach: The study discussed this new activity and the extent of response level of services while the need, wants and demands of customers are met. Furthermore, how banks deal with such services...

  2. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks.Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  3. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  4. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... voting shares of Bank of Anderson, National Association, Anderson, South Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank...

  5. Evolution of central banking? De Nederlandsche Bank 1814-1852

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both

  6. Comparative effects of low-level laser therapy pre- and post-injury on mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and IL-6 during the skeletal muscle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Agnelo Neves; Ribeiro, Beatriz Guimarães; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Souza, Nadhia Helena Costa; Rocha, Lília Alves; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the effect of pre-injury and post-injury irradiation with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors and interleukin 6 (IL-6) during the skeletal muscle repair. Male rats were divided into six groups: control group, sham group, LLLT group, injury group; pre-injury LLLT group, and post-injury LLLT group. LLLT was performed with a diode laser (wavelength 780 nm; output power 40 mW' and total energy 3.2 J). Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly onto the belly of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After euthanasia, the TA muscle was removed for the isolation of total RNA and analysis of MyoD, myogenin, and IL-6 using real-time quantitative PCR. Significant increases were found in the expression of MyoD mRNA at 3 and 7 days as well as the expression of myogenin mRNA at 14 days in the post-injury LLLT group in comparison to injury group. A significant reduction was found in the expression of IL-6 mRNA at 3 and 7 days in the pre-injury LLLT and post-injury LLLT groups. A significant increase in IL-6 mRNA was found at 14 days in the post-injury LLLT group in comparison to the injury group. LLLT administered following muscle injury modulates the mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin. Moreover, the both forms of LLLT administration were able to modulate the mRNA expression of IL-6 during the muscle repair process. PMID:26914683

  7. Banking Scandals Force Governance Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spate of recent scandals in the banking sector again raises the question of whether corporate governance in banks has been improved to a degree whereby ESOP is a correct and timely consideration.

  8. Eye Bank Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Your Story – Cornea Recipient What is an Eye Bank? Eye banks recover corneal tissue from donors ... tissue donor! Learn more Register to be an Eye Donor Over 70,000 people received sight-restoring ...

  9. A Banking System in Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ZHIPENG

    2002-01-01

    THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.

  10. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  11. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  12. MODELS OF BANKING RISKS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Banking risks management as a fundamental element of banking management aims at diminishing as much as possible the negative impact of risk factors, at minimizing losses by expenditures cut-off and maximizing direct and transferred influxes, changing the

  13. Chinese Commercial Banks Risk Management Practices: A Research in China Banking Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...

  14. COMPETITIVE ISSUES IN BANKING: THEORETICAL APPROACHES OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Aloshyna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical concepts of bank competitiveness are studied and research approaches to the banking efficiency measurement are overviewed. Empirical models of competition in banking are considered for identifying the key factors of bank competitiveness.

  15. 78 FR 68445 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 76 FR 26728 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 71793 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 49934 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  20. 75 FR 14596 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  1. 76 FR 29751 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 75 FR 43164 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  3. 77 FR 35386 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 76 FR 24489 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 54250 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 75 FR 80051 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 78 FR 14301 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 76 FR 9350 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 35032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 55716 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 75 FR 50764 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  12. 78 FR 46583 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 78 FR 26368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 67362 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 54647 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 75 FR 4394 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  17. 78 FR 20643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 24491 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 43203 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 76 FR 20669 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 2063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 77 FR 28597 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 75 FR 62820 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 75 FR 38524 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  5. 76 FR 45572 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 76 FR 80371 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 75 FR 21628 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  8. 75 FR 20598 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  9. 78 FR 53146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 61960 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 49795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 77 FR 62237 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 78 FR 37541 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 52194 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 77 FR 21561 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 76 FR 14010 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 53887 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 63832 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 5442 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 76 FR 53474 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 76 FR 8739 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 77 FR 55214 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 77 FR 74482 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 76 FR 65727 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 75 FR 60125 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  7. 77 FR 48983 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 76 FR 42127 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 76 FR 20986 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 75 FR 19974 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  11. 78 FR 44953 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 76 FR 63620 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 77 FR 14015 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 75 FR 13762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  16. 77 FR 67816 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 78 FR 35930 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 78 FR 36189 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 28616 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  20. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 67365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 75 FR 65631 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 9917 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 76 FR 28435 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 29643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 75 FR 66762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 ] CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 77 FR 31855 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 77 FR 29347 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 77 FR 40058 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  10. 77 FR 4560 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 75 FR 70004 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 76 FR 21367 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 76 FR 38178 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 59689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 2273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 77 FR 14368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 78 FR 68073 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 78 FR 70300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 76 FR 41259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 50056 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 78 FR 23565 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  2. 77 FR 69454 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 37222 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 77 FR 12584 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 22879 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 77 FR 26280 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 75 FR 65484 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 75 FR 1621 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  10. 75 FR 78705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 42312 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  13. 77 FR 32637 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 25273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 78357 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 77 FR 56209 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 78 FR 75349 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 78 FR 31549 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 33093 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 24747 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 78 FR 3897 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 75 FR 63183 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 49268 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 53457 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 78 FR 97 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 78 FR 41929 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 51726 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 38978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 62301 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 3425 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  13. Banking Crises and Financial Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores whether the level of financial integration of banks in a country increases the incidence of systemic banking crises. The paper uses a de facto proxy for financial integration based on network statistics of banks participating in the global market of interbank syndicated loans. Specifically, the network statistics degree and betweenness are used to proxy for the de facto integration of the average bank in a country. The paper fits a count data model in the cross-section for...

  14. Energy-measuring resistor bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anthony M.; Kelley, Paul R.; Jones, William K.; Fuk, Masatoshi

    1994-08-01

    A resistor bank consisting of a group of resistors formed on the surface of a die, all electrically connected together in parallel. All of the resistors have identical individual resistances, but each has a unique energy dissipating capacity. When an event subjects the resistor bank to a surge of current, some of the resistors blow out, thereby changing the resistance of the bank. By measuring the resistance of the bank before and after an event the energy of the surge can be determined.

  15. One Bank,Two Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC),the only non-listed bank among China’s"big four"state-owned commercial banks,is currently un- der the glare of the reform spotlight.This follows on the heals of Premier Wen Jiabao’s announcement during his government work report in March, that a shareholding system will be introduced in the bank and its role in serving agriculture,farmers and rural areas will remain unchanged.

  16. Career Concerns of Banking Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...

  17. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Simpson Prescott

    2004-01-01

    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  18. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  19. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  20. The Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  1. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  2. Islamic economics, banking and finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dastgir, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    The normal operations of commercial banks in Western economies do not conform to the religious requirements of the Islamic faith. In this article, Shabbir Dastgir explores the differences and outlines how the worldwide industry in Islamic banking has developed new banking practices.

  3. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  4. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less ...

  5. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a e...

  6. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  7. Sheep grazing causes shift in sex ratio and cohort structure of Brandt's vole: Implication of their adaptation to food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Hou, Xianglei; Wan, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been demonstrated to affect the population abundance of small rodents in grasslands, but the causative mechanism of grazing on demographic parameters, particularly the age structure and sex ratio, is rarely investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of sheep grazing on the cohort structure and sex ratio of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) in Inner Mongolia of China by using large manipulative experimental enclosures during 2010-2013. Our results indicated that sheep grazing significantly decreased the proportion of the spring-born cohort, but increased the proportion of the summer-born cohort. Grazing increased the proportion of males in both spring and summer cohorts. In addition, we found a negative relation between population density and the proportion of the overwinter cohort. Our results suggest that a shift in the cohort structure and the sex ratio may be an important strategy for small rodents to adapt to changes in food resources resulting from livestock grazing.

  8. Post-Hoc Pattern-Oriented Testing and Tuning of an Existing Large Model: Lessons from the Field Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalkvist, Trine; Grimm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    develop an existing agent-based model of the field vole (Microtus agrestis), which was developed and tested within the ALMaSS framework. This framework is complex because it includes a high-resolution representation of the landscape and its dynamics, of the individual’s behavior, and of the interaction......Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used...... for developing new models and for models of low to moderate complexity. It remains unclear, though, whether the basic idea of POM to utilize multiple patterns could also be used to test and possibly develop existing and established models of high complexity. Here, we use POM to test, calibrate, and further...

  9. Contribution of Internet Banking toward Profitability of Banking in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karimzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.

  10. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution...

  11. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  12. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers may... seq., or to a trust for the benefit of all shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks...

  13. Are Chinese Banks Ready for Foreigners?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Banking reform is crucial to China, as banks dominate the country's financial system. The banking sector is dominated by four state-owned commercial banks-the ICBC, the CCB, the BOC, and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC). The listing of the Bank of Communications (BOCOM), China's fifth

  14. Vole and lemming activity observed from space: trophic cascade driven interannual vegetation cycles at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, J.; Tömmervik, H.; Callaghan, T.

    2011-12-01

    Present global warming requires an understanding of the factors controlling plant biomass and production. The extent to which plant biomass and production is controlled by bottom-up drivers like climate, nutrient and water availability and by top down drivers like herbivory and diseases in terrestrial systems is still under debate. By annually recording plant biomass and community composition in grazed control plots and in herbivore-free exclosures, at twelve sites in a subarctic ecosystem, we were able to show that the regular interannual density fluctuations of voles and lemmings drive synchronous interannual fluctuations in biomass of ground and field layer vegetation (Fig. 1). The effect of the rodents on the vegetation is so strong that it can be detected in fluctuations of NDVI estimates from satellite images of a 20km2 area of tundra heathland. Plant biomass in the field layer was between 9 and 23% lower and NDVI was between 1 % and 25 % lower, the year after a vole peak than the year before. The synchronous decline of most dominant shrub species in the winter following an autumn rodent peak drives the fluctuations in total plant biomass. That the rodent cycles are detectable from satellite images, despite the wide range of abiotic, biotic and antropogenic forces that influence the vegetation, shows that the effects of rodents are strong enough to influence how primary production, carbon storage and biodiversity will respond to ongoing and future climate change. Changes of the rodent cycle may thus cause cascading changes of ecosystem functioning in a changing climate.

  15. Comparative Study on the Banking Performances at BCR ERSTE BANK, BRD – GSG and Raiffeisen Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MITITELU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a comparison between the performances of three banks in the banking system in Romania, considered the most representative but also to achieve their classifications and identify correlations between a number of used indicators and indicators expressing banking performance.

  16. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  17. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  18. Contemporary radiation doses to mice and voles inhabiting East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Starichenko, Vera I.; Chibiryak, Mikhail V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, 202, 8 Marta St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is the radioactively contaminated territory formed after accidental explosion at nuclear waste storage facility of Mayak nuclear plant in 1957. Contemporary doses were estimated for the mice and voles, that were trapped by staff of IPAE at two sites in 2000-s. The site 1 is situated directly close to the territory of the plant. Contemporary surface {sup 90}Sr contamination is 24-40 MBq/m{sup 2}. The site 2 is located as far as 6 km to the north-east from the site 1 (3.1-8.1 MBq/m{sup 2}). Fifty years after accident long-lived {sup 90}Sr is most significant contributor to terrestrial animal's exposure. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr was measured utilising developed nondestructive method of bone beta-radiometry. To estimate radiation doses the strontium biokinetic model and dosimetric model for mouse-like rodent were designed. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr for animals trapped at site 1: 44-1249 Bq/g, mean 592 Bq/g; at site 2: 4-124 Bq/g, mean 32 Bq/g. Following parameters were selected as indicators of exposure: whole body dose (WBD) accumulated during 45 days, skeletal dose accumulated during 45 days and WBD rate on the last day before trapping. As can be seen in the table, there is a full agreement of the radiation dose and the level of surface contamination. For the animals inhabiting the most contaminated site mean WBD rate is close to 1 mGy/day. It can be reliably concluded that considering both internal and external exposures the dose rate exceeds 1 mGr/day in average. Publication 108 ICRP suggests derived consideration reference level (DCRL) for small mammals in a range 0.1-1 mGy/day. Thus in the most contaminated part of the EURT WBD rate exceeds the upper limit of the DCRL. Radiation doses on the second site are significantly lower. Mean WBD rate is below 0.1 mGy/day. At the same time, the WBD rate exceeds 0.1 mGy/day (lower limit of the DCRL) for approximately 40 % of animals from the

  19. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  20. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... bank directors and size of bank board. (a) Staggered terms. Any national bank may adopt bylaws that... bylaws so amended. (b) Maximum term. Any national bank director may hold office for a term that does...

  1. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI, dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini menunjukkan bahwa DPK, NPF, dan Bonus SWBI berpengaruh secara simultan terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 99,2% dan sisanya 0,8%  dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial DPK berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 98,65%, sedangkan NPF dan Bonus SWBI tidak signifikan berpengaruh secara parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  2. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?

  3. INFORMATION FROM THE BANK

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS

  4. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  5. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  6. Crowdfunding: disintermediated investment banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinton, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent agents operate in a dynamic, discrete setting. Potential investors d...

  7. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  8. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  9. Filter Bank Fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...

  10. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  11. Olfactory experience affects the response of meadow voles to the opposite-sex scent donor of mixed-sex over-marks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferkin, Michael H.; Ferkin, Daniel A.; Ferkin, Benjamin D.; Vlautin, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    Scent marking and over-marking are important forms of communication between the sexes for many terrestrial mammals. Over the course of three experiments, we determined whether the amount of time individuals investigate the scent marks of opposite-sex conspecifics is affected by four days of olfactory experience with those conspecifics. In experiment 1, female meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, spent more time investigating the scent mark of the novel male conspecific than that of the fami...

  12. Neonatal melanocortin receptor agonist treatment reduces play fighting and promotes adult attachment in prairie voles in a sex-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Catherine E.; Modi, Meera E.; Zhang, Billy C.; Walum, Hasse; Inuoe, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) system has been studied extensively for its role in feeding and sexual behavior, but effects on social behavior have received little attention. α-MSH interacts with neural systems involved in sociality, including oxytocin, dopamine, and opioid systems. Acute melanotan-II (MTII), an MC3/4R agonist, potentiates brain oxytocin (OT) release and facilitates OT-dependent partner preference formation in socially monogamous prairie voles. Here we examined the long-term...

  13. Increased Feeding and Food Hoarding following Food Deprivation Are Associated with Activation of Dopamine and Orexin Neurons in Male Brandt's Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Ying Zhang; Hui-Di Yang; Qiang Zhang; Zuoxin Wang; De-Hua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Small mammals usually face energetic challenges, such as food shortage, in the field. They have thus evolved species-specific adaptive strategies for survival and reproductive success. In the present study, we examined male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) for their physiological, behavioral, and neuronal responses to food deprivation (FD) and subsequent re-feeding. Although 48 hr FD induced a decrease in body weight and the resting metabolic rate (RMR), such decreases did not reach sta...

  14. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  15. Internet Banking and the question of Bank Run: lesson from the Northern Rock Bank case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Janson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The subprime crisis triggered a series of bankruptcies and bank runs at a level never experienced since the Great Depression. The banking environment radically changed since the 1930’s, in particular the development of infor mation technology decreases considerably the cost of information. Furthermore internet banking increases severely the speed at which the demand for withdrawals are addressed to troubled banks. In the past demand for withdrawals could be slow down by fact t hat depositors had to physically « queue » and by the existence of opening hours of banks branches. Given these new circumstances a liquidity shortage may have an even more severe consequence on a bank since the delay between the « bad news » and the bank run can shorten dramatically. Indeed the Northern Rock Bank case in Great Britain illustrates that situation where a bank unable to borrow from its peers in the interbank market is within few hours ran by its depositors. The aim of the paper is to analyze the consequences of the major instability introduced by internet banking on the bank’s ability to manage a liquidity crisis and an opportunity to discuss further the so - called “endemic instability” of the fractional reserve banking system

  16. Deciphering bartonella diversity, recombination, and host specificity in a rodent community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Buffet

    Full Text Available Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.

  17. Mycobacterium microti tuberculosis in its maintenance host, the field vole (Microtus agrestis): characterization of the disease and possible routes of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Burthe, S J; Hetzel, U; Rokia, M Abo; Telfer, S; Lambin, X; Birtles, R J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2014-09-01

    The field vole (Microtus agrestis) is a known maintenance host of Mycobacterium microti. Previous studies have shown that infected animals develop tuberculosis. However, the disease is also known in cats and is sporadically reported from humans and other mammalian species. We examined trapped field voles from an endemic area, using a range of diagnostic approaches. These confirmed that a combination of gross and histological examination with culture is most appropriate to identify the true prevalence of the disease, which was shown to be more than 13% at times when older animals that have previously been shown to be more likely to develop the disease dominate the population. The thorough pathological examination of diseased animals showed that voles generally develop systemic disease with most frequent involvement of spleen and liver, followed by skin, lymph nodes, and lungs. The morphology of the lesions was consistent with active disease, and their distribution suggested skin wounds or oral and/or aerogenic infection as the main portal of entry. The demonstration of mycobacteria in open skin lesions, airways, and salivary glands indicated bacterial shedding from the skin and with sputum and saliva. This suggests not only the environment but also direct contact and devouring as likely sources of infection.

  18. Is it safe? Voles in an unfamiliar dark open-field divert from optimal security by abandoning a familiar shelter and not visiting a central start point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2010-01-01

    Open-field behavior is a common tool in studying exploration and navigation, as well as emotions and motivations. However, it has been suggested that this behavior might be parsimoniously interpreted as directed to optimize security, with no need to interpret the animal's mental state. This latter view was challenged here by providing voles with presumably sense of optimal security. For this, voles were introduced into a dark open-field inside a familiar shelter in which they previously lived in their home cage. Voles then emerged either to locomote only in the vicinity of the shelter, or to travel further out to explore the entire arena and only later to return to the shelter. While their staying near the shelter confirms the notion of optimizing security, their traveling further out along the perimeter negates this notion. This divergence of behavior under the same security conditions illustrates that open-field behavior, which is a multi-faceted and dynamic process, is also affected by an emotional component. That is, safety is a subjective emotional state dictated by various inputs and, therefore, the resulting dynamic behavior, which is the ultimate output of the central nervous system, may vary beyond the possibility of being parsimoniously interpreted by only one factor. In a similar vein, we show that the impact of the start point on the paths of locomotion is not an intrinsic property of that point, but depends on its physical location. PMID:19744526

  19. Strategic positioning in banking industry: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Mashoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.

  20. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....