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Sample records for bank vole myodes

  1. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

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    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  2. Adaptive evolution during an ongoing range expansion: the invasive bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland.

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    White, Thomas A; Perkins, Sarah E; Heckel, Gerald; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-06-01

    Range expansions are extremely common, but have only recently begun to attract attention in terms of their genetic consequences. As populations expand, demes at the wave front experience strong genetic drift, which is expected to reduce genetic diversity and potentially cause 'allele surfing', where alleles may become fixed over a wide geographical area even if their effects are deleterious. Previous simulation models show that range expansions can generate very strong selective gradients on dispersal, reproduction, competition and immunity. To investigate the effects of range expansion on genetic diversity and adaptation, we studied the population genomics of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. The bank vole was likely introduced in the late 1920s and is expanding its range at a rate of ~2.5 km/year. Using genotyping-by-sequencing, we genotyped 281 bank voles at 5979 SNP loci. Fourteen sample sites were arranged in three transects running from the introduction site to the wave front of the expansion. We found significant declines in genetic diversity along all three transects. However, there was no evidence that sites at the wave front had accumulated more deleterious mutations. We looked for outlier loci with strong correlations between allele frequency and distance from the introduction site, where the direction of correlation was the same in all three transects. Amongst these outliers, we found significant enrichment for genic SNPs, suggesting the action of selection. Candidates for selection included several genes with immunological functions and several genes that could influence behaviour.

  3. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

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    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings.

  4. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a complete population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus.

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    Maria Razzauti

    Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.

  5. Selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

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    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  6. Selective Predation of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  7. Interspecific relations of parasites of bank vole Myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780

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    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Adaptation to coexistence had a tendency to the balancing of a pathogenic action of a parasite complex with an immunophysiological status of the host. The observed frequency distribution of the number of parasites in the bank vole complies with a lognormal distribution (Fig. 1. The analysis of co-occurrence of bank vole parasites showed that the presence or absence of one parasite in the host does not affect the presence of another. The results on the co-occurrence of parasites indicate that they don’t influence each other negatively (Table 1. Correlation of abundance in the concurrent infections were statistically reliable (p<0.05 for 6 of 55 examined parasite pairs. There were H. glareoly – I. trianguliceps (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.21, I. persulcatus - Hi. isabellinus (0.12, I. persulcatus – Ct. uncinatus (0.35, Hg. nidi - E. stabularis (0.13, E. stabularis - M. rectangulatus (0.25, M. rectangulatus - P. silvatici (0.52. All significant associations were positive (Table 2–4. It might be explained by the similar requirements of the parasites to the conditions of their habitat.

  8. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus as zoomonitors of environmental contamination at a polluted area in Slovakia

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    Jančová Alena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living wild rodents are often used as zoomonitors of environmental contamination. In the present study, accumulation of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn in critical organs of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus trapped in a polluted area in Nováky, Slovakia was investigated. Methods Yellow-necked mice (n = 8 and bank voles (n = 10 were collected using standard theriological methods for wood ecosystems. All animals were adult males in good physical condition. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the liver, kidney, and bone were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of both species while Cu and Fe accumulated mainly in kidney or liver. Significant higher concentrations of Cd and Cu were detected in the liver of bank voles than in yellow-necked mice. Similar significant higher levels of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of bank voles. In contrast, significant higher concentrations of Cu and Fe were present in the kidney of yellow-necked mice. Conclusions In the yellow-necked mouse and bank vole, bone seems to accumulate Cd and Zn following prolonged exposure. On the contrary, kidney and liver store Cu and Fe after a long-term environmental exposure. In the present study, bank voles seemed to be more heavy metal loaded zoomonitors than yellow-necked mice.

  9. Heart transcriptome of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus: towards understanding the evolutionary variation in metabolic rate

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    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive changes has been a major goal of evolutionary biology. In complex organisms without sequenced genomes, de novo transcriptome assembly using a longer read sequencing technology followed by expression profiling using short reads is likely to provide comprehensive identification of adaptive variation at the expression level and sequence polymorphisms in coding regions. We performed sequencing and de novo assembly of the bank vole heart transcriptome in lines selected for high metabolism and unselected controls. Results A single 454 Titanium run produced over million reads, which were assembled into 63,581 contigs. Searches against the SwissProt protein database and the ENSEMBL collection of mouse transcripts detected similarity to 11,181 and 14,051 genes, respectively. As judged by the representation of genes from the heart-related Gene Ontology categories and UniGenes detected in the mouse heart, our detection of the genes expressed in the heart was nearly complete (> 95% and almost 90% respectively. On average, 38.7% of the transcript length was covered by our sequences, with notably higher (45.0% coverage of coding regions than of untranslated regions (24.5% of 5' and 32.7% of 3'UTRs. Lower sequence conservation between mouse and bank vole in untranslated regions was found to be partially responsible for poorer UTR representation. Our data might suggest a widespread transcription from noncoding genomic regions, a finding not reported in previous studies regarding transcriptomes in non-model organisms. We also identified over 19 thousand putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A much higher fraction of the SNPs than expected by chance exhibited variant frequency differences between selection regimes. Conclusion Longer reads and higher sequence yield per run provided by the 454 Titanium technology in comparison to earlier generations of pyrosequencing proved beneficial for the

  10. Female host sex-biased parasitism with the rodent stomach nematode Mastophorus muris in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

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    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-02-01

    Abundance and prevalence of helminth infections often differ between host sexes, and are usually biased in favor of males. Relatively few cases of female-biased parasitism have been reported. We sampled bank voles in three woodland sites in N.E. Poland over 11 years at 3-4-year intervals, and assessed their parasite burdens. Prevalence and abundance of the stomach nematode Mastophorus muris were consistently higher among females. Among adult female bank voles from the two sites that showed the highest prevalence with M. muris, both prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in lactating bank voles, but not pregnant animals, and the effect of lactation was evident in both sites, in all four surveys, and in both age classes. Although the magnitude of the effect of lactation varied between years, it was not confounded by any significant interactions with other factors. We hypothesize that mature and reproductively active female bank voles are subject to higher exposure compared with males of similar age, as a consequence of the increased content of invertebrates in their diet, including the intermediate hosts of M. muris, required to meet the higher increased energy and protein demands of nursing litters throughout the summer months.

  11. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in the haemoparasite community of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

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    Bajer, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2014-08-01

    Long-term field studies on parasite communities are rare but provide a powerful insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes shaping host-parasite interactions. The aim of our study was to identify the principal factors regulating long-term trends in the haemoparasite communities of bank voles, and to this end, we sampled three semi-isolated populations of bank voles (n = 880) in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010 in the Mazury lake district region of NE Poland. Overall, 90.8 % of the bank voles harboured at least one of the species of haemoparasites studied. Whilst overall prevalence (all species combined) did not vary significantly between the surveys, different temporal changes were detected among voles in each of the three sites. In voles from Urwitałt, prevalence increased consistently with successive surveys, whereas in Tałty, the peak years were 2002 and 2006, and in Pilchy, prevalence oscillated without a clear pattern. Across the study, bank voles harboured a mean of 1.75 ± 0.034 haemoparasite species, and species richness remained stable with no significant between-year fluctuations or trends. However, each of the five constituent species/genera showed a different pattern of spatio-temporal changes. The overall prevalence of Babesia microti was 4.9 %, but this varied significantly between years peaking in 2006 and declining again by 2010. For Bartonella spp., overall prevalence was 38.7 %, and this varied with year of study, but the temporal pattern of changes differed among the three sites. The overall prevalence of Haemobartonella (Mycoplasma) was 68.3 % with an increase in prevalence with year of study in all three sites. Hepatozoon erhardovae had an overall prevalence of 46.8 % but showed a marked reduction with each successive year of the study, and this was consistent in all three sites. The overall prevalence of Trypanosoma evotomys was 15.4 % varying significantly between sites, but showing temporal stability. While overall prevalence

  12. Accumulation of point mutations and reassortment of genomic RNA segments are involved in the microevolution of Puumala hantavirus in a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) population.

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    Razzauti, Maria; Plyusnina, Angelina; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) was studied in a local population of its natural host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). The trapping area (2.5 x 2.5 km) at Konnevesi, Central Finland, included 14 trapping sites, at least 500 m apart; altogether, 147 voles were captured during May and October 2005. Partial sequences of the S, M and L viral genome segments were recovered from 40 animals. Seven, 12 and 17 variants were detected for the S, M and L sequences, respectively; these represent new wild-type PUUV strains that belong to the Finnish genetic lineage. The genetic diversity of PUUV strains from Konnevesi was 0.2-4.9 % for the S segment, 0.2-4.8 % for the M segment and 0.2-9.7 % for the L segment. Most nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and most deduced amino acid substitutions were conservative, probably due to strong stabilizing selection operating at the protein level. Based on both sequence markers and phylogenetic clustering, the S, M and L sequences could be assigned to two groups, 'A' and 'B'. Notably, not all bank voles carried S, M and L sequences belonging to the same group, i.e. S(A)M(A)L(A) or S(B)M(B)L(B). A substantial proportion (8/40, 20 %) of the newly characterized PUUV strains possessed reassortant genomes such as S(B)M(A)L(A), S(A)M(B)L(B) or S(B)M(A)L(B). These results suggest that at least some of the PUUV reassortants are viable and can survive in the presence of their parental strains.

  13. Effects of an MHC-DRB genotype and allele number on the load of gut parasites in the bank vole Myodes glareolus.

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    Kloch, Agnieszka; Babik, Wiesław; Bajer, Anna; Siński, Edward; Radwan, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for the proteins responsible for pathogen recognition. The MHC class II DRB gene is multiplicated in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus, with different numbers of loci found in different individuals. Possessing large numbers of loci should increase the probability of pathogen recognition, but according to the optimality hypothesis, there is a cost of possessing too many MHC alleles. Using 454 technology, we determined the individual DRB allelic diversity and related it to the load of intestinal parasites in voles collected from three sites separated by a distance of 12 to 27 km. The analysis of six microsatellite loci revealed significant population structure (F(ST) = 0.07). The sites differed significantly in the prevalence and abundance of nematode species as well. We found two significant associations between MHC alleles and the intensity of the infection with the most prevalent nematode, Aspiculuris tetraptera. One of these associations was population-specific. This result suggests that the directions of selection can differ between populations connected by a low level of gene flow, which may contribute to the maintenance of high DRB allele diversity. In accordance with the optimality hypothesis, individuals with an intermediate number of alleles carried the lowest number of nematode species and had the lowest prevalence of A. tetraptera. However, the intensity of infection with A. tetraptera was linearly and negatively associated with the number of alleles.

  14. Bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and house mice (Mus musculus musculus; M. m. domesticus) in Europe are each parasitized by their own distinct species of Aspiculuris (Nematoda, Oxyurida).

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    Behnke, J M; Stewart, A; Bajer, A; Grzybek, M; Harris, P D; Lowe, A; Ribas, A; Smales, L; Vandegrift, K J

    2015-10-01

    The molecular phylogeny and morphology of the oxyuroid nematode genus Aspiculuris from voles and house mice has been examined. Worms collected from Myodes glareolus in Poland, Eire and the UK are identified as Aspiculuris tianjinensis, previously known only from China, while worms from Mus musculus from a range of locations in Europe and from laboratory mice, all conformed to the description of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Worms from voles and house mice are not closely related and are not derived from each other, with A. tianjinensis being most closely related to Aspiculuris dinniki from snow voles and to an isolate from Microtus longicaudus in the Nearctic. Both A. tianjinensis and A. tetraptera appear to represent recent radiations within their host groups; in voles, this radiation cannot be more than 2 million years old, while in commensal house mice it is likely to be less than 10,000 years old. The potential of Aspiculuris spp. as markers of host evolution is highlighted.

  15. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

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    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems.

  16. Puumala Virus in Bank Voles, Lithuania

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    Straková, Petra; Jagdmann, Sandra; Balčiauskas, Linas; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Drewes, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the presence of human pathogenic Puumala virus (PUUV) in Lithuania. We detected this virus in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in a region of this country in which previously PUUV-seropositive humans were identified. Our results are consistent with heterogeneous distributions of PUUV in other countries in Europe. PMID:27983939

  17. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C;

    2008-01-01

    regard the combination of a dilution effect, a possible threshold density that depends on local conditions, and a higher fragmentation of suitable bank vole habitat in our study area as plausible explanations for the sparse occurrence of PUUV infection and low prevalence detected. Thus, beside human...... habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small...

  18. Ecological Niche Modelling of Bank Voles in Western Europe

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    Sara Amirpour Haredasht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bank vole (Myodes glareolus is the natural host of Puumala virus (PUUV in vast areas of Europe. PUUV is one of the hantaviruses which are transmitted to humans by infected rodents. PUUV causes a general mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS called nephropathia epidemica (NE. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover influences disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, as well as by facilitating the human contact with them. In this study the use of ecological niche modelling (ENM for predicting the geographical distribution of bank vole population on the basis of spatial climate information is tested. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP is used to model the ecological niche of bank voles in Western Europe. The meteorological data, land cover types and geo-referenced points representing the locations of the bank voles (latitude/longitude in the study area are used as the primary model input value. The predictive accuracy of the bank vole ecologic niche model was significant (training accuracy of 86%. The output of the GARP models based on the 50% subsets of points used for testing the model showed an accuracy of 75%. Compared with random models, the probability of such high predictivity was low (χ2 tests, p < 10−6. As such, the GARP models were predictive and the used ecologic niche model indeed indicates the ecologic requirements of bank voles. This approach successfully identified the areas of infection risk across the study area. The result suggests that the niche modelling approach can be implemented in a next step towards the development of new tools for monitoring the bank vole’s population.

  19. Kinship, dispersal and hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles.

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    Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Galan, M; Gauffre, B; Morand, S; Henttonen, H; Laakkonen, J; Voutilainen, L; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the main emerging infectious agents in Europe. Their mode of transmission in natura is still not well known. In particular, social features and behaviours could be crucial for understanding the persistence and the spread of hantaviruses in rodent populations. Here, we investigated the importance of kinclustering and dispersal in hantavirus transmission by combining a fine-scale spatiotemporal survey (4 km2) and a population genetics approach. Two specific host-hantavirus systems were identified and monitored: the bank vole Myodes, earlier Clethrionomys glareolus--Puumala virus and the common vole Microtus arvalis--Tula virus. Sex, age and landscape characteristics significantly influenced the spatial distribution of infections in voles. The absence of temporal stability in the spatial distributions of viruses suggested that dispersal is likely to play a role in virus propagation. Analysing vole kinship from microsatellite markers, we found that infected voles were more closely related to each other than non-infected ones. Winter kin-clustering, shared colonies within matrilineages or delayed dispersal could explain this pattern. These two last results hold, whatever the host-hantavirus system considered. This supports the roles of relatedness and dispersal as general features for hantavirus transmission.

  20. Laboratory model of adaptive radiation: a selection experiment in the bank vole.

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    Sadowska, Edyta T; Baliga-Klimczyk, Katarzyna; Chrzaścik, Katarzyna M; Koteja, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    In a laboratory colony of a wild rodent, the bank vole Myodes (=Clethrionomys) glareolus, a multiway artificial selection experiment was applied to mimic evolution toward high aerobic metabolism achieved during locomotor activity, predatory behavior, and ability to cope with herbivorous diet. Four lines for each of the selection directions and four unselected control lines have been maintained. After three generations of within-family selection, the maximum rate of oxygen consumption achieved during swimming was 15% higher in the selected than in the control lines (least square means, adjusted for body mass: 252.0 vs. 218.6 mL O(2)/h, P = 0.0001). When fed a low-quality diet made of dried grass, voles from the lines selected for ability to cope with herbivorous diet lost about 0.7 g less mass than voles from the control lines (-2.44 vs. -3.16 g/4 d, P = 0.008). In lines selected for predatory behavior toward crickets, proportion of "predatory" individuals was higher than in the control lines (43.6% vs. 24.9%; P = 0.045), but "time to capture" calculated for the successful trials did not differ between the lines. The experiment continues, and the selected lines of voles will provide a unique model for testing hypotheses concerning correlated evolution of complex traits.

  1. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXIII. Does heat dissipation capacity limit the energy budget of lactating bank voles?

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    Sadowska, Edyta T; Król, Elżbieta; Chrzascik, Katarzyna M; Rudolf, Agata M; Speakman, John R; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors limiting sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) is a central issue in ecological physiology. According to the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory, the SusMR at peak lactation is constrained by the maternal capacity to dissipate body heat. To test that theory, we shaved lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) to experimentally elevate their capacity for heat dissipation. The voles were sampled from lines selected for high aerobic exercise metabolism (A; characterized also by increased basal metabolic rate) and unselected control lines (C). Fur removal significantly increased the peak-lactation food intake (mass-adjusted least square means ± s.e.; shaved: 16.3 ± 0.3 g day(-1), unshaved: 14.4 ± 0.2 g day(-1); Plines. Thus, the experimental evolution model did not reveal a difference in the limiting mechanism between animals with inherently different metabolic rates.

  2. Stimulation of serotonin (5-HT) activity reduces spontaneous stereotypies in female but not in male bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) Stereotyping female voles as a new animal model for human anxiety and mood disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønecker, Bryan; Heller, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders......Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders...

  3. The importance of bank vole density and rainy winters in predicting nephropathia epidemica incidence in Northern Sweden.

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    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hjertqvist, Marika; Magnusson, Magnus; Löfvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are rodent-borne viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe, there are more than 10,000 yearly cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV). The common and widely distributed bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the host of PUUV. In this study, we aim to explain and predict NE incidence in boreal Sweden using bank vole densities. We tested whether the number of rainy days in winter contributed to variation in NE incidence. We forecast NE incidence in July 2013-June 2014 using projected autumn vole density, and then considering two climatic scenarios: 1) rain-free winter and 2) winter with many rainy days. Autumn vole density was a strong explanatory variable of NE incidence in boreal Sweden in 1990-2012 (R2 = 79%, p<0.001). Adding the number of rainy winter days improved the model (R2 = 84%, p<0.05). We report for the first time that risk of NE is higher in winters with many rainy days. Rain on snow and ground icing may block vole access to subnivean space. Seeking refuge from adverse conditions and shelter from predators, voles may infest buildings, increasing infection risk. In a rainy winter scenario, we predicted 812 NE cases in boreal Sweden, triple the number of cases predicted in a rain-free winter in 2013/2014. Our model enables identification of high risk years when preparedness in the public health sector is crucial, as a rainy winter would accentuate risk.

  4. Is reproduction costly? No increase of oxidative damage in breeding bank voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Chrzaácik, Katarzyna M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł; Taylor, Jan R E

    2012-06-01

    According to life-history theory, investment in reproduction is associated with costs, which should appear as decreased survival to the next reproduction or lower future reproductive success. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may be the proximate mechanism of these trade-offs. Despite numerous studies of the defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reproduction, very little is known about the damage caused by ROS to the tissues of wild breeding animals. We measured oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in breeding bank vole (Myodes glareolus) females after rearing one and two litters, and in non-breeding females. We used bank voles from lines selected for high maximum aerobic metabolic rates (which also had high resting metabolic rates and food intake) and non-selected control lines. The oxidative damage was determined in heart, kidneys and skeletal muscles by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, as markers of lipid peroxidation, and carbonyl groups in proteins, as markers of protein oxidation. Surprisingly, we found that the oxidative damage to lipids in kidneys and muscles was actually lower in breeding than in non-breeding voles, and it did not differ between animals from the selected and control lines. Thus, contrary to our predictions, females that bred suffered lower levels of oxidative stress than those that did not reproduce. Elevated production of antioxidant enzymes and the protective role of sex hormones may explain the results. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that oxidative damage to tissues is the proximate mechanism of reproduction costs.

  5. Co-infection of Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. in bank voles from a suburban forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Marsot, Maud; Vaumourin, Elise; Gasqui, Patrick; Masséglia, Sébastien; Marcheteau, Elie; Huet, Dominique; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Halos, Lénaïg; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-12-01

    We report the molecular detection of Borrelia afzelii (11%) and Bartonella spp. (56%) in 447 bank voles trapped in a suburban forest in France. Adult voles were infected by significantly more Borrelia afzelii than juveniles (pBartonella spp. between young and adult individuals (p=0.914). Six percent of the animals were co-infected by both bacteria. Analysis of the bank vole carrier status for either pathogen indicated that co-infections occur randomly (p=0.94, CI(95)=[0.53; 1.47]). Sequence analysis revealed that bank voles were infected by a single genotype of Borrelia afzelii and by 32 different Bartonella spp. genotypes, related to three known species specific to rodents (B. taylorii, B. grahamii and B. doshiae) and also two as yet unidentified Bartonella species. Our findings confirm that rodents harbor high levels of potential human pathogens; therefore, widespread surveillance should be undertaken in areas where humans may encounter rodents.

  6. Revision of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 (Mammalia, Rodentia distribution in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m. On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.

  7. Time series analysis performed on nephropathia epidemica in humans of northern Sweden in relation to bank vole population dynamic and the NAO index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, R Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Time series analysis was performed on two data series of human nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in northern Sweden between the years 1959-1975 and 1985-2006. The analysis confirms that the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), the main reservoir species, shows regular peaks in population density approximately every fourth year. The periodicity in NE cases of the more recent time period (1985-2006) is 2.8-3.3 years and the older period shows a periodicity ranging 3.4-4.2 years, but this is not significantly different from that expected by vole dynamics. A comparison of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index between the two periods reveals higher mean winter NAO index in the period 1985-2006 than in 1959-1975. No difference was found in frequency of the NAO index between the older period (2.8-3.4 years) compared with the recent period (2.4-2.8 years). Cross-correlation revealed a delayed effect by NAO index on vole abundance but a multivariate model showed that NAO index did not explain the variation in NE cases. Vole index was the only factor that contributed significantly to the variation in numbers of NE cases and that no climate effect could be detected. The climate signal from NAO index does not appear to significantly affect the human NE cases and this suggests that the transmission of disease to man is not particularly sensitive to variations in weather factors. The results favour the hypothesis that higher NAO index will not increase the likelihood of virus transmission from voles to man in northern Sweden under present climatic conditions.

  8. Dioxin exposure in contaminated sawmill area: the use of molar teeth and bone of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and field vole (Microtus agrestis) as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtomaa, Mari; Tervaniemi, Olli-Matti; Parviainen, Juha; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Tuukkanen, Juha; Viluksela, Matti

    2007-06-01

    Developmental disorders of teeth are among the most sensitive targets of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan (PCDD/F) exposure. In rats, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces dose-dependently the size of molars, most severely the third lower molars. Dioxins also have effects on developing bone, including altered bone mineral density as well as reduced bending breaking force and stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the third lower molar and long bones as biomarkers of PCDD/F exposure in two wild vole species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the field vole (Microtus agrestis) collected from a PCDD/F contaminated former sawmill area. Survey of soil and biota of the sawmill area indicated a PCDD/F contamination with a congener profile characteristic for the chlorophenol wood preservative Ky-5. The PCDD/F concentration in the bank vole was notably higher than in the field vole. The third molar of the bank vole was significantly smaller in dioxin-exposed animals compared to control group, while there was no difference between these two groups in the field vole. No significant alterations were observed in bone density and strength in either species except for reduced bending strength of the femur neck in bank vole males exposed to dioxins. Even though the bone changes are among the sensitive endpoints of dioxin-exposure, high variability due to age, size and gender limits their use as biomarkers of wildlife exposure. In conclusion, the size of molar teeth seems to be a sensitive and robust biomarker for PCDD/F exposure in wild bank vole populations and thus worth of further studies.

  9. Efficient transmission and characterization of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  10. Efficient transmission and characterization of creutzfeldt-jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  11. [Ecology of indigenious arbovirus in Alsace. Tick Central European Encephalitis. I.--Complex Ixodes ricinus--bank voles. II.--Study of bank voles population immunity. III.--Virologic results in bank voles population (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Rodhain, F; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Salmon, A M; Ardoin, P; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Sureau, P

    1979-01-01

    I.--After showing that bank voles are parasited only by Ixodes ricinus larvae, the authors attempt to found different factors (demographic, biometric, and sexual) who favor individual parasitism. The authors conclude to absent of anti tick immunity for this rodent specie. II.--The search for anti-central european encephalitis antibodies (I.H.A.) are shown that 2 p. cent animals were immuns. Yearly and monthly chronologies of antibodies apparition are shown, factors favoring the growth of specific Central european encephalitis antibodies are discussed. III.--The Central european encephalitis tick viral infection of bank vole is studied according to the number of viral strains isolated from different viscera. The monthly chronology of this infection is shown.

  12. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p < 0.01) as well as soil and all studied shrews' organs (rs = 0.44-0.58; p ≤ 0.01) were found.The results obtained evidence for a strong trophic link in the bioaccumulation of Hg in terrestrial food webs. Despite the vicinity to a large metallurgical complex, mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  13. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; Němec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedláček, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  14. Implantation and early postimplantation development of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdzeński, W; Mystkowska, E T

    1976-06-01

    The development of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus is described from implantation to the formation of the foetal membranes. The embryonic development of this species combines features of primitive rodent species, for example Geomys bursarius and highly specialized ones, for examples Mus musculus. The egg-cylinder is formed by invagination into the blastocoelic cavity of the inner cell mass and polar trophoblast overlying it; this resembles in many respects the early stages of development of primitive species. The fully formed egg-cylinder, however, resembles that of the mouse and the formation of foetal membranes is also similar to that in Muridae. It is concluded that in the bank vole and also in other rodents, the extra-embryonic ectoderm of the egg-cylinder is derived from the polar trophoblast rather than from the inner cell mass.

  15. [Blood system peculiarities in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) under chronic environmental pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakhtiĭ, É A; Mukhacheva, S V

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs in mature and immature bank voles inhabiting a chemically polluted area were studied. Variability of the blood system parameters depending on the level of toxic load and the animals' reproductive status was determined. Alteration of the cell composition of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the structure of erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin fractions and leucocyte functions describe the adaptive response to the factors of a changed environment more than the concentration of leucocytes, erythrocytes, and blood hemoglobin.

  16. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  17. Evidence that bank vole PrP is a universal acceptor for prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP, we inoculated Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD subtype MM1, into Tg(M109 mice gave incubation periods of ∼200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ∼250 days, which shortened to ∼150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109 mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109 mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates--including the size of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability--were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109 mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions.

  18. [Ecological aspects of infection of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) with Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) evotomys Hadwen, 1912].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, G; Wita, I

    2001-01-01

    The studies were carried out in Kosewo Górne in the Mazurian District (North-East region of Poland), in September 1995, September 1996 and between May 1997 and June 1998 each month. The animals were trapped in live traps, and after study they were marked and released. The infection of trypanosomes was detected using microhaematocrit centrifugation technique and in blood smears. The intensity of infection had the range from 50 to 150 000 individuals in 1 ml of blood. The maximal prevalence of infection was in August and September and there were 45% and 38% of infected voles respectively. The infection was detected also in May 1998, in other months the prevalence had low level. There were no individuals of bank vole infected in succeeding months. The females of bank vole are more often infected with trypanosomes than males.

  19. Experimental Infection of voles with Francisella tularensis indicates their amplification role in tularemia outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Rossow

    Full Text Available Tularemia outbreaks in humans have been linked to fluctuations in rodent population density, but the mode of bacterial maintenance in nature is unclear. Here we report on an experiment to investigate the pathogenesis of Francisella tularensis infection in wild rodents, and thereby assess their potential to spread the bacterium. We infected 20 field voles (Microtus agrestis and 12 bank voles (Myodes glareolus with a strain of F. tularensis ssp. holarctica isolated from a human patient. Upon euthanasia or death, voles were necropsied and specimens collected for histological assessment and identification of bacteria by immunohistology and PCR. Bacterial excretion and a rapid lethal clinical course with pathological changes consistent with bacteremia and tissue necrosis were observed in infected animals. The results support a role for voles as an amplification host of F. tularensis, as excreta and, in particular, carcasses with high bacterial burden could serve as a source for environmental contamination.

  20. Explaining bank vole cycles in southern Norway 1980-2004 from bilberry reports 1932-1977 and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selås, Vidar

    2006-04-01

    Correlations between mast fruiting of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and peak levels of Clethrionomys-voles have been reported from both Norway and Finland, but there has been a discussion whether this is a bottom-up or a top-down relationship. In a multiple regression model, 65% of the variation in a bilberry production index calculated from game reports from southern Norway 1932-1977 could be explained by the berry index of the two preceding years and climate factors acting during key stages of the flowering cycle. High vole populations in previous years did not contribute to explain the fluctuation in berry production. I used the selected model and climate data to predict bilberry production for the period 1978-2004. Predicted berry indices of the current and previous year explained 38% and the total amount of precipitation in May-June explained 16% of the variation in a log-transformed snap-trapping index of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus 1980-2004. The vole index was not related to any of the climate variables used to predict berry production. This pattern supports the hypothesis that vole cycles are generated by changes in plant chemistry due to climate-synchronized mast fruiting.

  1. Nematofauna of bank vole: Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 from Mt. Fruška gora (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić-Čabrilo Olivera N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematofauna of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus was analyzed for the first time from samples collected in our country. The specimens were collected in Fruška Gora National Park (locality of Brankovac. The number of collected specimens was 138, and infestation with seven nematode species was determined: Heligmosomum mixtum (Schulz, 1954, Heligmosomoides glareoli (Baylis, 1928, Syphacia petrusewiczi (Bernard, 1966, S. stroma (Linstow, 1884, Capillaria murissylvatici (Dieseng, 1851, Trichocephalus muris Schrank, 1788, and Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821. The species Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, and Syphacia petrusewiczi represent the first records for the territory of our country. The species best represented in the sample were H. glareoli and S. petrusewiczi. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes of host species regarding the prevalence, mean intensity, or mean abundance of parasite invasion.

  2. Prey selection of Tawny owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow necked mouse and Bank Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsom, H. M.; Sunde, P.; Overskaug, K.

    As predators owls may have a strong impact on mortality of their favourite prey, and may therefore act as important selective agents on their prey species. Little is known, however, about whether owls choose prey randomly or if some prey items suffer a higher risk of predation due to certain life...... history traits. The aim of this master thesis study was to investigate any prey selection of tawny owls on two prey species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Our hypotheses were that the level of exposure might differ between prey items of different sex......, age, and size, causing some individuals to suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than others.The results suggest that males suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than females, and that the different age groups may also experience different risk of predation. It also suggests...

  3. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, a model system for studying end-glacial colonization of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipi, Karolína; Marková, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We have revisited the mtDNA phylogeny of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus based on Sanger and next-generation Illumina sequencing of 32 complete mitochondrial genomes. The bank vole is a key study species for understanding the response of European fauna to the climate change following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and one of the most convincing examples of a woodland mammal surviving in cryptic northern glacial refugia in Europe. The genomes sequenced included multiple representatives of each of the eight bank vole clades previously described based on cytochrome b (cob) sequences. All clades with the exception of the Basque - likely a misidentified pseudogene clade - were highly supported in all phylogenetic analyses and the relationships between the clades were resolved with high confidence. Our data extend the distribution of the Carpathian clade, the marker of a northern glacial refugium in the Carpathian Mountains, to include Britain and Fennoscandia (but not adjacent areas of continental Europe). The Carpathian sub-clade that colonized Britain and Fennoscandia had a somewhat different history from the sub-clade currently found in or close to the Carpathians and may have derived from a more north-westerly refugial area. The two bank vole populations that colonized Britain at the end of the last glaciation are for the first time linked with particular continental clades, the first colonists with the Carpathian clade and the second colonists with the western clade originating in a more southerly refugium in the vicinity of the Alps. We however found no evidence that a functional divergence of proteins encoded in the mitochondrial genome promoted the partial genetic replacement of the first colonists by the second colonists detected previously in southern Britain. We did identify one codon site that changed more often and more radically in the tree than expected and where the observed amino acid change may affect the reductase activity of the cytochrome bc1

  4. Parasite fauna of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in an urban region of Germany: reservoir host of zoonotic metazoan parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, 29 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of ten different parasite species were identified: four endoparasite (four Nematoda) and six ectoparasite (three Insecta, three Arachnida) species. The predominant endoparasite was the nematode Aonchotheca murissylvatici, followed by the nematode Heligmosomum costellatum, while the flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite. C. glareolus usually carried one to five different parasite species (mean 2.2). The bank voles were infected only by Nematoda, while Digenea or Cestoda species were not detected. The present findings are in clear contrast to the results obtained in other geographical regions of Germany and Europe, where eight different Cestoda species constituted the main part of the helminth parasites in C. glareolus. In the area investigated, the bank voles harbored no zoonotic parasites, and therefore, they play not a role as potential reservoir host for these parasite species.

  5. [Evaluation of abundance of residents and immigration by irretrievable requisitioning of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipanov, N A; Liapina, M G

    2011-01-01

    The activity of average statistical species was approximated by normal distribution. This is provided by calculation of the part of resident animals without repeated hatching, i.e., the edge effect. Residence beyond the space covering 99% of species activity was considered as nonresidence. The appearance of nonresidence in general can be considered as "excursions" and "resettlement." The experiments on requisitioning of small settled animals from a preliminary marked site were carried out. It was shown that the number of settled small animals calculated using results of requisitioning corresponds to the number found during labeling with amendment to the edge effect, and immigration was constant and is not initiated by requisitioning. Only resettlements had an influence on the settlement of free space. The expected velocity of settling of the free space was calculated according to evaluation of the value of settlement and the share of "migrants" among immigrants. Second labeling of the place of hatching has shown that the expected and real paces of settlement are close.

  6. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested.

  7. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D Orrú

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230 is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested.

  8. Time-course of micronucleated erythrocytes in response to whole-body gamma irradiation in a model mammalian species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Igor I; Savina, Natalya V; Ryabokon, Nadezhda I

    2011-01-01

    The time course of the formation of micronucleated polychromatic (MNPCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) in the bone marrow of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber), a model mouse-like species, was studied using the standard micronucleus test at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 hr following whole-body acute γ-irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Based on the existing literature on laboratory mice, it was suggested that such a dose will not have significant effect on erythroid cell proliferation in the bank vole and hence on the time course of the rise of micronucleated cells. In total, ∼905,000 polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) from 82 adult bank voles were analyzed. Although the mean frequencies of MNNCEs were too low to allow for the correct assessment of their time course, an analysis of PCEs showed an increasing rate of MNPCE appearance at 6 hr that reached a maximum at 18-24 hr after irradiation and subsequently decreased. Because the kinetics of MNPCEs reflects the process of erythropoiesis, the current results regarding the time points of appearance of radiation-induced MNPCEs provide the first information on the prolongation of one of the terminal stages of erythrocyte formation in bank vole specimens, namely the stage of maturation of PCEs from erythroblasts. Moreover, the observed time-course data, as well as the low-background frequencies of MNPCEs and characteristic level of PCEs response to radiation, showed similarities between the two model species: bank vole (this study) and laboratory mice (literature data).

  9. Medium-term temporal stability of the helminth component community structure in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A; Behnke, J M; Pawełczyk, A; Kuliś, K; Sereda, M J; Siński, E

    2005-02-01

    The structure of helminth communities in wild rodents is subject to seasonal variation, and is dependent on host age within years. Although between-year variation has been monitored, seldom has it been assessed rigorously by appropriate multifactorial analysis with potentially confounding factors taken into account. In this study we tested the null hypothesis that despite seasonal, host age and sex effects, helminth communities should show relative stability between years. Over a period of 3 years (1998-2000) we sampled bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) populations (total n = 250) at 2 points in the year: in spring, at the start of the breeding season, and in autumn, after the cessation of breeding. In spite of seasonal differences and strong age effects, the between-year effects were surprisingly small. Measures of component community structure (Berger-Parker dominance index, the dominant species, S. petrusewiczi) did not vary, or varied only slightly from year to year. The majority of measures of infracommunity structure [Brillouin's index of diversity, prevalence of all helminths combined, prevalence and abundance of H. mixtum (the most prevalent helminth), mean species richness] did not differ significantly between years when other factors such as age, sex and seasonal variation had been taken into account. Some between-year variations were found (at the component community level, Simpson's index of diversity; at the infracommunity level, prevalence and abundance of S. petrusewiczi and abundance of all helminths combined), but even these were modest in comparison to seasonal and age differences, and were primarily attributable to S. petrusewiczi. We conclude that despite dynamic within-year fluctuations, helminth communities in bank voles in this region of Poland show relative stability across years. The sporadic occurrence of individual platyhelminths at low prevalence, makes little difference to the overall structure, which is largely maintained by the key

  10. Testicular steroid metabolism in juvenile bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber) exposed to different photoperiods: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänkä, K M; Teräväinen, T; Wallgren, H

    1983-09-01

    Juvenile male bank voles (18-22 days of age) were either sacrificed immediately (Group C) or subjected first to a long (18L:6D, lights on 0600-2400; Group L) or a short (6L:18D, lights on 0800-1400; Group S) photoperiod for 1 week. The animal were killed by decapitation, the gonads were excised, and minced, and the conversion of [4-14C]pregnenolone (delta 3P) and [4-14C]dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) to metabolites was studied in vitro. The radioactive steroids formed were separated and identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The conversion of delta 3P to C19-steroids increased markedly from 35 (Group C) to 86% (Group L) during the first week in the long photoperiod whereas in the short photoperiod a decrease to 14.42% (Group S) was observed. The reduced production of C19-steroids in the more inactive testes was accompanied by the accumulation of progesterone (delta 4P) (52.98% Group S and 24.9% Group C) and small amounts of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OH-delta 4P) (2.5 and 4.5%, respectively), whereas in Group L only trace amounts of these metabolites were encountered. No marked differences in the metabolism of [4-14C]DHA between the photoperiodic groups were observed. These results seem to indicate that at least in vitro marked changes in C17-C20-lyase and/or 17 alpha-hydroxylase activities occur in this seasonally breeding species during testicular maturation and photoperiodically induced regression.

  11. The long-term effect of cadmium exposure through food on the postnatal development of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białońska, Dobrosława; Zakrzewska, Marta; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Konior, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is well known for its toxicity to the animal body. However, its effect on pregnancy and the development of young animals is still not well understood. This study examined such effects, using bank voles captured from the wild to make the results closer to those which could be expected in the natural environment. One group of animals was fed 7 microg g(-1) cadmium in the food, a second 35 microg g(-1), and a third no cadmium, as a control. The concentrations of cadmium in the whole bodies of young bank voles were determined on the 3rd, 5th, or 10th day of life. The cadmium level in the bodies of animals exposed to 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium was significantly higher than in those from either the control group or the group receiving 7 microg g(-1) of cadmium, which did not differ from each other. The cadmium level did not change with animal age in any of the study groups. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe were also determined in the whole body of young animals, as cadmium is known to disturb the metabolism of these essential metals through antagonistic activity. Both Cu and Fe levels were negatively correlated with cadmium concentrations, while a positive correlation was found between zinc and cadmium in the young animal bodies. Also found was higher offspring mortality in the group receiving 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium in food. There was no difference in young animal body weight between the study groups.

  12. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  13. [A modular approach to studying of fluctuating asymmetry of complex morphological structures in rodents with the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicolinae, Rodentia) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialkovskaia, L É; Borodin, A V; Fominykh, M A

    2014-01-01

    The expediency of a modular approach to estimating fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of complex morphological structures was shown using the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780) as an example. FA of the shape of two mandibular regions (modules) defined developmentally and functionally, was assessed by means of geometric morphometrics. The differences between mandibular regions in the FA levels were found for both individual landmarks and integral indices of asymmetry. Regardless of age, gender or sampling year, FA estimates obtained for posterior region including part of the ramus and processes were higher than those for anterior region including the diastemal area. The results suggest that modularity of complex morphological structures should be taken into account when analyzing FA.

  14. Factors affecting the component community structure of haemoparasites in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A; Pawelczyk, A; Behnke, J M; Gilbert, F S; Sinski, E

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence and abundance of infections with haemoparasites were studied over a 3 year period in Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole, n = 420) sampled from forests in the NE of Poland. Total species richness was 5 (Prevalence = Haemobartonella sp. 63.1%, Bartonella grahamii 27.4%, Hepatozoon erhardovae 31.4%, Trypanosoma evotomys 15% and Babesia microti 1.0%) with 81.9% of the voles carrying at least 1 species and a mean infracommunity species richness of 1.4. Variation in species richness was determined primarily by season and year, and the interaction of these factors. The observed frequency distribution of infracommunity species richness did not differ from that predicted by a null model, suggesting that there were no marked associations between the species. Analyses of prevalence and abundance of infection with each species in turn, revealed that overall the principal causes of variation were temporal and seasonal and their interaction, intrinsic factors such as age and sex playing only a minor role. However, the relative importance of specific extrinsic, and rarely intrinsic, factors varied and was distinct for each of the species in the study. Prevalence data revealed 4 sets of 2-way associations between species, mostly varyingly dependent on combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Analysis of quantitative associations suggested 4 sets of positive 2-way interactions, 3 of which remained after controlling for the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the abundance of each species, but only one could be unequivocally accepted (Haemobartonella sp. +B. grahamii) after correction for multiple comparisons. These data are discussed in the context of the changing ecological profiles in this region of Eastern Europe and, in a wider context, in relation to current understanding of the factors which shape component community structures of haemoparasites in wild rodents.

  15. [Biological effects in natural populations of small rodents in radiation-polluted territories. Dynamics of chromosome aberration frequency in a number of generations of European bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, R I; Riabokon', N I

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of chromosome aberration frequency in bone marrow cells of many generations (14) of bank vole living in the radioactive trace of the Chernobyl catastrophe (1986-1992) has been analysed. The study revealed that the chromosome aberration frequency in voles in the areas with radio-contamination density 220 and 1526 kBq/m2 (for 137Cs) significantly exceeds the control level 3-7 times over the whole period under investigation. The dynamics of the frequency of structural chromosome injuries from 1986 to 1991-1992 is characterised by the tendency to increase in all populations inhabiting the areas with various radio-contamination density (8-1526 kBq/m2).

  16. Bot fly parasitism of the red-backed vole: host survival, infection risk, and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jérôme; Fortin, Daniel; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Darveau, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    Parasites can play an important role in the dynamics of host populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. We investigated the role of bot fly (Cuterebra spp.) parasitism in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) by first assessing the impacts of the parasite on the probability of vole survival under stressful conditions as well as on the reproductive activity of females. We then identified the main factors driving both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies inside red-backed voles. Finally, we evaluated the impacts of bot fly prevalence on the growth rate of vole populations between mid-July and mid-August. Thirty-six populations of red-backed voles were sampled in the boreal forest of Québec, Canada. The presence and the abundance of parasites in voles, two host life history traits (sex and body condition), three indices of habitat complexity (tree basal area, sapling basal area, coarse woody debris volume), and vole abundance were considered in models evaluating the effects of bot flies on host populations. We found that the probability of survival of red-backed voles in live traps decreased with bot fly infection. Both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies in red-backed voles were driven mainly by vole abundance rather than by the two host life history traits or the three variables of habitat complexity. Parasitism had population consequences: bot fly prevalence was linked to a decrease in short-term growth rate of vole populations over the summer. We found that bot flies have the potential to reduce survival of red-backed voles, an effect that may apply to large portions of populations.

  17. Analysis list: Myod1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Myod1 Adipocyte,Embryonic fibroblast,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myod1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myod1....5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Myod1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myod1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myod1....Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Myod1.Musc

  18. How expensive is vole damage?

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, B; Fülling, O.; Malevez, J.; Pelz, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Vole species, especially Arvicola terrestris and Microtus arvalis cause significant economical damage in organic pomiculture by gnawing the root system of trees. The importance of voles as pest organisms is well known. Nevertheless, the estimation of financial loss caused by voles is difficult for German fruit growers. We conducted a survey among organic fruit growers to get data on kind and amount of annual damage. Using the available publications and official statistics we calculated econom...

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells With Six Reprogramming Factors From Prairie Vole, Which Is an Animal Model for Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Hirayama, Takashi; Horie, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Donai, Kenichiro; Takeda, Satoru; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles show strong pair bonding with their mating partners, and they demonstrate parental behavior toward their infants, indicating that the prairie vole is a unique animal model for analysis of molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Until a recent study, the signaling pathway of oxytocin was thought to be critical for the social behavior of prairie voles, but neuron-specific functional research may be necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Prairie vole pluripotent stem cells of high quality are essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of social behaviors. Generation of high-quality induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) would help to establish a genetically modified prairie vole, including knockout and knock-in models, based on the pluripotency of iPSCs. Thus, we attempted to establish high-quality prairie vole-derived iPSCs (pv-iPSCs) in this study. We constructed a polycistronic reprogramming vector, which included six reprograming factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-myc, Lin28, and Nanog). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of six reprogramming factors, which included Oct3/4 with the transactivation domain (TAD) of MyoD. Implantation of the pv-iPSCs into immunodeficient mice caused a teratoma with three germ layers. Furthermore, the established pv-iPSCs tested positive for stem cell markers, including alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1, and dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Our data indicate that our newly established pv-iPSCs may be a useful tool for genetic analysis of social behavior.

  20. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustra...

  1. Parasite diversity at the Holarctic nexus: species of Arostrilepis (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in voles and lemmings (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae) from greater Beringia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2013-01-23

    Previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestodes attributable to Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 in arvicoline rodents from the greater Beringian region and western North America are described. Discovery and characterization of these tapeworms contributes to the recognition of a complex of cryptic species distributed across the Holarctic region. Three species are proposed: Arostrilepis gulyaevi sp. n. is named for cestodes in Myodes rufocanus from the Republic of Buryatia, southeastern Siberia and from the Khabarovskiy Kray, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and Magadanskaya Oblast', Russian Far East (western Beringia); A. cooki sp. n. is named for cestodes in Myodes gapperi from British Columbia, Canada and Montana, USA; and A. rauschorum sp. n. is named for cestodes in Microtus oeconomus, M. longicaudus, M. pennsylvanicus and M. xanthognathus from the Brooks Range, Seward Peninsula, north-central interior, and Arctic coastal plains of Alaska (eastern Beringia) and Montana, USA. Consistent with recent studies defining diversity in the genus, the form, size, and spination (pattern, shape and size) of the cirrus are diagnostic; species are further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus sac, and arrangement of the testes. Assessment of genetic data from the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA complements differentiation of this complex based on morphological attributes and confirms known species diversity within the genus. New data for geographical distribution and host specificity of known Arostrilepis spp. indicate that 3 of 12 recognized species have Holarctic distributions extending across Beringia. These include Arostrilepis beringiensis (Kontrimavichus & Smirnova, 1991) in lemmings (species of Lemmus and Synaptomys), A. cf. janickii Makarikov & Kontrimavichus, 2011 in root voles (M. oeconomus) MAKARIKOV ET AL. 402 · Zootaxa 3608 (6) © 2013 Magnolia Press and A. macrocirrosa Makarikov, Gulyaev & Kontrimavichus, 2011 in red

  2. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  3. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Christina M; Schneider, Jay R; Pedersen, Joel A; Heisey, Dennis M; Johnson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  4. File list: Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Myod1 Muscle SRX142536,SRX142537,SRX142...534,SRX328690,SRX497483,SRX328691,SRX029146,SRX246928,SRX497482,SRX142516,SRX029145,SRX029144 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Myo.10.Myod1.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Myod1 Muscle SRX142537,SRX328690,SRX142...536,SRX246928,SRX328691,SRX142534,SRX497483,SRX497482,SRX029146,SRX142516,SRX029145,SRX029144 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Myo.05.Myod1.AllCell.bed ...

  6. The SNPs Analysis of the Exons of Three Genes of MyoD Gene Family in Seven Swine Breeds (Line)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-fen; LIU Di; YU Hao

    2005-01-01

    The study objects includes seven swine breeds: Minzhu, Sanjiangbaizhu, Yorkshire, Landrace, Junmuyihao, Duroc and Double muscle Yorkshire. According to the sequences of MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 of swine in GenBank, seventeen pairs of primers for MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 were designed. PCR-SSCP technology was applied to detect SNPs of the exons of the three genes. The results showed that no polymorphism was in MyoG and MyoD, and some SNPs were in three exons of Myf5. There was one mutant site in the first exon of Myf5 (G → C), three mutant sites in the second exon of Myf5 (C → A, A → G and G → A); in the third exon of Myf5, there was one base A deficiency at 3 387 bp, three bases T deficiency at 3 417 bp, one mutant site at 3 443 bp (T → C).This study obtained a tendency conclusion that gene frequency of allele M of Myf5 on the one hand is positively correlated with lean meat percentage, on the other hand is correlated with the orientation of selective breeding; it also deduced that allele F is possibly correlated with high lean meat percentage. Through statistical analysis, allele A, B, C of Myf5 have no obvious correlation with lean meat percentage of different swine breeds, In addition, the high polymorphism of Myf5 showed that seven swine breeds are rich in genetic variation, and have high selective competency.

  7. The role of MyoD1 and histone modifications in the activation of muscle enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Roy; Dynlacht, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    MyoD1 is a key regulator that orchestrates skeletal muscle differentiation through the regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have focused on its role in transcriptional control at gene promoters, less is known regarding the role of MyoD1 in the assembly of active enhancers. Here, we discuss novel data that point to the ability of MyoD1 to mediate the assembly of active enhancers that augment the transcription of genes essential for muscle development and lineage specification. Based on genome-wide studies of epigenetic marks that typify active enhancers, we recently identified the compendium of distal regulatory elements that dictate transcriptional programs during myogenesis. Superimposition of MyoD1 binding sites upon the locations of muscle enhancers revealed its unequivocal binding to a core region of nearly a third of condition-specific muscle enhancers. Further studies exploring deposition of enhancer-related epigenetic marks in myoblasts lacking MyoD1 demonstrate the dependence of muscle enhancer assembly on the presence of MyoD1. We propose a model wherein MyoD1 mediates recruitment of Set7, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, p300, and RNAP II to MyoD1-bound enhancers to establish condition-specific activation of muscle genes. Moreover, muscle enhancers are modulated through coordinated binding of transcription factors, including c-Jun, Jdp2, Meis, and Runx1, which are recruited to muscle enhancers in a MyoD1-dependent manner. Thus, MyoD1 and enhancer-associated transcription factors function coordinately to assemble and regulate enhancers, thereby augmenting expression of muscle-related genes.

  8. Are water vole resistant to anticoagulant rodenticides following field treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vein, Julie; Grandemange, Agnès; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoit, Etienne; Berny, Philippe J

    2011-08-01

    The anti-vitamin Ks (AVKs) are widely used to control rodent populations. They inhibit Vitamin K regeneration by the Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR) and cause a fatal hemorrhagic syndrome. Because of repeated use, some populations of commensal rodents have expressed resistance to these compounds. In Franche-Comté (France), the water vole exhibits cyclic population outbreaks. A second generation AVK, bromadiolone, has been used for the last 20 years to control vole populations. The aim of this study is to determine whether these repeated treatments could have led to the development of resistance to AVKs in water vole populations. We conducted enzymatic and genetic studies on water voles trapped in treated and non treated plot. The results indicate that voles from the most heavily treated area exhibit enzymatic changes in VKOR activity hence arguing for resistance to AVKs and that an intronic haplotype on the vkorc1 gene seems to be associated with these enzymatic changes.

  9. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  10. Chromosomal evolution of Arvicolinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia). I. The genome homology of tundra vole, field vole, mouse and golden hamster revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Natalia A; Romanenko, Svetlana A; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Perelman, Polina L; Fu, Beiyuan; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Serdukova, Natalya A; Golenishchev, Feodor N; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has become the mainstay of comparative cytogenetic and chromosome evolution studies. Here we have made a set of chromosomal painting probes for the field vole (Microtus agrestis) by DOP-PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes. Together with painting probes of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and mouse (Mus musculus), the field vole probes have been hybridized onto the metaphases of the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus). A comparative chromosome map between these two voles, golden hamster and mouse has been established based on the results of cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons. The sets of paints from the field vole, golden hamster and mouse identified a total of 27, 40 and 47 homologous autosomal regions, respectively, in the genome of tundra vole; 16, 41 and 51 fusion/fission rearrangements differentiate the karyotype of the tundra vole from the karyotypes of the field vole, golden hamster and mouse, respectively.

  11. Prairie forb response to timing of vole herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy T; Howe, Henry F

    2009-05-01

    The timing of herbivory can be an important factor in the strength and direction of plant response to herbivore damage. To determine the effect of vole herbivory timing within a growing season on tallgrass prairie forbs, we used individual plant enclosures to limit vole access to three species, Desmanthus illinoensis, Echinacea purpurea, and Heliopsis helianthoides, in an experimental restoration in northern Illinois, USA. As part of a long-term experiment, we implemented five vole access treatments in 2003: (1) vole access for the entire growing season, (2) early-season access, (3) mid-season access, (4) late-season access, and (5) no vole access. We protected all plants from herbivory in the following growing season (2004) to test whether the effects of herbivory in one growing season carried over to the next. We also tested how restoration planting design, including seeding time (June or December) and density (35 or 350 seeds/m2 of each species) affected patterns of herbivory and plant recovery. Vole access for the entire growing season was most detrimental for the growth and reproduction of all three species. In contrast, vole access for a portion of the growing season had different effects on the three species: Desmanthus growth and reproduction was negatively affected by early-season access, Echinacea reproductive output was reduced by late-season access, and Heliopsis was not affected by early-, mid-, or late-season vole access. Negative effects of continual vole access carried over to the following growing season for Desmanthus and Heliopsis, but not for Echinacea. Effects of herbivory did not carry over to the next season for Echinacea and Heliopsis when plants were accessible to voles for only part of the growing season. In contrast, Desmanthus plants exposed to early-season herbivory in one year continued to produce fewer seeds per plant after being protected from vole herbivory for a growing season. Planting density and planting season had mixed effects

  12. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  13. In situ detection of transcripts of the myogenic factor MyoD in whole chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E. Gabriel

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization has provided insights into the molecular basis of skeletal myogenesis during embryonic development. In situ detection of different muscle-specific regulatory factors in whole embryos has been described. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of these factors differed among species. The expression pattern of MyoD in whole chicken embryos was studied via in situ hybridization using a probe obtained by the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique. In newly formed somites (embryos of stage 12, MyoD mRNA transcripts were detected along the anterior to posterior axis of somites immediately adjacent to the neural tube, whereas in mature somites (embryos of stage 24, MyoD transcripts were detected throughout the entire somite. These results indicate that MyoD expression is important for initiating and maintaining the avian myogenic system.A detecção in situ de diferentes fatores regulatórios músculo-específicos vem sendo uma prática muito empregada para o entendimento das bases moleculares envolvidas no processo de formação do tecido muscular esquelético durante o desenvolvimento embrionário em diferentes organismos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o padrão de expressão dos transcritos do fator miogênico MyoD em embriões inteiros de galinha por análises de hibridização in situ, usando uma sonda obtida a partir de ensaios de transcrição reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Nos somitos recém-formados (embriões no estádio 12, os transcritos de MyoD foram detectados na porção mediana dos somitos posicionados imediatamente adjacentes ao tubo neural, enquanto nos somitos maduros (embriões no estádio 24, a expressão do gene do MyoD foi observada em toda a região dos somitos. Tais resultados indicam que a expressão do MyoD é importante no processo de determinação e manutenção da miogênese nas aves.

  14. Response of two prairie forbs to repeated vole herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy T; Howe, Henry F

    2011-04-01

    Vertebrate herbivores as diverse as ungulates, geese, and rabbits preferentially feed on plants that have previously experienced herbivory. Here, we ask whether smaller grassland "cryptic consumers" such as voles (Microtus ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus) preferentially clip (cut stems for access to leaves or seeds) or avoid previously clipped individuals of two tallgrass prairie species (Desmanthus illinoensis and Echinacea purpurea) within a growing season. Further, we ask how these plants respond to repeated clipping within a growing season, and whether the effects of this herbivory last into the subsequent growing season. Voles preferentially clipped stems of D. illinoensis and E. purpurea plants that had been previously clipped. The exception was indiscriminant clipping of stems of E. purpurea late in the growing season when its achenes, a favorite vole food, ripened. For D. illinoensis, repeated clipping resulted in a 59% reduction in biomass, 42% lower ratio of reproductive to vegetative biomass, and 57% fewer seeds produced per plant compared with unclipped plants. These effects lasted into the following growing season in which plants were protected from voles. In contrast, the only effect of repeated clipping for E. purpurea was that the number of achenes per plant was substantially reduced by three episodes of clipping. This effect did not carry over to the next growing season. Such differences in D. illinoensis and E. purpurea response to repeated stem clipping by voles offer insights into how these small rodents can effect major changes in composition and dominance in grassland communities.

  15. Description of Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in France, with a review of anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukisalmi V.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in Bourg-Saint-Maurice, French Alps, compare it with several related species from rodents, and review the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe. Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. is primarily distinguished from the related species by its large scolex of characteristic shape, robust neck region, and the structure of the cirrus sac, vitellarium and vagina. We show that the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe, representing the genera Anoplocephaloides and Paranoplocephala, include at least seven species. This fauna consists primarily of species that snow voles share with other voles inhabiting the high-mountain areas. Some of the species, including P. yoccozi n. sp., appear to have a very localized distribution, which is assumed to be a consequence of the historical fragmentation of snow vole populations.

  16. How Predation and Landscape Fragmentation Affect Vole Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Sibly, Richard M.; Topping, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    population cycles. Because these factors covary along the gradient it is difficult to distinguish their effects experimentally in the field. The distinction is here attempted using realistic agent-based modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings: By using a spatially explicit computer simulation model based...... on behavioural and ecological data from the field vole (Microtus agrestis), we generated a number of repeated time series of vole densities whose mean population size and amplitude were measured. Subsequently, these time series were subjected to statistical autoregressive modelling, to investigate the effects...... on vole population dynamics of making predators more specialised, of altering the breeding season, and increasing the level of habitat fragmentation. We found that fragmentation as well as the presence of specialist predators are necessary for the occurrence of population cycles. Habitat fragmentation...

  17. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Deng, Bing [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Wen, Jianghui [Wu Han University of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Kun [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Jiang, Siwen, E-mail: jiangsiwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Xiong, Yuanzhu, E-mail: xiongyzhu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  18. Activation of muscle enhancers by MyoD and epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Roy

    2014-11-01

    The early 1980s revelation of cis-acting genomic elements, known as transcriptional enhancers, is still regarded as one of the fundamental discoveries in the genomic field. However, only with the emergence of genome-wide techniques has the genuine biological scope of enhancers begun to be fully uncovered. Massive scientific efforts of multiple laboratories rapidly advanced the overall perception that enhancers are typified by common epigenetic characteristics that distinguish their activating potential. Broadly, chromatin modifiers and transcriptional regulators lay down the essential foundations necessary for constituting enhancers in their activated form. Basing on genome-wide ChIP-sequencing of enhancer-related marks we identified myogenic enhancers before and after muscle differentiation and discovered that MyoD was bound to nearly a third of condition-specific enhancers. Experimental studies that tested the deposition patterns of enhancer-related epigenetic marks in MyoD-null myoblasts revealed the high dependency that a specific set of muscle enhancers have towards this transcriptional regulator. Re-expression of MyoD restored the deposition of enhancer-related marks at myotube-specific enhancers and partially at myoblasts-specific enhancers. Our proposed mechanistic model suggests that MyoD is involved in recruitment of methyltransferase Set7, acetyltransferase p300 and deposition of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac at myogenic enhancers. In addition, MyoD binding at enhancers is associated with PolII occupancy and with local noncoding transcription. Modulation of muscle enhancers is suggested to be coordinated via transcription factors docking, including c-Jun and Jdp2 that bind to muscle enhancers in a MyoD-dependent manner. We hypothesize that distinct transcription factors may act as placeholders and mediate the assembly of newly formed myogenic enhancers.

  19. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  20. Development of genomic resources for the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster: construction of a BAC library and vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is a premier animal model for understanding the genetic and neurological basis of social behaviors. Unlike other biomedical models, prairie voles display a rich repertoire of social behaviors including the formation of long-term pair bonds and biparental care. However, due to a lack of genomic resources for this species, studies have been limited to a handful of candidate genes. To provide a substrate for future development of genomic resources for this unique model organism, we report the construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library from a single male prairie vole and a prairie vole-mouse (Mus musculus comparative cytogenetic map. Results We constructed a prairie vole BAC library (CHORI-232 consisting of 194,267 recombinant clones with an average insert size of 139 kb. Hybridization-based screening of the gridded library at 19 loci established that the library has an average depth of coverage of ~10×. To obtain a small-scale sampling of the prairie vole genome, we generated 3884 BAC end-sequences totaling ~2.8 Mb. One-third of these BAC-end sequences could be mapped to unique locations in the mouse genome, thereby anchoring 1003 prairie vole BAC clones to an orthologous position in the mouse genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH mapping of 62 prairie vole clones with BAC-end sequences mapping to orthologous positions in the mouse genome was used to develop a first-generation genome-wide prairie vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map. While conserved synteny was observed between this pair of rodent genomes, rearrangements between the prairie vole and mouse genomes were detected, including a minimum of five inversions and 16 inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions The construction of the prairie vole BAC library and the vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map represent the first genome-wide modern genomic resources developed for this

  1. Small activating RNA induces myogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by upregulating MyoD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs, also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs. Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.

  2. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  3. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  4. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  5. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Duprez, Delphine

    2004-02-01

    Forced expression of the bHLH myogenic factors, Myf5 and MyoD, in various mammalian cell lines induces the full program of myogenic differentiation. However, this property has not been extensively explored in vivo. We have taken advantage of the chick model to investigate the effect of electroporation of the mouse Myf5 and MyoD genes in the embryonic neural tube. We found that misexpression of either mouse Myf5 or MyoD in the chick neural tube leads to ectopic skeletal muscle differentiation, assayed by the expression of the myosin heavy chains in the neural tube and neural crest derivatives. We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD. We used this new system to analyse, in vivo, the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors. We found that MyoD and Myogenin expression can be activated by ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD, while Myf5 expression cannot be activated either by mouse MyoD or by itself. We also analysed the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors and the different genes involved in myogenesis, such as Mef2c, Pax3, Paraxis, Six1, Mox1, Mox2 and FgfR4. We established the existence of an unexpected regulatory loop between MyoD and FgfR4. The consequences for myogenesis are discussed.

  6. Expression of Myod and myogenin in muscles of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Z.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a detection system for myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD and myogenin. Adapting the method we performed a longitudinal analysis of such regulatory factors after infection with T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. MyoD and myogenin were expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis in T. spiralis infection. The expression returned to the normal level after 18 days from the infection when the cyst was complete. In T. pseudospiralis infection, they were also expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis, but continuously expressed at least up to 43 days post infection.

  7. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundkvist Åke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region. Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area. Our data (i confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.

  8. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  9. NFATc1 Controls Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type and Is a Negative Regulator of MyoD Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Ehlers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle comprises a heterogeneous population of fibers with important physiological differences. Fast fibers are glycolytic and fatigue rapidly. Slow fibers utilize oxidative metabolism and are fatigue resistant. Muscle diseases such as sarcopenia and atrophy selectively affect fast fibers, but the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber type-specific gene expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor NFATc1 controls fiber type composition and is required for fast-to-slow fiber type switching in response to exercise in vivo. Moreover, MyoD is a crucial transcriptional effector of the fast fiber phenotype, and we show that NFATc1 inhibits MyoD-dependent fast fiber gene promoters by physically interacting with the N-terminal activation domain of MyoD and blocking recruitment of the essential transcriptional coactivator p300. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for fiber type switching through direct inhibition of MyoD to control the opposing roles of MyoD and NFATc1 in fast versus slow fiber phenotypes.

  10. Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichiro; Manabe, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yumi; Relaix, Frédéric; Oishi, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells. Klf5 knockdown suppressed induction of muscle differentiation-related genes, including myogenin. Klf5 ChIP-seq revealed that Klf5 binding overlaps that of MyoD and Mef2, and Klf5 physically associates with both MyoD and Mef2. In addition, MyoD recruitment was greatly reduced in the absence of Klf5. These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17462.001 PMID:27743478

  11. Analysis of genetic distribution and population genetic structure of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHU; Xuewei LI; Surong SHUAI; Mingzhou LI; Fangqiong LI; Lei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data was applied to analyze the distribution of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds and pig breed crosses.The population genetic information about genetic distribution,variation,and heterozygosity of the MyoD gene in different breed populations were analyzed.Based on the allele frequency,genetic distance and evolution distance among each breed populations were calculated and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree was gained based on the evolution distances between populations.The results indicated that the distribution of the MyoD genotype kept in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most tested groups but not in Duroc (D) and Duroc × (Landrance × Yorkshire)(DLY) population.Generally,the genetic diversity of the MyoD gene was abundant and these tested breed populations had high genetic variations.The evolution of the MyoD gene was under natural selection pressure.On the phylogenetic tree,10 pig breeds were divided into 4 clusters.The first cluster consisted of four breeds developed from Landrace.The second cluster was two indigenous Chinese pig breeds.The third cluster was three breeds developed from Duroc.The fourth cluster was a Tibetan pig breed.The constitution of the topology of the phylogenetic tree was consistent with the breeding history of each pig breed.From this experiment,we can conclude that some RFLP data obtained from functional gene can be used in the genetic deviation research between some closely related species or between different populations in certain species.

  12. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-12-13

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection.

  13. Amak Island trip report - notes on the Amak song sparrow and Amak vole

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Both the Amak Island song sparrow (Melospiza melodia amaka) and Amak vole (Microtus oeconomus amakensis) are currently category 2 candidate species under the...

  14. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew H Jheon; Michaela Prochazkova; Michael Sherman; Devanand S Manoli; Nirao M Shah; Lawrence Carbone; Ophir Klein

    2015-01-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.

  15. A genetic linkage map and comparative mapping of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Larry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an emerging rodent model for investigating the genetics, evolution and molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Though a karyotype for the prairie vole has been reported and low-resolution comparative cytogenetic analyses have been done in this species, other basic genetic resources for this species, such as a genetic linkage map, are lacking. Results Here we report the construction of a genome-wide linkage map of the prairie vole. The linkage map consists of 406 markers that are spaced on average every 7 Mb and span an estimated ~90% of the genome. The sex average length of the linkage map is 1707 cM, which, like other Muroid rodent linkage maps, is on the lower end of the length distribution of linkage maps reported to date for placental mammals. Linkage groups were assigned to 19 out of the 26 prairie vole autosomes as well as the X chromosome. Comparative analyses of the prairie vole linkage map based on the location of 387 Type I markers identified 61 large blocks of synteny with the mouse genome. In addition, the results of the comparative analyses revealed a potential elevated rate of inversions in the prairie vole lineage compared to the laboratory mouse and rat. Conclusions A genetic linkage map of the prairie vole has been constructed and represents the fourth genome-wide high-resolution linkage map reported for Muroid rodents and the first for a member of the Arvicolinae sub-family. This resource will advance studies designed to dissect the genetic basis of a variety of social behaviors and other traits in the prairie vole as well as our understanding of genome evolution in the genus Microtus.

  16. BAC-based sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes in the prairie vole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A McGraw

    Full Text Available The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an important model organism for the study of social behavior, yet our ability to correlate genes and behavior in this species has been limited due to a lack of genetic and genomic resources. Here we report the BAC-based targeted sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes and flanking regions in the prairie vole. A total of 6.4 Mb of non-redundant or haplotype-specific sequence assemblies were generated that span the partial or complete sequence of 21 behaviorally-relevant genes as well as an additional 55 flanking genes. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 13 loci based on alignments of 1.7 Mb of haplotype-specific assemblies revealed an average pair-wise heterozygosity (8.4×10(-3. Comparative analyses of the prairie vole proteins encoded by the behaviorally-relevant genes identified >100 substitutions specific to the prairie vole lineage. Finally, our sequencing data indicate that a duplication of the prairie vole AVPR1A locus likely originated from a recent segmental duplication spanning a minimum of 105 kb. In summary, the results of our study provide the genomic resources necessary for the molecular and genetic characterization of a high-priority set of candidate genes for regulating social behavior in the prairie vole.

  17. Prairie voles as a novel model of socially facilitated excessive drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Kaur, Simranjit; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships strongly affect alcohol drinking in humans. Traditional laboratory rodents do not exhibit social affiliations with specific peers, and cannot adequately model how such relationships impact drinking. The prairie vole is a socially monogamous rodent used to study social bonds. The present study tested the prairie vole as a potential model for the effects of social affiliations on alcohol drinking. Same-sex adult sibling prairie voles were paired for five days, and then either separated into individual cages, or housed in pairs. Starting at the time of separation, the voles received unlimited access to alcohol in a two-bottle choice test versus water. Pair-housed siblings exhibited higher preference for alcohol, but not saccharin, than singly housed voles. There was a significant correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed by each member of a pair when they were housed together (r = 0.79), but not when housed apart (r = 0.20). Following automated analysis of circadian patterns of fluid consumption indicating peak fluid intake before and after the dark phase, a limited access two-hour two-bottle choice procedure was established. Drinking in this procedure resulted in physiologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations and increased Fos immunoreactivity in perioculomotor urocortin containing neurons (but not in nucleus accumbens or central nucleus of the amygdala). The high ethanol preference and sensitivity to social manipulation indicate that prairie voles can serve to model social influences on excessive drinking.

  18. Who are the bosses? Group influence on the behavior of voles following owl attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Michal; Bodek, Sivan; Eilam, David

    2014-10-01

    Individual members of a group must conform to the group norms, as they may otherwise become isolated from the group or the group may split. On the other hand, social groups usually comprise various social ranks and display a differential division of labor and consequently different behaviors. The present study was aimed at examining how the above factors are manifested in social voles that had experienced owl attack. Here, we reconfirm the findings of past studies: that grouped voles converge to display similar behavior after owl attack. In addition, we found that high-mass voles were more active in the open sectors of the experimental set-ups both before and after the owl attack, whereas low-mass voles dichotomized to those that increased and those that decreased their activity in the open following owl attack. Taking body mass as a proxy for social rank, it is suggested that as a consequence of their larger size and of their experience and physical strength, high-mass voles both presented an exemplary model for the low-mass voles and, accordingly, assumed leadership and stabilized their group's behavior. We also suggest a hypothetical model for the propagation of behavior in hierarchical groups.

  19. Revisiting the “visible burrow system”: The impact of the group, social rank, and gender on voles under owl attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Sivan; Eilam, David

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, corticosterone levels and behavior were compared between voles (Microtus socialis) that were attacked by a barn owl (Tyto alba) and voles that did not experience such attack. Both female and male voles were exposed to the owl either together with their group mates or when socially isolated. As hypothesized, corticosterone levels were higher in voles after the owl attack, and were higher in females than in males. However, blood corticosterone was higher in voles that experienced the attack in groups compared with the socially-isolated voles. The latter result seems enigmatic, since group members usually benefit from the “social buffering” conferred by their group-mates. It is suggested that contagious vigilance among group members accounts for the higher mean corticosterone level in grouped compared to socially-isolated voles, overshadowing the possible impact of social buffering. We also found a negative correlation between body mass and corticosterone level, with more high-mass voles showing low corticosterone levels compared with low mass voles. This finding accords with a previous study in which the behavior of high-mass voles was less affected by owl attack compared to low-mass voles. The novelty of the present results therefore lies in supporting, at the hormonal level, past behavioral findings in rats and voles, and in demonstrating that high-mass voles, by virtue of their physical strength and perhaps also their life experience, are less stressed by the owl attack and become the leaders and stabilizers of their groups.

  20. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  1. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  2. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  3. In vitro culture and in vitro fertilization techniques for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Kengo; Hidema, Shizu; Hirayama, Takashi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-07

    Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a highly social animal and is a commonly used animal model for neuropsychopharmacological and psychiatric studies. To date, only a few reports on the development of transgenic prairie voles which was primarily due to the suboptimal development of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in prairie voles. Limitations in ART further hinder the development of genetically modified prairie voles such as the application of conventional gene targeting technologies using embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate chimeric prairie voles. Moreover, recent advancement in genome-editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to create gene targeting animal model and the development of ART in prairie voles is necessary for future development of novel transgenic prairie vole model. We have established efficient method for in vitro embryo culture and sperm cryopreservation with high fertilization rate. In G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS sequential culture condition, 81.0% (# of Blastocysts/total n) of one-cell embryos developed to blastocysts. In contrary, no embryos were developed to blastocyst stage in KSOM medium (0/total # of embryos in culture). In vitro fertilization rate using fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was 32.6% and 29.3%, respectively. This is the first report of IVF using cryopreserved prairie vole sperm. We employed mouse IVF methods in prairie voles and optimize culture conditions using human G-1/G-2 PLUS sequential culture method that resulted in high embryonic development rate. The development in vole reproductive technology will facilitate the generation of transgenic voles in the future.

  4. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Comparative distribution of central neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Hitchcock, Leah N; Anacker, Allison M J; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated as a modulator of social behavior, often in a species-specific manner. Comparative studies of closely related vole species are particularly useful for identifying neural systems involved in social behaviors in both voles and humans. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was performed to compare NPY-like immunoreactivity (-ir) in brain tissue of the socially monogamous prairie vole and non-monogamous meadow vole. Species differences in NPY-ir were observed in a number of regions including the cortex, extended amygdala, septal area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and intergeniculate leaf. Meadow voles had higher NPY-ir in all these regions as compared to prairie voles. No differences were observed in the striatum or hippocampus. The extended amygdala and lateral septum are regions that play a key role in regulation of monogamous behaviors such as pair bonding and paternal care. The present study suggests NPY in these regions may be an additional modulator of these species-specific social behaviors. Meadow voles had moderately higher NPY-ir in a number of hypothalamic regions, especially in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Meadow voles also had much higher levels of NPY-ir in the intergeniculate leaflet, another key region in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Overall, species differences in NPY-ir were observed in a number of brain regions implicated in emotion, stress, circadian, and social behaviors. These findings provide additional support for a role for the NPY system in species-typical social behaviors.

  6. Autolabelling of gamasid mites and fleas in nests of red voles in winter (according to radioisotope labelling data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' bov, S.A.; Lavrenchenko, L.A.; Nikolaeva, G.A.

    Data concerning trophic associations between gamasid mites and fleas in cohabitation with red voles in nests in winter were presented and discussed. Red voles (Cl. glareolus) were trapped, labelled with radioactive cobalt and radioactive glycine, released and traced with the aid of radiometers. H. nidi and C. penicilliger were found to be the most numerous among the mites and fleas in the winter nests of the voles and were the most actively feeding species. H. nidi and C. penicilliger numbers increased with the increase of time of use of the nests by the voles and had little relationship to the abundance of these species in the nests. Other species assumed that the connection between the gamasid mites, fleas and voles was topical rather than trophic. 11 references, 4 figures.

  7. Consumers limit the abundance and dynamics of a perennial shrub with a seed bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, M.J.; Maron, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, ecologists have argued that predators of seeds and seedlings seldom have population-level effects on plants with persistent seed banks and density-dependent seedling survival. We parameterized stage-based population models that incorporated density dependence and seed dormancy with data from a 5.5-year experiment that quantified how granivorous mice and herbivorous voles influence bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) demography. We asked how seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival mediate the impacts of these consumers in dune and grassland habitats. In dune habitat, mice reduced analytical ?? (the intrinsic rate of population growth) by 39%, the equilibrium number of above-ground plants by 90%, and the seed bank by 98%; voles had minimal effects. In adjacent grasslands, mice had minimal effects, but seedling herbivory by voles reduced analytical ?? by 15% and reduced both the equilibrium number of aboveground plants and dormant seeds by 63%. A bootstrap analysis demonstrated that these consumer effects were robust to parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that the quantitative strengths of seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival-not their mere existence-critically mediate consumer effects. This study suggests that plant population dynamics and distribution may be more strongly influenced by consumers of seeds and seedlings than is currently recognized. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago.

  8. Infection of SARS-CoV on juvenile and adult Brandt's vole Microtus brandtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; PENG Jingpian; DENG Wei; SHI Dazhao; BAO Linlin; WANG Dehua; ZHANG Binglin; QIN Chuan; ZHANG Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    We studied the infectious effect of SARS-CoV virus on juvenile and adult Brandt's Vole (Microtus brandtii) by nasal cavity spraying method (CCID50 is 105.7). SARS virus caused serious deaths in adults. The death adults demonstrated hemorrhage from mouth, nasal cavity and intestine, hemorrhageious interstitial pneumonia and gore in liver, spleen and kidney. The survival adults demonstrated local hemorrhagic spot in lung and emphysema, but the other organs showed no pathological abnormality. SARS virus caused no deaths in juveniles, but locomotion of infected juveniles became slower. In the early stage, there was local pneumonia in lung and SARS viruses were isolated from the pathological tissue. Only one control juvenile lived and the infected juvenile showed local pneumonia in lung. The results demonstrated that SARS-CoV infected Brandt's vole seriously and adults were more susceptive to SARS-CoV than juveniles. The Brandt's vole may be a potential animal model for SARS research.

  9. Morphotype analysis of the sibling vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) casually introduced to the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, Mikhail Petrovich; Kartavtseva, Irina Vasiljevna; Lapin, Alexander Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the morphotypic variety of the m1 and M3 teeth diagnostics for the recently formed isolated population of the sibling vole in Far Eastern Russia. In the Far Eastern population, the prevalence of the individuals with m1 with a complicated crown of the forward unpaired loop of the paraconid is characteristic. Namely, m1 in these individuals shows well-expressed sixth exterior and fifth interior salient angles. The structure of the M3 morphotypes is also unique in the sibling voles in Far Eastern Russia. The dominant morphotypes were typica (47 %) and simplex (45 %), whereas the abundance of the duplicata morphotype was 0.08 %. The frequencies of various m1 and M3 morphotypes found in casually introduced sibling voles in the Far East are not typical of any previously studied Microtus rossiaemeridionalis population.

  10. Intraspecific variation in the energetics of the Cabrera vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Frías, Elena; García-Perea, Rosa; Gisbert, Julio; Bozinovic, Francisco; Virgós, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an intensively topic studied in ecophysiology for the purpose of understanding energy budgets of the species, variations of energy expenditure during their diary activities and physiological acclimatization to the environment. Establishing how the metabolism is assembled to the environment can provide valuable data to improve conservation strategies of endangered species. In this sense, metabolic differences associated to habitats have been widely reported in the interspecific level, however little is known about the intraspecific view of BMR under an environmental gradient. In this study, we researched the effect of the habitat on metabolic rate of an Iberian endemic species: Iberomys cabrerae. Animals were captured in different subpopulations of its altitudinal range and their MR was studied over a thermal gradient. MR was analyzed through a Linear Mixed Model (LMM) in which, in addition to thermal effects, the bioclimatic zone and sex also influenced the metabolism of the species. The beginning of thermoneutrality zone was set on 26.5°C and RMR was 2.3ml O2g(-1)h(-1), intermediate between both bioclimatic zones. Supramediterranean subpopulations started the Tlc earlier (24.9°C) and had higher RMR than the mesomediterranean ones (26.9°C). The thermal environment together with primary productivity conditions could explain this difference in the metabolic behaviour of the Cabrera voles.

  11. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles.

  12. Developmental expression of estrogen receptor beta in the brain of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonka, Stephanie D; Eaton, Jennifer L; Carr, Michael S; Schmidt, Jennifer V; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-03-01

    Here, for the first time, the expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is characterized in the brains of the highly prosocial prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). ERβ immunoreactivity was compared in weanlings (postnatal Day 21) and adult males and females. The results indicate several major findings. First, unlike ERα, ERβ expression is not sexually dimorphic. Second, the adult pattern of ERβ-IR is established at the time of weaning, as there were no age-dependent effects on distribution. Finally, ERβ does not appear to be as widely distributed in voles compared with rats and mice. High levels of ERβ-IR were observed in several regions/nuclei within the medial pre-optic area, ventrolateral pre-optic nuclei, and in the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. The visualization of ERβ in prairie voles is important as the socially monogamous prairie vole functions as a human relevant model system for studying the expression of social behavior and social deficit disorders. Future studies will now be able to determine the effect of treatments on the expression and/or development of ERβ in this highly social species.

  13. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predato

  14. Trace metals in soil vegetation, and voles from mine land treated with sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberici, T.M.; Sopper, W.E.; Storm, G.L.; Yahner, R.H.

    Trace-metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and tissues of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were compared on a stripmined site reclaimed conventionally (control site) and with municipal sludge (treated site) in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in March and April 1983. With the exception of Zn concentrations in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), reclamation with municipal sludge did not increase trace metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, or meadow voles in comparison to the site reclaimed conventionally. Zinc concentration in birdsfoot trefoil from the site reclaimed with sludge was higher than that from the site reclaimed conventionally but was below phytotoxic levels. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, and Ni in vole tissues were not significantly different between control and treated sites. However, Cr concentrations in kidney and bone and Pb concentrations in liver and bone were higher on the control site than on the treated site. Stomach analyses indicated that meadow voles preferred tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae L.) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens L.) to birdsfoot trefoil and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) 27 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  15. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality.

  16. Vitamin D(3) enhances the expression of I-mfa, an inhibitor of the MyoD family, in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K; Kraut, N; Groudine, M; Noda, M

    2001-05-28

    I-mfa (inhibitor of the MyoD family) is a transcription modulator that binds to and suppresses the transcriptional activity of MyoD family members. I-mfa transcripts are expressed in sclerotome, suggesting a role of I-mfa in skeletogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of I-mfa in osteoblasts. We found that I-mfa is expressed at a low level in an osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3E1, and a pluripotent differentiation modulator, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), specifically enhanced I-mfa mRNA expression. This effect was completely blocked by the presence of an RNA polymerase inhibitor, but not by a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) upregulates transcription of the I-mfa gene without requirement for new protein synthesis. Western blot analysis indicated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) increased the I-mfa protein levels severalfold in MC3T3E1 cells. I-mfa expression was also observed in primary mouse calvaria cells and ROS17/2.8 cells and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhanced I-mfa expression in these cells. These data indicate that I-mfa is a novel transcriptional regulator gene expressed in osteoblasts and that its level is under the control of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3).

  17. A highly divergent Puumala virus lineage in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Paweł; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-01-16

    Puumala virus (PUUV) represents one of the most important hantaviruses in Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of PUUV strains indicate a strong genetic structuring of this hantavirus. Recently, PUUV sequences were identified in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), collected in the northern part of Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of PUUV in bank voles from southern Poland. A total of 72 bank voles were trapped in 2009 at six sites in this part of Poland. RT-PCR and IgG-ELISA analyses detected three PUUV positive voles at one trapping site. The PUUV-infected animals were identified by cytochrome b gene analysis to belong to the Carpathian and Eastern evolutionary lineages of bank vole. The novel PUUV S, M and L segment nucleotide sequences showed the closest similarity to sequences of the Russian PUUV lineage from Latvia, but were highly divergent to those previously found in northern Poland, Slovakia and Austria. In conclusion, the detection of a highly divergent PUUV lineage in southern Poland indicates the necessity of further bank vole monitoring in this region allowing rational public health measures to prevent human infections.

  18. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  19. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  20. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P palm oil level. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), while a negative correlation existed between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mRNA expressions of LPL and MyoD in muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  1. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  2. Differential mesodermal expression of two amphioxus MyoD family members (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Nicholas D.

    2003-01-01

    To explore the evolution of myogenic regulatory factors in chordates, we isolated two MyoD family genes (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2) from amphioxus. AmphiMRF1 is first expressed at the late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm. As the first somites form, expression is restricted to their myotomal region. In the early larva, expression is strongest in the most anterior and most posterior somites. AmphiMRF2 transcription begins at mid/late gastrula in the paraxial mesoderm, but never spreads into its most anterior region. Through much of the neurula stage, AmphiMRF2 expression is strong in the myotomal region of all somites except the most anterior pair; by late neurula expression is downregulated except in the most posterior somites forming just rostral to the tail bud. These two MRF genes of amphioxus have partly overlapping patterns of mesodermal expression and evidently duplicated independent of the diversification of the vertebrate MRF family.

  3. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  4. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  5. Modelling the loss of genetic diversity in vole populations in a spatially and temporally varying environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Østergaard, Siri; Pertoldi, Cino

    2003-01-01

    to habitat availability and their influence on vole behaviour. Interaction between spatial and temporal dynamics altered the ratio of effective population size to census size. This indicates an altered reproductive potential, crucial in conservation biology applications. However, when the loss...... a genetically explicit individual-based model (IBM) coupled to a dynamic landscape model was used to obtain measures for the genetic status of simulated vole populations. The rate of loss of expected heterozygosity (He) was calculated for simulated populations using two levels of spatial and temporal...... heterogeneity. Results showed that both spatial and temporal heterogeneity exerted an influence on the rate of loss of genetic diversity, but the precise effect was a balance between the effects of population sub-structuring, the frequency of founder effects and population size. These were in turn related...

  6. Landscape structure mediates the effects of a stressor on field vole populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Topping, Chris J.; Sibly, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    containing more grassland and (2) where areas of grassland are closer to orchards, but (3) do worse if larger areas of orchards are treated with pesticide. To test these hyposeses we made appropriate manipulations to a model landscape occupied by field voles. Pesticide application reduced model population...... results show that accurate prediction of population impact cannot be achieved without taking account of landscape structure. The specifics of landscape structure and habitat connectivity are likely always important in mediating the effects of stressors....

  7. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

  8. Reproductive potential of a vole pest (Arvicola scherman in Spanish apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Somoano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossorial water voles, Arvicola scherman, feed on tree roots causing important damages in European apple orchards. Since the intensity of crop damage produced by rodents ultimately depends on their inherent capacity to increase their population, the main goal of this study was to determine the reproductive potential of the subspecies A. scherman cantabriae in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain, where voles breed over the whole year. Our results were compared with those reported for the subspecies A. scherman monticola from the Spanish Pyrenees (where reproduction ceases in winter. Sexual characteristics, body condition, relative age class and number of embryos were recorded from 422 females caught in apple orchards along two years. We found pregnant females all along the year, which were able to produce a high number of litters per year (7.30 although litter size was relatively moderate (first year: 3.87 embryos/female; second year: 3.63 embryos/females. The potential number of pups per female and year (first year: 28.25; second year: 26.50 was substantially higher than that reported for Pyrenean voles, what is probably related with differences in the length of the breeding season and in life histories between subspecies. In our population, the number of implanted embryos correlated positively with the body condition of the mother. Our results reveal that management efforts should not be seasonal as they used to be so far and invite to explore the physiological consequences of management practices.

  9. A Study of Changes in Uterine Leucocytes During Early Pregnancy in the Mouse-vole Interspesific Pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diah Tri Widayati; Tatsuya Tada; Naoko Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Mouse and vole embryos were allogeneically and xenogeneically transferred into pseudopregnant CD.1 and immunodeficient (seid)female mice,and we investigated the distribution of uterine leucocytes cells in the implantation sites on days 5,6,and 7 of pregnancy. Maerophages were evenly distributed in the endometrium on days 5-7.Neutrophils were rarely seen on days 5-7,but lymphocytes were found throughout the endometrium,often in groups associated with glands or the luminal epithelium.The number of uNK cells increased markedly at the mesometrial uriangle and the outer decidual area in the CD-1 uteri containing vole embryos;by contrast,seid uteri having vole embryos showed almost the same number as those having mouse embryos.Mast cells were present in large numbers at the myometrium,but rarely in the decidua in all types of pregnant uteri.Cells at the myometrium were more numerous in xenogeneic than in allogeneic transfer.Maay mast cells appeared in the inner decidua where xenogeneically transferred vole embryos were dead and aborted.These results suggest the possibility that uterine leucocytes mediate various immunological events in the mouse-vole interspesific pregnancies.

  10. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  11. Banking Reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  12. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  13. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  14. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  15. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  16. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  17. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  18. Molecular characterization of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) from Taiwan voles (Microtus kikuchii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Lin, En-Chung; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that senses and adapts cells to hypoxic environmental conditions. HIF-1 is composed of an oxygen-regulated α subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutively expressed β subunit (HIF-1β). Taiwan voles (Microtus kikuchii) are an endemic species in Taiwan, found only in mountainous areas greater than 2000m above sea level. In this study, the full-length HIF-1α cDNA was cloned and sequenced from liver tissues of Taiwan voles. We found that HIF-1α of Taiwan voles had high sequence similarity to HIF-1α of other species. Sequence alignment of HIF-1α functional domains indicated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) and C-terminal transactivation (TAD-C) domains were conserved among species, but sequence variations were found between the oxygen-dependent degradation domains (ODDD). To measure Taiwan vole HIF-1α responses to hypoxia, animals were challenged with cobalt chloride, and HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression in brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and muscle was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Upon induction of hypoxic stress with cobalt chloride, an increase in HIF-1α mRNA levels was detected in lung, heart, kidney, and muscle tissue. In contrast, protein expression levels showed greater variation between individual animals. These results suggest that the regulation of HIF-1α may be important to the Taiwan vole under cobalt chloride treatments. But more details regarding the evolutionary effect of environmental pressure on HIF-1α primary sequence, HIF-1α function and regulation in Taiwan voles remain to be identified.

  19. Long non-coding RNA Linc-RAM enhances myogenic differentiation by interacting with MyoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yong; Li, Tingting; Ma, Zhao; Jia, Haixue; Chen, Qian; Zhao, Yixia; Zhai, Lili; Zhong, Ran; Li, Changyin; Zou, Xiaoting; Meng, Jiao; Chen, Antony K.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Chen, Meihong; Zhu, Dahai

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological processes. Here we report on functional identification and characterization of a novel long intergenic non-coding RNA with MyoD-regulated and skeletal muscle-restricted expression that promotes the activation of the myogenic program, and is therefore termed Linc-RAM (Linc-RNA Activator of Myogenesis). Linc-RAM is transcribed from an intergenic region of myogenic cells and its expression is upregulated during myogenesis. Notably, in vivo functional studies show that Linc-RAM knockout mice display impaired muscle regeneration due to the differentiation defect of satellite cells. Mechanistically, Linc-RAM regulates expression of myogenic genes by directly binding MyoD, which in turn promotes the assembly of the MyoD–Baf60c–Brg1 complex on the regulatory elements of target genes. Collectively, our findings reveal the functional role and molecular mechanism of a lineage-specific Linc-RAM as a regulatory lncRNA required for tissues-specific chromatin remodelling and gene expression. PMID:28091529

  20. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Comparative toxicity of acephate in laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The LD50 (95% confidence limits) of the organophosphorus insecticide acephate was estimated to be 351, 380, and 321 mg/kg (295?416, 280?516, and 266?388 mg/kg) for CD-1 laboratory mice (Mus musculus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respectively. In a second study, these species were provided mash containing 0, 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for five days. Brain and plasma cholinesterase activities were reduced in a dose-dependent manner to a similar extent in the three species (inhibition of brain acetyl-cholinesterase averaged for each species ranged from 13 to 22% at 25 ppm, 33 to 42% at 100 ppm, and 56 to 57% at 400 ppm). Mash intake, body or liver weight, plasma enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase), hepatic enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and glutathione S-transferase), and cytochrome content (P-450 and b5) were not affected by acephate ingestion, although values differed among species. In a third experiment, mice and voles received 400 ppm acephate for 5 days followed by untreated food for up to 2 weeks. Mean inhibition of brain acetylcholin-esterase for the three species ranged from 47 to 58% on day 5, but by days 12 and 19, activity had recovered to 66 to 76% and 81 to 88% of concurrent control values. These findings indicate that CD-1 laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles are equally sensitive to acephate when maintained under uniform laboratory conditions. Several factors (e.g., behavior, food preference, habitat) could affect routes and degree of exposure in the field, thereby rendering some species of wild rodents ecologically more vulnerable to organophosphorus insecticides.

  2. Autonomic substrates of the response to pups in male prairie voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Kenkel

    Full Text Available Caregiving by nonparents (alloparenting and fathers is a defining aspect of human social behavior, yet this phenomenon is rare among mammals. Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster spontaneously exhibit high levels of alloparental care, even in the absence of reproductive experience. In previous studies, exposure to a pup was selectively associated with increased activity in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons along with decreased plasma corticosterone. In the present study, physiological, pharmacological and neuroanatomical methods were used to explore the autonomic and behavioral consequences of exposing male prairie voles to a pup. Reproductively naïve, adult male prairie voles were implanted with radiotransmitters used for recording ECG, temperature and activity. Males responded with a sustained increase in heart-rate during pup exposure. This prolonged increase in heart rate was not explained by novelty, locomotion or thermoregulation. Although heart rate was elevated during pup exposure, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA did not differ between these males and males exposed to control stimuli indicating that vagal inhibition of the heart was maintained. Blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors with atenolol abolished the pup-induced heart rate increase, implicating sympathetic activity in the pup-induced increase in heart rate. Blockade of vagal input to the heart delayed the males' approach to the pup. Increased activity in brainstem autonomic regulatory nuclei was also observed in males exposed to pups. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to a pup activates both vagal and sympathetic systems. This unique physiological state (i.e. increased sympathetic excitation of the heart, while maintaining some vagal cardiac tone associated with male caregiving behavior may allow males to both nurture and protect infants.

  3. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  4. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  5. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  6. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  7. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  8. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  9. Predicting Small Bank Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heyliger, Wilton E.; Don P. Holdren

    1991-01-01

    There are many studies of bank performance and bank failure in the literature. Most of these studies used banking ratios as variables in their models without giving consideration to their appropriateness, nor was much consideration given to the stability of those ratios through time and across asset size. Many studies also failed to recognize that bank structure may differ by asset size. This study evaluates a large number of banking variables in order to identify stable ratios. These ratios ...

  10. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  11. Flooding ecology of voles, mice and shrews: the importance of geomorphological and vegetational heterogeneity in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Velde, G. van der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Smits, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Since voles, mice and shrews are important animals in food chains of river floodplains, there is a need for data on their spatial and temporal distribution in periodically flooded areas. During a live trapping study between two successive floods in an embanked river floodplain, the ’Afferdensche en

  12. Novel, species-typical esters from preputial glands of sympatric voles,Microtus montanus andM. pennsylvanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, C J; Moore, R E; Bartelt, R J; Jackson, L L

    1988-01-01

    Olfactory signals may facilitate species recognition between the sympatric voles,Microtus montanus andM. pennsylvanicus. In an effort to isolate and identify compounds that might contribute to such a chemical communication system, the preputial glands of those voles have been examined. Morphological examinations show both vole species possess preputial glands; however, the glands ofM. montanus are much larger than those ofM. pennsylvanicus. Gas Chromatographie analysis revealed that the preputial glands ofM. montanus contain a series of species-typical lipids that are not found inM. pennsylvanicus. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, the species-typical lipids were identified as esters of branched, saturated, and unsaturated C5 and C4 alcohols and straight-chain C16, and "iso" branched C17 fatty acids. This is the first description of such esters from mammalian tissues. The results are discussed relative to the possibility that the species-typical esters act as species recognition cues for the sympatric voles.

  13. Temporal niche switching and reduced nest attendance in response to heat dissipation limits in lactating common voles (Microtus arvalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Simons, Mirre J.P.; Reimert, Inonge; Gerkema, Menno P.

    2014-01-01

    According to the heat dissipation limit theory, maximum metabolic turnover is limited by the capacity of the body to dissipate excess heat. Small mammals, including common voles (Microtus arvalis), face a heat dissipation limitation during lactation. Pup growth and milk production are reduced under

  14. Post-Hoc Pattern-Oriented Testing and Tuning of an Existing Large Model: Lessons from the Field Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalkvist, Trine; Grimm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    develop an existing agent-based model of the field vole (Microtus agrestis), which was developed and tested within the ALMaSS framework. This framework is complex because it includes a high-resolution representation of the landscape and its dynamics, of the individual’s behavior, and of the interaction...

  15. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism.

  16. Phase Control of Ultradian Feeding Rhythms in the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) : The Roles of Light and the Circadian System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Daan, Serge; Wilbrink, Marieke; Hop, Martina W.; Leest, Floris van der

    1993-01-01

    In their ultradian (2- to 3-hr) feeding rhythm, common voles show intraindividual synchrony from day to day, as well as interindividual synchrony between members of the population, even at remote distances. This study addresses the question of how resetting of the ultradian rhythm, a prerequisite fo

  17. Ongoing ultradian activity rhythms in the common vole, Microtus arvalis, during deprivations of food, water and rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Leest, Floris van der

    1991-01-01

    The timing mechanism underlying ultradian (2-3 h) activity patterns in the common vole, Microtus arvalis, was studied using behavioural deprivation experiments. These were aimed at distinguishing between a homeostatic control mechanism, in which the rhythmic behaviour itself is part of the causal lo

  18. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  19. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring.

  20. Emotional attachment of pre-weaning pups to mothers and fathers in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixiong; Zhang, Shuwei; Yu, Chengjun; Li, Yani; Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao

    2017-02-01

    Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear. Here we establish a new animal model for attachment experiments in animals 14-21days old using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of emotional attachment of pups from postnatal 14 to 21days were measured using preference tests. Pups spent more time in contact with their mothers, more time approaching, sniffing, climbing and walking near their mothers, and emitted more calls on their mother's side compared to an unknown female. They also showed a preference for their fathers over an unknown male. While pups displayed attachment to both their mothers and fathers, levels directed towards mothers were higher in tests when mothers and fathers were presented simultaneously. These results indicate that mandarin voles can be used as an animal model to investigate the effects of early emotional attachment disruption on the adult brain and behavior.

  1. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  2. Chronic social isolation enhances reproduction in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes.

  3. Genetic variation and population dispersal of Yangtze voles Microtus fortis calamorum in the Dongting Lake region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongming GUO; Pengfei SONG; Cong GUO; Zhaobin SONG; Yong WANG; Bo LI; Meiwen ZHANG; Jianghong RAN

    2012-01-01

    To understand genetic variation and population dispersal in the Yangtze vole Microtusfortis calamorum distributed in the Dongting Lake region,144 individuals were collected from six habitat patches.The mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced and 17 haplotypes were observed.Of the six investigated populations,haplotype and nucleotide diversities of those from larger patches were higher than those from smaller patches.Nonparametric correlation analysis showed that patch size had a positive correlation with haplotype diversity (r =0.943,P < 0.01).A neighbour-joining tree of the 17 hapiotypes showed no geographic genetic structure among the six populations.Analysis of isolation by distance showed that genetic differentiation among the six populations was not positively related to geographic distance.Analysis of mismatch distribution indicated that the voles had passed through a population expansion.The pattern of haplotype distribution in the Changsha population suggests that the population was established by a founder effect [Current Zoology 58 (2):211-220,2012].

  4. Male prairie voles with different avpr1a microsatellite lengths do not differ in courtship behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Brittney M; Solomon, Nancy G; Noe, Douglas A; Keane, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Females are generally expected to be selective when choosing their social and sexual partners. In a previous laboratory study, female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) showed significant social and sexual preferences for males with longer microsatellite DNA within the avpr1a gene encoding the vasopressin 1a receptor, as predicted if females select mates whose parental behaviour should increase female reproductive success. We tested the hypothesis that males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles exhibit differences in courtship behaviour, which could act as cues for female mate preference. The only behavioural difference we detected between males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles in mate preference trials was that males with short avpr1a microsatellite alleles sniffed the anogenital region of females more frequently during the first two days of the trials. Our results did not strongly support the hypothesis that a male's avpr1a genotype predicts the courtship behaviours we measured and suggests that other courtship behaviours or traits, such as odour and vocalizations, may be more important to female prairie voles when choosing mates. Additional studies using a wider array of species are needed to assess the degree to which male mammal courtship behaviour provides information on mate quality to females.

  5. "Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2014-01-01

    Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...

  6. Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371

  7. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  8. Hierarchical spatial segregation of two Mediterranean vole species: the role of patch-network structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Ricardo; Lambin, Xavier; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    According to ecological theory, the coexistence of competitors in patchy environments may be facilitated by hierarchical spatial segregation along axes of environmental variation, but empirical evidence is limited. Cabrera and water voles show a metapopulation-like structure in Mediterranean farmland, where they are known to segregate along space, habitat, and time axes within habitat patches. Here, we assess whether segregation also occurs among and within landscapes, and how this is influenced by patch-network and matrix composition. We surveyed 75 landscapes, each covering 78 ha, where we mapped all habitat patches potentially suitable for Cabrera and water voles, and the area effectively occupied by each species (extent of occupancy). The relatively large water vole tended to be the sole occupant of landscapes with high habitat amount but relatively low patch density (i.e., with a few large patches), and with a predominantly agricultural matrix, whereas landscapes with high patch density (i.e., many small patches) and low agricultural cover, tended to be occupied exclusively by the small Cabrera vole. The two species tended to co-occur in landscapes with intermediate patch-network and matrix characteristics, though their extents of occurrence were negatively correlated after controlling for environmental effects. In combination with our previous studies on the Cabrera-water vole system, these findings illustrated empirically the occurrence of hierarchical spatial segregation, ranging from within-patches to among-landscapes. Overall, our study suggests that recognizing the hierarchical nature of spatial segregation patterns and their major environmental drivers should enhance our understanding of species coexistence in patchy environments.

  9. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.; Phalen, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  10. Regulation of body mass and adiposity in the field vole, Microtus agrestis: a model of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2007-02-01

    Adult mammals are typically highly resistant to perturbations in their energy balance. In obese humans, however, this control appears to be lost. Apart from a few exceptional cases, this loss of control occurs despite appropriate levels of circulating leptin -- suggesting that elevated adiposity may be a consequence of failure to respond to the leptin signal: leptin resistance. When cold-acclimated male field voles (Microtus agrestis) are transferred from short (SD, 8 h light) to long (LD, 16 h light) photoperiods, they increase dramatically in body mass and fatness for about 4 weeks. After this period, their mass stabilizes at a new plateau about 25% higher than animals maintained in SD. The increase in adiposity is not caused by significant increases in food intake, but reflects an increase in digestive efficiency. Measures of circulating leptin reveal that the increased adiposity is matched by increased circulating leptin. By infusing voles with exogenous leptin, we have demonstrated that SD voles are leptin sensitive (reducing both body mass and food intake), whereas LD animals are leptin resistant. Voles may therefore be a useful model for understanding the process of leptin resistance. The change in leptin sensitivity in voles was not associated with changes in the levels of gene expression of the orexogenic or anorexogenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, measured in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). During the phase that body mass was increasing, however, there was a transient increase in the ARC expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS3). These data suggest that the changes in the expression of SOCS3 in the ARC may be involved in leptin resistance. However, the mechanism by which these changes may be linked to alterations in digestive efficiency that underpin the changes in adiposity, or how the differences are signalled by changes in photoperiod

  11. Investigation of LDHA and COPB1 as candidate genes for muscle development in the MYOD1 region of pig chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haifeng; Xu, Xuewen; Fan, Bing; Rothschild, Max F; Martin, Yerle; Liu, Bang

    2010-01-01

    Porcine MYOD1 gene has been mapped to swine chromosome (SSC) 2p14-p17, which is involved in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. The LDHA (lactate dehydrogenase A) and COPB1 (coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1) genes, which map close to MYOD1, are involved in energy metabolism and protein transport processes. Both genes might play important roles in muscle development. However, little is known about the porcine LDHA and COPB1 genes. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of these two genes were cloned. The mapping results demonstrated that porcine LDHA and COPB1 were all mapped to SSC 2p14-p17. In this region, there are several QTL for growth and carcass traits, including average backfat thickness, lean and fat percentage. The RT-PCR results revealed that both LDHA and COPB1 were highly expressed in porcine skeletal muscle tissues, implying their potential regulatory function of muscle development. LDHA and COPB1 were then mapped to the region and multipoint analyses generated a best sex-averaged map order of each gene between linked markers: MYOD1_75.2 cM _LDHA_79 cM _CSRP3_83.8 cM _TEF-1_86.5 cM _COPB1_90 cM. Association analyses revealed that the substitution of c.423A>G had a significant effect on average daily gain on test, average backfat thickness (BFT), loin muscle area, lumbar BFT, marbling score, tenth rib BFT, average drip loss and fiber type II ratio. The substitution of c.3096C>T had a significant effect on average BFT, lumbar BFT, tenth rib BFT, carcass weight and last rib BFT. Interestingly, both SNPs were all associated with average BFT, lumbar BFT and tenth rib BFT.

  12. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  13. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  14. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  15. Systemic banking crises

    OpenAIRE

    O. Emre Ergungor; James B. Thomson

    2005-01-01

    Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.

  16. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  17. Increasing oxytocin receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens of pre-pubertal female prairie voles enhances alloparental responsiveness and partner preference formation as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) promote alloparental behavior and partner preference formation in female prairie voles. Within the NAcc there is significant individual variation in OXTR binding and virgin juvenile and adult females with a high density of OXTR in the NAcc display an elevated propensity to engage in alloparental behavior toward novel pups. Over-expression of OXTR in the NAcc of adult female prairie voles using viral vector gene transfer facilitates par...

  18. Identification of Two Novel Members of the Tentative Genus Wukipolyomavirus in Wild Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Nainys

    Full Text Available Two novel polyomaviruses (PyVs were identified in kidney and chest-cavity fluid samples of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus and common voles (Microtus arvalis collected in Germany. All cloned and sequenced genomes had the typical PyV genome organization, including putative open reading frames for early regulatory proteins large T antigen and small T antigen on one strand and for structural late proteins (VP1, VP2 and VP3 on the other strand. Virus-like particles (VLPs were generated by yeast expression of the VP1 protein of both PyVs. VLP-based ELISA and large T-antigen sequence-targeted polymerase-chain reaction investigations demonstrated signs of infection of these novel PyVs in about 42% of bank voles and 18% of common voles. In most cases only viral DNA, but not VP1-specific antibodies were detected. In additional animals exclusively VP1-specific antibodies, but no viral DNA was detected, indicative for virus clearance. Phylogenetic and clustering analysis including all known PyV genomes placed novel bank vole and common vole PyVs amongst members of the tentative Wukipolymavirus genus. The other known four rodent PyVs, Murine PyV and Hamster PyV, and Murine pneumotropic virus and Mastomys PyV belong to different phylogenetic clades, tentatively named Orthopolyomavirus I and Orthopolyomavirus II, respectively. In conclusion, the finding of novel vole-borne PyVs may suggest an evolutionary origin of ancient wukipolyomaviruses in rodents and may offer the possibility to develop a vole-based animal model for human wukipolyomaviruses.

  19. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  20. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective.......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  1. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  2. Time banking som ledelsesteknologi

    OpenAIRE

    Steensberg, Maja; Nielsen, Nadia Holm; Thomsen, Søren Tolshave

    2014-01-01

    This project examines how the English time banks Timber Wharf, Echo and Fair Shares affect their members and local environments. Based on Nikolas Rose’s theory on governmentality it is discussed, whether the time banks, understood as political actors, are challenging or reproducing neo-liberal governance. It is concluded that the way the time banks facilitates the concept of timebanking differs greatly. These different conducts are shaping the way in which the time banks are used by their mem...

  3. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations. The last chapter is joint work with Hans Degryse, Jose Liberti and Steven Ongena and studies how banks use ‘soft information’ to monitor small firms. This dissertation uses hand collected internal...

  4. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  5. Easier Bank Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Loosened banking regulations may spur an increase of foreign banks in China Foreign banks will soon have a much easier time setting up outlets in China.According to regulations recently amended by the State Council,as of January 1,foreign

  6. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  7. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  8. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  9. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  10. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A. Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals

  11. The evolutionary radiation of Arvicolinae rodents (voles and lemmings: relative contribution of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Emmanuel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial and nuclear genes have generally been employed for different purposes in molecular systematics, the former to resolve relationships within recently evolved groups and the latter to investigate phylogenies at a deeper level. In the case of rapid and recent evolutionary radiations, mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (CYB are often inefficient for resolving phylogenetic relationships. One of the best examples is illustrated by Arvicolinae rodents (Rodentia; Muridae, the most impressive mammalian radiation of the Northern Hemisphere which produced voles, lemmings and muskrats. Here, we compare the relative contribution of a nuclear marker – the exon 10 of the growth hormone receptor (GHR gene – to the one of the mitochondrial CYB for inferring phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of arvicoline rodents. Results The analysis of GHR sequences improves the overall resolution of the Arvicolinae phylogeny. Our results show that the Caucasian long-clawed vole (Prometheomys schaposnikowi is one of the basalmost arvicolines, and confirm that true lemmings (Lemmus and collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx are not closely related as suggested by morphology. Red-backed voles (Myodini are found as the sister-group of a clade encompassing water vole (Arvicola, snow vole (Chionomys, and meadow voles (Microtus and allies. Within the latter, no support is recovered for the generic recognition of Blanfordimys, Lasiopodomys, Neodon, and Phaiomys as suggested by morphology. Comparisons of parameter estimates for branch lengths, base composition, among sites rate heterogeneity, and GTR relative substitution rates indicate that CYB sequences consistently exhibit more heterogeneity among codon positions than GHR. By analyzing the contribution of each codon position to node resolution, we show that the apparent higher efficiency of GHR is due to their third positions. Although we focus on speciation events spanning the last

  12. Entraide bénévole Suisse - Thaïlande

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Qui sommes-nous ? Une équipe de bénévoles désireux d’améliorer le quotidien de familles productrices, au sud-est de la Thaïlande, en vous offrant une production artisanale d’excellentes épices et tisanes de première qualité. CULTIVÉES SANS PESTICIDES NI ENGRAIS. Nous vous offrons plus de 30 moyens de prendre soin de vous et de ceux que vous aimez! Rejoignez-nous sur : www.saveursdusiam.net  Nous serons le jeudi 1er décembre dans le Bâtiment principal de 10 h 00 à 16 h 00. Les Saveurs du Siam sont parties intégrantes de la FONDATION HOPE-HOUSE «SAWATDI» www.hopehouse.ch

  13. Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dufour, Brett D; Smith, Monique L; Cocking, Davelle L; Li, Ju; Young, Larry J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-04-22

    Alcohol use and abuse profoundly influences a variety of behaviors, including social interactions. In some cases, it erodes social relationships; in others, it facilitates sociality. Here, we show that voluntary alcohol consumption can inhibit male partner preference (PP) formation (a laboratory proxy for pair bonding) in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Conversely, female PP is not inhibited, and may be facilitated by alcohol. Behavior and neurochemical analysis suggests that the effects of alcohol on social bonding are mediated by neural mechanisms regulating pair bond formation and not alcohol's effects on mating, locomotor, or aggressive behaviors. Several neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of social behavior (especially neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor) are modulated by alcohol drinking during cohabitation. These findings provide the first evidence to our knowledge that alcohol has a direct impact on the neural systems involved in social bonding in a sex-specific manner, providing an opportunity to explore the mechanisms by which alcohol affects social relationships.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longqing; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Hao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhiyu; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene) belongs to the subfamily Arvicolinae, which is restricted to mountain areas at high altitudes (2800-4000). In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of N. irene. It was determined to be 16,367 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of N. irene and other 22 rodents were used for phylogenetic analysis. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) were used. Both the BI and ML trees demonstrated that Microtus rossiaemeridionalis and Microtus kikuchii did not cluster together with each other. On the contrary, M. rossiaemeridionalis showed close relationship with N. irene. In the present study, only one sequence from Neodon and two sequences from Microtus were included in the phylogenetic analysis which should contribute to the unusual relationship. Therefore, in order to better understand the phylogenetic relationship within Rodentia, more rodents' complete mitochondrial genomes are required.

  15. Early experiences can alter the size of cortical fields in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelke, A.M.H.; Yuan, S.-M.; Perkeybile, A.M.; Krubitzer, L.A.; Bales, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth. When animals reached adulthood, their brains were removed, the cortex was flattened, cut parallel to the pial surface, and stained for myelin to identify the architectonic boundaries of sensory and motor areas. We measured the overall proportion of cortex that was myelinated, as well as the proportion of cortex devoted to the sensory and motor areas. Both the chronic and acute manipulations were linked to significant alterations in areal boundaries of cortical fields, but the areas affected differed with different conditions. Thus, differences in parental care and early exposure to OT can both change cortical organization, but their effects are not identical. Furthermore, the effects of both manipulations were sexually dimorphic, with a greater number of statistically significant differences in females than in males. These results indicate that early environmental experience, both through exposure to exogenous neuropeptides and parental contact, can alter the size of cortical fields.

  16. Pika and vole mitochondrial genomes increase support for both rodent monophyly and glires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Waddell, Peter J; Penny, David

    2002-07-10

    Complete mitochondrial genomes are reported for a pika (Ochotona collaris) and a vole (Volemys kikuchii) then analysed together with 35 other mitochondrial genomes from mammals. With standard phylogenetic methods the pika joins with the other lagomorph (rabbit) and the vole with the other murid rodents (rat and mouse). In addition, with hedgehog excluded, the seven rodent genomes consistently form a homogeneous group in the unrooted placental tree. Except for uncertainty of the position of tree shrew, the clade Glires (monophyletic rodents plus lagomorphs) is consistently found. The unrooted tree obtained by ProtML (Protein Maximum Likelihood, a program in MOLPHY) is compatible with a reclassification of mammals [Syst. Biol. 48, 1-5 (1999)] which is also supported by other recent studies. However, when this tree is rooted with marsupials plus platypus, the outgroup often joins the lineage leading to the three murid rodents, so the rodents are no longer monophyletic. Apart from misplacing the root, the presence of the outgroups also distorts other parts of the unrooted tree. Either constraining the tree to maintain rodents monophyletic, or omitting murids, maintains the ingroup tree and sees the outgroup join on the edge to Xenarthra, to Afrotheria, or to these two groups together. This emphasises the importance of carrying out both an unrooted and a rooted analysis. It is known from cancer research that murid rodents have reduced activity in some DNA repair mechanisms and this alters their substitution pattern - this may be the case for mitochnodrial DNA as well. Comparing nucleotide compositions may identify taxa that differ in aspects of their DNA repair mechanisms.

  17. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient...

  18. Banking System in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  19. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  20. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  1. Do Foreign Banks Lead in Internet Banking Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooi Guan CHEAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.

  2. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  3. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  4. COMMERCIAL BANK LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KOREKOV A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Bank liquidity management and optimal resource allocation of commercial bank Nostro accounts balances receive much less attention from the scientists compared to the questions on capital structure, funding, credit risk analysis and stress testing. Optimal liquidity management is a way to lower bank costs and risks, which are going to increase over time, especially when money markets are dry of free funds. There are two sides of the issue to be analyzed. The optimal resource allocation and cor...

  5. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  6. Essays on banking and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, R.I.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions

  7. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  8. Influence of photoperiod and sex on locomotor behavior of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in an automated light-dark 'anxiety' test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; van Anders, Sari M; Engeland, Christopher G; Kavaliers, Martin

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the influence of photoperiod on affective behavior (anxiety) of adult male and female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), maintained in either a long or short day photoperiod, when tested in an automated (VersaMax) light-dark test. The light-dark test is based on an innate aversion of rodents to novel, brightly illuminated spaces and has been used with laboratory raised species, such as mice, to assess anxiety and/or fear related behaviors. Male and female meadow voles, housed either in a long day (LD: 16 h light) or short day (SD: 8 h light) photoperiod, were tested in the light-dark apparatus for 30 min on 3 consecutive days. All animals spent significantly (p test day but the most active group in the light area, despite spending the least amount of time in this area on the second and third test days. The present results show that LD voles exhibit more anxiety related behaviors in this test situation than do SD voles. LD females avoided the brightly lit area the most, particularly when the apparatus was novel. Thus, both photoperiod and sex influence situation-based anxiety in this species. These findings suggest that meadow voles are an excellent animal model in which to examine the role of gonadal hormones, and their modulation of defence related neural systems, in the induction of anxiety.

  9. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.

  10. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  11. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  12. Dual Banking Systems and Interest Rate Risk for Islamic Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    In introducing Islamic banking in Malaysia, the basic strategy was to replicate the products/ services offered by conventional banks. The successful implementation of such a strategy has meant that Malaysia today has a truly dual banking system. Islamic banks in Malaysia not only have product similarity with conventional banks but share the same overall economic environment and a common customer base. The ability of non Muslim customers/depositors to switch between the two banking syste...

  13. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  14. Identification of variables contributing to superovulation efficiency for production of transgenic prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keebaugh Alaine C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an emerging animal model for biomedical research because of its rich sociobehavioral repertoire. Recently, lentiviral transgenic technology has been used to introduce the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP into the prairie vole germline. However, the efficiency of transgenesis in this species is limited by the inability to reliably produce large numbers of fertilized embryos. Here we examined several factors that may contribute to variability in superovulation success including, age and parentage of the female, and latency to mating after being placed with the male. Methods Females produced from 5 genetically distinct breeder lines were treated with 100 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and immediately housed with a male separated by a perforated Plexiglas divider. Ovulation was induced 72 hr later with 30 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and 2 hrs later mating was allowed. Results Superovulation was most efficient in young females. For example, females aged 6-11 weeks produced more embryos (14 +/- 1.4 embryos as compared to females aged 12-20 weeks (4 +/- 1.6 embryos. Females aged 4-5 weeks did not produce embryos. Further, females that mated within 15 min of male exposure produced significantly more embryos than those that did not. Interestingly, there was a significant effect of parentage. For example, 12 out of 12 females from one breeder pair superovulated (defined as producing 5 or more embryos, while only 2 out of 10 females for other lines superovulated. Conclusions The results of this work suggest that age and genetic background of the female are the most important factors contributing to superovulation success and that latency to mating is a good predictor of the number of embryos to be recovered. Surprisingly we found that cohabitation with the male prior to mating is not necessary for the recovery of embryos but is necessary to recover

  15. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  16. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  17. Innovative strategies of bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Peresadko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.

  18. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, G.J. Van der; Maas, A.

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the ba

  19. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t

  20. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  1. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly el

  2. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  3. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  4. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  5. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  6. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups.

  7. Polyandrous females produce sons that are successful at post-copulatory competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, I; Bäumer, J; Eccard, J A; Ylönen, H

    2014-03-01

    Some of the genetic benefit hypotheses put forward to explain multiple male mating (polyandry) predict that sons of polyandrous females will have an increased competitive ability under precopulatory or post-copulatory competition via paternally inherited traits, such as attractiveness or fertilization efficiency. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing the competitive ability of sons of experimentally monandrous and polyandrous female bank voles (Myodes glareolus), while controlling for potential material and maternal effects. In female choice experiments, we found no clear preference for sons of either monandrous or polyandrous mothers. Moreover, neither male type was dominant over the other, indicating no advantage in precopulatory male contest competition. However, in competitive matings, sons of polyandrous mothers significantly increased their mating efforts (mating duration, intromission number). In line with this, paternity success was biased towards sons of polyandrous mothers. Because there was no evidence for maternal effects, our results suggest that female bank voles gain genetic benefits from polyandry.

  8. Bank Specific and Macroeconomics Dynamic Determinants of Credit Risk in Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Waeibrorheem Waemustafa; Suriani Sukri

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes macroeconomic and bank specific determinants of credit risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks. Multivariate Regression analysis is applied on the sample of 15 conventional banks and 13 Islamic Banks in Malaysia over the period between 2000 and 2010. The finding shows that the banks specific determinants of credit risk are uniquely influenced the credit risk formation of Islamic and Conventional banks. The study found that risky sector financing; regulatory capital (REGCAP) ...

  9. GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  10. Soundness of Ethiopian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdu Kedir Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.

  11. PERBANDINGAN PENGHASILAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH NASABAH BANK SYARIAH (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    ALIMULA, YULIANA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Perbandingan Penghasilan Tabungan Mudharabah Nasabah Bank Syariah (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar) Profit Sharing Comparison of Mudharabah Saving of Islamic Banking (A Case Study at Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, and Bank Muamalat Indonesia in Makassar) Yuliana Alimula Alimuddin Muhammad Ashari Penelitian ini bertujuan un...

  12. Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon

    2004-01-01

    The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.

  13. Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepková Vodová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.

  14. Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.

  15. Captive housing during water vole (Arvicola terrestris reintroduction: does short-term social stress impact on animal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals captive bred for reintroduction are often housed under conditions which are not representative of their preferred social structure for at least part of the reintroduction process. Specifically, this is most likely to occur during the final stages of the release programme, whilst being housed during transportation to the release site. The degree of social stress experienced by individuals during this time may negatively impact upon their immunocompetence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined two measure of stress--body weight and Leukocyte Coping Capacity (LCC--to investigate the effects of group size upon captive-bred water voles destined for release within a reintroduction program. Water voles were housed in laboratory cages containing between one and eight individuals. LCC scores were negatively correlated with group size, suggesting that individuals in larger groups experienced a larger degree of immuno-suppression than did individuals housed in smaller groups or individually. During the course of the study mean body weights increased, in contrast to expectations from a previous study. This was attributed to the individuals sampled being sub-adults and thus growing in length and weight during the course of the investigation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reintroduction process will inevitably cause some stress to the release cohort. However, for water voles we conclude that the stress experienced may be reduced by decreasing group size within captive colony and/or transportation housing practises. These findings are of significance to other species' reintroductions, in highlighting the need to consider life-history strategies when choosing housing systems for animals being maintained in captivity prior to release to the wild. A reduction in stress experienced at the pre-release stage may improve immunocompetence and thus animal welfare and initial survival post-release.

  16. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood banks may capitalize on the fears of vulnerable new parents by providing misleading information about the statistics of stem cell transplants. Parents of children of ethnic or racial minorities, adopted children, or ...

  17. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  18. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , aplastic anemia , severe sickle cell disease , and severe combined immunodeficiency . There are two types of banks that store ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services A Guide ...

  19. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  20. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  1. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization.......In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...

  2. Opaqueness and Bank Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Behr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between opaqueness and bank risk taking. Using a sample of 199 banks from 38 countries over the period January 1996 to December 2006, I analyze whether more opaque banks are riskier than less opaque banks. I find suggestive evidence that commonly used proxies for bank opaqueness are significantly related to bank risk taking as measured by the Merton PD and the bank-individual Z-score, even after accounting for potential simultaneity between risk taking and opaqueness. More opaque banks seem to engage more in risk taking than less opaque banks. This result provides support to the common view that bank opaqueness is problematic and that transparency among financial institutions should be increased.

  3. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  4. Litter size variation in hypothalamic gene expression determines adult metabolic phenotype in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10-12 and small (3-4 litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood.

  5. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Perkeybile

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes, particularly in the transmission of receptor binding patterns.

  6. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  7. Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole ( Lasiopodomys brandtii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4 ± 1 °C) and warm (23 ± 1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.

  8. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  9. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  10. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J.; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Wójcik, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential ‘northern glacial refugium’, i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe. PMID:27992546

  11. From home range dynamics to population cycles: validation and realism of a common vole population model for pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Magnus

    2013-04-01

    Despite various attempts to establish population models as standard tools in pesticide risk assessment, population models still receive limited acceptance by risk assessors and authorities in Europe. A main criticism of risk assessors is that population models are often not, or not sufficiently, validated. Hence the realism of population-level risk assessments conducted with such models remains uncertain. We therefore developed an individual-based population model for the common vole, Microtus arvalis, and demonstrate how population models can be validated in great detail based on published data. The model is developed for application in pesticide risk assessment, therefore, the validation covers all areas of the biology of the common vole that are relevant for the analysis of potential effects and recovery after application of pesticides. Our results indicate that reproduction, survival, age structure, spatial behavior, and population dynamics reproduced from the model are comparable to field observations. Also interannual population cycles, which are frequently observed in field studies of small mammals, emerge from the population model. These cycles were shown to be caused by the home range behavior and dispersal. As observed previously in the field, population cycles in the model were also stronger for longer breeding season length. Our results show how validation can help to evaluate the realism of population models, and we discuss the importance of taking field methodology and resulting bias into account. Our results also demonstrate how population models can help to test or understand biological mechanisms in population ecology.

  12. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  13. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Woolsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47, Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11 and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS (n = 9 with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi. C57BL/6j mice (n = 4 were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3% at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001 and growth (p ≤ 0.0001. No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus.

  14. Heterogeneity of myotubes generated by the MyoD and E12 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in otherwise non-differentiation growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubišić, Vladimir; Gottipati, Manoj K; Stout, Randy F; Grammer, J Robert; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    We used a synthetic biology approach to produce myotubes from mammalian C2C12 myoblasts in non-differentiation growth conditions using the expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, MyoD and E12, in various combinations and configurations. Our approach not only recapitulated the basics of muscle development and physiology, as the obtained myotubes showed qualities similar to those seen in striated muscle fibers in vivo, but also allowed for the synthesis of populations of myotubes which assumed distinct morphology, myofibrillar development and Ca(2+) dynamics. This fashioned class of biomaterials is suitable for the building blocks of soft actuators in micro-scale biomimetic robotics. This production line strategy can be embraced in reparative medicine as synthetic human myotubes with predetermined morphological/functional properties could be obtained using this very approach. This methodology can be adopted beyond striated muscle for the engineering of other tissue components/cells whose differentiation is governed by the principles of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, as in the case, for example, of neural or immune cell types.

  15. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  16. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  17. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  18. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks...

  19. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  20. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring...

  1. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks.Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  2. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  3. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... voting shares of Bank of Anderson, National Association, Anderson, South Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank...

  4. The role of the water voles (Arvicola, Rodentia in the Quatemary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Bustos, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Arvicolids are rodents which have molars with a morphology formed by a sequence of enamel folds similar to the curve y = sin f(x. The morphology of the crown of the first lower molar (mi of living species of Arvicola (large voles is identified with six criteria, irrespective of tooth size. When rootless arvicolid fossil communities are analysed, it can be seen that the mi morphology of Arvicola is present in those communities represented by specimens of small size at the beginning of the Quaternary. Before this data was known, the presence of Arvicola communities could only be detected in the second half of the Quaternary, when the specimens were comparable to the large size characterising living species. The existence of communities of small-sized Arvicola at the beginning of the Quaternary implies that the mi of Arvicola undergoes a continuous and accelerated growth throughout the entire Quatemary, which allows representatives the genus to be used as a chronological tool. These data mean that it is necessary to change the concept of the genus Allophaiomys and to formulate a new classification to reflect evolutionary relationships of quatemary arvicolids.Los arvicólidos son roedores que tienen la morfología de la corona de los dientes formada por una secuencia de pliegues de esmalte que se asemeja a la curva y=sen f(x. Las especies actuales del género Arvicola cumplen en la morfología del molar mI, seis criterios que son independientes de la talla. El examen de las poblaciones de arvicólidos sin raíz, procedentes del Pleistoceno inferior, indica la existencia de molares con una morfología idéntica a la de los ejemplares vivos de Arvicola, pero con menor talla. La existencia de esta identidad permite proponer la hipótesis de poblaciones primitivas del género Arvicola con pequeña talla durante el Pleistoceno Inferior. Estas han pasado desapercibidas entre las poblaciones de Allophaiomys. a causa de su identidad morfológica entre ambos

  5. A Banking System in Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ZHIPENG

    2002-01-01

    THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.

  6. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  7. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  8. Banking Scandals Force Governance Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spate of recent scandals in the banking sector again raises the question of whether corporate governance in banks has been improved to a degree whereby ESOP is a correct and timely consideration.

  9. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Quality management banking perspective is extremely interesting, from the point of view of the activities specific, and of the permanent area competition improvement. Banks being aware of the quality problems also lead to the appearance and requirement of

  10. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  11. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Multimedia

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  12. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  13. Banking On People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In July 1968, the First National City Bank in New York (Citibank) received a government contract to train the disadvantaged by providing orientation, counseling, job related education, supervisor training, child care, transportation, and some medical and dental care. The Job Opportunities in the Business Sector Program (JOBS) stipulated pay of $70…

  14. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  15. Four Women Bank Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FOUR of the five directors of state banks in Beihai City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are women. These women show that women are no longer only able to manage family finance, but they are able to take charge of the important responsibility for state finance. The mayor of Beihai City calls them the city’s outstanding financial affairs managers.

  16. Innovative Secure Mobile Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa T AL-Akhras; Rizik Al-Sayyed; Marwah Alian; Doaa Qwasmi

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of computer technologies in almost all aspects of life, organisations that are connected to the Internet started extending their services to their customers to include new applications and services that satisfy their customers’ desires to make better businesses. One of these emerging applications is mobile banking. The term mobile banking (or m-banking) describes the banking services that the user can perform via a mobile device ubiquitously at anytime and from anywh...

  17. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  18. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  19. One Bank,Two Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC),the only non-listed bank among China’s"big four"state-owned commercial banks,is currently un- der the glare of the reform spotlight.This follows on the heals of Premier Wen Jiabao’s announcement during his government work report in March, that a shareholding system will be introduced in the bank and its role in serving agriculture,farmers and rural areas will remain unchanged.

  20. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    OpenAIRE

    Siswati -

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK), Non Performing Financing (NPF), Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI), dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini ...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Chartered Territories § 614.4070 Loans and chartered territory—Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations,...

  2. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  3. Foreign Banks: Trends and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; van Horen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, foreign banks have become much more important in domestic financial intermediation, heightening the need to understand their behavior. We introduce a new, comprehensive database, made publicly available, on bank ownership (including the home country of foreign banks) for 5

  4. Bank risk, bailouts and ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijskens, R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical analysis in the second part investigates the effect of liquidity assistance and bailouts on bank risk taking and liquidity choice. Furthermore, it explores the possibilities for central banks to create ambiguity about liquidity assistance, thereby influencing bank choices. The result

  5. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  6. Identification of novel anelloviruses with broad diversity in UK rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Dutia, Bernadette M.; Stewart, James P.; Meredith, Anna L.; Shaw, Darren J.; Simmonds, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Anelloviruses are a family of small circular ssDNA viruses with a vast genetic diversity. Human infections with the prototype anellovirus, torque teno virus (TTV), are ubiquitous and related viruses have been described in a number of other mammalian hosts. Despite over 15 years of investigation, there is still little known about the pathogenesis and possible disease associations of anellovirus infections, arising in part due to the lack of a robust cell culture system for viral replication or tractable small-animal model. We report the identification of diverse anelloviruses in several species of wild rodents. The viruses are highly prevalent in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (Microtus agrestis), detectable at a low frequency in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), but absent from house mice (Mus musculus). The viruses identified have a genomic organization consistent with other anelloviruses, but form two clear phylogenetic groups that are as distinct from each other as from defined genera. PMID:24744300

  7. Identification of novel anelloviruses with broad diversity in UK rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Dutia, Bernadette M; Stewart, James P; Meredith, Anna L; Shaw, Darren J; Simmonds, Peter; Sharp, Colin P

    2014-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a family of small circular ssDNA viruses with a vast genetic diversity. Human infections with the prototype anellovirus, torque teno virus (TTV), are ubiquitous and related viruses have been described in a number of other mammalian hosts. Despite over 15 years of investigation, there is still little known about the pathogenesis and possible disease associations of anellovirus infections, arising in part due to the lack of a robust cell culture system for viral replication or tractable small-animal model. We report the identification of diverse anelloviruses in several species of wild rodents. The viruses are highly prevalent in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (Microtus agrestis), detectable at a low frequency in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), but absent from house mice (Mus musculus). The viruses identified have a genomic organization consistent with other anelloviruses, but form two clear phylogenetic groups that are as distinct from each other as from defined genera.

  8. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution...

  9. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  10. Are Chinese Banks Ready for Foreigners?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Banking reform is crucial to China, as banks dominate the country's financial system. The banking sector is dominated by four state-owned commercial banks-the ICBC, the CCB, the BOC, and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC). The listing of the Bank of Communications (BOCOM), China's fifth

  11. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers may... seq., or to a trust for the benefit of all shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks...

  12. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1)...

  13. Sheep grazing causes shift in sex ratio and cohort structure of Brandt's vole: Implication of their adaptation to food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Hou, Xianglei; Wan, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been demonstrated to affect the population abundance of small rodents in grasslands, but the causative mechanism of grazing on demographic parameters, particularly the age structure and sex ratio, is rarely investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of sheep grazing on the cohort structure and sex ratio of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) in Inner Mongolia of China by using large manipulative experimental enclosures during 2010-2013. Our results indicated that sheep grazing significantly decreased the proportion of the spring-born cohort, but increased the proportion of the summer-born cohort. Grazing increased the proportion of males in both spring and summer cohorts. In addition, we found a negative relation between population density and the proportion of the overwinter cohort. Our results suggest that a shift in the cohort structure and the sex ratio may be an important strategy for small rodents to adapt to changes in food resources resulting from livestock grazing.

  14. Vole Population Fluctuations: Why and When?%田鼠种群波动的原因和时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lowell L. Getz

    2005-01-01

    本文总结了橙腹田鼠(Microtus ochrogaster)和草原田鼠(M. pennsylvanicus)25年的种群统计学研究结果和结论.探讨了田鼠种群波动周期性、诱发种群波动以及导致波动期间峰值变异的因素.并对种群存活值和繁殖活动的作用进行了分析和评价.根据两种田鼠种群波动周期性、波动峰值出现的时间以及特定年份峰值的高度等特征,证明两物种波动均具有不稳定性.两种田鼠存活值的变化是由特定年份是否发生波动以及波动峰值出现的时间决定.增加初始阶段的种群密度及时间长度是造成两种动物种群波动峰值不同的主要原因.橙腹田鼠种群停止增长的原因是存活值降低,而草原田鼠则是繁殖活动减少.据推测,与种群波动初始密度相关的种群死亡率的差异是由捕食者的净效应(Net effect)决定的,调控两种群密度的因素均为非密度的其它生态学因子.由于特定年份田鼠种群捕食压力的不确定性,导致了橙腹田鼠和草原田鼠种群波动的不稳定性.%In this paper I summarize the results and conclusions of a 25-year study of demography of the prairie vole(Microtus ochrogaster), and meadow vole (M. pennsylvanicus).The roles of survival and reproduction are evaluated in respect to why population fluctuations occur some years and not others, what initiates a population fluctuation, and what is responsible for the variation in the peak density among population fluctuations. Population fluctuations of both species were erratic in respect to annual occurrence, the time of the peak density of fluctuations within years, and the hight of peak the density a given year. For both species, changes in survival appeared to be responsible for whether a fluctuation occurred a given year and the time of the peak density of a fluctuation. Population density at the beginning of the increase phase and length of the increase were most responsible for variation in peak

  15. MKT500 week 10 Assignment 4 Part d Your Marketing Plan latest 2015   Vole Auto Inc

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    MKT500 week 10 Assignment 4 Part d Your Marketing Plan latest 2015   Vole Auto Inc                 Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/mkt500-week-10-assignment-4/                  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com   Assignment 4: Part D: Your Marketing Plan – Video Presentation( previous assignment attached which you have to refernce to).   Due Week 10 and worth 200 points   Imagine that you are pitching your hypothetical service-based company’s mark...

  16. Comparative Study on the Banking Performances at BCR ERSTE BANK, BRD – GSG and Raiffeisen Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MITITELU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a comparison between the performances of three banks in the banking system in Romania, considered the most representative but also to achieve their classifications and identify correlations between a number of used indicators and indicators expressing banking performance.

  17. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  18. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  19. INFORMATION FROM THE BANK

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS

  20. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  1. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI, dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini menunjukkan bahwa DPK, NPF, dan Bonus SWBI berpengaruh secara simultan terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 99,2% dan sisanya 0,8%  dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial DPK berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 98,65%, sedangkan NPF dan Bonus SWBI tidak signifikan berpengaruh secara parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  2. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?

  3. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other so...... for effective resolution or irresistible incentives through capital charges, it would be best obtained through addition to the EU’s Proposed Structural Measures Regulation now under consideration....

  4. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other so...... for effective resolution or irresistible incentives through capital charges, it would be best obtained through addition to the EU’s Proposed Structural Measures Regulation now under consideration....

  5. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  6. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  7. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  8. Contemporary radiation doses to mice and voles inhabiting East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Starichenko, Vera I.; Chibiryak, Mikhail V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, 202, 8 Marta St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is the radioactively contaminated territory formed after accidental explosion at nuclear waste storage facility of Mayak nuclear plant in 1957. Contemporary doses were estimated for the mice and voles, that were trapped by staff of IPAE at two sites in 2000-s. The site 1 is situated directly close to the territory of the plant. Contemporary surface {sup 90}Sr contamination is 24-40 MBq/m{sup 2}. The site 2 is located as far as 6 km to the north-east from the site 1 (3.1-8.1 MBq/m{sup 2}). Fifty years after accident long-lived {sup 90}Sr is most significant contributor to terrestrial animal's exposure. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr was measured utilising developed nondestructive method of bone beta-radiometry. To estimate radiation doses the strontium biokinetic model and dosimetric model for mouse-like rodent were designed. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr for animals trapped at site 1: 44-1249 Bq/g, mean 592 Bq/g; at site 2: 4-124 Bq/g, mean 32 Bq/g. Following parameters were selected as indicators of exposure: whole body dose (WBD) accumulated during 45 days, skeletal dose accumulated during 45 days and WBD rate on the last day before trapping. As can be seen in the table, there is a full agreement of the radiation dose and the level of surface contamination. For the animals inhabiting the most contaminated site mean WBD rate is close to 1 mGy/day. It can be reliably concluded that considering both internal and external exposures the dose rate exceeds 1 mGr/day in average. Publication 108 ICRP suggests derived consideration reference level (DCRL) for small mammals in a range 0.1-1 mGy/day. Thus in the most contaminated part of the EURT WBD rate exceeds the upper limit of the DCRL. Radiation doses on the second site are significantly lower. Mean WBD rate is below 0.1 mGy/day. At the same time, the WBD rate exceeds 0.1 mGy/day (lower limit of the DCRL) for approximately 40 % of animals from the

  9. Comparative effects of low-level laser therapy pre- and post-injury on mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and IL-6 during the skeletal muscle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Agnelo Neves; Ribeiro, Beatriz Guimarães; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Souza, Nadhia Helena Costa; Rocha, Lília Alves; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the effect of pre-injury and post-injury irradiation with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors and interleukin 6 (IL-6) during the skeletal muscle repair. Male rats were divided into six groups: control group, sham group, LLLT group, injury group; pre-injury LLLT group, and post-injury LLLT group. LLLT was performed with a diode laser (wavelength 780 nm; output power 40 mW' and total energy 3.2 J). Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly onto the belly of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After euthanasia, the TA muscle was removed for the isolation of total RNA and analysis of MyoD, myogenin, and IL-6 using real-time quantitative PCR. Significant increases were found in the expression of MyoD mRNA at 3 and 7 days as well as the expression of myogenin mRNA at 14 days in the post-injury LLLT group in comparison to injury group. A significant reduction was found in the expression of IL-6 mRNA at 3 and 7 days in the pre-injury LLLT and post-injury LLLT groups. A significant increase in IL-6 mRNA was found at 14 days in the post-injury LLLT group in comparison to the injury group. LLLT administered following muscle injury modulates the mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin. Moreover, the both forms of LLLT administration were able to modulate the mRNA expression of IL-6 during the muscle repair process.

  10. Le recrutement et la fidélisation des bénévoles retraités par les associations

    OpenAIRE

    Gourmelen, Andrea; Guillemot, Samuel; Privat, Hélène; Urien, Bertrand; Le Gall-Ely, Marine

    2014-01-01

    National audience; En raison du temps libre engendré par l’arrêt de l’activité professionnelle, les retraités deviennent une cible très convoitée par les associations à la recherche de bénévoles. Cependant, ils sont souvent considérés comme un segment homogène, d’où des difficultés de recrutement et de fidélisation par les associations. Pour y remédier, cet article propose une typologie de bénévoles retraités sur la base de leurs motivations et de caractéristiques psychosociales liées au viei...

  11. MOBILE BANKING AND SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses about awareness of mobile banking services and their possible contribution towards sustainable growth. This study attempts to look into the issues regarding mobile banking services and their possible contribution in financial inclusion in India. With the help of this study author tries to focus those areas where banks can provide these mobile banking services. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion. For a successful financial inclusion i.e., inclusive growth, in this era, combination of both the services i.e., banking as well as mobile is very much required. Mobile banking which can be termed as virtual banking can do wonders for the economy, because these days growth in economy is possible with the help of financial inclusion and in current scenario, statistics reveals that it is very easy with the help of mobile banking. This study has been done in two phases. First phase discusses about awareness of M-banking services and Second phase discusses about possible contribution of mobile banking towards financial inclusion. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. In fact including rural subscribers in the banking net can help in inclusive growth, as it not very difficult to go for a mobile phone rather than going for a computer in rural areas. This service can do wonders if implemented effectively and sincerely. If any service is provided, there are always two sides, supply side and demand side. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion.

  12. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs), androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs) and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs) in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB)...

  13. Is It All in the Family? The Effects of Early Social Structure on Neural-Behavioral Systems of Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, GD; Van Westerhuyzen, JA; Bales, KL; Trainor, BC

    2012-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is generally associated with a reduction in anxiety or anxiety-like behavior across a wide range of species. In some species, juveniles provide supplementary parental care for younger siblings, a behavior known as alloparenting. Although the fitness consequences of alloparenting behavior have been a focus of evolutionary research, less is known about how alloparenting behavior impacts affective states. In the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...

  14. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  15. MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen K. Callaway; Hamilton, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome standards) impact internal and external constituency relationships (including social ...

  16. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  17. Customer perceptions on Internet banking information protection

    OpenAIRE

    André Redlinghuis; Chris Rensleigh

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA), but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA), Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB) influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996...

  18. Mycobacterium microti tuberculosis in its maintenance host, the field vole (Microtus agrestis): characterization of the disease and possible routes of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Burthe, S J; Hetzel, U; Rokia, M Abo; Telfer, S; Lambin, X; Birtles, R J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2014-09-01

    The field vole (Microtus agrestis) is a known maintenance host of Mycobacterium microti. Previous studies have shown that infected animals develop tuberculosis. However, the disease is also known in cats and is sporadically reported from humans and other mammalian species. We examined trapped field voles from an endemic area, using a range of diagnostic approaches. These confirmed that a combination of gross and histological examination with culture is most appropriate to identify the true prevalence of the disease, which was shown to be more than 13% at times when older animals that have previously been shown to be more likely to develop the disease dominate the population. The thorough pathological examination of diseased animals showed that voles generally develop systemic disease with most frequent involvement of spleen and liver, followed by skin, lymph nodes, and lungs. The morphology of the lesions was consistent with active disease, and their distribution suggested skin wounds or oral and/or aerogenic infection as the main portal of entry. The demonstration of mycobacteria in open skin lesions, airways, and salivary glands indicated bacterial shedding from the skin and with sputum and saliva. This suggests not only the environment but also direct contact and devouring as likely sources of infection.

  19. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  20. 77 FR 64115 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Banking Corporation, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Security State Bank, both in...

  1. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...: 1. SG-BBC, LLC, and The Stephens Group, LLC, both of Little Rock, Arkansas; to acquire voting...

  2. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  3. The Promotion of Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    IVAN Rica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific approach is to demonstrate the usefulness of the adoption of modern promotion techniques in the actual financialbanking sector, in addition to the classical techniques. To achieve this end, the investigation of the Romanianfinancial-banking sector has been deeply conducted, by evaluating the market relations existing between the financial and banking institutions and individuals, as well as promotional techniques adopted by banks, during the communication process...

  4. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media...

  5. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  6. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  7. Halcyon Days of the Banks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With limited exposure to the global financial crisis, Chinese banks have remained profitable for the past three quarters while the rest of the world has groaned under the spreading global financial turmoil, China’s banking industry reported another season of good harvest when 14 listed banks all managed to secure high net profit growth in the first three quarters of this year. According to their quarterly reports, the 14 banks reaped a total of 334.1 billion yuan ($49 billion) in net profit during the period,

  8. Breaking e-Banking CAPTCHAs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shujun; Shah, Syed Amier Haider; Khan, Muhammad Asad Usman; Khayam, Syed Ali; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Many financial institutions have deployed CAPTCHAs to protect their services (e.g., e-banking) from automated attacks. In addition to CAPTCHAs for login, CAPTCHAs are also used to prevent malicious manipulation of e-banking transactions by automated Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attackers. Despite serious financial risks, security of e-banking CAPTCHAs is largely unexplored. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive study on e-banking CAPTCHAs deployed around the world. A new set of image p...

  9. Perbandingan Penawaran Investasi Depostio Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Harjono Muljo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning, the sharia banks operation is always supporting mosleem expectations. Economic recovery, fairness, security, and comfortness aspects are became ultimate goals of sharia bank in Indonesia. This research is comparing the investment deposits from 3 sharia banks, and 4 business units of sharia, by using comparative descriptive analysis. The comparative variables were devided into 3 categories; there are Nisbah (profit sharing, investment conditions, and bank fascilities. The results indicates that BNI has the highest nisbah between all sharia banks at the first category. Bank Muamalat Indonesia, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia has the lowest openning balance of time-deposits at second category . The product fascility as the third category, indicates that Bank Sharia Mandiri, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, and Bank Muamalat can using multi currency. BTN Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, Bank Muamalat Indonesia, and Bank Danamon Sharia were also offer joint account in their sharia investment. 

  10. Perbandingan Penawaran Investasi Depostio Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Harjono Muljo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning, the sharia banks operation is always supporting mosleem expectations. Economic recovery, fairness, security, and comfortness aspects are became ultimate goals of sharia bank in Indonesia. This research is comparing the investment deposits from 3 sharia banks, and 4 business units of sharia, by using comparative descriptive analysis. The comparative variables were devided into 3 categories; there are Nisbah (profit sharing, investment conditions, and bank fascilities. The results indicates that BNI has the highest nisbah between all sharia banks at the first category. Bank Muamalat Indonesia, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia has the lowest openning balance of time-deposits at second category . The product fascility as the third category, indicates that Bank Sharia Mandiri, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, and Bank Muamalat can using multi currency. BTN Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, Bank Muamalat Indonesia, and Bank Danamon Sharia were also offer joint account in their sharia investment.

  11. 12 CFR 811.1 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 811.1 Section 811.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.1 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized, in accordance with...

  12. 12 CFR 7.1010 - Postal service by national bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postal service by national bank. 7.1010 Section 7.1010 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1010 Postal service by national bank. (a) General. A national bank may...

  13. Mobile Banking Supervising System- Issues, Challenges and Suggestions to improve Mobile Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.K.Kavitha

    Full Text Available Banking is one of the Largest Financial Institution which constantly provides better Customer Services. To improve the Service Quality, Banking Services are expanded to Mobile Technology. Recently Mobile Banking plays a vital role in Banking Sector. This ...

  14. First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in rodents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens.

  15. Deciphering bartonella diversity, recombination, and host specificity in a rodent community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Buffet

    Full Text Available Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.

  16. Deciphering bartonella diversity, recombination, and host specificity in a rodent community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoît; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Halos, Lénaïg; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.

  17. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...... that are socially responsible may have economic advantages....

  18. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  19. 32 CFR 643.113 - Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Banks. 643.113 Section 643.113 National Defense... Authority of Commanders § 643.113 Banks. (a) The establishment of banks, branch banks, and banking... fair market value, and reimbursement will be required for utilities and services furnished. (e) A...

  20. BEST BANKS TO BUY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ CEOs of international banks face their toughest challenge in China. Citibank and HSBC already moved aggressively by taking stakes in the remaining large and well-known banks, such as the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank and the Bank of Communications. Such tie-ups offer opportunities to market credit cards and other banking products through local networks.

  1. Online Banking Customers: Insights from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Christian Berger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Online banking is wide spread among German banking customers. But what really characterizes those customers? Using data from a nation-wide survey of about 20,000 retail banking customers, the authors analyze the profile of online banking customers and their banking behavior.

  2. Contagious bank failures in a free banking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghion, P.; Bolton, P.; Dewatripont, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of an unregulated banking system based around a private clearing house arrangement. Whilst such a system may dominate one with a public safety net in reducing moral hazard in lending and therefore the scope for individual bank insolvency, it also increases the likelihood

  3. Central Bank Focuses on Money Supply and Commercial Bank Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Money supply index will continue to be the main topic of the annual meeting of Central Bank, this has actually refuted the rumor that the intermediate goal of Central Bank's monetary policy,which has been implementing for 8 years, will be demolished.

  4. Liquidity Risk on Banking Industry: Comparative Study Between Islamic Bank and Conventional Bank in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Harjum Muharam; Hasna Penta Kurnia

    2015-01-01

    Conventional and Islamic banks approximately are similar in risk summary. Therefore it needs further observations to control their liquidity risk. This study investigates the influence of CAR, profitability rasios, NIM, liquidity gaps, and RLA belongs to liquidity risk on banking industry. The statistical analysis concluded that there are negative and significant influence of CAR and ROE to liquidity risk on conventional banks, while ROA and RLA have positive and significant effect. In Islami...

  5. Determinents of profitability – a comparative analysis of islamic banks and conventional banks in ASEAN countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wahidudin, AHMAD Nazri; Subramaniam, ULAGANATHAN; Pg. Kamaluddin, PENGIRAN. Abd Mutalib

    2012-01-01

    The profit and loss sharing system allows bank to share risk with client in Islamic banks. Moreover Islamic banks are required to operate as per Islamic Rules and principles. Unlike Islamic banks, conventional banks operate based on interest. The income of conventional banks is the difference between interest paid to depositors and interest paid by borrowers. This is the common banking system around the world. This study will analyze determinants of profitability in Islamic banks will be co...

  6. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat; Aymen M. Abu-Errub; Badi S. AL-Rawashdeh; Mohammad Dbbaghieh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank). Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk ...

  7. Liquidity Risk on Banking Industry: Comparative Study Between Islamic Bank and Conventional Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjum Muharam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and Islamic banks approximately are similar in risk summary. Therefore it needs further observations to control their liquidity risk. This study investigates the influence of CAR, profitability rasios, NIM, liquidity gaps, and RLA belongs to liquidity risk on banking industry. The statistical analysis concluded that there are negative and significant influence of CAR and ROE to liquidity risk on conventional banks, while ROA and RLA have positive and significant effect. In Islamic banks, a positive and significant impact of NIM and ROE to dependent variable, whereas liquidity gaps and RLA have significat effect.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2118

  8. Causal Relationship between Liquidity and Profitability of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Odunayo M. Olarewaju; Oluwafeyisayo K. Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of causality between liquidity and profitability of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Fifteen quoted banks out of the existing nineteen banks were selected for the study. They are; Guarantee Trust bank, Zenith bank, Skye bank, Wema bank, Sterling bank, First City Monument bank, United Bank for Africa, Eco bank, First bank, Access bank, Diamond bank, Unity bank, Fidelity bank, Union bank and IBTC bank. Pairwise Granga Causality test...

  9. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production office in accordance with the provisions in § 208.7 of Regulation H (12 CFR 208.7). ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF...

  10. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management §...

  12. Elements of banking intermediation in the Algerian Banking system and the means to activate it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habbar Abderezak, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Banking intermediation raises several interrelated issues for banks, the central bank and the Treasury. It is linked to the gross domestic product, money supply and bank liquidity, etc. These elements will be examined in this article to learn the elements of bank intermediation in the Algerian banking system and ways of strengthening it.

  13. Bank performance and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentella Lopes, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has three chapters and focuses on the performance of banks and on corporate culture. The first two chapters focus on bank performance and economic expectations. Specifically, the first chapter sheds light on the consistency between investors’ reaction to merger announcement and bankers’

  14. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R Kent; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data deposi

  15. Bank capital management : International evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management (redu

  16. MODELS OF BANKING RISKS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking risks management as a fundamental element of banking management aims at diminishing as much as possible the negative impact of risk factors, at minimizing losses by expenditures cut-off and maximizing direct and transferred influxes, changing the

  17. Croatian bank investments in securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Jurman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the basic characteristics of debt securities and shares and analyses the amount, structure and characteristics of the securities portfolio in Croatian banks in period from 1993 to 2004. The analysis shows that in the entire analyzed period Republic of Croatia together with state funds and other public institutions was the main issuer of securities that banks have in their portfolios. The securities issued by banks and companies represent only a marginal part of banks’ portfolios but it is also true that banks have strongly supported the privatization process of state owned companies by providing credit for purchasing of shares and later on swapping their credit claims for shares. In this way banks acquired a significant portfolio of shares that they later sold on the open market. Data about the significant reduction of securities portfolio in the banking assets structure, from 46.1% in 1993 to only 10.6% in 2004, is indicative of a low level of trading in securities. This means that in the following years, central and local government should secure the necessary funds more by issuing securities than by credit, especially not by taking credit from abroad. Furthermore, in order to spread business with securities, banks should also substitute a portion of their credit portfolio with short and long term securities. In this way, the investors would be able to use the benefits of investing in securities instead of investing their funds in bank deposits as they have done until now.

  18. Size, productivity, and international banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Claudia M.; Koch, Catherine T.; Koetter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in size and productivity is central to models that explain which manufacturing firms expert. This study presents descriptive evidence on similar heterogeneity among international banks as financial services providers. A novel and detailed bank-level data set reveals the volume and mode

  19. The American Indian Development Bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  20. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  1. Causes of banking crises revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examine to what extent there exists heterogeneity in the causes of a banking crisis. For this purpose, we use a random coefficient logit model including 110 countries between 1970 and 2007. We conclude that there exists significant heterogeneity in the causes of a banking crisis. We find that a h

  2. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micuda Ion Dan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality management banking perspective is extremely interesting, from the point of view of the activities specific, and of the permanent area competition improvement. Banks being aware of the quality problems also lead to the appearance and requirement of

  4. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  5. Innovative Secure Mobile Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa T AL-Akhras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widespread use of computer technologies in almost all aspects of life, organisations that are connected to the Internet started extending their services to their customers to include new applications and services that satisfy their customers’ desires to make better businesses. One of these emerging applications is mobile banking. The term mobile banking (or m-banking describes the banking services that the user can perform via a mobile device ubiquitously at anytime and from anywhere. In order for users to access their accounts, they need a mobile device and network connectivity. Therefore, sitting in front of a computer is not a requirement anymore; accessing accounts can occur while users are waiting their turn at the dentist clinic or relaxing at the beach! This paper explores the opportunities of using mobile technology in the electronic banking (e-banking sector to enhance existing banking services by moving toward m-banking using mobile devices and wireless media that can provide opportunities for ubiquitous access to the banking services as mobile technologies can be used at anytime and from anywhere. The technical problems encountered while using the mobile devices presents some technical difficulties and challenges for the m-banking. In this paper we introduce a mobile system that demonstrates the flexibility gained out of this technology and covers the major aspects of such kind of applications. The proposed system covers two parts: the customer services (user interface and the security aspects. In the user interface part, banking facility is provided to the user through the mobile device to implement banking transactions. The model provides customers with the services: billing payments, transferring of funds, viewing of customer’s accounts and transactions, allowing the user to change his/her password and request a cheque book. The application takes into consideration security aspects, it satisfies the following

  6. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... in the presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...

  7. Impact of shadow banks on financial contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiharu Maeno; Kenji Nishiguchi; Satoshi Morinaga; Hirokazu Matsushima

    2014-01-01

    An asset network systemic risk (ANWSER) model is presented to investigate the impact of how shadow banks are intermingled in a financial system on the severity of financial contagion. Particularly, the focus of this study is the impact of the following three representative topologies of an interbank loan network between shadow banks and regulated banks. (1) Random mixing network: shadow banks and regulated banks are intermingled randomly. (2) Asset-correlated mixing network: banks having bigg...

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF ONLINE BANKING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    BUCUR Luiza Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Online banking is the newest and least understood delivery channel for retail banking services. This article show how customers perceive Online Banking Services. Focuses on the issues associated with internet banking service quality. For customer service quality, focus is on access, credibility, communication, understanding the costumer and collaboration. For online banking services focus is on: ease of use, accuracy, timelines, aesthetics and security. For banking service product quality foc...

  9. Banking Software Applications Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru Bubu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer software products are among the most complex artifacts, if not the most complex artifacts mankind has created. Securing those artifacts against intelligent attackers who try to exploit flaws in software design and construct is a great challenge too.The purpose of this paper is to introduce a secure alternative to banking software applications that are currently in use. This new application aims to cover most of the well-known vulnerabilities that plague the majority of current software.First we will take a quick look at current security methods that are in use, and a few known vulnerabilities. After this, we will discuss the security measures implemented in my application, and finally, we will the results of implementing them.

  10. Bank Liquidity and Financial Performance: Evidence from Moroccan Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehdi Ferrouhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the relationship between liquidity risk and financial performance of Moroccan banks and to define the determinants of bank’s performance in Morocco during the period 2001–2012. We first evaluate Moroccan banks’ liquidity positions through different liquidity and performance ratios then we apply a panel date regression to identify determinants of Moroccan banks performance. We use 4 bank’s performance ratios, 6 liquidity ratios and we analyze 5 specific determinants and 5 macroeconomic determinants of bank performance. Results show that Moroccan bank’s performance is mainly determined by 7 determinants: liquidity ratio, size of banks, logarithm of the total assets squared, external funding to total liabilities, share of own bank’s capital of the bank’s total assets, foreign direct investments, unemployment rate and the realization of the financial crisis variable. Banks’ performance depends positively on size of banks, on foreign direct investments and on the realization of the financial crisis and negatively on external funding to total liabilities, on share of own bank’s capital of the bank’s total assets and on unemployment rate while the dependence between bank performance and liquidity ratios and bank performance and logarithm of the total assets squared depend on the model used.

  11. An investigation on factors influencing electronic banking adoption in private banks versus public banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of industrial societies towards implementation of information technology has begun and it has gained moment since early 90th and presently the speed of this movement is well obvious in less developed countries, including Iran. Internet Banking is one of the most tangible trends in today’s electronic commerce. It has direct relationship with the perception of the service qualities not only because of unique absorption of the internet, but also because of e-commerce, acceptance of internet services of banks by clients and the tendency for using such services. This paper investigates different factors influencing on acceptance of electronic banking in private banks versus public banks in a case study of two Iranian banks namely; Eqtesade Novin and Sepah using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Correlation test reveals that there was a positive and significant relationship between clients of private and public bank on five factors associated with TAM. In addition, structural equation method was used for investigation of relationships in offered model. In conclusion, all primary and secondary hypotheses for clients of private and public bank were confirmed.

  12. Current trends of banking innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Karminskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the development of new banking products, services and technologies in the Russian market is mainly based on international practice. Noteworthy is the fact that Russian banks take over not only the successful practice of new product lines, but also information technology as well as key methodological aspects of bank management and the technological aspects related the business processes.The results of the analysis. Innovative policy in the credit institution must not take place spontaneously. The positive effect of innovation can be achieved only if there is the possibility of managing the innovation process, which is not possible without a clearly highlighted definition and characteristics of banking innovation, which at least would allow distinguishing of innovation and modification. The paper describes the main aspects of the morphology of banking innovation with the detailed classification depended on the variety of attributes from its origin to the direction of action and highlights the major trends of current banking innovation, such as:development of information and cyber technology (and hence the possibility of the emergence of computational complexity and risk prediction models, the development of information security tools,etc.;implementation of customer-oriented model as the best practice;optimization of its own business processes.The article shows a number of real examples of each kind of banking innovation including the innovations in the non

  13. Plant phenolics as chemical defenses: Effects of natural phenolics on survival and growth of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, R L; Batzli, G O

    1984-02-01

    Very few studies have shown experimentally that plant chemical defenses actually reduce the performance of individual mammalian herbivores, much less the density of mammalian populations. We investigated the effects of representatives of three classes of plant phenoiics on the survival and growth of prairie voles by incorporating the compounds into artificial diets and feeding them to weanlings for three weeks. At low levels of protein, both quercetin (a flavonoid) and tannic acid (a hydrolyzable tannin) caused reduced growth rates; no effect occurred at high levels of protein. Quebracho (a condensed tannin) inhibited feeding and thus was lethal at all levels of protein. These results indicate that plant phenolics are likely to influence the performance and dynamics of natural populations of microtine rodents by reducing the quality of available forage. The hypothesis that the primary mode of action of the phenoiics is the reduction of digestibility of protein was not supported. The reduced growth caused by both quercetin and tannic acid could be attributed primarily to their toxicity. The effect of quebracho resulted from reduced intake (unpalatability).

  14. Comparison of Islamic Banks with Conventional Banks: Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameenullah Aman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and compares the performance of Sharia-compliant banks with their conventional counterparts operating in Pakistan. Data of five full-fledged Islamic Banks(IBs and fifteen Conventional Banks (CBs, all from Pakistan, have been used for the study. Study period comprises of six years from year 2008 to year 2013. Bank's orientation, efficiency, quality of assets and stability are the measures used to compare the performance of Shariah-compliant and conventional banks. The Islamic Banks in Pakistan are younger in age and smaller in size compared to the Conventional Banks. Based on the financial ratios of two types of banks, we find that the business model of Islamic Banks is inferior to the model of Conventional Banks. Islamic Banks are less cost efficient than Conventional Banks. However, Islamic Banks have superior asset quality with better bank stability position.

  15. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  16. 12 CFR 1261.12 - Reporting requirements for Bank directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting requirements for Bank directors. 1261.12 Section 1261.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections §...

  17. 12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.14 Vacant...

  18. 12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.13 Ineligible...

  19. 12 CFR 940.2 - Mission of the Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission of the Banks. 940.2 Section 940.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.2 Mission of the Banks. The mission of the Banks is to provide to their members' and...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030 Section 615.5030 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank...

  1. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9020 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 619.9020 Section 619.9020 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9020 Agricultural credit banks. Agricultural credit banks are those banks created by the merger of a Farm...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9060 - Bank for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank for cooperatives. 619.9060 Section 619.9060 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9060 Bank for cooperatives. A bank for cooperatives is a bank that is operating under section 3.0 of the Act....

  5. A novel Rickettsia species detected in Vole Ticks (Ixodes angustus) from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Clare A; Chilton, Neil B

    2013-12-01

    The genomic DNA of ixodid ticks from western Canada was tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia. No rickettsiae were detected in Ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the I. angustus and 42% of the Dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were PCR positive for Rickettsia. The rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. Rickettsiae within the D. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of R. peacockii. In contrast, the Rickettsia present within the larvae, nymphs, and adults of I. angustus had novel DNA sequences at four of the genes characterized compared to the sequences available from GenBank for all recognized species of Rickettsia and all other putative species within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that the rickettsiae in I. angustus do not belong to the spotted fever, transitional, or typhus groups of rickettsiae but are most closely related to "Candidatus Rickettsia kingi" and belong to a clade that also includes R. canadensis, "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," and "Candidatus Rickettsia monteiroi."

  6. THE COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TURKISH ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM AND THE HUNGARIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Talos, Livia

    2016-01-01

    After the 2008 economic crisis, special attention was given to alternative financing techniques, and so to Islamic banks. During the crisis the stability of the Islamic banks was higher than the stability of the conventional banks.The major source of revenue of the conventional banks is interest and other income from speculative transactions, so a conventional bank can shows higher results than an Islamic bank. Islamic banks operate on religious principles, so many activities are forbidden to...

  7. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  8. Related Lending and Banking Development

    OpenAIRE

    CULL, Robert; Haber, Stephen; Imai, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Does related lending have positive or negative effects on the development of banking systems? We analyze a unique cross-country data set covering 74 countries from 1990 to 2007, and find that related lending, on average, does not have any effect on the growth of credit. We do find, however, that there are conditional relationships: related lending tends to retard the growth of banking systems when rule of law is weak, whereas it tends to promote the growth of banking systems when rule of law ...

  9. The End of Bank Secrecy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    During the financial crisis, G20 countries compelled tax havens to sign bilateral treaties providing for exchange of bank information. Policymakers have celebrated this global initiative as the end of bank secrecy. Exploiting a unique panel dataset, our study is the first attempt to assess how...... the treaties affected bank deposits in tax havens. Rather than repatriating funds, our results suggest that tax evaders shifted deposits to havens not covered by a treaty with their home country. The crackdown thus caused a relocation of deposits at the benefit of the least compliant havens. We discuss...

  10. 75 FR 36089 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Corporation and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Classic Bank, N.A., both of Cameron, Texas. Board... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are... Board of Governors. Comments must be received not later than July 9, 2010. A. Federal Reserve Bank...

  11. 78 FR 41063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... retain control of National Banking Corp., North Little Rock, Arkansas, and thereby indirectly...

  12. 78 FR 33093 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Leland E. Boren; Leland E. Boren, IRA; Leland E. Boren as Co-Representative of the LaRita R. Boren...

  13. 78 FR 43883 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Manna, Trustee; Mario John Manna's IRA Account; Claudia Brown Moore; Claudia Brown Moore's IRA...

  14. 76 FR 71344 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the..., Pennsylvania. 2. W. Kirk Wycoff, Ira M. Lubert, and James J. Lynch, all of Philadelphia,...

  15. 76 FR 48862 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Financial Mangers, LLC; Ira M. Lubert; W. Kirk Wycoff; and James J. Lynch, all of Philadelphia,...

  16. 75 FR 30405 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Hunter Ness Roth IRA, all of Yankton, South Dakota; Michael Forrest Ness, Sioux Falls, South...

  17. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the....; and Ira M. Lubert, W. Kirk Wycoff, and James J. Lynch, all of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to...

  18. 12 CFR 225.14 - Expedited action for certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited action for certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies. 225.14 Section 225.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies. (a) Filing of notice—(1)...

  19. Islamic Banks and Financial Stability; An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Cihak; Heiko Hesse

    2008-01-01

    The relative financial strength of Islamic banks is assessed empirically based on evidence covering individual Islamic and commercial banks in 18 banking systems with a substantial presence of Islamic banking. We find that (i) small Islamic banks tend to be financially stronger than small commercial banks; (ii) large commercial banks tend to be financially stronger than large Islamic banks; and (iii) small Islamic banks tend to be financially stronger than large Islamic banks, which may refle...

  20. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    of private borrowing between collaterally-constrained 'impatient' households and unconstrained 'patient' households, such as those put forward by Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) and Iacoviello (2005), is counteracted by the banking attenuator effect, given an endogenous steady state spread between loan and savings......The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...

  1. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  2. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and th

  3. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  4. Customer Loyalty in Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aysha Fathima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. Pre analysis data screening was done to ensure that the study is fit for further statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship of constructs on customer loyalty. Results of the analysis identified customer satisfaction; bank’s reputation trust and habit were having significant influence on customer loyalty. Among the four factors, reputation of the bank and its corporate image is found to be more influential. Based on the findings, the implications and suggestions are made.

  5. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...... channel, due to the presence of collateralized borrowers, and (ii) a banking attenuator effect, which crucially arises from the spread in interest rates caused by the introduction of monopolistically competitive financial intermediaries. We show how the classical amplification mechanism explored in models...

  6. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  7. Liquidity Risk on Banking Industry: Comparative Study Between Islamic Bank and Conventional Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjum Muharam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bank konvensional dan syariah kurang lebih memiliki risiko sama. Oleh karena itu perlu pengamatan lebih lanjut untuk mengendalikan risiko likuiditas mereka. Studi ini mengkajipengaruh CAR, rasio profitabilitas, NIM, kesenjangan likuiditas, dan RLA milik risiko likuiditas di industri perbankan. Analisis statistik menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh negatif dan signifikan dari CAR dan ROE terhadap risiko likuiditas pada bank konvensional, sementara ROA dan RLA berpengaruh positif dan signifikan. Dalam bank syariah, dampak positif dan signifikan dari NIM dan ROE terhadap variabel dependen, sedangkan kesenjangan likuiditas dan RLA memiliki pengaruh signifikan.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2565

  8. Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A

    2008-12-01

    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.

  9. Essays in banking and international finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters, two in banking and one in international finance. The first two chapters examine how bank business models and foreign ownership structures affect bank-firm lending relationships. In particular, the first chapter reveals that foreign banks can overcome their inf

  10. Supervisory powers and bank risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, Choudry Tanveer; De Haan, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effect of different types of bank supervisory powers in place before the crisis on bank risk-taking during the crisis. We employ data of more than 8000 banks from high-income OECD countries for the 2007-2011 period and impaired loans to gross loans ratio as proxy for bank risk-taking.

  11. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the sor

  12. China's Investment in Africa's Banking Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The global financial crisis, whose effects have been most severe on the world's largest banks, has created a vacuum in banking sector in Africa by stalling investment from the traditional investor. The world's largest banks, brought to their knees by the crisis, and having had to be bailed out, are in no position to continue investing in the banking sector in Africa.

  13. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  14. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  15. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  17. 76 FR 10671 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... proposal, retains this exception for banker's banks. A typical banker's bank provides liquidity and other... greater need to maintain liquidity to service its member banks. 6. Comments Several commenters addressed... implications for bank liquidity. The comments suggested that the FDIC provide a deduction for federal...

  18. NECESSITY TO DIMINISH THE GIANT BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of big banks has been in the spotlight for many reasons. Examining evidence for more than 80 countries for the years 1995-2009, banking systems are shown to be highly concentrated. In many cases, the banks are so big that bank-specific credit-growth fluctuations affect the macroeconomy.

  19. Size and support ratings of US banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is non-

  20. The Impact of Internet Banking on Bank Performance and Risk: The Indian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja MALHOTRA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the current state of Internet banking in India and discusses its implications for the Indian banking industry. Particularly, it seeks to examine the impact of Internet banking on banks’ performance and risk. Using information drawn from the survey of 85 scheduled commercial bank’s websites, during the period of June 2007, the results show that nearly 57 percent of the Indian commercial banks are providing transactional Internet banking services. The univariate analysis indicates that Internet banks are larger banks and have better operating efficiency ratios and profitability as compared to non-Internet banks. Internet banks rely more heavily on core deposits for funding than non-Internet banks do. However, the multiple regression results reveal that the profitability and offering of Internet banking does not have any significant association, on the other hand, Internet banking has a significant and negative association with risk profile of the bank

  1. A study on relationship between electronic banking and liquidity management on Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available E-banking has been extensively developed in recent decades and most banks need to have such services in their daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary that banks do a better management on banks’ liquidity risks. Electronic banking and the expansion of its scale from POSs and ATMs to telephone banking, mobile banking and internet banking have increased banking transactions, significantly. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the relationship between the development of e-banking and liquidity management using liquidity ratios. The focus of this investigation has been on the amounts of transaction of ATM machines, POSs and PIN PADs as the most important means of electronic banking. In this respect, the data obtained from 14 private and public bank representatives of banking system over the period 2007-2012 are considered. Our survey indicates that the characteristics of electronic banking significantly influence on liquidity.

  2. Multinational banks and development finance

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Christian E.; Scher, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Financial market recommendations for less industrialized economies, particularly in the wake of the recent financial crises, have included a push for more international financial competition. The entry of multinational banks (MNBs) into developing economies is supposed to create more market discipline for domestic banks, thus making them more efficient, and enhancing financial stability. Using data from the BIS and the IMF, we look at the determinants of MNB presence, at MNB activities, and t...

  3. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  4. Managing factoring in banking groups

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    On the market for factoring services independent suppliers coexhist with companies affiliated with banking groups. The last ones can be oriented in their decision processes by the policies of their parent company, usually a bank. They could also benefit from synergies among the different units of the group. The main benefits are linked to cost reduction, better skill-based resources allocation and a higher amount of financial coverage. If such interdependencies are found ...

  5. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  6. The East Anglian Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, P

    1991-07-01

    The first Corneal Bank in East Anglia is located at the BUPA Hospital in Norwich, a joint venture between NHS, BUPA and the Lions Clubs International (District 101 EA). There was insufficient space to accommodate the Bank at the West Norwich Hospital where the Ophthalmic Department is situated and so, at the suggestion of the BUPA Hospital Manager, Mr Paul Hanke, It came to the BUPA Colney Lane site.

  7. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  8. Changes in calsequestrin, TNF-α, TGF-β and MyoD levels during the progression of skeletal muscle dystrophy in mdx mice: a comparative analysis of the quadriceps, diaphragm and intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros Maranhão, Juliana; de Oliveira Moreira, Drielen; Maurício, Adriana Fogagnolo; de Carvalho, Samara Camaçari; Ferretti, Renato; Pereira, Juliano Alves; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2015-10-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the search for new biomarkers to follow the evolution of the disease is of fundamental importance in the light of the evolving gene and pharmacological therapies. In addition to the lack of dystrophin, secondary events including changes in calcium levels, inflammation and fibrosis greatly contribute to DMD progression and the molecules involved in these events may represent potential biomarkers. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation of the progression of dystrophy within muscles that are differently affected by dystrophy (diaphragm; DIA and quadriceps; QDR) or spared (intrinsic laryngeal muscles) using the mdx mice model of DMD. We assessed muscle levels of calsequestrin (calcium-related protein), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α; pro-inflammatory cytokine), tumour growth factor (TGF-β; pro-fibrotic factor) and MyoD (muscle proliferation) vs. histopathology at early (1 and 4 months of age) and late (9 months of age) stages of dystrophy. Fibrosis was the primary feature in the DIA of mdx mice (9 months: 32% fibrosis), which was greater than in the QDR (9 months: 0.6% fibrosis). Muscle regeneration was the primary feature in the QDR (9 months: 90% of centrally nucleated fibres areas vs. 33% in the DIA). The QDR expressed higher levels of calsequestrin than the DIA. Laryngeal muscles showed normal levels of TNF-α, TGF-β and MyoD. A positive correlation between histopathology and cytokine levels was observed only in the diaphragm, suggesting that TNF-α and TGF-β serve as markers of dystrophy primarily for the diaphragm.

  9. CUSTOMERS CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA SIMONA DIMITRIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For a bank it is advantageous to have different types of clients because, as will receive deposits and provide loans for both business and individuals. The difference between the interest charged by banks and they are paid gross banking profit, following recovery, by the bank, business development potential offered by customers, resulting in advantages for both bank and customer. Customer benefits can be considered: the safety of deposits held at banks; interest received for them; that the money held in bank accounts can be returned at any time upon request; transfers of money to them, instead of wearing them large sums of cash.

  10. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  11. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  12. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions fo

  13. Legal and actual central bank independence : A case study of Bank of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-200

  14. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  15. Management of Financial and Banking Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gr. Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    It is certainly clear that a powerful banking strategy should include both software and bank risk management procedures that aim, in fact, minimize the likelihood of these risks and potential exposure of the bank. The main objective of these policies is to minimize losses or additional expenses incurred by the bank and central banking goal is to achieve a higher profit for shareholders. But not always these two objectives - the general and sector - are consistent. It may, in some cases, the c...

  16. Board Effectiveness in the European Banking Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ilduara; Hobdari, Bersant

    2015-01-01

    of the board and directors and financial performance in banking by allowing for separate behaviours under different institutional settings. Using a panel dataset of listed banks in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK, we show that banks with higher presence of non-executives in their boards perform better...... in Continental Europe, while the opposite is the case in the UK. Bank size though does not seem to impact bank performance....

  17. Customer Satisfaction and Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Ali; Hassan Raziq; Abdul Aleem; Shahrukh Latif; Arslan, M; Arsalan Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this research study is to focus on the customer satisfaction towards Islamic banking in Pakistan based on the different factors including service quality, product quality offered by Islamic banks, customer care level of Islamic banks, financial benefits given to its customers, competition with conventional banks, religion and market reputation. Methodology- This study will help to understand the level of satisfaction of customers regarding Islamic Banks. In this study d...

  18. Optimal Bank Regulation and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Seater

    2000-01-01

    A unified model of monetary policy and bank regulation is presented. In accordance with modern banking theory, banks not only intermediate loans and deposits but also provide a financial service affecting aggregate output. Optimal parameter settings for monetary and regulatory policy are derived. New results are that monetary policy affects the expected level as well as the variance of output, bank regulation should change continually in response to the state of the economy, and bank regulati...

  19. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  20. Early rearing experience is related to altered aggression and vasopressin production following chronic social isolation in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L

    2015-04-15

    Parent-offspring interactions early in life can permanently shape the developmental path of those offspring. Manipulation of maternal care has long been used to alter the early-life environment of infants and impacts their later social behavior, aggression, and physiology. More recently, naturally occurring variation in maternal licking and grooming behavior has been shown to result in differences in social behavior and stress physiology in adult offspring. We have developed a model of natural variation in biparental care in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and have demonstrated an association between the amount of early care received and later social behavior. In this study, we investigate the relationship between early life care and later aggression and neuroendocrine responses following chronic social isolation. Male and female offspring were reared by their high-contact (HC) or low-contact (LC) parents, then housed for 4 weeks post-weaning in social isolation. After 4 weeks, half of these offspring underwent an intrasexual aggression test. Brains and plasma were collected to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone (CORT). Male offspring of LC parents engaged in more aggressive behavior in the intrasexual aggression test compared to HC males. Female offspring of HC parents had higher plasma CORT levels after chronic social isolation and increases in the number and density of AVP-immunopositive cells in the supraoptic nucleus following an intrasexual aggression test. These findings show that the impact of early life biparental care on behavior and HPA activity following a social stressor is both sex-dependent and early experience-specific.

  1. Do females influence paternal responsiveness in male prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster by increasing the salience of infant odors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damaris-Lois LANG YAMOAH; Wilhemina LARYEA; Fiker FASSIL; Maryam BAMSHAD

    2013-01-01

    Male prairie voles become more responsive to infants following cohabitation with a female.Exposure to female sensory cues prior to offspring birth may influence male paternal tendencies by modifying his response to infant odors in particular or to odors in general.To test these hypotheses,males were housed with an unfamiliar female or a same-sex sibling for 13 days then examined for their response towards either live infants or infant-like inanimate objects covered with one of three odors:water,infant,sub-adult.We recorded the number of males that retrieved and manipulated the infants or odor-covered objects and measured the frequency and duration of time males spent attending to them or engaged in other non-social activities.Female-Cohabited males approached the container holding infant-odor covered objects faster than Male-Cohabited males,but showed no differences in time spent manipulating those objects.Males in both groups spent more time manipulating live infants than odor-covered objects.However,Female-Cohabited subjects were more likely to manipulate odor-covered objects as well as live infants than Male-Cohabited subjects.Additionally,the frequency of self-grooming in Female-Cohabited males was higher for water-covered objects compared to Male-Cohabited males.In presence of water and live infants,Female-Cohabited males groomed themselves with greater frequency than in presence of infant odor or sub-adult odor.The data suggest that female cues increase the male's sensitivity to infant odors and enhance the salience of non-social odors.

  2. Prisoners in their habitat? Generalist dispersal by habitat specialists: a case study in southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros

    Full Text Available Habitat specialists inhabiting scarce and scattered habitat patches pose interesting questions related to dispersal such as how specialized terrestrial mammals do to colonize distant patches crossing hostile matrices. We assess dispersal patterns of the southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus, a habitat specialist whose habitat patches are distributed through less than 2% of the study area (overall 600 km² and whose populations form a dynamic metapopulational network. We predict that individuals will require a high ability to move through the inhospitable matrix in order to avoid genetic and demographic isolations. Genotypes (N = 142 for 10 microsatellites and sequences of the whole mitochondrial Control Region (N = 47 from seven localities revealed a weak but significant genetic structure partially explained by geographic distance. None of the landscape models had a significant effect on genetic structure over that of the Euclidean distance alone and no evidence for efficient barriers to dispersal was found. Contemporary gene flow was not severely limited for A. sapidus as shown by high migration rates estimates (>10% between non-neighbouring areas. Sex-biased dispersal tests did not support differences in dispersal rates, as shown by similar average axial parent-offspring distances, in close agreement with capture-mark-recapture estimates. As predicted, our results do not support any preferences of the species for specific landscape attributes on their dispersal pathways. Here, we combine field and molecular data to illustrate how a habitat specialist mammal might disperse like a habitat generalist, acquiring specific long-distance dispersal strategies as an adaptation to patchy, naturally fragmented, heterogeneous and unstable habitats.

  3. Do females influence paternal responsiveness in male prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster by increasing the salience of infant odors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris-Lois LANG YAMOAH,Wilhemina LARYEA, Fiker FASSIL, Maryam BAMSHAD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Male prairie voles become more responsive to infants following cohabitation with a female. Exposure to female sensory cues prior to offspring birth may influence male paternal tendencies by modifying his response to infant odors in particular or to odors in general. To test these hypotheses, males were housed with an unfamiliar female or a same-sex sibling for 13 days then examined for their response towards either live infants or infant-like inanimate objects covered with one of three odors: water, infant, sub-adult. We recorded the number of males that retrieved and manipulated the infants or odor-covered objects and measured the frequency and duration of time males spent attending to them or engaged in other non-social activities. Female-Cohabited males approached the container holding infant-odor covered objects faster than Male-Cohabited males, but showed no differences in time spent manipulating those objects. Males in both groups spent more time manipulating live infants than odor-covered objects. However, Female-Cohabited subjects were more likely to manipulate odor-covered objects as well as live infants than Male-Cohabited subjects. Additionally, the frequency of self-grooming in Female-Cohabited males was higher for water-covered objects compared to Male-Cohabited males. In presence of water and live infants, Female-Cohabited males groomed themselves with greater frequency than in presence of infant odor or sub-adult odor. The data suggest that female cues increase the male’s sensitivity to infant odors and enhance the salience of non-social odors [Current Zoology 58 (3: 317–325, 2013].

  4. A Secured Hybrid Architecture Model for Internet Banking (e - Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has made it easy to carry out the personal or business financial trans action without going to bank and at any suitable time. This facility enables to transfer money to other accounts and checking current balance alongside the status of any financial transaction made in the account. However, in order to maintain privacy and t o avoid any misuse of transactions, it is necessary to follow a secured architecture model which ensures the privacy and integrity of the transactions and provides confidence on internet banking is stable. In this research paper, a secured hybrid architect ure model for the internet banking using Hyperelliptic curve cryptosystem and MD5 is described. This hybrid model is implemented with the hyperelliptic curve cryptosystem and it performs the encryption and decryption processes in an efficient way merely wi th an 80 - bit key size. The various screen shots given in this contribution shows that the hybrid model which encompasses HECC and MD5 can be considered in the internet banking environment to enrich the privacy and integrity of the sensitive data transmitte d between the clients and the application server

  5. IR Spectrum Data Bank System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Dilin

    2004-01-01

    The infrared spectra of pure compounds of ninety thousands, poly compounds of twelve thousand, drugs of one thousand were included in the data bank. All of them can be searched out according to their serial number, chemical name, commercial name, amount of each atoms, or molecular formula, as well as their spectrum peak appearances. Program for spectrum information inputting, program for spectrum information search and program for spectrum peak appearance search were included in the system; in addition, spectrum information data bank, spectrum peak code data bank and spectrum figure data bank were attached to the system. System program was written by Visial Basic, and run under Windows system. The spectrum information data bank and spectrum figure data bank were administrated by Microsoft Access.The program for spectrum message inputting can be used to add message data and spectrum figure of some new compounds into the data banks by users themselves. The program for spectrum message search was designed to find out all the message data and spectrum figure of interested compound according to someone of the message data. The program for spectrum peak search was designed to find out some spectra most similar in peak shape with unknown spectrum by peak to peak comparison. When the wavenumbers and transmittances of main peaks in the spectrum of unknown sample were entered, the spectrum peak search was performed and several hits with higher similarity were reported including their similarity scores, spectrum serial numbers, sample's states,melt points, molecular formulas as well as spectrum images. If the search result was not satisfactory,some methods to modify spectrum parameters were reminded and search was performed again.

  6. Impact of Foreign Bank Entry on the Performance of Chinese Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Hua Shen; Chin-Hwa Lu; Meng-Wen Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how foreign bank/investor penetrations influence local bank performance in China. At the country level, foreign bank penetration is proxied by MacroFP, measured by the percentage of banks with foreign strategic investors (FSI) among total banks. At the bank level, foreign bank penetration is proxied by MicroFP, measured by the percentage shareholding of FSI in a bank. When foreign bank penetration is proxied by MacroFP, it is found to improve the profitability of local banks but not to reduce costs. Next, when foreign bank penetration is proxied by MicroFP, it is found to affect neither profitability nor costa. In sum, the present study demonstrates that the opening-up policy is correct from a macro perspective. However, for banks that have introduced FSI, determining the reasona for improvements in performance being inhibited is more important than releasing more shares to foreign investors.

  7. 12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.11 Effect on other banking practices. Nothing...

  8. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National bank acting as finder. 7.1002 Section... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1002 National bank acting as finder. (a) General. It is part of the business of banking under 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) for a national bank to act as a finder, bringing together...

  9. 12 CFR 950.8 - Banks as secured creditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks as secured creditors. 950.8 Section 950.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.8 Banks as secured creditors. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4020 - Banks for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives. 614.4020 Section 614.4020 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4020 Banks for cooperatives. (a) Banks for cooperatives are authorized to...

  11. 12 CFR 25.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 25.44 Section 25.44 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND... Public notice by banks. A bank shall provide in the public lobby of its main office and each of...

  12. 12 CFR 229.55 - Expedited recredit for banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for banks. 229.55 Section 229.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... Expedited recredit for banks. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A bank that has an indemnity...

  13. 12 CFR 228.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 228.44 Section 228.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... notice by banks. A bank shall provide in the public lobby of its main office and each of its branches...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4355 - Banks for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives. 614.4355 Section 614.4355 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4355 Banks for cooperatives. No bank for cooperatives may make a loan...

  15. Coat color and its effect on preference for the scent marks of opposite-sex conspecifics in the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashlee A. VAUGHN; Antedra A. FINGER; Porshia E. GIBBS; Michael H. FERKIN

    2012-01-01

    Many mammal species can distinguish between opposite-sex conspecifics that differ in a certain trait.In that coat coloration is associated with differences in physiological and behavioral traits,coat color may affect the attractiveness of odor cues produced by conspecifics.Individuals may be able to respond preferentially to eonspecifics with a particular coat color.In the present study,we test the hypothesis that scent marks of brown and blond voles differ in their attractiveness to male and female conspecifics.Male voles and brown females did not discriminate between blond- and brown-coated opposite-sex conspecifics suggesting that they are neither selecting potential mates dissociatively nor associatively.However,blond females behaved as if the scent marks of blond males were more attractive than were the scent marks of brown males.Our data suggest that blond females who are already conspicuous to predators,may select blond males as mates because they do not appreciably increase the risk of detection to predators,particularly avian predators.Moreover,because these conspicuous males have survived to mate they may have good genes that reflect their relatively higher quality [Current Zoology 58 (2):221-227,2012].

  16. A Note on the Distribution and Geographical Variation of the Gray-sided Vole ( Clethrionomys rufocanus Sund., 1846-1847 in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davaa Lkhagvasuren

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new distribution record for the Gray-sided vole found in an isolated birch forest in southern Mongolia, at Ih Bogd mountain. This represents a very remote and isolated population of this species from its main range of forested areas. Morphological characters were used to determine the morphological variation of Gray-sided vole in the investigated southern population in comparison with two other populations: one from Honin nuga (Hentii mountain range and the other from Hangai mountains. We revealed fi ve distinct morphotypes based on the fur coloration patterns. Two morphotypes were found in the isolated Ih Bogd population, while there were two morphotypes for the Hentii and one for the Hangai population. Moreover, based on the nine standard skull measurements, we found a marginally signi fi cant difference among the three populations, indicating that there are detectable differences. However, the discriminant function analysis was moderate in classifying the three populations. This small variation may be explained by our limited sample sizes (6-15 individuals per population and possibly by the fact that the southern population of this species may have been isolated only for a short time.

  17. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  18. Pattern Analysis On Banking Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis related to customer information their credit card details limit and collateral details transaction details risk profiles Anti Money Laundering related information trade finance data. Thousands of decisionsbased on the related data are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition customer retention management and marketing and management of risk fraudulence detections.

  19. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  20. Indian Banking Industry: Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Krishna A. Goyal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry in India has a huge canvas of history, which covers the traditional bankingpractices from the time of Britishers to the reforms period, nationalization to privatization of banksand now increasing numbers of foreign banks in India. Therefore, Banking in India has beenthrough a long journey. Banking industry in India has also achieved a new height with thechanging times. The use of technology has brought a revolution in the working style of the banks.Nevertheless, the fundamental aspects of banking i.e. trust and the confidence of the people onthe institution remain the same. The majority of the banks are still successful in keeping with theconfidence of the shareholders as well as other stakeholders. However, with the changingdynamics of banking business brings new kind of risk exposure.In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the general sentiments, challenges andopportunities for the Indian Banking Industry. This article is divided in three parts. First partincludes the introduction and general scenario of Indian banking industry. The second partdiscusses the various challenges and opportunities faced by Indian banking industry. Third partconcludes that urgent emphasis is required on the Indian banking product and marketingstrategies in order to get sustainable competitive edge over the intense competition from nationaland global banks.This article is a small seed to existing branch of knowledge in banking industry and is useful forbankers, strategist, policy makers and researchers.

  1. Conparison of Earnings Power between State Commercial Banks and Stock Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓敏; 朱赟赟

    2004-01-01

    As earnings power is one of the primary capacities for commercial banks, by analyzing several indexes on banks'operation performance, this article compared the earnings power between the state banks and the stock banks in China. Through the analysis, some problems of domestic banks may be found and pointed out that the commercial bank should stress on the target of profit maximum to avoid the financial risks. With enough earnings power, the domestic banks can take the challenge with those foreign banks entering domestic money market.

  2. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  3. The security concern on internet banking adoption among Malaysian banking customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Raju; Thiagarajan, A S; Seetharaman, A

    2007-01-01

    The existing literatures highlights that the security is the primary factor which determines the adoption of Internet banking technology. The secondary information on Internet banking development in Malaysia shows a very slow growth rate. Hence, this study aims to study the banking customers perception towards security concern and Internet banking adoption through the information collected from 150 sample respondents. The data analysis reveals that the customers have much concern about security and privacy issue in adoption of Internet banking, whether the customers are adopted Internet banking or not. Hence, it infers that to popularize Internet banking system there is a need for improvement in security and privacy issue among the banking customers.

  4. 12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.7 Liability of Banks,...

  5. 76 FR 35434 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    .... Westbury Bank West Bend...... Wisconsin. Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines--District 8 Atkins Savings Bank & Trust.. Atkins......... Iowa. First State Bank Sumner......... Iowa. Northwestern Bank...

  6. Predicting PTSD following bank robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. We investigated multiple predictors of PTSD severity in a highly representative Danish cohort study of bank employees...... exposed to robbery (N = 371, response rate = 73 %, dropout rate = 18 %). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that 51 % of the variance in PTSD severity could be explained with only peritraumatic dissociation, acute stress disorder (ASD) severity, and negative cognitions about self...

  7. Analisis Yuridis Terhadap Pemberian Kredit Jangka Pendek Melalui Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Terhadap Bank-Bank Bermasalah Dalam Pembayaran Kredit (Studi Terhadap Kasus Bank Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Andreas Dimpos

    2012-01-01

    Bank Indonesia as the central bank has the authority issued a policy in the short-term loans to rescue troubled banks. Bank Indonesia may provide funds to banks experiencing liquidity problems through the Short Term Funding Facility (FPJP) in the form of credit to cope with short-term financial problems to be resolved because if not addressed will affect systemic. The problems discussed in this study were: first, how is the setting of short-term financing facility in the banking system in ...

  8. THEORETICAL CONCEPTS ON BANK OF FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bank of the future has become the subject of scientific polemics in economic domain. Bank of the future - it is a bank with a set of unique technologies that allow customers to perform financial transactions from anywhere, at any time of day and any day of the week, quickly, effectively and safely. The establishment of this type of bank will take place through the formation in accordance with the design of “Bank 2.0” conception and training to “Bank 3.0”. This will lead to quantitative and qu...

  9. The World Bank and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, M; Shakow, A

    1982-06-01

    During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population.

  10. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  11. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  12. Utopian Narratives of I. Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova V. G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article art forms of utopian ideas embodiment in the novels of the Scottish writer I. Banks are considered. Utopian narratives are found both in the science-fiction cycle devoted to the civilization of Culture and in the novel "Business". Art modeling of the fundamental strategies of the society development characteristic for the New time, reveals their internal inconsistencies. Preindustrial, patriarchal living forms are offered instead. Novels by I. Banks visually demonstrate the feature of modern public consciousness and the absence of ideal future representations. In the article fantastic and realistic I. Banks’ novels are compared from the point of this utopian ideal.

  13. Remuneration in European Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tóth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the new rules to be applied in the European Union, data on compensation of material risk takers are to be disclosed from year 2014. This paper overviews the different expectations regarding remuneration of bank managers highlighting the requirements of European Parliament and Council. Furthermore, it analyses data of 18 European banks disclosed based on the new lawful requirements. Based on empirical study it proves there is correlation between number of material risk takers and value of total assets. However this correlation is not too strong.

  14. The impact of bank size and funding risk on bank stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Does bank size significantly explain the variations in bank stability? Does bank funding risk significantly impact bank stability? This paper addresses these two questions with data from the rural banking industry in Ghana. Controlling for credit risk, liquidity risk, diversification in the business model, profitability, inflation, financial structure and gross domestic product, the results suggest that an increase in the size of a rural bank results in an increase in its stability. The results also show that funding risk positively impacts bank stability. The positive relationship between size and bank stability has important repercussions for the current debate on whether or not to constrain bank size to insulate the financial system from future crisis. The positive relationship between funding risk and bank stability also has important implications for the current debate on funding of retail banks.

  15. The Effect of Foreign Bank Presence on Domestic Banks Performance: An Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of foreign bank presence on the behaviour of domestic banks by using the annual data of 37 commercial banks comprising of 7 foreign and 30 domestic banks for the time period of 2007 to 2011. We investigated how net interest margin, return on assets, overhead costs, cost to income and nonperforming loans are effected by the foreign bank presence. We have used panel regression analysis employing bank specific fixed effect model. As a developing country case, the results suggest that the increase in foreign bank share effects the interest margins and profitability of domestic banks in a decreasing manner. It wouldn't be erroneous to express that foreign banks have a positive effect on the competitive environment of domestic banks increasing overall banking standard in Pakistan, the licensing policies should be further liberalized to let new entrants further improve the domestic financial intermediation system.

  16. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  17. PROSPECTS OF ISLAMIC BANKING: REFLECTIONS FROM PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the growth and development phases as well as prospects of Islamic banking in Pakistan. The role of Islamic banking is explained with special regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR as now days this concept is growing vastly. Awareness in public also has been growing and people are moving towards Islamic banking system. As we live in a Muslim country so it is very essential to have some basic knowledge about the Islamic banking. In this paper growth and performance of Islamic banking is discussed and compared among the financial years from 2003 to 2010 in terms of growth parameters like assets, deposits, sources and uses of funds. The performance indicators are also discussed to evaluate the growth and performance of Islamic banking system. In the last eight years, Islamic banking paved with the rapid market share of banking services. Moreover the efforts made by the central bank in Pakistan (SBP are also remarkable in growth of Islamic banking. By seeing the present growth of Islamic banking, it is anticipated that in near future, Islamic banking with get major share in banking industry in Pakistan.

  18. 76 FR 70132 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Bank Valrico Florida Grand Bank & Trust of Florida West Palm Beach Florida The Perkins State Bank... Rockland Massachusetts South Coastal Bank Rockland Massachusetts The Cooperative Bank Roslindale... Delmarva Seaford Delaware First Southern Bank Boca Raton Florida Platinum Bank Brandon Florida...

  19. 77 FR 60996 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... 30309: 1. Guido Edwin Hinojosa Cardoso, La Paz, Bolivia; to voting shares of Anchor Commercial...

  20. 76 FR 66719 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... 30309: 1. Guido Edwin Hinojosa Cardoso, La Paz, Bolivia; to acquire additional voting shares of...

  1. 76 FR 17521 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC... Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10672), regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This...

  2. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  3. Competing for Private Banking Pie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's private banking: A big piece of the pie PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) released a report on the global private banking sector in 2007 after top executives from 265 companies in 43 countries answered responded to a questionnaire.

  4. Characteristics of Managing Operational Banking Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Socol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a global perspective of the operational risk from a banking societies’ viewpoint. We describe the main regulations and settlements in the field and examine the various approaches of the operational banking risk. The paper presents the need of banks to managing operational risk. We study comparatively for a banking society the capital charge for covering the operational risk under the basic indicator approach and under the standardized approach. We present a case study of implementing current capital requirements at the level of a Romanian banking society. From the theoretical approach and from the description of quantifying of operational banking risk, the results of this study insist on the importance of measuring of operational banking risk and identifies major issues that need to be considered to improve the managing operational banking risk.

  5. Specific Features of Internal Audit in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mijoč

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate internal audit in Croatian banks and to point to its more efficient implementation. The paper provides an explanation of key terms related to internal audit in banks, defining audit, types of audit as well as its objectives and roles. In addition to specific properties of the banking system, implementation of internal audit in banks is explained as well. The year 2005 is significant due to the adoption of the Bank Act which is primarily based on provisions of BIS (Banking Information System. The Act has brought about significant changes in the concept of internal audit in banks. The general message of this paper is that internal audit, being a relatively young profession, is marked by accelerated growth, and Croatian banks should adapt their business accordingly.

  6. Regional Development and Effects of Investment Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Erkan Çelik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank is the most important financier for international investment. The bank opens credits mostly for investment projects in developing countries. Turkey has received various investment credits since its membership to the World Bank on March 11, 1947. The credits were used for economic and social domains. Turkey has also been granted credits from the European Investment Bank (EIB. The credits received are composed of micro credits that belong to small and medium enterprises (SMEs. A regional development bank, Islamic Development Bank, has also received credits through Eximbank and Industrial Development Bank of Turkey (TSKB to finance Turkish SMEs. This paper deals with Turkish investment strategies in the framework of basic principles of investment – development banks.

  7. Methods of marketing research in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kraevskiy, B.; Makukhina, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the nature of marketing research in banking activities, the main directions of marketing research in the banking sector, identified tasks that can be solved based on the methods of marketing research. 

  8. Systems for Guaranteeing Bank Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Untaru

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the financial crisis and the latest event that occurred in Cyprus bring new light to how states intervene when commercial banks are facing the risk of bankruptcy. While until now institutions had a clear traditional role to protect depositors, currently there is a trend to transfer damage to companies and individuals that hold deposits.

  9. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a r

  10. Essays on competition in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters of a theoretical nature, all related to the topic of competition in the financial sector. The first chapter studies how competition for talented workers induces banks to set variable wage schemes, and how these wage schemes can lead to excessive risk. The secon

  11. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  12. A Classroom Experiment on Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Mary Mathewes; Hazlett, Denise; Ygosse Battisti, Jolanda E.

    2012-01-01

    This classroom experiment uses double oral auction credit markets to illustrate the role of banks as financial intermediaries. The experiment demonstrates how risk affects market interest rates in the presence of asymmetric information. It provides fodder for a discussion of the moral-hazard problem of deposit insurance and its impact on depositor…

  13. Learning and the central bank

    OpenAIRE

    Charles T. Carlstrom; Timothy S. Fuerst

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that sunspot equilibria may arise under an interest-rate operating procedure in which the central bank varies the nominal rate with movements in future inflation (a forward-looking Taylor rule). This paper demonstrates that these sunspot equilibria may be learnable in the sense of E-stability.

  14. Transportation Environment Data Bank index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1977-04-01

    In an effort to determine the environment intensities to which energy materials in transit will be exposed, a ''Data Bank'' of environmental information has been established by Sandia Laboratories, Division 1285 for the ERDA Division of Environmental Control Technology. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest.

  15. Strengthening E - Banking security using Keystroke Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD KABIR USMAN; MAHMOOD HUSSA IN SHAH

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates keystroke dynamics and its possible use as a tool to prevent or detect fraud in the banking industry. Given that banks are constantly on the lookout for improved methods to address the menace of fraud, the paper sets out to review keystroke dynamics, its advantages, disadvantages and potential for improving the security of e-banking systems. This paper evaluates keystroke dynamics suitability of use for enhancing security in the banking sector. Results from the literat...

  16. Analisis Perbandingan Sistem Pemberian Kredit Pada Bank Konvensional (PT. Bank Cimb Niaga) Dan Sistem Pembiayaan Murabahah Pada Bank Syariah (PT. Bank Cimb Niaga Syariah) Di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Kardina, Tika

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sistem pembiayaan KPR (Kredit Pemilikan Rumah) bank konvensional khususnya Bank CIMB Niaga dan sistem Pembiayaan kepemilikan Rumah (PKR) khususnya Bank CIMB Niaga Syariah di Medan. Metode Analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode analisis deskriptif, yaitu data yang dikumpulkan mula-mula disusun, diklasifikasikan, dan dianalisis sehingga akan memberikan gambaran yang jelas mengenai sistem pembiayaan KPR di bank konvensional d...

  17. Shadow Banking – International and Domestic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Manalo; Kate McLoughlin; Carl Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    One of the lessons from the global financial crisis is that systemic risk to the financial system can arise from outside the regular banking system, in so-called ‘shadow banking’. This article reviews post-crisis international and domestic trends in shadow banking, and regulatory efforts to better understand and address potential risks that may arise. In Australia, systemic risks arising from shadow banking appear limited given its relatively small size and minimal links to the banking system...

  18. Context-aware application for mobile banking

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The field of mobile applications is rapidly evolving. The reason for this lies in the development of smartphones and in the beginning of their wider usage. The development of mobile applications is therefore spreading into different fields. One of them is mobile banking. Mobile banking represents new possibilities in the banking sector. It enables banking services that are independent from time and location and, with transition to smartphones, it also enables the usage of advantages of mo...

  19. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  20. Development of the banking system in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Kbiltsetskhlashvili, Tea

    2008-01-01

    Over fifteen years have passed since the beginning of the reconstruction of the transition countries' banking systems. The analysis of the development of commercial banking in Georgia and other transition countries points out several features, which are typical for the starting period of financial sector reforms. It turns out from this article that the success of the reconstruction of banking sector in certain countries differs substantially. Since the starting of reforms the Georgian banking...