WorldWideScience

Sample records for bank twenty years

  1. Twenty years bone banking in Macedonia application and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, L.; Videovski, G.; Nospal, T.

    1999-01-01

    After establishing the Department for Bone Transplantation and Bone Bank as a part of the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje in 1978, we started our activities in bone banking. In the beginning we stored the transplants at -20 degree C in a deep-freezer using standard storage procedures. Since 1986 we stored the transplants at-70 degree C in a special deep-freezer. 1012 transplants were preserved in the Bone Bank. 657 of them (65%) were used in different procedures, mainly in tumor surgery (407), revision total hip replacement (I 70), elongation of long bones (66), pseudoarthroses (I 5) etc. The most common transplants used in our bone bank are femoral heads taken from live donors during THR procedures, or small parts of cortical and cancellous bones taken during TKR and different types of osteotomies. 187 transplants were rejected due to infection after a defect in the storage system. We had good incorporation of the grafts in most of the patients, although we had delayed incorporation in 26 patients (4%), total resorption of the graft in 9 patients (1.4%), and infection in 4 patients (0.6%). Fracture of the graft occurred in 3 cases (0.5%). After the recognition and becoming a regular member of the United Nations as a former Yugoslav Republic in 1992, Republic of Macedonia started with the so-called 'transitional' period in all parts of life, especially in legislation. After bringing the systemic Health Law in 199 1, the Parliament brought 'The Law for taking, exchange, transportation and transplantation of parts of the human body by reason of curing' in June 1995. This Law defines the conditions under which it is possible to take, store, process, exchange, transport and transplant parts of the human body by reason of curing and the rights, obligations and conditions that have to be fulfilled by the Health Organizations and other organizations engaged in these activities. This Law accepts 'brain death' item, as biological death concept. The cell

  2. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10 8 (range 0.7-75×10 8 ), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Overview of Twenty Years of Radiation and Tissue Banking Activity in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of human tissues in Argentina was a consequence of health care products sterilization by gamma radiation. Radiation technology was implemented in 1970 when the first multipurpose gamma facility was built at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of CNEA. Organ and tissue transplantation is a well established effective therapy that saves lives and significantly improves the quality of life. Ionizing radiation is used for sterilization in order to provide clinically safe tissue for therapeutic purposes of implantation in every patient in need. Argentina radiation and tissue banking activity started in 1993 with the establishment of two tissue banks using radiation under the IAEA programme of technical cooperation, a skin bank and a bone one. Additionally to this start, other tissue banks have adopted tissue sterilization by irradiation. The compatible tissues sterilized with this methodology are mainly skin (frozen, glycerolized), bone (lyophilized, frozen), and amniotic membrane (glycerolized, frozen, dehydrated). The donation and transplant of human organ, tissue and cells is regulated and coordinated by the National Institute Unique Central Coordinator of Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). In regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues are regulated and contorted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Eight tissue banks use gamma radiation for sterilization of human tissues (6 musculoskeletal, 1 skin and 1 amniotic membrane). Argentina has participated actively in several IAEA projects regarding radiation and tissue banking program, and it has been selected by the IAEA to host the Regional Training Centre for the Latin American region. The following activities were implemented: regional training courses in Buenos Aires, face to face (five) and virtual (four) modalities; collaboration on several materials related to tissue banking and radiation sterilization of tissue allograft, codes of practice for

  4. Quality control processes in allografting: A twenty-year retrospective review of a hospital-based bone bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shau-Huai; Liu, Jyh-You; Huang, Chuan-Ching; Lin, Feng-Ling; Yang, Rong-Sen; Hou, Chun-Han

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal allografts are now commonly used. To decrease the potential risks of transmission of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or viruses to the transplant recipients, certain issues regarding the management of patients who receive contaminated allografts need to be addressed. We aimed to clarify the incidence and extent of disease transmission from allografts by analyzing the allografting procedures performed in the bone bank of our hospital over the past 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed the data from our allograft registry center on 3979 allografts that were implanted in 3193 recipients throughout a period of two decades, from July 1991 to June 2011. The source of the allografts, results of all screening tests, dates of harvesting and implantation, and recipients of all allografts were checked. With the help of the Center for Infection Control of our hospital, a strict prospective, hospital-wide, on-site surveillance was conducted, and every patient with healthcare-associated infection was identified. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the infection rate between recipients with sterile allografts and those with contaminated allografts. The overall discard and infection rates were, respectively, 23% and 1.3% in the first decade (1991-2001); and 18.4% and 1.25% in the second decade (2001-2011). The infection rate of contaminated allograft recipients was significantly higher than that of sterile allograft recipients (10% vs. 1.15%, P bank are comparable with those of international bone banks. Strict allograft processing and adequate prophylactic use of antibiotics are critical to prevent infection and disease transmission in such cases.

  5. Quality control processes in allografting: A twenty-year retrospective review of a hospital-based bone bank in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Huai Fu

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal allografts are now commonly used. To decrease the potential risks of transmission of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or viruses to the transplant recipients, certain issues regarding the management of patients who receive contaminated allografts need to be addressed. We aimed to clarify the incidence and extent of disease transmission from allografts by analyzing the allografting procedures performed in the bone bank of our hospital over the past 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed the data from our allograft registry center on 3979 allografts that were implanted in 3193 recipients throughout a period of two decades, from July 1991 to June 2011. The source of the allografts, results of all screening tests, dates of harvesting and implantation, and recipients of all allografts were checked. With the help of the Center for Infection Control of our hospital, a strict prospective, hospital-wide, on-site surveillance was conducted, and every patient with healthcare-associated infection was identified. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the infection rate between recipients with sterile allografts and those with contaminated allografts. The overall discard and infection rates were, respectively, 23% and 1.3% in the first decade (1991-2001; and 18.4% and 1.25% in the second decade (2001-2011. The infection rate of contaminated allograft recipients was significantly higher than that of sterile allograft recipients (10% vs. 1.15%, P < 0.01 in the second decade. Both infection and discard rates of our bone bank are comparable with those of international bone banks. Strict allograft processing and adequate prophylactic use of antibiotics are critical to prevent infection and disease transmission in such cases.

  6. Twenty years of JHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, Daniele; Bonora, Loriano

    2017-01-01

    On July 1st of twenty years ago we launched the first issue of JHEP. It was a real challenge to try the adventure of a scientific journal thought and managed by scientists, independent of private or institutional publishers. The idea was that physicists who were performing the work, writing the papers, and refereeing those of their peers, could also edit them in an electronic format. Thus, at a limited cost which could be handled by academic or scientific institutions, giving open access to the published information, and avoiding the heavy burden at that time placed on our libraries. In order to avoid the failure that - as we well remember was predicted to us by publishing companies and institutions, we needed the active support of the scientific community. A support in collaborating to the scrutiny of papers and scientific policies but, mainly, in sending to us their good papers. We contacted in that sense several of our most active and renowned colleagues, restricting of course to our high energy physics field. We received many enthusiastic responses as can be specifically seen from the papers that appear in the first issues of the journal, as well as the respected names listed in the advisory and in the editorial boards featuring in the opening page of the first issue of JHEP attached to this letter. We were optimists, but perhaps not as much as to foresee the success of the journal, which, in his first 20 years, turned out to be one of the most (if not the most) prestigious one in our field. Success for which --- as first project chairman and executive editor - we must essentially thank the scientific community who supported JHEP by considering it ''their journal'', as was our intention from the start. In this occasion we would like to recall the important contribution of Marco Fabbrichesi who designed the software on which the journal is based, and the technical personnel who implemented it and made it work. It is our pleasure to mention

  7. CND twenty years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.; Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of people who were supporters or leaders in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in the 1950s and 1960s. Information is given from questionnaires completed by 403 respondents, about their social and political development during the past 20 years. (author)

  8. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  9. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  10. Twenty years after the embargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.; DeCicco, J.; Laitner, S.; Dyson, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the direct and indirect oil import costs and examines actions that can be taken to reduce future imports. We find that the USA could greatly reduce its oil imports during the next 20 years by increasing energy efficiency and accelerating the introduction of fuels derived from renewable energy sources, particularly in the transport sector. (author)

  11. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  12. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  13. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  14. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  15. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  16. The next twenty years - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of an institution is an appropriate time to look back and to ask what has been achieved. It is also an appropriate time to look ahead and to ask what should be the mission for the future. How can the strengths of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) be best utilized, what new opportunities should be seized upon, and what challenges should the IAEA be prepared to meet in the next twenty years? Forward planning is a very necessary activity in today's world. There are so many demands on national or institutional resources that careful analysis of options is necessary to establish priorities and ultimately to provide for implementation. But such planning must be done carefully with full appreciation for the validity and sensitivity of the input assumptions and data. Furthermore, today's plan, while setting goals and directions, cannot be so inflexible that it cannot be responsive to ever-changing political, economic and technical constraints or opportunities. Thus in looking ahead, the plan must contain provisions for flexibility to provide for further modifications in the light of ever-changing knowledge, attitudes, and world conditions. The experience of the past five years in the energy field, and especially in nuclear energy, underscores this need. In looking ahead for the next twenty years, we are attempting to describe the International Atomic Energy Agency and its role through the twentieth century. In doing so, we are automatically laying the base for the Agency's work going into the twenty-first century. In short, we are trying to visualize a programme that can serve the coming generation and, in doing so, creating a base from which the needs of the succeeding generation can be met. This is a large order and the crystal ball is less than clear. (author)

  17. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  18. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  19. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  20. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  1. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  2. Twenty-five years of life lessons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Annemieke; Dorren, Luuk; Noord, Van Hans; Veraart, Josja; Cusell, Casper; Sterk, Henk Pieter

    2017-01-01

    For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns,

  3. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  4. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, Dusan

    2004-01-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made

  5. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razem, Dusan E-mail: razem@irb.hr

    2004-10-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m{sup 3} kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m{sup 3} kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  6. Cryogenic air separation: the last twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Petit, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the last 20 years cryogenic air separation plant sizes have increased from 150 tons per day to 2800 tons per day. Progressively reversing heat exchangers have replaced regenerators. However, with this arrangement, the quantity of pure product output is limited to about 50% of the air input. With the appearance on the market of molecular sieve, another arrangement was developed, which allows one to produce a combined pure product flow equivalent to 85% of the air input. Recently, there has been a strong tendency for the reversing exchangers to be superseded by this arrangement. Due to the ever increasing cost of energy, optimization studies are today pushed much further than they used to be; as a consequence there have been major changes in the size of equipment, improvements in the machinery, and simultaneous developments in instrumentation

  7. The second twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1993-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1968, the liberal Catholic press had prepared the laity for the change expected to occur after the release of Pope Paul VI's encyclical "Humanae Vitae," but almost no one read it when it was released in July 1968. The media gave the impression that no one agreed with the Pope. The Archbishop of Baltimore denounced his dissenting priests. The media publicized the discord, resulting in his fellow bishops not supporting him or the Pope. Sound theology was limited then. Today many Catholic leaders and scholars openly defend the encyclical, e.g., since 1978, Pope John Paul II has supported the doctrine of marital noncontraception. Pope Pius XII called for every woman to breast feed. The 1969 publication of the Breastfeeding and Natural Child Spacing was the catalyst for 10 years of research which confirmed breast feeding's contraceptive effect. Family planning specialists and demographers agreed in the Bellagio Consensus in 1988 that mothers who practiced exclusive breast feeding and were amenorrheic need not use a contraceptive for the first 6 months postpartum. Recent research shows that this rule depends on the population, e.g., women in Bangladesh meeting the criteria do not need to use contraceptives for 1 year. Few natural family planning groups existed in 1968 (e.g., 1 diocese), but today there are natural family planning teachers in 49 US states and in 13 countries. Some Catholics are calling for couples wanting to marry to take a course in natural family planning. The media widely publicized the new unnatural family planning methods, especially the pill. Recently a baby magazine allocated natural family planning 2/3rd of a page. A reporter for the "Washington Post" plans to interview a Catholic leader about natural family planning, completely on his/her own initiative.

  8. Twenty years of immunocontraceptive research: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Eckery, Douglas C

    2013-12-01

    The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) began immunocontraception vaccine research by testing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Early PZP research demonstrated that PZP induced infertility; however, increased length of the rut was observed in PZP-treated deer. An alternative vaccine using a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (KLH-GnRH) conjugate formulated with modified Freund's adjuvant was developed at NWRC. Suppression of GnRH has reduced reproduction in both sexes but is most effective in females. This vaccine was effective in preventing contraception in female deer for several years after a prime and boost. Due to adverse side effects of Freund's adjuvant, NWRC developed a new adjuvant called AdjuVac, a mineral oil/surfactant adjuvant with the addition of Mycobacterium avium as an immunostimulant. The price of KLH prompted a search for a more economical hemocyanin carrier protein for the GnRH peptide. Blue protein, derived from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas, proved to be a successful option. Formulation improvements resulted in a vaccine that can be effective as a single injection for multiple years, now called GonaCon. GonaCon is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in white-tailed deer in urban/suburban areas and for wild horses (Equus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus). Future GonaCon applications may include reducing reproduction to manage populations of other wildlife species, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in urban areas and suppressing reproduction to reduce the spread of venereal diseases such as brucellosis. Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies. The EPA would regulate all these uses. Research is also ongoing on a GnRH vaccine to delay the onset of adrenocortical

  9. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  10. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  11. Twenty Years of French "Didactique" Viewed from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    One cannot begin considering the topic of this colloquium without asking, why twenty years? Why not two hundred? Two hundred years ago, Silvestre Franois Lacroix was about to be named chief officer of the Commission Executive de L'Instruction Publique. Out of that experience, together with his long career in instruction, especially as professor of…

  12. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  13. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  14. Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitt, Julian

    In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…

  15. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  16. Twenty five years of clusters -- from Bochum to Strasbourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the area of clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions over the past twenty-five years are reviewed. The viewpoint is that the nucleus is an assembly of clusters. The question is whether clusters actually exist in the nucleus. Although there is abundant evidence for this in light nuclei, the situation for more complex clusters in heavier nuclei is much worse. Differential cross sections for scattering of alpha particles and heavy ions are shown

  17. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  18. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  19. Twenty years of RERTR in Russia: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian RERTR Program started approximately 20 years ago. The USSR always supported principles and goals of the policy of nonproliferation and at the end of 70's the Soviet Government decided to create such national program. Twenty years is the sufficient time to estimate preliminary results of the realization of the program and its prospects on the future. After the first successes of the program, when the enrichment of uranium in fuel elements for foreign supplies was reduced from 80 % to 36 %, the realization of the program was suspended in connection with financial difficulties. But in the beginning of the 90's the Program has received a new pulse connected to the inclusion of Russian scientists and engineers in the international Program. Now basic directions in development of new kinds of fuel are development of works on fuel on a basis dioxide of uranium and development of fuel on a basis of U-Mo alloy. In the future to basic goals of the program the problem of the management of the spent nuclear fuel should be added. The management of HEU at the final stage of a fuel cycle becomes an important objective of the program, since the basic amount of HEU is concentrated in storage of SNF. (author)

  20. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99m Tc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18 F, 85m Kr, 24 Na, 82 Br, 64 Zn, 125 I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  1. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  2. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  3. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  4. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  5. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  6. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  7. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    mission of the United States Air Force is to "fly, fight, and win…in air, space and cyberspace"--as an intergral member of the Joint team that...Scenarios: A Military Futurist Explores War in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Bantam Books Trade Paperbacksl, 2009), 17. 33 Carl H. Builder

  8. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  9. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  10. International cyclotron conferences: twenty-five years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This brief introduction reviews a few of the highlights of the nine previous meetings to perhaps convey an appreciation of the time-scale of the significant achievements of past years and to leave the thought that the future is as filled with promise as was the past

  11. Career Patterns: A Twenty-Year Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N = 1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses, we examine which socio-demographic predictors…

  12. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  13. Twenty years of Triga Mark I reactor use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiulevicius, R.; Maretti Junior, F.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a report on the 20 years of activities of the Triga Mark I, research reactor located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It contains also a list of publications, details of operation and improvements introduced in the reactor as well as some perspectives for its future. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. Career patterns : A twenty-year panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20 years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N=1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses,

  15. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  16. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  17. EBR-II: twenty years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, G.L.; Buschman, H.W.; Smith, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. For the last 20 years EBR-II has operated safely, has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, has shown excellent performance of its sodium components, and has had an excellent plant factor. These years of operating experience provide a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future liquid metal fast reactors. This report provides a brief description of the EBR-II plant and its early operating experience, describes some recent problems of interest to the nuclear community, and also mentions some of the significant operating achievements of EBR-II. Finally, a few words and speculations on EBR-II's future are offered. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  19. [Twenty-five years of screening eugenics in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida Donoso, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the incidence of newborns with congenital defects in Spain has fallen by 56.7% primarily due to the practice of "fetal risk" abortion, after prenatal diagnosis. In some cases, such as people with Down syndrome, the strategy involves the removal of 80-90% of those affected in pregnancy. After presenting the techniques used today and statistical data, we will make a reflection about the ethical justification for prenatal diagnosis programs and practice of "eugenic" abortion.

  20. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  1. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Michael A. De; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  2. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    de Dear, R; Akimoto, T; Arens, E; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K.W.; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S.C.; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has ta...

  3. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  4. INTERNET ADDICTION: A REVIEW OF THE FIRST TWENTY YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-01-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite ...

  5. Isar-2 nuclear power station twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Erwin; Luginger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The Isar-2 nuclear power station (KKI 2) began commercial power operation on April 9, 1988. In these past 25 years the plant generated a total of approx. 285 billion kWh of electricity. The annual electricity production of KKI 2 of approx. 12 billion kWh corresponds to a share of approx. 15 % in the cumulated Bavarian electricity production. This amount of electricity, theoretically, could supply some 3 million three person households, or meet two thirds of the electricity requirement of the Bavarian industry, for one year. In its 25 years of power operation the Isar-2 nuclear power plant has recorded the highest annual gross electricity production of all nuclear power plants in the world nine times so far. A plant performance as impressive as this necessitates a plant availability far above the average. This, in turn, is based on short revision times and faultfree plant operation. However, high plant safety and availability must not be taken for granted, but are the result of responsible, safety-minded plant operation combined with continuous plant optimization and permanent execution of comprehensive checks, inspections, and maintenance measures. Besides plant technology also organization and administration were permanently advanced and adapted to changing requirements so as to safeguard reliable, safe, and non-polluting plant operation.

  6. Twenty years of ABACC: Accomplishments, lessons learnt and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Orpet J.M. [ABACC- Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    From the inception of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435), in 1991, ABACC has had an important role at the non-proliferation agenda and has also been an active player in the international safeguards. It was necessary for ABACC to develop a technical capacity to face the challenges to be a safeguards agency and to gain credibility in the nuclear safeguards world. This capacity means to develop and implement safeguards systems in the technical area, in the inspection framework, in the conceptual analysis of processes and approaches and in the political scenario. These tasks conducted the strategic plan of ABACC on the last 20 years. Among the accomplishments, ABACC has been involved in the application of safeguards to sensitive and complex installations, in developing safeguards instrumentation, in establishing a technical and trained inspectorate, in constructing a cooperative and coordinate environment with IAEA for safeguards application. Other challenges as R and D of equipment and quality assurance systems were also managed during all these years. ESARDA is one forum that ABACC is involved and always shares experience and ideas. On July 18th, 2011 ABACC will formally complete 20 years. This paper summarizes the accomplishments, lessons learnt and future actions for strengthen the ABACC safeguards role. It also addresses the collaboration of ABACC with other organizations in the non-proliferation and international safeguards arena.

  7. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  8. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. P. [University Of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Archaeloogy; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Anthropology

    1998-12-31

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  9. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J. P.; Torrence, R.

    1998-01-01

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  10. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Twenty years on: the impact of fragments on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A; Fesik, Stephen W; Hubbard, Roderick E; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Jhoti, Harren

    2016-09-01

    After 20 years of sometimes quiet growth, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become mainstream. More than 30 drug candidates derived from fragments have entered the clinic, with two approved and several more in advanced trials. FBDD has been widely applied in both academia and industry, as evidenced by the large number of papers from universities, non-profit research institutions, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, FBDD draws on a diverse range of disciplines, from biochemistry and biophysics to computational and medicinal chemistry. As the promise of FBDD strategies becomes increasingly realized, now is an opportune time to draw lessons and point the way to the future. This Review briefly discusses how to design fragment libraries, how to select screening techniques and how to make the most of information gleaned from them. It also shows how concepts from FBDD have permeated and enhanced drug discovery efforts.

  12. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  13. Radiation protection training: twenty year experience in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, Sandor; Kanyar, Bela; Zagyvay, Peter; Solymosi, Jozsef; Bujtas, Tibor; Feher, Istvan; Giczi, Ferenc; Deme, Sandor; Uray, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    In Hungary, radiation protection training for radiation workers has been introduced in very early, just following the publication of the ICRP recommendation No. 26. Before that, in some of the institutions, radiation protection training was recommended for technicians and medical doctors working in nuclear medicine, X-ray diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy, as well as in some of industrial applications, but not on regular way. Since 1988, radiation protection training regulated by the Ministry of Health and required for all of the workers in radiation workplaces licensed by the authority the State Public Health and Medical Officers Service (SPHAMOS). Decree No. 16/2000. (VI. 8.) EuM of the Minister of Health on the enforcement of Clauses of the Nuclear Law 116/1996 regulates the radiation protection training of Radiation Workers (RW). Annex 4 of Decree sees radiation protection training and in-service training: Persons performing conducted work in the field of the use of the nuclear energy and any other work within legal relationship shall be educated in training and in-service training at an interval of 5 years. Three levels of the training introduced; basic, extended and comprehensive, based on radiation risk related to the given job. Several institutions are involved in performing radiation protection training, such universities, scientific institutions, Regional Radiological Health Centers (RRHC) of SPHAMOS, private enterprises etc. All training course material is subject to accreditation. Most of the faculties of the universities involved in training of natural sciences and engineering provide subjects on the fundamentals of dosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection within the courses of physics, biophysics, chemistry, biology, ecology etc. These courses take 5-10 contact hours per week on average. The members of the Hungarian Committee of EUTERP Platform summarize their broad experience collected in the past 20 year. (author)

  14. Internet Addiction: A Review of the First Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite heated debates on its addictive nature, consensus is emerging regarding the existence of this problematic behavior. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on Internet addiction in last 20 years. Purpose of this paper is to present crucial findings on Internet addiction to health profession. Besides numerous benefits of Internet use, the virtual environment brings various risks in every age group. The Internet is very significant in the everyday activities of children and youth and professional interventions with this age group should be specific considering their developmental characteristics. Exposure to online risks can have long-lasting and intense negative effects. Effective programs in prevention and treatment should include a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach. Detail review of the symptomatology, diagnosis model an possibilities of treatment can be multiple beneficial to the health professionals and other helping professions due to actual needs for interventions in the field of the internet addiction treatment. Internet addiction is slowly becoming a societal concern as it particularly affects adolescents and children, who are more exposed and consequently more vulnerable. Findings presented in the paper can benefit in practice of treatment internet addiction and also as framework for further researches in the field.

  15. Twenty years of audiology in a patient with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Chris; Sims, Katherine

    2008-11-01

    To describe disease progression and treatment outcomes over a 20-year period (ages 5-25) in a young man with Norrie disease (occuloacousticocerebral dysplasia), ND; OMIM #310600. Affected individuals are born blind and develop progressive sensory loss with onset in adolescence. This disease is X-linked and has been associated with mutations of the NDP gene (Xp11.4). The patient was followed using repeated audiograms, as well as reports of educational progress and hearing aid use. The specific mutation was found by molecular analysis. The patient demonstrated progressive sensory loss with good preservation of word recognition. The loss was initially high frequency and asymmetric in adolescence and became more severe, more symmetric and affected practically all frequencies by the end of childhood. Educational progress was affected by the cognitive effects of the syndrome, and hearing aid use was very effective. A bilateral progressive sensory loss with good preservation of word recognition was documented in detail. The residual word recognition supported good use of hearing aids in this case.

  16. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  17. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  18. The technical support organization at BNL is twenty years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indusi, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Technical Support Organization was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1968 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The original idea came from a small group of scientists at BNL. The group included Willy Higinbotham, Herb Kouts, Frank Miles, Richard Dodson, and Gerhardt Friedlander. The AEC endorsed the idea of a technical support group to provide technical assistance to AEC's Office of Safeguards and Materials Management and they sent requests for expressions of interest throughout the complex. For a number of reasons, to be discussed in the paper, the Technical Support Organization was established at BNL. An early project was the Conceptual Design for Safeguarding Nuclear Material which formed the first logical and systematic description of the integration of several elements into a safeguards system for protecting nuclear materials. Many other projects were undertaken over the years. TSO today provides technical assistance to the DOE Office of Safeguards and Secuirty, the Office of Classification and Technology Policy, and the Office of Security Evaluations. Technical support to the IAEA is provided under the Program of Technical Assistance to Agency Safeguards (POTAS). Recently, TSO began a program of technical assistance to the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in the area of nuclear systems security

  19. Women in neuroscience (WIN): the first twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Laurel L

    2002-03-01

    Women in Neuroscience (WIN) is an international organization whose major goal is to promote the professional advancement of women neuroscientists. To this end, WIN facilitates contacts and communication among women working in neuroscience, and organizes appropriate activities at the annual Society for Neuroscience (SfN) meeting. WIN was created in 1980, when despite major changes and advances in 'equal opportunities', women were still not achieving a proportionate level of success in the subdiscipline of neurosciences. In 1980, women made up 40 to 50% of entering classes in medical schools or graduate programs, but often comprised only 5 to 15% of leadership in respective organizations. Although there had been women elected to serve as SfN presidents, council, and committee members, women were under-represented in other positions of the Society, such as symposium and session chairs. There was an even lesser degree of representation in leadership positions at universities and medical schools in terms of full professorships, chairs, and program directors, as well as on editorial boards, advisory boards, and councils. Over the years, WIN has worked with success toward increasing the participation of women in neuroscience.

  20. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions.

  1. Twenty Years of Research on Cytokine-Induced Sickness Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the

  2. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 & 12. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER…

  3. 25 Years of GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Unique DNA database has helped advance scientific discoveries worldwide Since its origin 25 years ago, the ... Ph.D., a Nobel Prize winner for his discoveries of split genes, and currently Chief Scientific Officer at New England BioLabs Sydney Brenner, Ph. ...

  4. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  5. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  6. Twenty Years of Australian Educational Computing: A Call for Modern Traditionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on twenty or more years of development and research in educational computing. It argues that the emphasis on exploiting the technology in the service of contemporary ideas about learning held by many of the early workers has been lost to a focus on the technology itself and its capabilities. In schools this has led to an…

  7. Reflections on One Year at the Bank of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on my first year as Governor of the Bank of Israel, which I joined in May 2005. I start by describing the current state of the Israeli economy and monetary policy and economic developments during the past year. I then review a series of issues that have arisen during the past year. Among them are: the monetary mechanism, which is unusual because exchange rate changes have a very rapid impact on prices; the role of inflation and interest rate expectations in policy deci...

  8. The covered distance for twenty five years of the Manche waste storage 1969 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourden, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The twenty five years of the Manche plant,are narrated with the difficulties of the beginning, the problems coming from leaks or runoff that have led to improvement in the knowledge of radioactive waste behaviour and the solutions that have been brought. It is from the building of the plant until the radioactive waste management that is related in this book. (N.C.)

  9. Trends in CPAP adherence over twenty years of data collection: a flattened curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Brian W; Murariu, Dorian; Pang, Kenny P

    2016-08-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, and continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard of therapy. CPAP however is known to have problems with adherence, with many patients eventually abandoning the device. The purpose of this paper is to assess secular trends in CPAP adherence over the long term to see if there have been meaningful improvements in adherence in light of the multiple interventions proposed to do so. A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using the Medline-Ovid, Embase, and Pubmed databases, searching for data regarding CPAP adherence over a twenty year timeframe (1994-2015). Data was assessed for quality and then extracted. The main outcome measure was reported CPAP non-adherence. Secondary outcomes included changes in CPAP non-adherence when comparing short versus long-term, and changes in terms of behavioral counseling. Eighty-two papers met study inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall CPAP non-adherence rate based on a 7-h/night sleep time that was reported in studies conducted over the twenty year time frame was 34.1 %. There was no significant improvement over the time frame. Behavioral intervention improved adherence rates by ~1 h per night on average. The rate of CPAP adherence remains persistently low over twenty years worth of reported data. No clinically significant improvement in CPAP adherence was seen even in recent years despite efforts toward behavioral intervention and patient coaching. This low rate of adherence is problematic, and calls into question the concept of CPAP as gold-standard of therapy for OSA.

  10. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count.

  11. The World Bank Annual Report 2008 : Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The World Bank Group's work focuses on achievement of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals call for eliminating poverty and achieving inclusive and sustainable globalization. The MDGs lay out a blueprint for the World Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. The World Bank is the world's largest funder of education; the world's largest external fund...

  12. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  13. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed......-power) and reliable systems (redundant RNS). Advances in microelectronics and CAD tools play an important role in favoring one technology over another, and a winning choice of the past may become at disadvantage today. In this paper, we address a number of factors influencing the choice of RNS as the winning solution...

  14. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  15. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  16. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  17. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  18. Achievements in the past twenty years and perspective outlook of crop space breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong

    2007-01-01

    Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement, which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987. A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years. More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice, wheat, cotton, sweet pepper, tomato, sesame and alfalfa have been developed, officially released and put into production. A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained. Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses. Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties, exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced. In this paper, the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed. The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed. (authors)

  19. Over Twenty Years Of Experience In ITU TRIGA MARK-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Hasbi

    2008-01-01

    I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor, rated at 250 kW steady-state and 1200 MW pulsing power is the only research and training reactor owned and operated by a university in Turkey. Reactor has been operating since March 11, 1979; therefore the reactor has been operating successfully for more than twenty years. Over the twenty years of operation: - The tangential beam tube was equipped with a neutron radiography facility, which consists of a divergent collimator and exposure room; - A computerized data acquisition system was designed and installed such that all parameters of the reactor, which are observed from the console, could be monitored both in normal and pulse operations; - An electrical power calibration system was built for the thermal power calibration of the reactor; - Publications related with I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor are listed in Appendix; - Two majors undesired shutdown occurred; - The I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor is still in operation at the moment. (authors)

  20. Twenty years of operation of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is twenty years this year since the first unit WWER 440 of Slovak Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice was commissioned. There are four units WWER 440 in operation Jaslovske Bohunice site. First two units of older soviet PWR design V-230 (also known as V-1) and other two units of newer V-213 type (also known as V-2). The goal of this presentation is to summarize and evaluate the operation of Unit 1 and 2 for this period of time and mainly to describe what has been done and what is planned to be done to increase the nuclear safety and operational reliability of both units. The operating organization and regulatory authority assume that an internationally acceptable level of safety will be reached by accomplishing of the upgrading program.(author)

  1. The Green Bank Telescope: A radio telescope for the twenty-first century: Final proposal June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific goals, design, and projected performance of a 100-m-aperture steerable radio telescope to be built at Green Bank, WV are discussed in a proposal to the NSF. The goals considered include observations of pulsars, stars and the solar system; studies of Galactic and extragalactic H I, spectroscopic studies, measurements of continuum radiation; and VLBI observations. Detailed attention is given to the antenna, electronics, control and monitor system, data processing, operational factors, the telescope site, and cost estimates. Drawings, diagrams, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided

  2. Reliability data bank in electronics: ITALTEL experience over 10 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turconi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the Italtel Reliability Data Bank experience in electronics after ten years from data bank creation. Technological evolution on systems and equipment have originated a reliability data bank evolution in order to maintain and improve its performances. This paper will describe the concepts employed to design the today data bank features enabling it to be an important Company tool for reliability activities. (orig.)

  3. Twenty-five years of the common market in coal, 1953--1978. [genesis and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the European Coal and Steel commmunity was established. An attempt is made to show what economic integration is, what problems have arisen, and how the community has tried to overcome them. Three phases can be distinguished during the period under review--a first phase of growth in the coal industry between 1953 and 1957; a second phase marked by a plentiful supply of cheap hydrocarbons and a rapid reduction in coal output despite exceptional growth, linked with a parallel increase in overall energy requirements; and a third phase from 1973, marked by sharp price increases by the oil producing countries with repercussions on the world market in coal.

  4. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  5. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  6. Reactions to combat stress in Israeli veterans twenty years after the 1982 Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Shklar, Rami; Singer, Yaffa; Mikulincer, Mario

    2006-12-01

    During the war or shortly thereafter, the most common manifestation of combat induced psychopathology is combat stress reaction (CSR). The long-term consequences of CSR have so far received little scientific attention. The aim of this study was to examine whether CSR is a marker for long-term PTSD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Two groups of veterans from the 1982 Lebanon war were assessed 20 years after the war: one comprised 286 CSR casualties and the other comprised 218 matched non-CSR soldiers. Participants were assessed for PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology, social functioning, physical health, and postwar life events. Twenty years after the war, veterans with antecedent CSR reported more PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology and distress, social dysfunction, and health problems than did non-CSR veterans. We conclude that CSR should be seen as a marker for long-term psychiatric distress and impairment. In addition, the implications of combat-related trauma are broad and varied, and go beyond the narrow scope of PTSD.

  7. Twenty Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires: Lessons About Disturbance and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, W.H.; Boyce, M.S.; Gresswell, R.; Merrill, E.H.; Minshall, G.W.; Whitlock, C.; Turner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The 1988 Yellowstone fires were among the first in what has proven to be an upsurge in large severe fires in the western USA during the past 20 years. At the time of the fires, little was known about the impacts of such a large severe disturbance because scientists had had few previous opportunities to study such an event. Ecologists predicted short- and long-term effects of the 1988 fires on vegetation, biogeochemistry, primary productivity, wildlife, and aquatic ecosystems based on scientific understanding of the time. Twenty-plus years of subsequent study allow these early predictions to be evaluated. Most of the original predictions were at least partially supported, but some predictions were refuted, others nuanced, and a few postfire phenomena were entirely unexpected. Post-1988 Yellowstone studies catalyzed advances in ecology focused on the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, contingent influences, and multiple interacting drivers. Post-1988 research in Yellowstone also has changed public perceptions of fire as an ecological process and attitudes towards fire management. Looking ahead to projected climate change and more frequent large fires, the well-documented ecological responses to the 1988 Yellowstone fires provide a foundation for detecting and evaluating potential changes in fire regimes of temperate mountainous regions. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  9. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  10. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  11. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936). Annals of Botany 115: 1–18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal’s achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. Sources of information The account draws principally on the Journal’s own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal’s owners and managers. Content In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany’s 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal’s fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal’s organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. PMID:27974325

  12. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  14. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  15. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  17. Twenty years research of chronic gamma-ray irradiation on seed crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years of the works on the chronic gamma-ray irradiation of seed crops are summarized. Radiosensitivity and the mutation rate per unit exposure varies not only with the genetic factor but also depend on whether treatment is given to seeds or growing plants. The relation between the radiosensitivity of seeds and growing plants also varies with plant species. In Hordeum, Avena and Nicotiana, the highest mutation rate obtained by the chronic irradiation of growing plants is similar to that in seed irradiation, but in Oryza and Setalia, chronic irradiation was two to three times more effective for attaining a higher mutation rate. The mutation spectrum also varies with the mutagen, the factors modifying the effects of mutagen, and the dose of mutagen. The suitability of a particular mutagenic treatment to a species should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of mutagenic treatment. For instance, NaN 3 is highly mutagenic to barley, but less mutagenic to rice. The gene ea7 controlling the maturing earliness of barley seems to be mutable in chronic irradiation, and the mutants obtained by chronic irradiation are healthy. The author emphasized that the chronic irradiation at the gamma-field is a useful mutagenic treatment, even though some negative results have been reported in European countries. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with fair skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ratrout J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypopigmented variant of mycosis fungoides (MF is charactrized by the presence of hypopigmented patches as the sole manifestation of the disease. This variant is usually observed in the dark skin of African or Asian individuals particularly children, but nevertheless is an uncommonly reported presentation of the disease. The incidence of hypopigmented MF in Caucasian patients and others of fair skin color is rare. We describe hypopigmented lesions arising in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with type IV skin color. The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides stage IA was made based on the clinico-radiological and histological features. The patient responded well to PUVA therapy and is currently clear of lesions. MF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypopigmented macular lesions in patients of any skin color and age. Multiple skin biopsies must be performed on different occasions so as not to miss the diagnosis; and long term follow up is recommended since recurrence is common and occasional cases behave aggressively.

  19. Twenty Years of National Minority Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Tatalović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of policies towards national minorities in the Republic of Croatia in the past twenty years, with reference to the perspective of minority rights implementation. The topic has been analysed in relation to two independent variables – the influence of external factors, i.e. the international community, and internal political processes that have had influence on the realisation of national minority rights. Today, as a country and society on the eve of accession to the European Union, along with a legislatively developed and institutionally branched model of the implementation of national minority rights, we can not claim to have established permanent protection of their rights. The degree of national minority integration in society is the only true indicator of policy success in relation to national minorities. The goal of this policy ought to be complete integration of national minorities into public, cultural, economic and political life, but accompanied by the preservation of their cultural and national identity. The Croatian model has been set up in such a way, but the manner in which it functions will depend on the political will to implement it, the willingness of national minority members to be active subjects of social and political life, as well as on civil society and Croatian society as a whole.

  20. Twenty years of student sexual behavior: subcultural adaptations to a changing health environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, Nancy S; Burnett, Matthew L

    2004-01-01

    This twenty-year study analyzes changes in sexual behavior among students at Okanagan University College in British Columbia, Canada. Surveys conducted in 1980, 1990, and 2000 reveal a steady increase in safer sexual practices. Most students now question potential partners about their past, use condoms with a new sexual partner, and maintain fairly long-term monogamous relationships. Three sexual subcultures continue to coexist in fairly stable proportions: celibacy (about 30%), monogamy (about 60%), and free experimentation (about 10%). Each subculture has created its own response to the danger of HIV/AIDS: celibates exaggerate the danger they face, monogamists rely on love and fidelity for protection, and free experimenters have increased their use of condoms. While romantic feelings lead many monogamous couples to abandon condoms without objective HIV/AIDS knowledge, free experimenters still face the highest risk. Although they now use condoms more than half the time, their lifestyle, which involves multiple partners, risky sexual acts, and frequent drug and/or alcohol use, clearly remains dangerous. The persistence of distinct subcultures has implications for health education programs, which would be most effective if based on key values held by specific target groups.

  1. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  2. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-11-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  3. The Chinese Banking Sector: Challenges and Prospects in the Coming Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunjieLi

    2004-01-01

    China's banking sector will continue its rapid expansion in the next few years. However,competition will intensify, and return on banks' assets will be unlikely improved substantially.In several years merger and consolidation will become inevitable in the sector, and many small- and medium-sized banks will need to fight for their survival. To assure long-term viability, small-and medium-sized banks should either take advantage of the rapid market expansion in the near term to increase their sizes to the next level, or to specialize in certain products or customer groups. The tasks of bank regulations currently include enhancingbanks' internal management and control, improving asset quality, and carrying out China'srelevant WTO commitments. But at a more fundamental level, the regulatory, objective should be to establish a healthy and orderly market environment in China's banking sector,control systemic risks, and foster efficient allocation of financial resources.

  4. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  5. Parcelling activity of the National Bank for Agriculture in interwar Poland in the years 1924-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kłusek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature related to the problem in focus is exceptionally poor. The only book publication concerns the National Bank for Agriculture in the twenty-year interwar period is book position of Marek Nowak’s authorship [Nowak 1988]. But, on account of its modest range, bank agrarian activity has been treated too generally. In this publication author’s opinion is that this activity needs deeper analysis. Parcelling is an economic process which took part in Poland and lasted from the moment of grant freehold. It ran with special intensification towards the end of XIX century and at the beginning of XX century. In inter-war period, on account of source of parcelled soil, parcellation was divided into private and governmental. Governmental parcellation, which related to public property, included lands by Regional District Councils and territories included by military settlement. However, lands allocated by the National Bank for Agriculture and by individual people made private parcellation. The beginning of the National Bank for Agriculture’s agrarian activity’ was enabled by Poland President’s directive from 1924. One of the main tasks put against NBA was support: parcellation and settlement, agricul-tural regulations by landed estates purchase for parcelling aims and giving long-term credits for land purchase. However, according to status, the National Bank for Agriculture was able to parcel out landed properties, both purchased for private property and entrusted to commission state. Tasks put against parcellation conducted by the National Bank for Ag-riculture were not carried out in a satisfactory way. The Bank’s activity did not contribute to shopping the process of farms fragmentation at serious level and process of agrarian overpopulation’s growth among fewer ownership. Similarly, it also was not an essential source of establishing new farms capable of competing with vast-land ownership.

  6. Cardiac myxoma: diagnostic approach, surgical treatment and follow-up. A twenty years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, J; Milicić, D; Alfirević, I; Anić, D; Baudoin, Z; Bulat, C; Corić, V; Dadić, D; Husar, J; Ivanćan, V; Korda, Z; Letica, D; Predrijevac, M; Ugljen, R; Vućemilo, I

    1996-12-01

    At the University Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in Zagreb, Croatia, we treated 81 patients with primary intracardiac myxoma, in a period from January 1975 to December 1994. There were 55 female and 26 male pts, in age from 1 month to 80 years, mean 46+/-15 years. Clinical manifestations varied from no symptoms and very poor or no clinical signs to various manifestations of chronic or acute congestive heart failure, syncope and arrhythmias with or without systemic findings such as high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anaemia, leucocytosis, elevated gamma globulin, thrombocytopenia or low grade fever, as well as cerebrovascular accidents due to tumour embolization. Cardiac symptoms were predominant in 54 pts (66.6%) and cerebrovascular in 20 pts (24.7%). Seven pts (8.6%) were symptomless and discovered accidentally, mostly regarding on an unexplained heart murmur. In almost all the patients preoperative diagnosis of intracardiac myxoma was sufficiently established by echocardiography. The tumour was located in the left atrium in 62 pts (76.5%) and in the right atrium in 19 pts (23.5%). Delay from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis was 6 months in average (range 10 days to 25 months). The average waiting for the operation was 9 days (range from 1 to 60 days). The echocardiographic diagnosis was confirmed during intraoperative examination followed by histological analysis. All pts underwent excision of myxoma using cardiopulmonary bypass with core and topical hypothermia and cold crystaloid cardioplegia. According to the additional preoperative and intraoperative findings, in 6 pts sinchronous mitral valve reconstruction, in 3 pts artificial mitral valve implantation and in 2 pts atrial wall reconstruction was performed. There was no perioperative mortality. After the operation, we could not evaluate all the patients long enough, mostly because of some paramedical circumstancies, such as war, migrations, etc. Twenty two pts undevent evaluation for at least 5

  7. Commercial NAA — Is It a Success? Evaluation of a Twenty Year Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.

    2013-01-01

    The commercial service at Imperial College was maintained for twenty years by juggling staff, equipment and irradiation facilities, building when required and downsizing when necessary. At no point was the service entirely self-sufficient since staff had more than one role and participated in teaching and research as well as the analytical service. The balance was of benefit everyone concerned, including students who have studied with us and gained experience of working within a well maintained and quality assured laboratory. The benefits of collaborating with industry cannot be overestimated, with the secondary effects for research and teaching identified previously. A key change took place in the early 2000s, which can be seen in Figure 5 by the fall in income from 2002. The author’s academic department became a separate cost centre to the Reactor Centre, and irradiations were charged at a more realistic price. Once the true costs were built in, including space, overheads and irradiation charges, it was not possible to maintain a viable business plan without reducing staff to a non-viable number. As a result, in 2003 the analytical service was handed to the Reactor Centre, in which the business could remain viable because the irradiation charge became income not expenditure. Without the continued interactions that academic research generated, the NAA service has diminished with very few customers in the past few years. Staff are occupied with internal work for the reactor such as routine monitoring using gamma spectrometry. In summary the introduction and operation of a commercial service is to be recommended, particularly in those situations where it can complement other parts of the organisation such other analytical or academic activities. It is not practical to fund reactor operations entirely on commercial activities, but it can result in a number of spin-offs that can increase other income streams such as teaching and research projects. Over the past 28

  8. Twenty years of meta-analyses in orthopaedic surgery: has quality kept up with quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Bernadette G; Abouali, Jihad A K; Kooistra, Bauke W; Conter, Henry J; Poolman, Rudolf W; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

    2010-01-01

    As the number of studies in the literature is increasing, orthopaedic surgeons highly depend on meta-analyses as their primary source of scientific evidence. The objectives of this review were to assess the scientific quality and number of published meta-analyses on orthopaedics-related topics over time. We conducted, in duplicate and independently, a systematic review of published meta-analyses in orthopaedics in the years 2005 and 2008 and compared them with a previous systematic review of meta-analyses from 1969 to 1999. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was performed to identify meta-analyses published in 2005 and 2008. We searched bibliographies and contacted content experts to identify additional relevant studies. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the studies, using the Oxman and Guyatt index, and abstracted relevant data. We included forty-five and forty-four meta-analyses from 2005 and 2008, respectively. While the number of meta-analyses increased fivefold from 1999 to 2008, the mean quality score did not change significantly over time (p = 0.067). In the later years, a significantly lower proportion of meta-analyses had methodological flaws (56% in 2005 and 68% in 2008) compared with meta-analyses published prior to 2000 (88%) (p = 0.006). In 2005 and 2008, respectively, 18% and 30% of the meta-analyses had major to extensive flaws in their methodology. Studies from 2008 with positive conclusions used and described appropriate criteria for the validity assessment less often than did those with negative results. The use of random-effects and fixed-effects models as pooling methods became more popular toward 2008. Although the methodological quality of orthopaedic meta-analyses has increased in the past twenty years, a substantial proportion continues to show major to extensive flaws. As the number of published meta-analyses is increasing, a routine checklist for

  9. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  10. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  11. 'Twenty-five years after Chernobyl accident: Safety for the future'. 2011 National report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shindo, Mahito

    2016-02-01

    This is the Japanese translation of the Ukrainian National Report 'Twenty-five Years after Chernobyl Accident: Safety for the Future', published by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies in 2011 (in Ukrainian and English). This Japanese translation is published as an outcome of the KAKENHI research project on liquidations of Nuclear Disasters in the World (headed by Tetsuji Imanaka), in which Shindo participates, and as a KUR report of the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University. The objective of publishing this Japanese translation is to provide basic information on how to overcome the consequences of a large-scale Nuclear Disaster for the wide range of public, including decision-makers and administrative staff. By doing so, this publication aims at invigorating discussions over measures to be applied for overcoming the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster (started in 11th March 2011 at Fukushima), and at forming proper schemes to minimise the consequences on current and future generations. The original text of this translation tightly summarised the whole picture of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, which had been the only large-scale Nuclear Disaster until 11th March 2011. More importantly, it describes all sorts of measures and schemes taken in Ukraine from 1986 to 2011 in order to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, in a quite well structured manner. In other words, from the contents of this text, Japanese readers are able to learn a lot about the very problems currently facing with. Therefore, I wish many Japanese readers will read this text, and utilise the knowledge written here effectively to overcome the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster. (J.P.N.)

  12. Fast-food consumption among 17-year-olds in the Birth to Twenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Assessment of fast-food consumption in urban black adolescents. Design: The current research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Subjects attending the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) research facility at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg between September 2007 and May ...

  13. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  14. Twenty-five years of modeling multiphase flow and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation will cover some of the highlights of multiphase modeling in collaboration with Professor Dimitri Gidaspow (DG) over the last roughly twenty-five years. It all started in 1972 in Idaho Falls with Charles Solbrig, who planned and initiated a project for the former USAEC to develop a computer code to replace RELAP4 to analyze the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). DG spent his sabbatical on the project in 1973. One highlight was the discovery of complex characteristics, the implications of which are still pondered by some. Fluidization research began in 1978 when the author collaboratively developed a step-by-step building-block approach to understanding the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds, an approach closely coupled to validation experiments. A grant from the USDOE to study solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed was awarded to DG in 1978. Following that, grants from GRI, NSF, and a contract from Westinghouse Electric Corp. allowed the early work to continue. Progress was slow since computer costs were high. Subsequent continuing support from the USDOE, NSF, EPRI, and industry has allowed research to continue, as has his collaboration. A highlight of this collaboration was the development of the monolayer energy dissipation (MED) erosion model. Multiphase flow and fluidization theory took quantum leaps with the publication of DG's Multiphase Flow and Fluidization: Continuum and Kinetic Theory Descriptions (MFF), Academic Press, San Diego (1994), for which there is essentially no competition. Only the late Professor S.L. Soo's Particulates and Continuum: Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York (1989), a textbook version of the classic monograph Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Science Press, Beijing, China (1990), comes close. In MFF, the kinetic theory of granular flow has evolved as a potentially viable adjunct to the continuum multiphase theory, of which fluidization is one important manifestation. It must be

  15. After Twenty-Five Years: A Twenty-Five Year Follow-up Study of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High School Graduates of the Class of June 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William; Zanzalari, J. Henry

    A twenty-five-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the occupational, educational, marital and armed forces experiences of the graduating class of 1953 from the Middlesex County Vocational and Technical high schools located in New Brunswick, Perth, Amboy, and Woodbridge, New Jersey. Data, in the form of questionnaire responses, were…

  16. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  17. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  18. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  19. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E.; Brognez, J.

    2002-01-01

    longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  20. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  1. Book review: Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Dolan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Edited by Carolyn D. Dillian (Coastal Carolina University, Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin consists of 19 previously published articles from the International Association for Obsidian Studies (IAOS Bulletin. Dillian selected these articles because they provide a range of methodological and theoretical approaches concerning archaeological obsidian studies from around the world like Eretria, California, and the Near East, for example.

  2. Twenty Years after Philippine Trade Liberalization and Industrialization: What Has Happened and Where Do We Go from Here

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to review our trade liberalization policy and its contribution to the country`s industrial growth and performance. After more than twenty years of liberalization, the overall performance of the manufacturing industry has been weak, growth has been slow, and contribution to value added and employment has been limited. Total factor productivity growth declined from 1996 to 2006. The industrial structure has remained "hollow" or "missing" in the middle and medium enterprises have ...

  3. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  4. Twenty-Five Years Later: A Librarian Looks Back...and Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author thinks about the changes that have taken place in school libraries during the past 25 years that she has shared with Linworth Publishing. She remembers the first copy of "The Book Report" that arrived in the mail as a sample. As a high school librarian with several years experience, she found this new magazine an…

  5. The ASTRONET Infrastructure Roadmap: A Twenty Year Strategy for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, M.; Monnet, G.

    2008-12-01

    The process followed by ASTRONET to build a long-term strategy for European astronomy is presented. The main conclusions and priorities given in the recently unveiled report on the Infrastructure Roadmap for the next 20 years, following the establishment of a Science Vision last year, are summarised. These reports together hopefully represent a blueprint for a bright future for European astronomy.

  6. Banking cryopreserved heart valves in Europe: assessment of a 5-year operation in an international tissue bank in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Y; Grandmougin, D; Van Hoeck, B

    1996-01-01

    The heart valve bank of the European Homograft Bank has been set up in 1988 to meet the growing demand of cardiac surgeons for various sized and quality controlled cryopreserved homografts. Heart valve donors less than 60 years of age were classified in 3 categories: multiorgan donors with non transplantable hearts, recipients of cardiac transplantation and non beating heart cadavers with a warm ischemic time of less than 6 hours. Past history and biology were checked for transmissible diseases. Preparation, progressive freezing and storage in liquid nitrogen vapors, and quality control were according to the standards of the Belgian Ministry of Health. From end January 1989 to end May 1994, 989 homograft valves were cryopreserved (514 pulmonary, 475 aortic and 3 mitral) whereas 962 valves were discarded. The first cause of rejection being a major macroscopic lesion (41.48%). 138 hearts accepted at inspection were contaminated and 43 cases remained so after antibiotics. 38 cases were positive for hepatitis B or C. Complication at distribution and thawing included 10 instances of bag rupture and 15 of transversal fracture through the wall of the conduit. 477 aortic, 474 pulmonary valves as well as one mitral were implanted between May 1989 and May 1994, either for left or right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. In the left ventricular outflow tract series 111 aortic and 23 pulmonary homograft valves were used in cases of native endocarditis, prosthetic endocarditis or recurrent endocarditis after homograft implantation. 9.6% of the requests could no be satisfied. Regular follow up information was available from 382 implants-40.1% only. The assessment of 5 years operation of the heart valve bank indicates: 1) the efficiency of selecting, cryopreserving and allocating quality controlled homograft valves from a large pool of donor hearts provided by a network of hospitals; 2) the difficulty of obtaining regular follow up information on the implants.

  7. Twenty-five year outcome of sequential abdominopelvic radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellairs, Ellen E.; Twiggs, Leo B.; Potish, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study of sequential surgery, abdominopelvic radiotherapy and single agent alkylating chemotherapy was conducted to evaluate survival and toxicity in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Methods: From 1970-1976, 95 women with stage I-III epithelial ovarian carcinoma were scheduled to receive postoperative radiotherapy consisting of 20.0 Gy to the whole abdomen (1.0 Gy/day), a 29.75 Gy pelvic boost (1.75 Gy/day) and 10 subsequent courses of Melphalan (1 mg/kg/course). Endpoints were overall survival, disease-free survival(DFS), and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: The evaluable 94 patients included 19 stage I, 25 stage II, and 50 stage III. Of the latter, 21 had no palpable disease postoperatively (IIIN) and 29 had postoperative palpable disease (IIIP). Overall survival at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 42%, 30%, 23% and 22%. DFS for the entire group was 54% at 5 years and remained 50% from 10 to 25 years. All but two recurrences were noted within the first 27 months. No recurrence or treatment-related deaths occurred after 8 years. After 10 years, the survival of the study group became parallel to the general population. Prognostic factors were only related to stage (p<.001) and the presence of postoperative palpable disease(p<.001). DFS at 25 years was 95 % for stage I, 71% at 5 years and 66% from 10 to 25 years for stage II, and 17% at 5 years and 11% thereafter for stage III patients(p<.001). Although no stage IIIP patients were cured, 25% lived beyond 2 years. Five year DFS was significantly better in IIIN (45%) vs. IIIP (0%) patients (p<.001). The 65 patients without postoperative palpable disease, (stage I-IIIN) achieved DFS at 5 and 25 years of 69%, and 61%, respectively. Of 31 patients undergoing a second-look surgery, 84% were found to be free of tumor. Two recurred at 3.5 and 7 years after surgery. Acute tolerance was acceptable. Chronic toxicity included an 11.7% rate of small bowel obstruction requiring surgery and a 3% rate of

  8. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  9. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V

    2009-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442

  10. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy : What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions

  11. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  12. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  13. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  14. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertani, R.

    1995-01-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure

  15. The discovery of mesoporous molecular sieves from the twenty year perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kresge, Ch. T.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2013), s. 3663-3670 ISSN 0306-0012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : liquid crystal phases * surfactant * silica Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 30.425, year: 2013

  16. Twenty Years of European Union Support to Gene Therapy and Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancberg, David

    2017-11-01

    For 20 years and throughout its research programmes, the European Union has supported the entire innovation chain for gene transfer and gene therapy. The fruits of this investment are ripening as gene therapy products are reaching the European market and as clinical trials are demonstrating the safety of this approach to treat previously untreatable diseases.

  17. Twenty years of principal-agent research in EU politics: how to cope with complexity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delreux, Tom; Adriaensen, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the 20 years after its introduction, the principal-agent model has seen increasing use to study political processes in virtually all policy domains in which the EU is active. Relaxing the strict assumptions that guided the original economic applications has greatly widened the scope for potential

  18. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  19. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  20. Twenty Years of Brassinosteroids : Steroidal Plant Hormones Warrant Better Crops for the XXI Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.; Zhabinskii, V.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of brassinosteroids (BS) just over 20 years ago opened a new era in studies of bio-regulation in living organisms. Previously, the only known role of steroids as hormones was in animals and fungi; now a steroidal hormone in plants had been added. Progress in brassinosteroid research

  1. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1966, Twenty First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-09-30

    Federation of Malaysia . . . . 24 24 11 - - - - 13 - - - - - - Greece ....••...... 2,2Z7 1,798 30 109 443 405 - 811 429 - 54 84 145 146 DOWNGRADED AT 12 YEAR...Termination of Indefinite Enlistments Early Release for Chirstmas Obesity Early Separation from Extension of Enlistment Resignation Unconditional

  2. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhuenda-Fluixá, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Saurin, Almudena A. Navas; López, Miriam Abiétar

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views…

  3. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  4. Twenty Years On: Reflections on "Supporting the Use of External Representations in Problem Solving"…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard; Brna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reflect upon a paper we wrote that was published in 1995 (20 years ago). We outline the motivation for the work and situate it in the state of the art at that time. We suggest that a key contribution was to highlight the need to provide support for learners who reason with external representations. The support must be flexible enough to…

  5. Twenty Five Years of Cognitive Care Education Research: Time for a Revolutionary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Berry, Jeremy; Cude, Kellie; Anderson, Stephen; Britt, Sanfrena

    2018-01-01

    This is the third study of Cognitive Care Education in New York State nursing homes using cross-sectional methods over a 25 year period. The data indicate that the Cognitive Care Education increased at statistically significant levels, albeit by evolutionary means. It is now time for "A Revolutionary Change," for Cognitive Care…

  6. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1967, Twenty Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-09-30

    AT 12 YEAR INTERVALS;..- NOT AUTOMATICALLY DECLASSIFIEDDOD DIR. 5200.10 ~ Federation of Malaysia . . . . 47 47 22 - - - - 25 - - - - - -Greece...Substandard Performance Resigned - Homosexuality (Class II) Resigned - Homosexuality (Class III) Resigned - Unfitness or Unacceptable Conduct Resigned - In...Performance of Duty (Voluntary) Discharged - Unfitness (Voluntary) Discharged - Marriage (Voluntary) Discharged - Pregnancy (Voluntary) Discharged

  7. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    September 2016 marks 25 years since the College of Medicine of the University of Malawi was established. In this article we reflect on its conception, birth, adolescence, and youth. The contributions of multiple stakeholders are celebrated while being mindful of the ongoing efforts to consolidate past and current gains.

  8. Twenty-eight years of wilderness campsite monitoring in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel Boyers; Mark Fincher; Jan van Wagtendonk

    2000-01-01

    The research, resource management and wilderness staffs in Yosemite National Park recently completed the third 10-year cycle of a wilderness campsite impact monitoring program. Initial results indicate an overall improvement in conditions due to a strong restoration program, decreased use and increased visitor education. Lessons learned point to the necessity for ample...

  9. Twenty Years of Women's Leadership: Have We Come "A Long Way, Baby?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    I'd like to share with you some thoughts from my last 20 years of leadership study and what I've come to understand during this time about women in relationship to leadership. Consider these remarks personal reflections on some of what has been written and discussed about leadership and especially about how women relate to leadership. Let's wonder…

  10. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 and 12. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    The second volume of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the…

  11. Twenty-year trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisley, Kelly R; Preston, Jennifer F; Dolan, James P; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2017-08-01

    Trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the U.S. over time have not been previously described. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we analyzed patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia over a 20-year period (1992-2011) to estimate rates of Heller myotomy, locations where the procedures were performed (rural, urban or teaching) and changes in technique (laparoscopic vs open) as well as outcomes of length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Over the last 20 years, the total number of Heller myotomies performed in the U.S. has increased (1576 cases in 1992 to 5046 cases in 2011, p = 0.001). These procedures are now being performed laparoscopically (0.9%-67.0%, p Heller myotomy at teaching institutions with decreased in-hospital mortality and shorter LOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  13. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  14. Incidence of hypothyroidism more than twenty years after therapy in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronga, G.; Esposito, M.; Bschieri, I.; Fenzi, G.F.; Martino, E.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is confirmed that delayed hypothyroidism is the major complication of I 131 therapy of the hyperthyroid syndromes of toxic diffuse or toxic multinodular goiter. In a homogeneous group of 94 patients taken from case histories of 454 subjects treated between 1957 and 1967, the annual increment of complications over the years appears significantly less than that found by other Authors and by us in prior review afeter a shorter interval of time

  15. Clinical and radiological evolution of a hand arthrosis in twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonje, Julio H; Botero, Misael; Gersner, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    The clinical evolution and X rays of an arthrodosis of the hand followed for 25 years is presented. This is a complement of another article published in the magazine, arthrosis viewed by a doctor patient second part. An emphasis is placed on the good results obtained with a new program of exercises. The problems related to the Alignment and instability of the wrist and its collapse are analyzed in depth in both the example X rays as well as the scannography

  16. Twenty years of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER: Historical and personal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Filardo, Edward J; Lolait, Stephen J; Thomas, Peter; Maggiolini, Marcello; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2018-02-01

    Estrogens play a critical role in many aspects of physiology, particularly female reproductive function, but also in pathophysiology, and are associated with protection from numerous diseases in premenopausal women. Steroids and the effects of estrogen have been known for ∼90 years, with the first evidence for a receptor for estrogen presented ∼50 years ago. The original ancestral steroid receptor, extending back into evolution more than 500 million years, was likely an estrogen receptor, whereas G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) trace their origins back into history more than one billion years. The classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are ligand-activated transcription factors that confer estrogen sensitivity upon many genes. It was soon apparent that these, or novel receptors may also be responsible for the "rapid"/"non-genomic" membrane-associated effects of estrogen. The identification of an orphan GPCR (GPR30, published in 1996) opened a new field of research with the description in 2000 that GPR30 expression is required for rapid estrogen signaling. In 2005-2006, the field was greatly stimulated by two studies that described the binding of estrogen to GPR30-expressing cell membranes, followed by the identification of a GPR30-selective agonist (that lacked binding and activity towards ERα and ERβ). Renamed GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) by IUPHAR in 2007, the total number of articles in PubMed related to this receptor recently surpassed 1000. In this article, the authors present personal perspectives on how they became involved in the discovery and/or advancement of GPER research. These areas include non-genomic effects on vascular tone, receptor cloning, molecular and cellular biology, signal transduction mechanisms and pharmacology of GPER, highlighting the roles of GPER and GPER-selective compounds in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer and the obligatory role of GPER in propagating cardiovascular aging, arterial

  17. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  18. Maxillofacial fractures: twenty years of study in the department of maxillofacial surgery in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery for the period 2001-2005. We have analyzed those fractures and compared them with the period from 1983 to 2005 only when it was reasonable. During this period, 1,945 patients were treated for trauma in the maxillofacial region by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. This group included 19.8% females and 80.2% males. The largest age group were those between 20 and 20 years of age. Causes of trauma for both periods were predominantly traffic accidents; however, during the period 2001-2005, interpersonal conflicts were increasingly the cause of fractures. Interpersonal conflict as a cause of maxillofacial trauma has risen in recent years. With this increase the methods of treating fractures in this region are also changing.

  19. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  20. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-01-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods. (author)

  1. The fate of stranded oil at the BIOS site twenty years after the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.; Prince, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the 1981 Baffin Island Oil Spill (BIOS) Project, 15 cubic metres of aged crude oil was released onto the shores of an experimental beach at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, Canada. The oil was left to weather naturally and the distribution, quantity and character of the oil was monitored over time. The experiment provided a unique opportunity to study and sample oil as it weathers over a 20 year period in a low-energy, arctic environment. Over the 20 years of the study, the oil was exposed to weathering processes for about 40 months during ice-free periods. While most of the stranded oil was removed in the first few months of open water immediately following the experiment, some small surface patches still persist. It was noted that there has been very little change in the distribution or in the physical condition of the oil patches between 1993 and 2001. Geochemical analysis reveals that some samples are unaltered despite more than 20 years of exposure to elements. Other samples indicate that biodegradation and photo-oxidation play a major role in removing most of the components of the oil in this low-energy arctic environment. Some highly biodegraded samples had less than 87 per cent of the original hydrocarbons. The study revealed that there are 4 stages in the evolution of the stranded oil: (1) initial rapid refloating of oil during the first 24 to 48 hours in 1981, (2) period of relative stability up to the formation of an asphalt pavement within 4 open-water months, (3) degradation of an asphalt pavement in the upper intertidal zone over a 10-month open-water period from August 1983 to August 1989, and (4) disintegration of the pavement after 1989 and before August 1991, with soft interstitial surface oil still present in 2001. 21 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  2. Twenty-Seven Years Experience With Transvenous Pacemaker Implantation in Children Weighing <10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Laura; Chubb, Mark Henry; Bostock, Julian; Rogers, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Epicardial pacemaker implantation is the favored approach in children weighing pacemaker implantation in neonates and infants from 1987. To date there have been no long-term follow-up reports of what is for many a controversial strategy. Between 1987 and 2003, 37 neonates and infants-median age 6.7 months (1 day to 3 years) and median weight 4.6 kg (2.7-10 kg)-had a permanent transvenous pacing system implanted. Pacing leads were placed into the right ventricular apex/outflow tract through a subclavian vein puncture with a redundant loop in the atrium. Three patients were lost to follow-up, 4 patients died from complications of cardiac surgery, and 2 patients had their system removed. At long-term follow-up in 28 patients at a median of 17.2 (range, 11.2-27.4) years, 10 patients have a single chamber ventricular pacemaker, 14 a dual chamber pacemaker, 3 a biventricular pacemaker, and 1 has a single chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Subclavian vein patency was assessed in 26 patients. The overall subclavian vein occlusion rate was 10 of 13 (77%) 5 kg during long-term follow-up. After a median of 14.3 (range, 13.4-17.6) years of pacing, 7 patients continue with their original lead. Transvenous pacing in infants <10 kg results in encouraging short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Subclavian vein occlusion remains an important complication, occurring predominantly in those weighing <5 kg. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  4. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M.; Link, Emma; Leong, Trevor; Heriot, Alexander; Vazquez, Melisa; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T.; Lynch, Craig A.; Mackay, John; Michael, Michael; Tran, Phillip; Ngan, Samuel Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78–88), 92% (95% CI, 89–96), 73% (95% CI, 68–79), and 82% (95% CI, 77–87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  5. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  6. Actinomycosis of Distal Phalanx Twenty Years after Flap Reconstruction of Index Finger: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative infection caused by anaerobic bacteria from genus Actinomyces which are normal flora of mouth, colon and vagina. Actinomycosis of upper extremity is rare. We report a case of actinomycosis of the distal phalanx of finger many years after flap reconstruction. The patient presented with two months’ history of chronic discharging sinus from the tip of his right index finger, which had sustained a degloving injury 20 years previously. It had been treated with an anterior chest wall flap which had healed uneventfully but was bulky due to excess tissue from the donor site. Radiograph revealed osetomyelitis changes of distal phalanx. Debulking surgery with curettage of the distal phalanx was done. Wound healing was uneventful. He was treated with six weeks of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. The discharge from the distal phalanx cultured actinomycosis odontolyticus. Histopathology of the debrided tissue showed chronic inflammation. As far as we are aware, there are no reports of actinomycosis in a flap involving the finger treated previously with a chest wall skin flap. The infection was probably dormant for many years before manifesting as a discharging sinus. Although the finger flap was bulky, it was not problematic until it started to have serous discharge. With a thorough debridement of all infected tissue, six weeks of antibiotic was adequate. Ciprofloxacin was prescribed based on discharge culture sensitivity. Metronidazole was added as actinomycosis is anaerobic. Response was prompt as patient was not immunocompromised. At follow-up six months post-surgery the finger had recovered with good function. If not for the discharging sinus, patient would probably have tolerated his bulky finger for the rest of his life.

  7. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  8. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Elżbieta; Stępińska, Janina; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently.

  9. Supervoltage orbital radiotherapy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy; Results of a twenty-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA)); Petersen, I.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Since 1968 we have employed supervoltage orbital radiation as treatment for severe progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. A numerical ophthalmic index was used to asess pre- and post-treatment serverity. In the past 20 years we have treated 311 patients of whom 275 have been followed for {le} 1 year or until any eye surgery was performed. An orbital radiation dosage of 2000 rads in 2 weeks was used for the majority of patients (Series I and III). Series II patients received an orbital dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks. Demographic differences were observed between these series, thus mandating presentation of the results of each separately. Analyses excluded any result achieved by any post-radiation surgical procedure on the eyes. Post-theraphy worsening of ophtalmopathy occurred in only 29 of 1025 observations. Improvement or complete resolution was observed within each category of eye involvement, but lack of favorable response was also recorded in significant numbers. Improvement in proptosis occurred with the lowest frequency and magnitude. About 30% of the patients required eye muscle surgery to correct residual diplopia. Analysis of the data by step-wise linear regression analysis enabled us a. to derive formulae predicting the problable response to radiation therapy according to sign and severity, and b. identify parameters which diminished the likelihood or the extent of a favorable response. The latter included male sex, never thyrotoxic, age greater than 60 years, and requirement for concomitant treatment for hyperthyroidism. No long-term adverse reactions attributable to the radiotherapy have been observed. We conclude that supervoltage orbital radiotherapy, combined with later eye muscle surgery if necessary, is an effective treatment strategy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author).

  10. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. Material and Methods The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). Results In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. Conclusions The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently. PMID:26230402

  11. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  13. Twenty years of functional near-infrared spectroscopy: introduction for the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A; Elwell, Clare E; Ferrari, Marco; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-15

    Papers from four different groups were published in 1993 demonstrating the ability of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemoglobin concentration responses to brain function in humans. This special issue commemorates the first 20years of fNIRS research. The 9 reviews and 49 contributed papers provide a comprehensive survey of the exciting advances driving the field forward and of the myriad of applications that will benefit from fNIRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined immunodeficiencies: twenty years experience from a single center in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, H. Haluk; Patiroglu, Turkan; Hershfield, Michael; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) include a group of inherited monogenic disorders. CIDs are characterized by defective cellular and humoral immunities that lead to severe infections. CIDs can be classified according to immunologic phenotypes as T?B?NK? CID, T?B?NK+ CID, T?B+NK? CID and T?B+NK+ CID. In a 20-year period, from 1994 to 2014, a total of 40 CID patients were diagnosed at the Pediatric Immunology of Erciyes University Medical Faculty in Kayseri, Turkey. The gender ratio (F/M) was ...

  15. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  16. Twenty-five years of Antarctic upper atmosphere research at Rhodes University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    South Africa, as one of the twelve signatories of the Antarctic Treaty is required to establish presence in Antarctica. In this article the past 25 years of upper atmosphere research in Antarctica, and the ionosphere programme at SANAE (South African National Antarctic Expedition) are described. The use of ionograms, Barry ionosondes, airglow photometers, oblique incidence ionograms and the digitized FM ionosonde are discussed as well as anomalous daily variations, the ionospheric effects of particle precipitation, Atmosphere Explorer-C and project ISAAC (International South Atlantic Anomaly Campaign)

  17. Twenty years of high-speed lines in Spain; Zwanzig Jahre Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in Spanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Vega, Tomas [ADIF, Madrid (Spain); Gil Ortiz, Jose Miguel [Balfour Beatty Rail Iberica, Alcobendas (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    In April 1992, i.e. 20 years ago, fast train services started in Spain when high-speed trains were put into operation on the almost 500 km long Madrid-Cordoba-Sevilla railway line. Both the 1,435 mm UIC standard gauge and the 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz overhead line voltage level meant a big step in the development. Today the Spanish high-speed network covers some 2,200 km of railway line, and more lines are planned or already under construction. (orig.)

  18. Twenty-one year old female with an iris tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)

  19. Gender trends in dental leadership and academics: a twenty-two-year observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Ross, Sasha; Prasad, Soni; Koerber, Anne; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender disparities in dental leadership and academics in the United States. Nine journals that represent the dental specialties and high published impact factors were selected to analyze the percentage of female dentists' first and senior authorship for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Data on appointment status and female deanship were collected from the American Dental Association (ADA) survey, and the trends were studied. The proportion of female presidents in ADA-recognized specialty organizations was also calculated. Overall, the increase in first female authorship was not statistically significant, but the increase of last female authorship was statistically significant in a linear trend over the years. The percentage of tenured female faculty members and female deans in U.S. dental schools increased by factors of 1.7 and 9, respectively, during the study period. However, female involvement in professional organizations was limited. Findings from this study indicate that female participation in authorship and leadership has increased over time. Nevertheless, females are still a minority in dental academics and leadership.

  20. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  1. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  2. Twenty Years of One Astronomy Teacher Professional Development - The EXES Teacher Associate Program at UT Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Sneden, Chris; Lacy, John; Richter, Matthew J.; EXES Teacher Associates

    2018-01-01

    The Astronomy Department and McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin has and continues to offer a suite of different astronomy based K-12 teacher professional development programs. One of our longest running, and most successful programs, is reaching its 20th anniversary, the EXES Teacher Associate Program, which was started in 1998. The EXES Teacher Associate program features sustained and continued professional development opportunities for K-12 science and math educators. It consists of 6 times per year day-long meetings, coupled with other professional development opportunities provided at various times. In total, there are approximately 30 active members of the group currently, but more than 90 teachers have participated in this group over its 20 year history. The program has had astronomy education as its focus throughout its history, but different partnerships and collaborations with other programs have supported the group and have allowed for a variety of professional development opportunities and themes for educators to engage in. We will give an overview of this program, present evaluation data and teacher feedback related to program success and student impact, and highlight a few specific program opportunities that are unique and have been shown to be most impactful for participants.

  3. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity–productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity–productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23–1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity–productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction. PMID:27621451

  4. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  5. Absorptive Capacity and Innovation: An Overview of International Scientific Production of Last Twenty-Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennys Eduardo Rossetto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to achieve an overview of international scientific production on absorptive and innovation capacities in order to mapping the academic contributions already made between 1990 and 2015 (last 25 years. Bibliometric methods, and social network analysis were used to understand the behavior of 1,693 published articles and analysis of key works cited. Most notably, the growing publication with related topics, in approximate exponential growth, concentration of work into five groups and six cocitação periodic coupling groups, indicating possible fields for publication related to the themes absorptive capacity and innovation. The analysis of the key articles cited identifies the themes and methods used, as well as understand the context of the themes absorptive capacity and innovation.

  6. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  7. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=-.05), extraversion (β=-.03), and agreeableness (β=-.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories.

  8. Twenty-five years after introduction of automotive catalysts. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, M.; McCabe, R.W. [Chemical and Physical Sciences Laboratory, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, MD-3179, SRL, PO Box 2053, 48121 Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2000-09-25

    The union of catalysts and the automobile has been one of the greatest successes of heterogeneous catalysis over the last 25 years. Here, the history of automotive catalysis is briefly reviewed, followed by an assessment of where automotive catalysis stands today and where it is headed in the future. A key distinction between past automotive catalysis experience and that projected for the future is an increased focus on catalysts in upstream of power plant applications, such as on-board fuel processing units for fuel cell vehicles. Driven by ever tighter regulations, there will be continued research and development activity focused also on downstream applications (i.e. exhaust emission aftertreatment), especially for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited.

  9. [Infective endocarditis. Systematic review of twenty years of performances in the Sociedad Argentina de Medicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Yorio; Milian Andrés, Escudero; Luis, Camera

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. There have been very few studies published about IE in Argentina. We reviewed all the studies about IE published in the Argentine Medicine Society from 1980 to 2003 and we analyzed demographic, clinical and bacteriological data. 27 studies with 628 patients were included. Mean age of patients was 50.7 years old. The most frequent clinical data were fever, murmur and elevated sedimentation rate. Stafilococcus spp was the most common causative organism, followed by streptococcus spp. The echocardiographic demonstration allowed the definitive diagnosis in 2/3 of the patients. The IE data of Argentina are not different from other data published in different countries and this study shows some clinical features of IE in Argentina.

  10. [Quality assurance systems and occupational medicine system: an history twenty years along].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Along the last tventy years, in our country the quality assurance systems and the occupational medicine deeply interacted both in theoretical and practical fields of interest at three levels: (i) the need of preventive and therefore of occupational medicine in quality assurance systems; (ii) the need on reverse of quality in prevention and occupational mnedicine mainly in qualification and updating process; (iii) the evidence, proofs of efficacy or appropriateness of different preventive procedures and occupational physician activities; (iv) the connection with European and national legal directives and with technical or good practice norms. Finally we discuss about the role of occupational physician as the global consultant for enterprise, as a mandatory strategic technical figure in a typical multidisciplinary processes as the implementation of the quality systems.

  11. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  13. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=−.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=−.05), extraversion (β=−.03), and agreeableness (β=−.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories. PMID:29651189

  14. Twenty Years of Creativity Research in Human-Computer Interaction: Current State and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich Pedersen, Jonas; Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Creativity has been a growing topic within the ACM community since the 1990s. However, no clear overview of this trend has been offered. We present a thorough survey of 998 creativity-related publications in the ACM Digital Library collected using keyword search to determine prevailing approaches......, topics, and characteristics of creativity-oriented Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. . A selected sample based on yearly citations yielded 221 publications, which were analyzed using constant comparison analysis. We found that HCI is almost exclusively responsible for creativity......-oriented publications; they focus on collaborative creativity rather than individual creativity; there is a general lack of definition of the term ‘creativity’; empirically based contributions are prevalent; and many publications focus on new tools, often developed by researchers. On this basis, we present three...

  15. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). All were newly constructed and used dry wood for the framing members with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19 percent. Building envelope performance was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic, and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1,013 thermographic images recorded, and 167 airtightness tests conducted.

  16. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools.

  17. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  18. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  19. Twenty years of multidisciplinary research and practice: the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Findley, Patricia A; Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Early research of work disability in the 1980s showed a complexity of factors influencing pain and health-related functional limitation at work; hence, multidisciplinary perspectives were necessary to understand the complex interplay between biomechanical, organizational, social, and psychological factors impacting work disability. To address this need, the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation was founded in 1991 with the goal of providing a scientific, yet practical forum for presenting multidisciplinary research and practice in work disability. Now, the 20-year collection of articles in the Journal reflects important trends and directions in the field of occupational rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective summary of the past 20 years of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, including its inaugural goals and intent, rates of submission and acceptance, trends in the types of articles published, study topics, global distribution of authors, and future directions. The original goal of providing a multidisciplinary scientific and practical forum has been met, but current trends reflect a maturing scientific evidence base, with less representation of employer-based case studies and practical innovations. There has been a dramatic increase in the international representation of studies, authors, and peer reviewers outside of the US. Also, published studies now address work disability for a larger number of health concerns. Contributions to the Journal continue to reflect a multidisciplinary perspective, but the Journal has seen significant changes with respect to international representation, the expanding study of non-musculoskeletal sources of work disability, and the maturing scientific evidence base in the field of occupational rehabilitation. Future volumes of the Journal will likely reflect continuing changes in the global economy, workforce fitness, and job demands.

  20. Twenty-year trends in benzodiazepine dispensing in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Conigrave, K M; Day, C A; Nguyen, Y; Haber, P S

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concern has been expressed about overprescribing of benzodiazepines and related harms. Past analyses have relied on World Health Organization-defined daily doses (DDD) which are sometimes out of keeping with clinical usage. This study examines 20-year (1992-2011) trends of benzodiazepine dispensing in Australia using both DDD and Ashton equivalent dose. Data from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) website were analysed. Trends in number of prescriptions, DDD/1000 people/day and DDD/prescription were examined over time, and between states/territories. In the 20-year period, 174 080 904 scripts were recorded, with temazepam the most dispensed benzodiazepine (35% of scripts), followed by diazepam (23%). Overall recorded utilisation fell from 27.7 DDD/1000 people/day in 1992 to 20.8 in 2011 (24.9% decrease). There were striking changes in use of individual benzodiazepines over time, with reductions in oxazepam and flunitrazepam and dramatic increases in alprazolam. Since 1998, there has been a steady increase, albeit modest, in per script DDD. The DDD/1000 people/day for items dispensed through PBS/Repatriaton-PBS was highest in Tasmania and lowest in Northern Territory. Despite a modest overall decline in the amount of benzodiazepine dispensed, the level of use is still likely to reflect relative over-prescribing given the paucity of accepted indications for long-term use. Since 1998, there was a polynomial increase in quantity dispensed per script. The WHO-defined DDD for clonazepam seems inappropriate and could impede monitoring of its abuse. Other problems include lack of national data for medications not subsidised on PBS/Repatriation PBS. A broad policy approach is required, not one which targets only one particular benzodiazepine. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Twenty-years of splenic preservation at a level 1 pediatric trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairdain, Sigrid; Litman, Heather J; Troy, Michael; McMahon, Maria; Almodovar, Heidi; Zurakowski, David; Mooney, David P

    2015-05-01

    Splenic preservation is the standard of care for hemodynamically stable children with splenic injuries. We report a 20-year single-institutional series of children with splenic injuries managed without a splenectomy. Children evaluated and treated for blunt splenic injury at Boston Children's Hospital from 1994 to 2014 were extracted from the trauma registry. Demographics, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes were reviewed. Three time-periods were evaluated based upon the development and modification of splenic injury clinical pathway guidelines (CPGs). Survival was defined as being discharged from the hospital alive. 502 suffered isolated splenic injuries. The median AAST grade of splenic injury increased across the three CPG time periods (psplenic-injury related mortalities occurred. Hospital length of stay decreased significantly secondary to splenic injury CPGs (psplenic injury, no patient died or underwent splenectomy. Hospital length of stay decreased across time, despite an increase in the severity of splenic injuries encountered. Splenectomy has become so unusual in the management of hemodynamically stable children with a splenic injury that it may no longer be a legitimate outcome marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  3. Twenty years of load theory-Where are we now, and where should we go next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Groeger, John A; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-10-01

    Selective attention allows us to ignore what is task-irrelevant and focus on what is task-relevant. The cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie this process are key topics of investigation in cognitive psychology. One of the more prominent theories of attention is perceptual load theory, which suggests that the efficiency of selective attention is dependent on both perceptual and cognitive load. It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model. The present article supplements and extends previous reviews (Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 , 2005, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148. doi: 10.1177/0963721410370295 , 2010) by examining more recent research in what appears to be a rapidly expanding area. The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms, and (5) the future of load theory. We argue that the key next step for load theory will be the application of the model to real-world tasks. The potential benefits of applied attention research are numerous, and there is tentative evidence that applied research would provide strong support for the theory itself, as well as real-world benefits related to activities in which attention is crucial, such as driving and education.

  4. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  5. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65%) studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30%) studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5%) article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23%) was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM) species in both clinical (28%) and environmental (19%) isolated samples (P < 0.05). Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM), M. simiae (103/494; 21%) demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%). These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  6. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  7. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of three antiepileptic drugs - Back on twenty years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serragui, Samira; Zalagh, Fatima; Tanani, Driss Soussi; Ouammi, Lahcen; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Badrane, Narjis; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs is a tool widely used in the management of epilepsy. In Morocco, this monitoring is carried out by the Centre Anti Poison et Pharmacovigilance (CAPM) since April 1995. This is a retrospective study spanning 20 years. It concerns the therapeutic drug monitoring of Phenobarbital (PB) of carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA). Therapeutic drug monitoring of the 3 antiepileptic drugs represent 58.85% of all applications received by the CAPM. The dosage of PB was ranked first followed by that of CBZ and finally by the VPA. Weak demand for therapeutic drug monitoring in Morocco could be explained by the low number of neurologists in addition to social factors. With its affordable price by patients, PB is the most prescribed antiepileptic drug in our country, which explains the high demand for its dosage. As for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antiepileptic drug, they were mainly related to age, the occurrence of adverse effects, the association antiepileptic drugs or in the case of verification of patient compliance. Efforts are required for promoting the interests of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drug in the management of epilepsy in Morocco.

  8. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  9. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally ``lonely'' (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period-ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect is very small, but a loud minority of stars, including, apparently, HD 154345, show very strong RV-activity correlations.

  10. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event

  11. COMPLICATIONS OF NON-ENDOSCOPIC DISCECTOMY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TWENTY-ONE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Ramírez León

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report and compare the number and grade of major complications presented with non-endoscopic thermal discectomy and nucleoplasty for the treatment of discogenic axial lumbar pain using laser and radiofrequency. Methods: A 21 years retrospective study was conducted of the clinical charts of patients whose reason for consultation was axial lumbar pain from degenerative disc disease, and who underwent surgery using non-endoscopic discectomy and nucleoplasty (NEDN. Two groups were established; the first, NEDN with laser, and second, NEDN with radiofrequency. The number and types of complications reported in the case-series were counted, and their statistical differences determined. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 643 of the medical charts. 26 complications were reported, the most common being radiculitis (n=12. Statistically significant differences were found between the complications occurring in the two groups (p=0.01. Conclusion: The number of complications showed statistically significant difference. The severity of the complications and adverse outcomes provide an argument for choosing one technology over the other. Training and the learning curve stage are important factors to be taken into account, to avoid complications.

  12. Eye health in the future: what are the challenges for the next twenty years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking ahead, it is really important to know where we have come from. This allows us to project identified trends and to reflect on the tremendous amount of change that can happen over a relatively short period.Reflect for a moment on the intensity of the debate regarding the use of intraocular lenses (IOLs in low-income settings in the 1990s. As they were still very expensive, some insisted that aphakic correction after surgery was the best approach for these countries. The subsequent availability of low-cost IOLs made the debate irrelevant. It dramatically changed our ability to provide modern IOL cataract surgery and control cataract blindness worldwide, and it laid the basis for VISION 2020. Other dramatic changes occurred with the introduction of ivermectin for onchocerciasis and azithromycin for trachoma, which gave us the ability to eliminate these two devastating and previously intractable causes of blindness. Our medical management of glaucoma or of age-related macular degeneration today is totally different from what it was 20 years ago, although there is still a long way to go. Our approach to refractive error has also altered dramatically, thanks to the recognition of its importance and the availability of high-quality, low-cost spectacles.So, given what we know about the past, what are the challenges we face in the future?

  13. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  14. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  15. [Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: twenty years of experience at a Mexican tertiary care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Oregón, D; Ramírez-Mayans, J; Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Toro-Monjaraz, E; Cázares-Méndez, M; Cadena-León, J; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Montijo-Barrios, E

    2014-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare congenital disease described by Waldmann in 1961 that is a consequence of obstruction of the lymphatic drainage of the small bowel with secondary lymph vessel dilation. This distorts the architecture of the villi and causes a leakage of lymph into the intestinal lumen, resulting in protein-losing enteropathy and malabsorption. To describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics in children with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A retrospective observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted that reviewed the case records of children diagnosed with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 1, 1992 to September 30, 2012. Four patients were found that presented with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. Three of them had been diagnosed before 3 years of age. All the patients presented with chronic diarrhea, edema, lymphopenia, hypocalcemia, and hypogammaglobulinemia, and 3 patients presented with hypocholesterolemia. Bowel transit time, endoscopy, and intestinal biopsies were characteristic of this pathology. Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected when there is a clinical picture of chronic diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy accompanied with edema at any level, as well as hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hypocholesterolemia, which are the main biochemical findings of this pathology. All children presenting with intestinal lymphangiectasia should undergo an upper gastrointestinal series with bowel transit time and endoscopy with biopsies taken at the level of the duodenum. Treatment includes diet and the periodic administration of albumin and gamma globulin. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Water quality changes in a polluted stream over a twenty-five-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.; Skousen, J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. for Plant & Soil Science

    2003-04-01

    The Deckers Creek watershed in northern West Virginia (United States), containing a land area of 166 km{sup 2}, has along history of industrial development and attendant environmental abuses from both land and Water pollution practices. The water in Deckers Creek was sampled in 1974 at 9 locations along the main stem and resampled in 1999-2000 to determine water quality changes over this 25-year period. Water samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, alkalinity, iron, and calcium at both times, while aluminum, manganese, zinc, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria densities were added in 1999-2000. Water at almost all sampling points showed lower acidity and metal contents in 1999-2600 compared with 1974. Water pH increased at the mouth from 5.4 in 1974 to 6.0 in 1999-2000. Acidity and iron concentrations, were decreased an average of 70% in the upper stretches of the creek. however, one major untreated point source of water from an abandoned underground mining complex continues to degrade the quality of-the creek in its lower stretches. In the upper section, the. water quality in Deckers Creek has improved due to decreased surface and underground coal-mining activities, reclamation of abandoned and recently permitted surface mined lands, and natural healing of past land use scars from timbering and mining over time. The decrease in mineral. extraction activities and the reclamation of disturbed lands has occurred due to the passage and enforcement of water quality and land reclamation laws and regulations.

  18. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the airtight drywall approach (ADA). All were newly built and used dry wood for framing members, i.e. with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19%. Building envelope performace was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1013 thermographic images recorded and 167 airtightness tests conducted. Both the energy efficient and conventional building envelope systems performed satisfactory manner although fewer problems were found in the energy efficient houses. Lower mean WMC levels were measured in the walls and attics and fewer WMC excursions above 19% were recorded. The energy efficient houses also displayed fewer thermographic anomalies, particulary those of a severe nature. The energy efficient houses were found to be more airtight. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in the energy efficient houses. Both the polyethylene air barriers and the ADA system demonstrated predominately stable WMC levels, thermographic characteristics and airtightness. The building envelopes constructed using polyethylene barriers generally performed in a superior fashion to those which used ADA, although both systems provided satisfactory performance. WMC levels were slightly lower in the polyethylene houses as were the number of thermographic faults, particularly those of a severe nature. 11 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Twenty-five years of biomonitoring lead in the Frankfurt/Main area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger; Wulff, Svenja

    2002-01-01

    The present study is an example of the historical monitoring of heavy metals. The specific question it aims to explore is: to what extent has the lead content of selected organisms used for biomonitoring in Frankfurt/Main--one of the cities in Germany most heavily affected by automobile traffic--changed as a result of legislation on leaded gasoline? Data on the lead content of the moss species Bryum argenteum Hedw. from the years 1974, 1975 and 1978 and data on the lead content of the outer bark of the ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. from 1973 served as the basis for the repeated measurements. Remeasurement was successful in 76.5% (i.e. 124 trees at 26 growth sites). The study produced the following results: As was expected, the lead content of the short-term accumulator Bryum argenteum Hedw. was distinctly lowered with a decreasing particulate lead concentration. However, the reduction factor varied greatly between the different growth sites. On the other hand, the lead content measured in the outer bark layers of Fraxinus excelsior L. has risen markedly during the past two decades. Whereas in 1973 nearly all trees examined displayed very low concentrations of lead (225 ppm). Various factors have to be taken into account to explain this increase. First of all, bark is a long-term accumulator for heavy metals like lead and its enrichment capacity could have increased as the surface becomes rougher over time. Furthermore, lead is most probably leached out of the bark to a lesser degree now than in the 1970s, owing to the reduced concentration of sulphuric acid in the rain. The dramatic growth of automobile traffic in the Frankfurt/Main area during the period covered by the study undoubtedly plays an important role as well.

  20. Leibstadt nuclear power station (KKL): The Future after twenty years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenenberger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Switzerland's largest power plant, KKL (1 165 MW BWR), is situated on the Swiss side of the Rhine River, not far from the entry of the Aare River. In 2003, the plant generated some 17% of the electricity consumed in the country. In line with the importance of the plant, it shareholders are all major Swiss power utilities. KKL was connected to the power grid in December 1984. Its construction cost amounted to approx. euro 3 200 million. After some backfitting measures at an expense of approx. euro 200 million, the plant is now in excellent technical shape. Generating costs, which were very high in the beginning, have been greatly reduced in the meantime. This was helped by a decrease of borrowed capital, the favorable development of interest rates and, above all, the rise in annual production. This, in turn, was achieved in various programs increasing plant power, and by shortening the annual revision outages. From the coming year onward, costs could be below Eurocent 3.3/kWh. Also the organization and the staff of te plant are prepared for the future. They have demonstrated their fitness in various national and international reviews. Also the political environment is favorable, by and large. In 2003, the Swiss voting population so clearly rejected the two opt-out initiatives that there has been a lasting positive change in the policy of continuing the operation of existing plants. Also for KKL, the waste management problem is still unsolved. This is due primarily to political reasons. The envisaged repository for low-level waste was rejected in a referendum in 2003. Technically and in its organization, the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Station is ready for the future. The electricity generated at Leibstadt is desired and accepted politically. (orig.)

  1. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  2. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Inge, E-mail: inge.lindblom@niku.no

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  3. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm

  4. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  5. Twenty years of the grey partridge population in the LAJTA Project (Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragó, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lajta Project covers 3,065 ha. Within this area crop cultivation is dominant. Fields are separated from each other by forest belts and tree rows, extending altogether over roughly 120 ha. This habitat structure characterized by cultivation of 12–15 field crops sustained partridge population with densities of 1.75 birds/km2 (1991. The Project started in 1991/1992 and aimed to increase the carrying capacity for grey partridge and other small game species living in the area. A full–time gamekeeper was employed and habitat improvements were initiated. Four years later, the breeding population increased to 10.1 birds/km2. Besides increased numbers of nesting pairs, the number of reared chicks also increased, from 5.1–11.2 individuals/km2 in 1990 to 27.3–38.4 individuals/km2 in 1994. However, field sizes did not change significantly. Although the lengths of field margins increased by approximately 25% (from 82 m/ha to 115 m/ha under the influence of habitat management, they still reached only half those found in the countries of Central Europe where private ownership of land properties is dominant. After the privatisation of fields in 1995 as part of the political change in Hungary —affecting approximately 50% of the project area— the possibilities of habitat improvement decreased, and the technological pressure on large–scale farming area increased. Following these processes the grey partridge population again decreased to 1.43 birds/km2 in 1997. As a result of the new management strategy applied in the project since 1996 we observed a slow increase in the breeding population, which stabilized at around 5 birds/km2, between 2007 and 2009. The August density increased in the same period from 4.5 birds/km2 to 13–17 birds/km2. During the two decades in which this research was conducted, chick mortality and winter mortality were extremely high. The key factors influencing grey partridge population dynamics in our study area seem to be

  6. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  7. Merger and Acquisition in the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szewczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents situation on mergers and acquisitions (MA in banking sector during last twenty years. The main motives are selected and analyzed. All is explained on the base on research reports of the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank.

  8. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  9. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal : Year 2004 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of : the FFY 04 SIB had a total of nineteen loans in the amount of $47,340,891. : A comp...

  10. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2008 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of the FFY 2008 SIB had a total of five loans totaling $22.1 million. Since the begi...

  11. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2007 SIB had a total of 13 loans and 1 bond in the : amount of $17....

  12. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2009 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2009 SIB had a total of nine loans totaling $9.0 : million and one ...

  13. Does Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae) have a between-year seed bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., demonstrated that Ferocactus wislizeni, a common perennial cactus in the northern Sonoran Desert, has a between-year seed bank. In laboratory studies, F. wislizeni seeds lost dormancy during storage at room temperature and had a light requirement for germination. Field experiments suggested that as much as 2% of the annual seed crop might escape post-dispersal predation even when unprotected; where suitable safe sites exist, a higher percentage might escape. Germination of seed recovered monthly from above- and below-ground components of an artificial seed bank showed that seeds can survive at least 18 months in and on the soil. Seed banks enable F. wislizeni to take advantage of favorable rains and temperatures throughout the growing season, thus increasing the number of opportunities for germination. Moreover, seed banks enable F. wislizeni to respond hugely when the climate seems especially favorable, thus producing the large cohorts necessary to compensate for high seedling mortality. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luci Meire Pereira da; Muccioli, Cristina; Oliveira, Filipe de; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio; Gonzaga, Lucas Renó; Nakanami, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9%) followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%). Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis) and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%). In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  15. Health effects following long-term exposure to thorium dusts: a twenty-year follow-up study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.A.; Cheng, Y.E.; Xiao, H.; Chen, L.; Yang, Y.J.; Dong, Z.H.; Zheng, R.; Feng, G.; Deng, Y.H.; Feng, Z.L.; Han, X.M.

    2004-01-01

    A twenty-year follow-up study was carried out at Baiyun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine in China, This mine has been mined since 1958. Its ore contains 0.04% of ThO 2 and 10% of SiO 2 . The purpose of this study is to investigate possible health effects in dust-exposed miners following long-term exposure to thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. By using the negative high voltage exhaled thoron progeny measurement system to estimate the miner's thorium lung burden. The highest thorium lung burden among 1 158 measurements of 638 miners was 11.11 Bq. The incidence of stage 0 + pneumoconiosis was increased among dust-exposed miners. An epidemiological study showed that the lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners was significantly (p 2 and SiO 2 ) and thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation for the dust-exposed miners and the controls were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively. (author)

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Gene Therapy for ADA-SCID: From Bubble Babies to an Approved Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrua, Francesca; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since first attempts of gene therapy (GT) in children affected by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) defect, also known by the general public as bubble babies. ADA-SCID is fatal early in life if untreated. Unconditioned hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant from matched sibling donor represents a curative treatment but is available for few patients. Enzyme replacement therapy can be life-saving, but its chronic use has many drawbacks. This review summarizes the history of ADA-SCID GT over the last 25 years, starting from first pioneering studies in the early 1990s using gamma-retroviral vectors, based on multiple infusions of genetically corrected autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes. HSC represented the ideal target for gene correction to guarantee production of engineered multi-lineage progeny, but it required a decade to achieve therapeutic benefit with this approach. Introduction of low-intensity conditioning represented a crucial step in achieving stable gene-corrected HSC engraftment and therapeutic levels of ADA-expressing cells. Recent clinical trials demonstrated that gamma-retroviral GT for ADA-SCID has a favorable safety profile and is effective in restoring normal purine metabolism and immune functions in patients >13 years after treatment. No abnormal clonal proliferation or leukemia development have been observed in >40 patients treated experimentally in five different centers worldwide. In 2016, the medicinal product Strimvelis™ received marketing approval in Europe for patients affected by ADA-SCID without a suitable human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor. Positive safety and efficacy results have been obtained in GT clinical trials using lentiviral vectors encoding ADA. The results obtained in last 25 years in ADA-SCID GT development fundamentally contributed to improve patients' prognosis, together with earlier diagnosis thanks to newborn screening. These advances

  17. Twenty-five-year experience with the Björk-Shiley convexoconcave heart valve: a continuing clinical concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, William J; Ibrahim, Michel A; Ivey, Tom D; Acheson, Donald E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Weyman, Arthur; Defauw, Joseph; Smith, J Kermit; Harrison, Donald

    2005-05-31

    The first Björk-Shiley convexoconcave (BSCC) prosthetic heart valves were implanted in 1978. The 25th anniversary provided a stimulus to summarize the research data relevant to BSCC valve fracture, patient management, and current clinical options. Published and unpublished data on the risks of BSCC valve fracture and replacement were compiled, and strategies for identifying candidates for prophylactic valve reoperation were summarized. By December 2003, outlet strut fractures (OSFs), often with fatal outcomes, had been reported in 633 BSCC valves (0.7% of 86,000 valves implanted). Fractures still continue to occur, but average rates of OSFs in 60 degrees valves are now valve characteristics, especially valve angle and size, with weaker effects associated with other manufacturing variables. OSF risks are mildly lower among women than men but decline sharply with advancing age. The risks of valve replacement typically greatly exceed those of OSF. By comparing individualized estimated risks of OSF versus valve replacement, guidelines have been developed to identify the small percentage of BSCC patients (mostly younger men) who would be expected to have a gain in life expectancy should reoperative surgery be performed. Twenty-five years after the initial BSCC valve implants, fractures continue to occur. Continued monitoring of BSCC patients is needed to track and quantify risks and enable periodic updating of guidelines for patients and their physicians.

  18. Muiris O’Sullivan’s “New Storytelling”: The Art of Twenty Years A-Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Shea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its publication in 1933, Muiris O’Sullivan’s Fiche Blian ag Fás (Twenty Years A-Growing has been limited and distorted by critics who view the memoir through a lens shaped by prior assessments of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s earlier Blasket autobiography, An tOileánach (The Islandman. Muiris Mac Conghail voices the standard perspective when he states, “It was the publication of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s An tOileánach, in 1929, which both acted as an incentive and provided an exemplar to Muiris” (150. O’Crohan’s autobiography certainly inspired O’Sullivan; however, Muiris’s more literary sensibility set him on his own inscriptive journey during which he creates a new type of narrative, one which creatively interweaves oral traditions with the contours of the novel. As we investigate what Pádraig Ó Fiannachta terms the author’s nua scéalaíocht, or “new storytelling” techniques, we can more fully appreciate O’Sullivan’s subtle dexterities as both traditional storyteller and novelistic craftsman.

  19. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  20. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

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    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  1. The Italian National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism: twenty years of surveillance and study of congenital hypothyroidism

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    Olivieri Antonella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All the Italian Centres in charge of screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of infants with congenital hypothyroidism participate in the Italian National Registry of affected infants, which performs the nationwide surveillance of the disease. It was established in 1987 as a program of the Health Ministry and is coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The early diagnosis performed by the nationwide newborn screening programme, the prompt treatment and the appropriate clinical management of the patients carried out by the Follow-up Centres, and the surveillance of the disease performed by the National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism are the components of an integrated approach to the disease which has been successfully established in our country. The aim of the Register is to monitor efficiency and effectiveness of neonatal screening, to provide disease surveillance and to allow identification of possible aetiological risk factors for the disease. During the past twenty years the active and continuous collaboration between the Register and the Italian Screening and Follow up Centres for Congenital Hypothyroidism allowed to perform a standardization of screening procedures and considerable improvements in the time at starting treatment and in the dose of therapy. Furthermore, the large amount and the high quality of information collected in the Register provided a unique opportunity for research into the disease. This because data collected in the Register are highly representative as referred to the entire Italian population with congenital hypothyroidism. The results derived from the epidemiological studies performed in these years, by using the Register database, contributed to deepen the knowledge of congenital hypothyroidism, to start identifying the most important risk factors for the disease, and to orient molecular studies aimed at identifying new genes involved in the aetiology of this condition.

  2. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  3. Twenty Years of Regional Safeguards: the ABACC System and the Synergy with the National Nuclear Material Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Palhares, Lilia C.; De Mello, Luiz A.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Maceiras, Elena; Terigi, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    As result of the nuclear integration between Brazil and Argentina, in July 1991 the Agreement for Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy (Bilateral Agreement) was signed and the Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accountancy and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) was created [1]. The main role assigned to ABACC was the implementation and administration of the regional control system and the coordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in all nuclear activities of Argentina and Brazil. In December 1991 the IAEA, ABACC, Argentina and Brazil signed the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435) [2]. The agreement establishes obligations similar to those established by model INFCIRC/153 comprehensive agreements. The Bilateral Agreement establishes that the Parties should make available financial and technical capabilities to support ABACC activities. In order to accomplish this challenge, the National Systems had to improve their structure and capabilities. Through the close interaction with the IAEA and ABACC, the national systems have been enriched by adopting new methodologies, implementing innovative safeguards approaches and providing specialized training to the regional inspectors. All of this also resulted in relevant technical improvements to the regional system as a whole. The approach of both neighborhoods controlling each other increased the confidence between the partners and permitted a better knowledge of their potentialities. The recognized performance of the regional system in the implementation of innovative, efficient and credible safeguards measures increased the confidence of the international community on the implementation of nuclear safeguards in Argentina and Brazil. In this paper, after twenty years of the creation of the ABACC System, the view of the Brazilian and Argentine National Authorities is presented. (authors)

  4. Temporal patterns of genetic variation across a 9-year-old aerial seed bank of the shrub Banksia hookeriana (Proteaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Luke G; He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2005-11-01

    The pattern of accumulation of genetic variation over time in seed banks is poorly understood. We examined the genetic structure of the aerial seed bank of Banksia hookeriana within a single 15-year-old population in fire-prone southwestern Australia, and compared genetic variation between adults and each year of a 9-year-old seed bank using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. hookeriana is well suited to the study of seed bank dynamics due to the canopy storage of its seeds, and because each annual crop can be identified. A total of 304 seeds from nine crop years and five maternal plants were genotyped, along with 113 plants from the adult population. Genetic variation, as assessed by the proportion of polymorphic markers (P(p)) and Shannon's index (I), increased slightly within the seed bank over time, while gene diversity (H(j)), did not change. P(p), I, and H(j) all indicated that genetic variation within the seed bank quickly approached the maximal level detected. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that less than 4% of variation could be accounted for by variation among seeds produced in different years, whereas there was greater differentiation among maternal plants (12.7%), and among individual seeds produced by different maternal plants (83.4%). With increasing population age, offspring generated each year were slightly more outbred, as indicated by an increase in the mean number of nonmaternal markers per offspring. There were no significant differences for H(j) or I between adults and the seed bank. Viability of seeds decreased with age, such that the viability of 9-year-old seeds was half that of 2-year-old seeds. These results suggest that variable fire frequencies have only limited potential to influence the amount of genetic variation stored within the seed bank of B. hookeriana.

  5. "Europe" as an Alibi: An Overview of Twenty Years of Policy, Curricula and Textbooks in the Republic of Cyprus--and Their Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article compares discourses on "Europe" in Greek-Cypriot policy, curricula and textbooks over approximately the last twenty years, from the early 1990s, when Cyprus applied for European Union (EU) membership, until 2011-12, the school year during which the recently revised curricula were gradually introduced to schools for…

  6. Cord blood banking activities at a university hospital in northeast Mexico: an 8-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Perez, Jose C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Colunga-Pedraza, Julia; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2012-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and genetic disorders. There is scarce information detailing cord blood bank (CBB) collection and transplantation activities from developing countries. We documented our experience at a public university hospital in northeast Mexico. We carried out a retrospective and descriptive analysis of our CBB activity during an 8-year period from May 2002 to September 2010. Collection, processing, and cryopreservation of CB were carried out following standard operating procedures. The minimum volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) content for cryopreservation were 80 mL and 8.0 × 10(8) , respectively. A total of 1256 UCB units were collected; 428 (34%) were banked and 828 (66%) were discarded. The main reason for exclusion was biologic: low volume and/or low number of TNC accounted for 84% of the total discarded units. Cryopreserved cord blood units (CBUs) had a median volume of 113.8 mL (range, 80-213.2 mL) and 13.0 × 10(8) (range, 8 × 10(8) -36.6 × 10(8) ) TNCs. Cell viability was 99.3% (88-100%). The median CD34+ cell content was 4.0 × 10(6) (0.46 × 10(6) -19.38 × 10(6) ). Sixteen units have been released for transplantation, leading to a utilization rate of 3.7%. CBB demands considerable human and financial resources; it is then essential for centers at developing countries to share their experience, results, and databases to increase the probability of finding matching units for their patients. Efforts to create and maintain CBBs allow to offer this therapeutic option at an affordable cost. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Review: Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2014, ISBN 9781868147632, 380 pp.

  8. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  9. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  10. Community structure and quality after 10 years in two central Ohio mitigation bank wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieles, Douglas J; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  11. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  12. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  13. Locoregional recurrences following radical external beam irradiation and interstitial implantation for operable breast cancer - a twenty three year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.; Otmezguine, Y.; Calitchi, E.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Pierquin, B.

    1986-01-01

    Locoregional recurrences are reported in 493 consecutive with T1 T2 N0 N1 breast cancer patients who were treated with radical external beam irradiation and interstitial 192 Ir implant between 1961 and 1979. Follow-up ranges from 5-23 years (mean 10 years) with 195 patients having 10-23 years follow up (mean 12 years). There were 51 (10%) locoregional recurrences with 34 mammary, 14 combined mammary/axillary and 3 isolated axillary recurrences. The 10 year relapse rate was 20/195 (10%). The results have been compared with other series in the literature and changes in the authors' current protocol are described. (Auth.)

  14. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  15. Twenty years of chemistry associated with the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This publication covers nine review papers on the following topics related to the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences during previous twenty years: radiochemistry, hot atom chemistry, isotope production, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, chemistry of transuranium elements; liquid radioactive waste processing, purification of reactor coolant water by inorganic ion exchangers, research related to deuterium concentration processes, and chemical dosimetry at the RA reactor [sr

  16. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  17. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  18. Cognitive, Social, and Literacy Competencies: The Chelsea Bank Simulation Project. Year One: Final Report. [Volume 2]: Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Thomas; And Others

    This supplementary volume presents appendixes A-E associated with a 1-year study which determined what secondary school students were doing as they engaged in the Chelsea Bank computer software simulation activities. Appendixes present the SCANS Analysis Coding Sheet; coding problem analysis of 50 video segments; student and teacher interview…

  19. Donor cornea procurement: six-year review of the role of the eye bank in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K A; White, M A; Badenoch, P R; Wedding, T R; Alfrich, S J; Sawyer, M A; Noack, L M; Johnstone, E W; Zilm, G; Coster, D J

    1990-02-01

    The Lions Eye Bank of South Australia was established six years ago and has collected corneas from 790 donors. The consent rate is currently 82% of requests made. Two-thirds of donors have been male, with mean donor age/year varying from 54 to 64 years (range two to 93 years). Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, trauma and haemorrhage account for 80% of all donor deaths. Mean death to enucleation time is five hours. Corneas assessed as being of excellent or very good quality are released preferentially from the bank; those with central endothelial cell counts of less than 1500 cells/mm2 are discarded. Fewer than 1% of donors have returned a positive result for HIV or hepatitis B. Of the 1580 corneas collected by the bank, 863 (55%) have been used for transplantation with a primary non-function rate of 0.46%. The evolving policies, logistics of operation and methodologies employed by the bank are described in detail.

  20. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Training medical students in health promotion: twenty years of experience at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases, the work of medical doctors, be they general practitioners or specialists, involves some dimension of health promotion (HP. There is thus ample justification for increasing the awareness of medical students vis-à-vis HP and its relevance for their future practice.Methods: In the context of a major curriculum reform (problem-based learning [PBL] at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva in the mid-1990s, several steps were taken to strengthen HP throughout the curriculum and include HP in its key domains as defined by the Ottawa Charter (OC.Results: First, the political dimension of HP was developed in a series of first- and fifth-year lectures and third-year workshops; second, community action was strengthened through a third year one-month community immersion program; third, the development of personal skills was integrated into second- and third-year PBL cases and into fourth-and fifth-year learning activities in clinical settings as well as second- and third-year HP electives; in terms of reorienting health services, the chosen approach included the development of a HP-specific track in the context of a Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS in Community Health and a Master of Advanced Studies(MAS in Public Health. Furthermore, a supportive intra-university environment was created through a collaborative convention with Health Promotion Switzerland, which is in charge of coordinating HP in Switzerland.Conclusion: In our view, HP teaching for medical students seems all the more relevant given that future medical doctors will have to take care of an increasing number of patients likely to develop chronic non-communicable diseases.

  2. [From assimilation to multiculturalism. Twenty years of policy and social research on immigration in Sweden (1966-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, C

    1991-03-01

    "The essay analyzes the immigration policy pursued by Sweden from 1966, the year in which the first commission was established for this particular area, till 1985, the year in which an important reform was passed regarding the reception of refugees. The focal point of this immigration policy is singled out halfway in the 70's when the assimilation model is repudiated in favor of multiculturalism. One of the main features of this policy is the priority role accorded to research. The author examines the main fields of interest pursued by researchers, in particular the more recent studies on the ethnic-cultural dimension of the immigration phenomenon." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  3. Effects of 10-Year Management Regimes on the Soil Seed Bank in Saline-Alkaline Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyuan; Yang, Haoyu; Liang, Zhengwei; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis. Methodology We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties. Principal Findings Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate), alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and AP (available phosphorus). Conclusions Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target

  4. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  5. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty-year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  6. Twenty-three-year trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa (1993-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Banwari

    2018-04-01

    Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes. Of these, 3935 (14.2%) deaths were related to firearm injuries. The average gunshot death rate during the study period was 29/100,000 of the population annually. The majority (3236; 82%) were males, among whom the death rate was 24.4/100,000 of the population per year. The rate of gunshot deaths was 27/100,000 of the population in 1993, while in 2015 it was 12.8/100,000. About a third (1207; 31%) of victims were between 21 and 30 years of age. Conclusion The gunshot death rate is at an unacceptably high level in the Transkei subregion of South Africa, especially among young people.

  7. Twenty years of research on fungal-plant interactions on Lyman Glacier forefront—lessons learned and questions yet unanswered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari Jumpponen; Shawn P. Brown; James M. Trappe; Efrén Cázares; Rauni. Strömmer

    2012-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and the periglacial areas that they vacate produce a harsh environment of extreme radiation, nutrient limitations and temperature oscillations. They provide a model system for studying mechanisms that drive the establishment and early assembly of communities. Here, we synthesize more than 20 years of research at the Lyman Glacier forefront in the...

  8. Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease Among Middle Aged Men in Prague: Twenty-year Follow-up Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Hrach, Karel; Tomečková, Marie; Bultas, J.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2006), s. 86-93 ISSN 0021-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B107 Keywords : primary prevention study * atherosclerosis * cardiovascular diseases * coronary artery disease * Framingham risk function * mortality * risk factors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2006

  9. Twenty years of socio-economic inequalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in Spain, 1987-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espelt, Albert; Kunst, Anton E.; Palència, Laia; Gnavi, Roberto; Borrell, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Background: To analyse trends in socio-economic inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes among men and women aged epsilon 35 years in Spain during the period 1987-2006. Methods: We analysed trends in the age-standardized prevalence of self-reported diabetes and obesity in relation to level of

  10. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  11. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  12. Twenty Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill Accident in the Sea of Japan, How Has Contamination Changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nakhodka, a Russian tanker loaded with 19,000 kL of C-type heavy oil, was broken up into sections and submerged off Oki Island, Shimane Prefecture, Japan on 2 January 1997. The bow, after drifting for four days, was wrecked off Anto, Sakai City (Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture, threatening the environment throughout the various shores of Ishikawa Prefecture. The accident, caused by a heavy oil spill of 6200 kL, created serious environmental problems along the shores of Hokuriku District. We report the characterization of C-type heavy oil 20 years after the accident at the Atake seashore, Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, in the Sea of Japan, based on observations in the field on 18 January 2017. We studied the microstructure, mineralogy, chemical composition, and radioactivity associated with microorganisms in the soils, and buried fishing nets and ropes that were contaminated with C-type heavy oil from this spill. The analyses used a combination of micro techniques, analytical data based on a CHN analyzer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and two kinds of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, paraffin wax, cristobalite, graphite, calcite, halite, and biotite from the Nakhodka oil spill were recognized on the surface of ropes and in the soil of the polluted seashores after 20 years. The chemical compositions indicated that high concentrations of C, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Fe, Cl, Sr, and Pb were predominantly indigenous to the Nakhodka oil spill. In the XRD analysis of the oil-contaminated soils on the rope at the Atake seashore indicated paraffin wax, graphite, sulfate, calcite and halite refractions with clay minerals, after 20 years. To date, no report has described the results of electron microscopy observations, such as Micrococcus bacillus and filamentous fungi, found in oil-contaminated soils after 20 years. In this research, such observations are introduced as

  13. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  14. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  15. Twenty year multi-follow-up of different types of hallucinations in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Harrow, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Hallucinations are a salient feature of both psychotic and mood disorders. Currently there is a call for more research on the phenomenology of different forms of hallucinations, in a broader array of disorders, to further both theoretical knowledge and clinical utility. We investigated auditory, visual, and olfactory hallucinations at index hospitalization and auditory and visual hallucinations prospectively for 20years in 150 young patients, namely 51 schizophrenia, 25 schizoaffective, 28 bipolar, and 79 unipolar depression. For the index hospitalization, the data showed schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients had a greater rate of auditory and visual hallucinations than bipolar and depression patients. However, over the longitudinal trajectory of their illness, a greater percentage of schizophrenia patients had auditory and visual hallucinations than schizoaffective patients, as well as bipolar and depression patients. Also, in contrast to the initial period, schizoaffective patients did not differentiate themselves over the follow-up period from bipolar patients. Bipolar and depression patients did not significantly differ at index hospitalization or at follow-up. We found visual hallucinations differentiated the groups to a greater degree over the 20year course than did auditory hallucinations. These findings suggest the longitudinal course is more important for differentiating schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, whereas the initial years may be more useful to differentiate schizoaffective disorder from bipolar disorder. Furthermore, we found that the early presence of auditory hallucinations was associated with a reduced likelihood for a future period of recovery. No olfactory hallucinations were present at the index hospitalization in any patients. Over the course of 20years, a minority of schizophrenia patients presented with olfactory hallucinations, and very few schizoaffective and bipolar patients presented with olfactory hallucinations. This

  16. Twenty-seven years of phase III trials for patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: disappointing results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Oze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have formally assessed whether treatment outcomes have improved substantially over the years for patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC enrolled in phase III trials. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the time trends in outcomes for the patients in those trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for trials that were reported between January 1981 and August 2008. Phase III randomized controlled trials were eligible if they compared first-line, systemic chemotherapy for ED-SCLC. Data were evaluated by using a linear regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 52 trials were identified that had been initiated between 1980 and 2006; these studies involved 10,262 patients with 110 chemotherapy arms. The number of randomized patients and the proportion of patients with good performance status (PS increased over time. Cisplatin-based regimens, especially cisplatin and etoposide (PE regimen, have increasingly been studied, whereas cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine-based regimens have been less investigated. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant improvement in survival over the years. Additionally, the use of a PE regimen did not affect survival, whereas the proportion of patients with good PS and the trial design of assigning prophylactic cranial irradiation were significantly associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The survival of patients with ED-SCLC enrolled in phase III trials did not improve significantly over the years, suggesting the need for further development of novel targets, newer agents, and comprehensive patient care.

  17. Implications of sperm banking for health-related quality of life up to 1 year after cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A; Merrick, H; Arden-Close, E; Morris, K; Rowe, R; Stark, D; Eiser, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sperm banking is recommended for all men diagnosed with cancer where treatment is associated with risk of long-term gonadatoxicity, to offer the opportunity of fatherhood and improved quality of life. However, uptake of sperm banking is lower than expected and little is known about why men refuse. Our aims were to determine: (i) demographic and medical variables associated with decisions about banking and (ii) differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers at diagnosis (Time 1 (T1)) and 1 year later (Time 2 (T2)). Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 91 men (response rate=86.67%) at T1 and 78 (85.71% response rate) at T2. Results: In all, 44 (56.41%) banked sperm. They were younger and less likely to have children than non-bankers. In a subset of men who were not sure if they wanted children in the future (n=36), 24 banked sperm. Among this group, those who banked were younger, more satisfied with clinic appointments and less worried about the health of future children. At T2, there were no differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers. Conclusion: For those who are uncertain about future reproductive plans, decisions depend on their health on diagnosis and satisfaction with clinic care. We conclude that extra care should be taken in counselling younger men who may have given little consideration to future parenting. Results support previous findings that the role of the doctor is vital in facilitating decisions, especially for those who are undecided about whether they wanted children in the future or not. PMID:23470465

  18. Twenty Years of Anesthetic and Perioperative Management of Patients With Tetralogy of Fallot With Absent Pulmonary Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochman, John D; Atkinson, Douglas B; Quinonez, Luis G; Brown, Morgan L

    2017-06-01

    Review the authors' institutional experience of the induction and perioperative airway management of children with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve. Retrospective chart review. Large academic children's hospital. Patients with the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve undergoing primary cardiac repair over a 20-year period. None. Forty-four patients were identified with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve from January 1995 through August 2014. Forty-two patients (95%) required surgery in their first year of life. Sixteen patients (36%) required mechanical ventilation preoperatively, including 11 neonates. Of the 28 patients not intubated preoperatively, only 1 (3.8%) exhibited minor airway obstruction following induction that was managed uneventfully. All intubations in the operating room were performed in the supine position. Five patients who were mechanically ventilated preoperatively in a lateral or prone position were supinated in the operating room without significant cardiopulmonary compromise. There were no patients who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest or required mechanical circulatory support. The median time to extubation was 2 days (range 1-13 days) in those patients who were not mechanically ventilated prior to their surgery. Ultimately, 5 patients required tracheostomy and 1 patient underwent lobectomy. Although, there was no mortality at 30 days, 4 children died within 1 year of their surgery. All the children who died had a genetic syndrome and required mechanical ventilation preoperatively. While there are theoretical concerns specific to the induction and airway management of tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve, there were no episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the authors' series. Neonatal age at the time of surgery, preoperative need for mechanical ventilation, and concomitant genetic syndromes are risk factors for respiratory

  19. Twenty years of the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry: where we stand and what remains to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, Antonio M; Marotta, Serena; Calzone, Rita; Grimaldi, Francesco; Zatterale, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    The natural history of Fanconi anemia remains hard to establish because of its rarity and its heterogeneous clinical presentation; since 1994, the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry has collected clinical, epidemiological and genetic data of Italian Fanconi Anemia patients. This registry includes 180 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fanconi anemia who have either been enrolled prospectively, at diagnosis, or later on. After enrollment, follow-up data were periodically collected to assess the clinical course, possible complications and long-term survival; the median follow up was 15.6 years. The main goal of the study was to describe the natural history of Fanconi anemia, focusing on the following variables: family history, disease presentation, development of hematological manifestations, development of malignancies, occurrence of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and survival. Typical morphological and/or hematological abnormalities and/or growth retardation were the most common manifestations at diagnosis; the majority of patients (77%) exhibited hematological abnormalities at the initial presentation, and almost all (96%) eventually developed hematological manifestations. More than half of the patients (57%) underwent a bone-marrow transplant. The occurrence of cancer was quite rare at diagnosis, whereas the cumulative incidence of malignancies at 10, 20 and 30 years was 5%, 8% and 22%, respectively, for hematological cancers and 1%, 15% and 32%, respectively, for solid tumors. Overall survival at 10, 20 and 30 years were 88%, 56% and 37%, respectively; the main causes of death were cancer, complications of the hematological presentation and complications of transplantation. These data clearly confirm the detrimental outcome of Fanconi anemia, with no major improvement in the past decades. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Twenty-three years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Meel

    2018-01-01

    Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken. Results Between 1993 and 2015, the number of autopsies performed on people who had died unnatural deaths was 24,693. The records of 12,618 (51%) autopsies on victims of homicide between 1993 and 2015 were available for study. The average rate of murder was 85/100,000 of the population in this region. Of these deaths, on average 34/100,000 were caused by sharp-edged instruments, 30/100,000 by gunshot wounds and 21/100,000 by blunt trauma. The rate of murder of males was significantly higher than that of females, with a ratio of 5.7:1, and over the period of 23 years covered by this study, the incidence was highest (30.5/100,000) in the young age group between 21 and 30 years. Conclusion The rate of homicide is very high in the Transkei region of South Africa. It needs urgent intervention to curb unnecessary deaths.

  1. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    ). In such abnormal NAWM regions, biexponential diffusion analysis and quantitative spectroscopy indicated extracellular edema and axonal loss, respectively. Repeated analysis 6 months later identified the same alterations. Such patchy alterations were not detectable in the NAWM of the 3 cases with short-term NMO......BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  2. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  3. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  4. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  7. Topical topic: value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: twenty-six years of experience in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohar-Marinsek, Ziva; Anzic, Jozica; Jereb, Berta

    2002-06-01

    Chemotherapy (Cht) for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) given before local treatment can prevent mutilating surgery and high-dose irradiation (RT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can confirm the diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment can start without delay. The purpose of our study was to assess the role of FNAB in the management of childhood RMS in Slovenia. A total of 78 children and young adults were included. FNAB provided the pre-treatment diagnosis in 37 and surgical biopsy in 41 patients. In 61 cases recurrent/metastatic disease was aspirated. Cytological diagnoses were compared to the original histological diagnoses. All case histories, cytological and histological material were reviewed and immunocytochemical staining performed when necessary. FNAB provided a correct diagnosis of malignancy in all 37 primary tumours, a specific diagnosis of RMS was given in 29 (78%). With the use of immunocytochemistry during the last 15 years, the accuracy has risen to 87%. FNAB provided the diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis in 57/61 cases. No complications of FNAB were noted. Review of histology reclassified five original diagnoses of RMS into one malignant rhabdoid tumour and four sarcomas NOS. In review of cytology we were able to sub classify 80% of RMS. FNAB is a safe method, which enables us to establish the pre-treatment diagnosis of RMS, and to some extent even its type, without delay. In our study, FNAB successfully replaced surgical biopsy in 87% of RMS patients during the last 15 years. Neoadjuvant Cht was started immediately, surgery was delayed and more conservative. Consequently, the risk for treatment sequelae was considerably reduced. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  9. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  10. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  11. Twenty years of Internet-based research at SCiP: A discussion of surviving concepts and new methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2017-10-01

    This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.

  12. Future scenarios for the development of nuclear power. How will nuclear power develop over the next twenty to forty years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power technology has developed significantly over the past 60 years to the point that today it supplies the world with 15% of its electricity; and there are plans for continued development. However, the continued growth of nuclear power is not without challenges. The nuclear industry must remain competitive in the face of challenges ranging from environmental considerations and proliferation concerns to ensuring safe and often transparent operations. Understanding these and other issues, as well as their underlying causes, can help the industry leaders create more robust strategies and effectively implement nuclear fuel cycle decisions. Robust strategies are ones that can be effective even when circumstances change, due to events such as opposition, new scientific information, changes in resource availability, or introduction of competing technologies. Scenario planning is tool which can help planners and decision makers create a strategic conversation about the future and how to manage and plan in a time of accelerated change and complexity. In this paper, scenario planning is introduced and the development of nuclear power is examined against the back drop of four future scenarios, specifically looking at how variations in environmental quality, resource availability, security and proliferation, and safety may affect the development of nuclear power. The scenarios discussed provide a starting point to improve the understanding of issues and opportunities facing the global nuclear power industry and ultimately, to improve strategies for technology development. Such scenarios may be employed as a basis for collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders involved in the development of nuclear technology. (author)

  13. Enteric Duplication Cysts in Children: A Single-Institution Series with Forty Patients in Twenty-Six Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Soysal, Feryal Gun; Ozbey, Huseyin; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaattin; Karadag, Aslıhan; Salman, Tansu

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate our experience with enteric duplication cysts in 40 children during the past 26 years, while assessing the variability of their presentations and to propose an algorithm for surgical management. We retrospectively analysed sex, age, clinical presentations, duplication site, surgical treatment, presence of ectopic tissue, complications, associated anomalies, and prognosis of 40 patients with gastrointestinal tract duplications who were surgically treated in our clinic. Overall, there was a predominance of boys (28 males, 70 %; 12 females, 30 %). The presenting symptom was vomiting in 23 patients, rectal bleeding in 11 patients, abdominal mass in 10 patients, abdominal pain in 9 patients, constipation in 6 patients, cough in 2 patients, and respiratory distress in 2 patients. In 30 patients, a complete excision of the cyst with additional segmental intestinal resection and anastomosis was performed. Cystectomy was performed in seven patients, while complete excision of the cyst with additional wedge resection was performed in two. A Wrenn procedure (mucosectomy) was performed in one patient. Due to the variability in the site of enteric duplications, a wide range of presenting symptoms can exist, which is challenging for diagnosis. In children with a diagnosis of acute abdomen, enteric duplication cysts should be considered, and these children should be further investigated for additional skeletal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal system pathologies. Surgical treatment depends on the site and type of the cyst.

  14. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  15. Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour, Peter; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse associations of religiosity and mortality in a secular region. The sample consisted of 734 Danish, community dwelling elderly persons, living in a secular culture, and all aged 70 when primary data were collected. Secondary data consisted of a 20 year follow-up on vital status or exact age of death. The study was designed to be highly comparable to studies conducted in more religious environments in order to compare results. Three variables of religion were investigated in relation to survival: importance of affiliation, church attendance and listening to religious media. Relative hazards (RH) of dying were controlled in models including gender, education, medical and mental health, social relations, help given and received, and health behaviour. The results showed significant and positive associations between claiming religious affiliation important and survival (relative hazard of dying=RH .70; 95% CI .58-.85) and church attendance and survival (RH .73; 95% CI .64-.87). Results decreased and only stayed significant regarding church attendance when controlled for covariates. Nearly all significant effects were seen in women, but not in men. The effect size of the full sample is less than in more religious environments in United States samples. Although the positive overall RHs are comparable to those of other studies, the mediating variables and pathways of effects seem dissimilar in this sample from a secular environment. Receiving and especially giving help to others are suggested as variables of explanatory value.

  16. [Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; García-Altés, Anna; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Pérez, Katherine; Kunst, Anton E; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona from 1983 to 2004. We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004), with the basic health area (BHA) as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR) for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Missing for the last twenty years: the case of the southernmost populations of the Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Zanon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1808 is a widespread species in the Neotropics, but its southernmost populations in Brazil are ecologically (and possibly taxonomically distinct, occurring only along the coast in restinga vegetation. Once considered the most common bird in restinga, it is becoming increasingly rare, likely due to habitat loss and illegal capture of nestlings. We conducted field surveys to provide an up-to-date distribution of the Tropical Mockingbird in the southernmost portion of the species' range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, supplying an estimate of its current regional population size and conservation status. We surveyed 21 restinga remnants in Rio de Janeiro, covering all major restinga areas in the state. For sites where the species' presence was confirmed through transect line surveys, we estimated the local population size. The species was found at only four sites. The mean local population density was 52 individuals per km-2. The estimated current and historical Extent of Occurrence (EOO were 256 km2 and 653 km2, respectively. Combining the population size and EOO results, we estimated that the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro currently ranges from 2,662 to 13,312 individuals, corresponding to an estimated reduction of 61% to 92% in population size in the last 20 years. The species, therefore, can be considered "Endangered" in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We recommend that a taxonomic study of the southernmost populations is carried out in order to clarify whether they represent a different, likely threatened species. We also recommend that the environmental regulations that protect restingas are used towards the protection of these populations.

  18. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  19. Twenty-five years of Brown Boveri experience in development, design and fabrication of circulators for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelzl, D.

    1988-01-01

    The two circulators for the AVR experimental reactor in Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany, were supplied. The circulators, which are equipped with oil bearings, have been operating troublefree since the start of commissioning in 1966. As a consequence of a water ingress into the reactor resulting from a steam generator damage one bearing was replaced in 1977 after 72,000 operating hours. Up to the present date, each of the circulators has scored 115,000 hours of operation, one of them without any disassembly. In the THTR 300 in Schmehausen, Federal Republic of Germany, 6 BBC circulators are in operation. The insertable circulator units equipped with oil bearings have successfully proven their operating capability without any problems during the commissioning phase and the 100% power operation which was started recently. Currently active magnetic bearings are being developed for advanced gas-cooled reactors such as the HTR 100, the HTR 500 and the heating reactor after excellent results have been furnished by a small prototype in a test loop. This ADI circulator has since scored more than 15,000 operating hours without any trouble. A retainer bearing test stand also equipped with active magnetic bearings has been in operation for nearly 2 years. This test stand serves for developing the conditions for safe rundown of the rotors of even the largest circulators after the magnetic bearings have been deenergized unintentionally. Development work is conducted on the prototype of a safety-relevant circulator held in magnetic bearings, to be used for decay heat removal in the HTR 500. The original aim to have circulators without auxiliary medium for bearing lubrication will thus be reached. The advantages to be obtained in process and systems design are a supplementary support to the inherent safety characteristics of high-temperature reactors. Another advantage of these bearings is cost reduction. 5 refs, 7 figs

  20. Flair Homes Project report no. 5. Airtightness performance of twenty detached houses over a two-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.; Beckman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Airtightness tests were performed on 20 new houses over a 2-year period in Winnipeg. The houses were constructed with a variety of air/vapor barrier systems and 3 different types of main walls. Polyethylene was used as the air/vapor barrier in 6 of the houses while the remaining 14 used the airtight drywall approach (ADA). The houses had similar floor plans and were constructed by the same builder. Both the polyethylene and ADA systems were found to be capable of meeting the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 standard with the tightest structures being double wall houses. No significant or permanent change in airtightness was observed for any of the houses over the monitoring period. Application of stucco as an exterior finish was found to improve airtightness of the ADA houses, but not of the double wall houses with polyethylene vapor barriers. Consistent sources of air leakage in the ADA houses were found to be the electrical outlets on exterior walls. Window leakage was also noted in many houses and the frequency of this leakage increased over the monitoring period. A significant leakage source was found to be an integrated mechanical system, which ducted in large volumes of outdoor air. It was also concluded there is a need to re-examine the design pressure requirements for residential air barrier systems. Specifically, this should investigate how transient wind-induced pressure loads are resisted by air barrier systems and whether some portion of the load is taken by other envelope components. An air leakage detection system was proposed consisting of a simple non-instrumented blower, which would be suitable for use by builders to aid in the construction of low leakage houses. 17 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking. PMID:27709856

  2. Twenty years of the Nuclear Research Institute and its contribution to the development of nuclear power and technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the most important results of scientific research efforts of the Nuclear Research Institute (UJV) attained in the 20 years of the Institute's existence. In 1975 the proportion of the individual fields of research was as follows: reactor technology 37%, reactor materials 19%, nuclear fuel processing including waste processing 18%, ionizing radiation applications 16%, others 10%. In the field of reactor technology, orientation is evident to light-water and fast reactors (1975): light-water reactors 40%, fast reactors 44%, heavy-water reactors 16%. The most significant contribution of the Institute to the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant A-1 in the past period included the construction of the TR-0 heavy-water critical assembly, the choice of suitable uranium alloys and their thermal and mechanical treatment for the A-1 fuel elements, corrosion and mechanical stability study of cladding materials and post-irradiation fuel study performed in the UJV hot chambers. Significant for the development of light-water reactors are mainly the study of water regimes of radiation-exposed circuits, the solution of primary circuit chemical problems, participation in the international research programme of the CMEA countries related to the ZR-6 (Budapest) critical assembly, and the study of Zr-based cladding materials. UJV is the main Czechoslovak study centre for the development of a fast reactor and its staff have written a number of programmes for the computation of such a reactor and its fuel cycle. Also available is a suitable experimental facility. The Institute also participates in the research of UO 2 -based ceramic fuel, and in the field of spent fuel and radioactive waste processing in the development of extraction processes and the application of fluoride technology. As for ionizing radiation applications, UJV has since 1960 been manufacturing radioactive preparations including, to a limited extent, radiopharmaceuticals. It is envisaged that

  3. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density

  4. Training tissue bank operators: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/National University of Singapore (NUS) 10 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, A; Phillips, G O; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Lee, Chris C W

    2009-05-01

    National University of Singapore (NUS) was appointed by IAEA to become IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for Asia and the Pacific region in September 1996. The Government of Singapore (represented by the Ministry of Environment) with the National Science and Technology Board as the funding agency awarded a grant of S$225,500 to build a new purpose-built tissue bank to be the Regional Training Centre. National University Hospital provided a space of 2,000 square feet for this purpose. The first Diploma Course was launched on 3 November 1997 with 17 candidates with the first NUS Diploma Examination being held in October 1998. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Egypt, South Africa and Zambia), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine) and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved twenty students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination only in April 2008.

  5. Decline of semen quality among Chinese sperm bank donors within 7 years (2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.

  6. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.              JEL Codes: G21, F23Keywords: Bank, Banking

  7. Twenty years of operation of the Radioisotope Department of the 3rd Medical Clinic, Faculty of General Medicine, Charles University in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years ago a radioisotope department was established in the old building of the 3rd Medical Clinic in Prague 2. The department is suitably placed and meets present requirements. It was set up as part of the 3rd Medical Clinic and of the Laboratory for endocrinology and Metabolism which gave it its main orientation and scope. Its present scope is much broader. In the twenty years since it was established 115,800 examinations were carried out, some 40 examination methods were introduced, 103 publications published, members of the department were co-authors of another 113 publications, they completed 11 research projects. The production of the department represents a substantial part of laboratory material especially in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy and metabolic disorders at the Clinic and is a significant part of the material of a number of research projects. The department has significantly contributed to the development of nuclear medicine in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in thyroid diagnosis, by the first introduction of radioimmunoassay methods, by the introduction of certain other special examination and laboratory methods and is currently taking part in the fulfilment of tasks given by the zoning of nuclear medicine in health care in Czechoslovakia in general and in Prague in particular. (author)

  8. Twenty Years of Cultural Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Kathryn J.

    1986-01-01

    Traces history and contributions of cultural journalism since the inception of the first Foxfire Book in 1966. Reviews successful student projects across the country. Discusses significance of cultural journalism as source of cultural identity with potential to increase understanding among different groups of people. (NEC)

  9. Changes in Reef Fish Abundances Associated with the Introduction of Indo-Pacific Lionfish to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: a Twenty Year Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gittings, S.; Stallings, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a partnership between academic, private, and government researchers seeking to understand how marine biodiversity changes over long periods of time. In this context, a study of the multi-agency Reef Visual Census (RVC) data, collected over twenty years in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), was analyzed to measure possible changes in reef fish abundances as a result of possible predation by lionfish predation or due to related trophic cascading. Lionfish were first sighted in the FKNMS in January 2009, with abundances and frequency of occurrence increasing three to six fold throughout the sanctuary by 2011. Their high consumption rates of smaller fish, coupled with their rapidly increasing densities may be having a significant effect on coral reef fish communities. The study compares the natural variability in reef fish abundances from 1994-2009 in the FKNMS, 15 years prior to the first lionfish detected in the sanctuary, to changes in reef fish abundances 5 years after the invasion. The MBON project also aims to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) technology for conducting biodiversity assessments. eDNA is an emerging technique that seeks to quantify biodiversity in an area by obtaining genetic material directly from environmental samples (soil, sediment, water, etc.) without any obvious signs of biological source material. All marine organisms shed DNA into their surrounding habitat, leaving a "fingerprint." Similar to forensic science, the DNA can be collected from seawater and analyzed to determine what species were recently present. The MBON team is evaluating whether eDNA can be used to adequately monitor reef fish biodiversity in coral reef ecosystems. We will compare species detected in our samples to the taxonomic composition of reef fish communities at the sample site as recorded over the past twenty years in the Reef Visual Census data.

  10. The New York Brain Bank of Columbia University: practical highlights of 35 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Etty Paola Cortes; Keller, Christian Ernst; Vonsattel, Jean Paul

    2018-01-01

    The New York Brain Bank processes brains and organs of clinically well-characterized patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and for comparison, from individuals without neurologic or psychiatric impairments. The donors, either patients or individuals, were evaluated at healthcare facilities of the Columbia University of New York. Each source brain yields four categories of samples: fresh frozen blocks and crushed parenchyma, and formalin-fixed wet blocks and histology sections. A source brain is thoroughly evaluated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively any changes it might harbor using conventional neuropathologic techniques. The clinical and pathologic diagnoses are integrated to determine the distributive diagnosis assigned to the samples obtained from a source brain. The gradual standardization of the protocol was developed in 1981 in response to the evolving requirements of basic investigations on neurodegeneration. The methods assimilate long-standing experience from multiple centers. The resulting and current protocol includes a constant central core applied to all brains with conditional flexibility around it. The New York Brain Bank is an integral part of the department of pathology, where the expertise, teaching duties, and hardware are shared. Since details of the protocols are available online, this chapter focuses on practical issues in professionalizing brain banking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  12. Twenty years after accident in Chernobyl atomic power plant. Present and future states of studies on pediatric thyroid cancer induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    The accident in the title occurred in April, 1986 and 20 years after, the international conference of Chernobyl Forum was held in Kiev of Ukraine on details of health problems, of which report is given in World Health Organization (WHO) hp (www.who.int./ionizing r adiation/Chernobyl/ern). The purpose of making the report was the scientific, objective evaluation of health problem to provide residents the correct information and to make recommendation to governments of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. This paper describes the outline of the WHO report and characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer increased after the accident. The report has the description about the effect of the accident on human beings including thyroid diseases, tumors, death numbers, mental and genetic influences, and cataract. The increased pediatric thyroid cancer is found mostly the papillocaricinoma, of which pathogenesis is considered to be due to DNA break of the region encoding MAP kinase pathways. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA mutations, by micro-array, of chromosome, and of SNPs have been also performed and have given many suggestive findings. Further continuation of the CTB (Chernobyl Tissue Bank, where nucleic acids of the cancer are stored by international cooperation) activity is concluded to be important for release of residents' anxiety and for understanding of radiation carcinogenesis. (R.T.)

  13. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  14. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  15. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.

  17. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  18. One Hundred Twenty-One Resected Solid Pseudopapillary Tumors of the Pancreas: An 8-Year Single-Institution Experience at Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Zhao, Guochao; Pu, Ning; Nuerxiati, Abulimiti; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Rong, Yefei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Xu, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenchuan

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce our experience with treating patients with pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) and to investigate the clinical risk factors for recurrence of SPTs because no consensus has been established to date. One hundred twenty-one patients underwent surgical resection from January 2008 to December 2015 in our institution. Clinical data were collected from the standardized reports. Of the 121 patients, 93 (76.9%) were women, 28 (23.1%) were men, and the mean age at diagnosis was 33.7 years (range, 11-68 years). Sixty patients were subjected to short-term complications, and 8 patients experienced long-term complications, some of whom may require surgery. The tumor located in the distal pancreas (P = 0.02), and a Ki-67 index value > 1.5 (P = 0.01) indicated malignancy according to the World Health Organization 2000 classification. One hundred three patients responded to follow-up, and 3 cases (2.9%) were subject to liver metastases. Recurrence was more frequently observed in tumors classified as high-grade malignancies according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification (P = 0.013), synchronous metastases (P < 0.001), peripancreatic fat infiltration (P = 0.018), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). Evaluating the risk of the recurrence of SPTs still requires systematic and multicenter trials in the future, even some pathological features showed statistical differences.

  19. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning. Twenty-five years of progress; the last five years - 2006 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement constituting the CPD has been continuously extended, although modified in 2003, with the current programme period lasting until the end of 2013. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme and the projects involved. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The number of projects in the programme has grown from 42 to 59 over the past five years. The Programme now covers 35 reactor related projects and 24 fuel related projects representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all phases of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 25 years of experience of the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, and in particular through the information exchange and review within the TAG, it has become evident that: - decommissioning can and has been done in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner; - the evolution of technologies have demonstrated their effectiveness in performance improvements in all aspects of conducting decommissioning projects; - the upkeep and maintenance of design, construction and operational records can significantly enhance performance through all stages of a decommissioning project; - in the absence of waste disposal facilities, interim waste storage facilities with integrated waste processing facilities can effectively be used to keep all levels of waste streams moving and avoid delays to project schedules; - cleanup of material for recycle and reuse or disposal as conventional waste is cost

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of children born with Down syndrome in western Herzegovina in the period of the last twenty years (1994-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanović-Glamuzina, Darinka; Zovko, Ana; Letica, Ivona; Jerković-Raguž, Marjana; Mustapić, Antonija; Božić, Tomica; Vukojević, Mladenka

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are an everyday casuistry of pediatric clinical medicine. The prevalence of DS is dependent on socio-demographic and cultural conditions of a community. Antenatal screening is not carried out mainly due to religious views, and the prevalence of DS in our region is really considered a "natural phenomenon". The aim of the study was to analyze some epidemiological characteristics of infants with Down syndrome in the western region of Herzegovina in the period between year 1994-2013. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital records of children who were supervised and treated at Children's Hospital through the twenty-year period. In this period there were 44,100 liveborn infants. Down syndrome was detected in 78 children (54 male and 24 female). The prevalence is estimated at 1.8/1,000 of live births. Aborted fetuses and stillbirths were not analyzed. 37 (47%) of the parent couples were over 35 years of age. Out of that 65 cytogenetic analysis, a regular type of trisomy 21 was found in 94% of cases, and the translocation in 6%. From major malformations (MM) heart failure was more often present (47%), then the anomaly of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Ten children (12%) died, most often in the early period of infancy due to complications of the cardiovascular system. The prevalence of DS throughout these two decades has been uniform in the region of western Herzegovina. Improvement in perinatal care in recent years caused higher survival and a better quality of life for the children with DS and thus their families. DS is less a desirable family tragedy, and increasingly a tolerable family fate.

  1. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  2. Integrated Marketing Communication to Enhance Active User of Internet Banking Service: Case Study Bank XYZ

    OpenAIRE

    Prawitasari, Larasati; Hudrasyah, Herry

    2012-01-01

    Internet banking is a form of self-service technology. In the global banking business, Internet banking has a big role for doing the business. In developing country, Internet banking received relatively little attention although has been deployed for years. Only 3% of customer Bank XYZ in Indonesia using Internet banking service actively, although has been 9 years Bank XYZ introduced Internet banking service. This study addressed what factor that drives and influences Internet banking accepta...

  3. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  4. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  6. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  7. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the

  8. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  9. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Ricchezza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Geology (GLY program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosciences in 2013, the merging departments re-examined their various curricular programs. An online survey of the Geology Alumni Society found that “express quantitative evidence in support of an argument” was more favorably viewed as a workplace skill (4th out of 69 than algebra (51st, trig (55th and calculus 1 and 2 (59th and 60th. In that context, we decided to find out from successful alumni, “What did you get out of Computational Geology?” To that end, the first author carried out a formal, qualitative research study (narrative inquiry protocol, whereby he conducted, recorded, and transcribed semi-structured interviews of ten alumni selected from a list of 20 provided by the second author. In response to “Tell me what you remember from the course,” multiple alumni volunteered nine items: Excel (10 out of 10, Excel modules (8, Polya problem solving (5, “important” (4, unit conversions (4, back-of-the-envelope calculations (4, gender equality (3. In response to “Is there anything from the course that you used professionally or personally since graduating?” multiple alumni volunteered seven items: Excel (9 out of 10, QL/thinking (6, unit conversions (5, statistics (5, Excel modules (3, their notes (2. Outcome analysis from the open-ended comments arising from structured questions led to the identification of alumni takeaways in terms of elements of three values: (1 understanding and knowledge (facts such as conversion factors, and concepts

  10. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  11. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  12. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  13. Rates of Return on Open-End Debt Investment Funds and Bank Deposits in Poland in the Years 1995–2015 – A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparison of the rates of return on specific open-end debt investment funds in Poland with the rates of return on bank deposits, in light of different time horizons. A comparative analysis was conducted based on the quartiles of the empirical distributions of the rates of return on selected funds and bank deposits. The empirical distributions were obtained using a moving window of observation. The results were largely influenced by very high interest rates on bank deposits in Poland in the years 1995–2001 (in the case of the oldest funds, and by the boom in the bond market in the years 2011–2012 (for the youngest funds. The investment horizon turned out to be significant. The best and worst funds were identified.

  14. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Rudd; Chris Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. The results of the latest survey show that banks’ aggregate fee income rose slightly in the banks’ 2011 financial years, but that growth in fee income was less than that in banks’ total assets. Fee income from households declined while fee income from businesses grew, largely as a result of increases in fees on business loans and bank bills.

  15. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  16. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by

  17. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  18. Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, W S; Hutnik, R J

    1987-07-01

    Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  20. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  1. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  2. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  3. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Reserve Bank of Australia

    2010-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. In 2009 growth in fee income increased slightly from recent years though it was again slower than growth in banks’ balance sheets. Growth in fee income was higher for businesses than for households. Banks reacted to the financial crisis by competing more aggressively for deposit funding which resulted in total fee income from deposit accounts falling, and repricing loan products which contributed to an increase in fe...

  4. About Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  5. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    safety include the aging of the material base of the NPPs with the prolongation of the working life for nuclear reactors with the expired terms of exploitation; the existence of a «nuclear legacy» sites of the former USSR in the territories of enterprises for the extrac tion and processing of uranium ores. About 5,000 institutions and enterprises use more than 25,000 sources of ionizing radiation in general. The use of radiological technologies and sources of ionizing radiation in medicine is increasing, in particular the burden on patients and staff in invasive cardiac sur gery. This will require significant efforts from the NRCRM to ensure an adequate radiation protec tion of the population, taking into account the experience collected during the mitigation of health effects of Chornobyl. Radiological threats of malev olent use of nuclear technology hasn't be forgotten.The mission of the NRCRM is to expand basic research of the health effects of ionizing radiation, elaboration and implementation of the care and radiation protection of population. Background for future is paved by a successful implementation of a special program of medical and biophysical control of personnel during transformation of the Shelter object into an environmentally safe sys tem, the State social program of increasing safty, labor hygiene and environment for 2014-2018; many years of successful cooperation with the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate, the Natio nal Commission for Radiation Protection, «Ener goatom» company, the relevant departments of the Ministry of Health, international organizations such as WHO, UNSCEAR, IAEA, IARC, the US National Cancer Institute, IRSN, Nagasaki, Hiroshima, Fukushima universities and others.From the editorial board I congratulate the staff of the Center with the twenty fifth anniversary of the Academy. I would like also to wish the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine new ad vances in medical science and practice, sustainabil ity, unity

  6. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...

  7. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive emission...

  8. Role of Foreign Banks in Integration of Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.

  9. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  10. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  11. THE RISE OF MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet customer’s expectations and needs, electronic banking services have allowed financial transactions to simplify and have increased their attractiveness. Over the past few year, in order to increase customer comfort and maintain profitability, banks around the world have adopted innovative banking technologies and modern e-banking services, such as internet and mobile banking. As a matter of fact, banking over mobile phones is the newest e-banking service with several benefits for both customers and banks. The paper aims to provide an overview of the latest electronic financial channel, underlining various aspects of mobile banking as it represents a key distribution channel for a growing number of customers.

  12. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  13. Commercial Activity or Banking Competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.

  14. The Structure and Evolution of the Strategic Management Field: A Content Analysis of Twenty-six Years of Strategic Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer,Olivier; Thomas, Howard; Goussevskaia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses 26 years of strategic management research published in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly and Strategic Management Journal. Through a content analysis, it studies the relationships between the subfields of strategic management. A multiple correspondence analysis provides a map of keywords and authors, and a framework to track this literature over the 26-year period. A discussion of future pathways in the strategic ...

  15. Twenty years of activity of the radiation protection service of the El Cabril storage center; Veinte anos de actividad del servicio de proteccion radiologica del centro de almacenamiento de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, L.; Pinilla, J. L.; Ortiz, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    All controls of internal contamination by body radioactivity counter have been lower than the level of logging for internal doses (1 mSv/year). External personal pollution incidents have not occurred. With respect to the dose to the public these remain very low and lower than the limits specified in the authorization. Also the results of the PVRA indicate no influence of the installation in your environment. During the twenty years of operation of the El Cabril Storage Center has not occurred any incidents radiological and doses both to workers and the public in general, are kept very low and lower than the established dose limits. (Author)

  16. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2008 (March 1, 2008 to February 1, 2009).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration, and continued project tasks in 2008. The objective was to evaluate factors that could limit kokanee in Banks Lake, including water quality, prey availability, harvest, and acute predation during hatchery releases. Water quality parameters were collected twice monthly from March through November. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in May and stratification was apparent by July. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to 15 meters deep, with temperatures of 21-23 C in the epilimnion and 16-19 C in the hypolimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 8 mg/L until August when they dropped near or below 5 mg/L deeper than 20-meters. Secchi depths ranged from 3.2 to 6.2 meters and varied spatially and temporally. Daphnia and copepod densities were the highest in May and June, reaching densities of 26 copepods/liter and 9 Daphnia/liter. Fish surveys were conducted in July and October 2008 using boat electrofishing, gill netting, and hydroacoustic surveys. Lake whitefish (71%) and yellow perch (16%) dominated the limnetic fish assemblage in the summer, while lake whitefish (46%) and walleye (22%) were the most abundant in gill net catch during the fall survey. Piscivore diets switched from crayfish prior to the release of rainbow trout to crayfish and rainbow trout following the release. The highest angling pressure occurred in May, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 45% of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. Ice fishing occurred in January and February at the south end of the lake. An estimated total of 4,397 smallmouth bass, 11,106 walleye, 371 rainbow trout

  17. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  18. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  19. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2010

  20. "Changes in Levels of Social Isolation and Loneliness among Older People in a Rural Area: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, G. Clare; Burholt, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    The Bangor Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), conducted in rural Wales from 1979 to 1999, followed a cohort of survivors from more than 500 people over 20 years. Using both quantitative and qualitative data from the study, the factors associated with increases and decreases in loneliness and social isolation were identified. The study was based…

  1. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  2. Statistical analysis of twenty years (1993 to 2012) of data from mainland China's first intervention center for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Sun, Zhong-Kai; Tian, Hope Huiping; Pu, Tad Zhengzhang; Wu, Yu-Yu; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Ming-Zhen; Lu, Shu-Juan; Yang, Chang-Hong; Wei, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. This study aimed to analyze trends in ASD diagnosis and intervention in 20 years of data from the Beijing Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (SR), the first autism intervention center in mainland China, and from a recent survey of members of the Heart Alliance, an industry association of autism intervention centers in China. We analyzed the registration data at the SR from 1993 to 2012 for a total of 2,222 children who had a parent-reported diagnosis of ASD and 612 of 'autistic tendencies'. Most of the children who were the primary focus of our analyses were age six and under. We also analyzed results of a survey we conducted in 2013 of 100 member centers of the Heart Alliance. Generalized Estimating Equations, multiple linear regression and the Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. Statistically significant findings are reported here. The number of hospitals where SR children received their diagnosis increased from several in the early 1990s to 276 at present. The proportion of 'autistic tendencies' diagnosis increased 2.04-fold from 1998 to 2012 and was higher for children diagnosed at a younger age. The mean age at first diagnosis of ASD or 'autistic tendencies' decreased by 0.27 years every decade. A higher level of parental education was statistically significantly associated with an earlier diagnosis of the child. The mean parental age at childbirth increased by about 1.48 years per decade, and the mean maternal age was 1.40 and 2.10 years higher than that in the national population censuses of 2000 and 2010, respectively. At the time of the survey 3,957 children with ASD were being trained at the 100 autism intervention centers. Ninety-seven of these centers opened after the year 2000. Economically underdeveloped regions are still underserved. This

  3. The Bert and Peggy DuPont lecture. "Love, death, and commitment: twenty three years of HIV and genocide prevention in Africa" or "Passionate not equal unhinged".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, HIV emerged as the #1 cause of death in African adults, and the Rwanda genocide became the most concentrated mass murder in recorded history. Though one catastrophe surfaced slowly and inexorably while the other smoldered for years before exploding in 1994, the lessons learned are similar. In both situations, the international community has combined moral bankruptcy with a spectacular display of incompetence. Genocide masterminds continue living in Michigan, Minneapolis and Boston, brazenly planning the final extermination of the Tutsi. Students of law, diplomacy and international development are astoundingly sanguine about this, as though our current abdication of responsibility today is mitigated by the centuries of unprincipled idiots who preceded us. If medicine operated this way we'd still be treating syphilis with arsenic. Unfortunately, medicine has lost the moral high ground in Africa through missed opportunities and misappropriation of resources. In the last five years we have spent 20% of the US bilateral foreign assistance budget putting 2.5 million Africans on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), while twice that number of new HIV infections occurred. We tested 50 million Africans for HIV without acting on the evidence and common sense: rather than-transmission happens between two people. Had we tested Africans as couples, a prevention strategy proven to be effective in multiple publications since the early '90s, we could have averted more HIV infections than we are now treating, and at a fraction of the cost.

  4. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  6. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  7. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  8. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  9. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.

  10. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251

  11. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of uterine cervix: twenty-year experience with cobalt after-loading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalaei, A; Mohammadianpanah, M; Omidvari, S; Ahmadloo, N

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective analysis aims to report results of patients with cancer of uterine cervix treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using manual treatment planning. From 1975 to 1995, 237 patients with FIGO stages IIB-IVA and mean age of 54.31 years were treated. EBR dose to the whole pelvis was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Brachytherapy with HDR after-loading cobalt source (Cathetron) was performed following EBR completion with a dose of 30 Gy in three weekly fractions of 10 Gy to point A. Survival, local control, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. In a median follow-up of 60.2 months, the 10-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 62.4%. Local recurrence was seen in 12.2% of patients. Distant metastases to the lymph nodes, peritoneum, lung, liver, and bone occurred in 25.3% of patients. Less than 6% of patients experienced severe genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity that were relieved by surgical intervention. No treatment-related mortality was seen. This series suggests that 50 Gy to the whole pelvis together with three fractions of 10 Gy to point A with HDR brachytherapy is an effective fractionation schedule in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of cervix. To decrease the complications, newer devices and treatment planning may be beneficial.

  12. Bone allograft banking in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D G; Oakeshott, R D

    1995-12-01

    The South Australian Bone Bank had expanded to meet an increased demand for allograft bone. During a 5 year period from 1988 to 1992, 2361 allografts were harvested from 2146 living donors and 30 cadaveric donors. The allografts were screened by contemporary banking techniques which include a social history, donor serum tests for HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B and C, syphilis serology, graft microbiology and histology. Grafts were irradiated with 25 kGy. The majority of grafts were used for arthroplasty or spinal surgery and 99 were used for tumour reconstruction. Of the donated grafts 336 were rejected by the bank. One donor was HIV-positive and two had false positive screens. There were seven donors with positive serology for hepatitis B, eight for hepatitis C and nine for syphilis. Twenty-seven grafts had positive cultures. Bone transplantation is the most frequent non-haematogenous allograft in South Australia and probably nationally. The low incidence of infectious viral disease in the donor population combined with an aggressive discard policy has ensured relative safety of the grafts. The frequency of graft rejection was similar to other bone banks but the incidence of HIV was lower.

  13. Influence of Marketing on Consumer's Adoption of E-Banking

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Ganimete Podvorica; Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-01-01

    The financial system plays an extraordinary role in developing and enriching the domestic economy. E-banking service as an innovative software product and service for customers was introduced few years ago in the country from variety of national and international banks: ProCredit Bank, Raiffeissen Bank, Teb Bank, NLB Bank etc., enabling consumers to have access to their bank accounts over the internet. Since internet usage grows rapidly in the country even adoption of e-banking is expected to...

  14. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality. Twenty-one-year follow-up on 27,530 adult Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H A; Phillips, R L; Snowdon, D A; Choi, W

    1984-05-01

    This report examines the association between mortality from all causes during a 21-year period and frequency of consumption of 28 specific foods among 27,530 adult California members of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Food consumption was measured at the beginning of the study (1960) by a self-administered questionnaire. Deaths were identified by computer-assisted matching of study subjects to the file of death certificates for all deaths that occurred in California during 1960-1980. All-cause mortality showed a significant negative association with green salad consumption and a significant positive association with consumption of eggs and meat. For green salad and eggs, the association was stronger for women; for meat, the association was stronger for men. All the observed associations were adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, history of major chronic disease, and age at initial exposure to the Adventist Church.

  16. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  17. Twenty-Two Years of Warming, Fertilisation and Shading of Subarctic Heath Shrubs Promote Secondary Growth and Plasticity but Not Primary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  18. “History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine”: The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: “History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine” (German: “Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin”, abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed. PMID:28584871

  19. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  20. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  1. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  2. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  3. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  4. The Twenty-Year Trajectory of Suicidal Activity among Post-Hospital Psychiatric Men and Women with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Clews, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The Chicago Follow-up Study has followed the course of severe mental illness among psychiatric patients for over 20 years after their index hospitalization. Among these patients are 97 schizophrenia patients, 45 patients with schizoaffective disorders, 102 patients with unipolar nonpsychotic depression, and 53 patients with a bipolar disorder. Maximum suicidal activity (suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and suicide completions) generally declines over the three time periods (early, middle, and late follow-ups) following discharge from the acute psychiatric hospitalization for both males and females across diagnostic categories with two exceptions: female schizophrenia patients and female bipolar patients. A weighted mean suicidal activity score tended to decrease across follow-ups for male patients in the schizophrenia, schizoaffective and depressive diagnostic groups with an uneven trend in this direction for the male bipolars. No such pattern emerges for our female patients except for female depressives. Males’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by psychotic symptoms and potential chronic disability while females’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by affective symptoms. PMID:26881891

  5. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  6. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokozov, N. A.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Gulin, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation summarizes studies of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 1 37Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 1 37Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 1 37Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 1 37Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 1 37Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 1 37Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 9 0Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 9 0Sr level nearly 20 Bq m - 3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 9 0Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input

  7. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  8. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  9. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the depletion of base cations in shallow flow paths in WB. Progressive depletion of Ca and Mg at greater soil depth occurred, causing stream concentrations to decline to pre-manipulation values. Mean monthly Si concentrations did not change in EB or WB, suggesting that the manipulation had no effect on mineral weathering rates. DOC concentrations in both streams did not exhibit inter- or intra-annual trends.

  10. The NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS and REDS-II): Twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A.

    2012-01-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989–2001, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), conducted from 2004–2012, were National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The three major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as XMRV. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of HIV, HTLV I/II, HCV, HBV, WNV, CMV, HHV-8, B19V, malaria, CJD, influenza, and T. cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized: blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors’ perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, two large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these two REDS programs. In 2011, a new seven year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III), was launched. REDS-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting, and adds a third country, South Africa, to the international program. PMID:22633182

  11. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  12. Hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the Central African Republic, twenty-five years after a fulminant hepatitis outbreak, indicate continuing spread in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisse Patrice Komas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis delta virus (HDV increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH in the Central African Republic (CAR killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH outbreak to determine (i the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains. We performed a cross sectional study with historical comparison on FH-stored samples (n = 179 from 159 patients and dried blood-spots from volunteer students and pregnant women groups (n = 2172. We analyzed risk factors potentially associated with HBV and HDV. Previous HBV infection (presence of anti-HBc occurred in 345/1290 students (26.7% and 186/870 pregnant women (21.4%(p = 0.005, including 110 students (8.8% and 71 pregnant women (8.2%, who were also HBsAg-positive (p = 0.824. HDV infection occurred more frequently in pregnant women (n = 13; 18.8% than students (n = 6; 5.4% (p = 0.010. Infection in childhood was probably the main HBV risk factor. The risk factors for HDV infection were age (p = 0.040, transfusion (p = 0.039, and a tendency for tattooing (p = 0.055 and absence of condom use (p = 0.049. HBV-E and HDV-1 were highly prevalent during both the FH outbreak and the 2010 screening project. For historical samples, due to storage conditions and despite several attempts, we could only obtain partial HDV amplification representing 25% of the full-length genome. The HDV-1 mid-eighties FH-strains did not form a specific clade and were affiliated to two different HDV-1 African subgenotypes, one of which also includes the 2010 HDV-1 strains. In the Central African Republic, these findings indicate a high prevalence of previous and

  13. Twenty years of home-based palliative care in Malappuram, Kerala, India: a descriptive study of patients and their care-givers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Rekha Rachel; Philip, Sairu; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Manima, Abdulla; Venables, Emilie

    2018-02-14

    The well lauded community-based palliative care programme of Kerala, India provides medical and social support, through home-based care, for patients with terminal illness and diseases requiring long-term support. There is, however, limited information on patient characteristics, caregivers and programme performance. This study was carried out to describe: i) the patients enrolled in the programme from 1996 to 2016 and their diagnosis, and ii) the care-giver characteristics and palliative care support from nurses and doctors in a cohort of patients registered during 2013-2015. A descriptive study was conducted in the oldest community-based palliative clinic in Kerala. Data were collected from annual patient registers from 1996 to 2016 and patient case records during the period 2013-2015. While 91% of the patients registered in the clinic in 1996 had cancer, its relative proportion came down to 32% in 2016 with the inclusion of dementia-related illness (19%) cardiovascular accidents (17%) and severe mental illness (5%).Among patients registered during 2013-15, the median number of home visits from nurses and doctors in 12 months were five and one respectively. In the same cohort, twelve months' post-enrolment, 56% of patients died, 30% were in continuing in active care and 7% opted out. Those who opted out of care were likely to be aged care-giver at home, 85% of these care-givers being female. The changing dynamics over a 20-year period of this palliative care programme in Kerala, India, highlights the need for similar programmes to remain flexible and adapt their services in response to a growing global burden of Non Communicable Diseases. While a high death rate is expected in this population, the high proportion of patients choosing to stay in the programme suggests that home-based care is valued within this particular group. A diverse range of clinical and psycho-social support skills are required to assist families and their caregivers when caring for a

  14. Twenty-year perspective of randomized controlled trials for surgery of chronic nonspecific low back pain: citation bias and tangential knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas S; Flynn, John P; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    nonsurgical therapy. The research agenda of RCTs for surgery of CNLBP has not changed substantially in the last 20 years. Technical trials evaluating nuances of surgical techniques significantly predominate. Despite the publication of four RCTs reporting equivocal benefits of surgery for CNLBP between 2001 and 2006, there was no change in the research agenda of subsequent RCTs, and technical trials continued to outnumber indication trials. Rather than clarifying what, if any, indications for surgery exist, investigators in the field continue to analyze variations in surgical technique, which will probably have relatively little impact on patient outcomes. As a result, clinicians unfortunately have little evidence to advise patients regarding surgical intervention for CNLBP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN KINERJA KEUANGAN BANK SYARIAH DAN BANK KONVENSIONAL DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Umardani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to compare the financial performance of Islamic banks with conventional banks in Indonesia using financial ratios: CAR, NPL / NPF, ROA, ROE, LDR / FDR, REO / BOPO. The data used are the financial statements published by Bank Indonesia (BI, the annual reports released by banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, the annual reports issued by companies of Islamic banking that are not listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, and the Indonesian banking supervision reports contained in Bank Indonesia (BI for the years 2005-2012. The analytical method used to compare the financial performance of Islamic banks with conventional banks is statistical test independent t-test. The fact shows that for each financial ratio of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Indonesia: CAR, ROA, ROE, LDR / FDR, and BOPO there are significant differences, while NPL / NPF there is not significant difference. Keywords: Financial performance, Islamic banks, conventional banks

  16. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. Strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. Still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems even in EU countries. In order to determine the spatial and temporal variation of pollutant and nutrient loads in different environmental media a unique ecological response cadastre (Okologisches Wirkungskataster, OKWI) was set up in the Land of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) in the mid 1980s. As a part of the program a state-wide bioindicator network was established in 64 forest and 18 permanent grassland ecosystems, in which selected chemical elements were measured over time. Here, we report on the results of these analyses and discuss the general spatio-temporal trends in pollution loads. Sixty-four forest and 18 permanent grassland plots were established in state-owned forest and nature conservation areas of SW Germany representing different landscapes and geologies of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Apart from performing vegetation relevées in marked plots of either the grassland or forest sites, plant samples were collected in intervals of 2 to 3 years following a standardised protocol. To be able to compare the different monitoring sites, four common species were chosen as indicator species in the grasslands. Later on, also bulk grassland samples were taken regardless of the species. In the forests, foliage of the dominant tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Abiea alba or Fraxinus excelsior) was sampled in the crown of marked trees and from the same species in the herb layer. The elements analysed in the plant material were the essential plant

  17. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  18. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  19. The Next Twenty Years in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoff, H. Igor

    1973-01-01

    The concern in this article is with the manner in which education serves the managerial needs of organizations. It is the managerial needs of organizations that provide the demand function to educational institutions. Presently, the state of management education lags behind managerial needs, and prospects of closing the gap are doubtful. (41…

  20. Neutrino masses twenty-five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, J.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass marks a turning point in elementary particle physics, with important implications for nuclear and astroparticle physics. Here I give a brief update, where I summarize the current status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters from current solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data, discuss the case for sterile neutrinos and LSND, and also the importance of tritium and double beta decay experiments probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass. In this opinionated look at the present of neutrino physics, I keep an eye in the future, and a perspective of the past, taking the opportunity to highlight Joe Schechter's pioneering contribution, which I have had the fortune to share, as his PhD student back in the early eighties

  1. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  2. Ecotourism revisited: Last twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandel Abhinav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecotourism evolves differently in developing and developed nations due to which the basic principles of ecotourism are in question. The existing literature on ecotourism suggests ambiguity in conceptual understanding of ecotourism. Due to this qualm, ecotourism is evolving into various forms. Different stakeholders with varying objectives related to ecotourism make it further difficult to form the consensus on what constitutes ecotourism. Without the clear understanding of ecotourism, it is difficult to evolve ethics on which the ecotourism principles are based. The focus of this research is to find out the principle components or themes of ecotourism using a content analysis for the development of ecotourism policy and applications. This study identified six key components of ecotourism which are widely accepted by researchers and could be used to shape the fundamental understanding of ecotourism. These themes are: (1 Nature oriented travel; (2 Support of conservation; (3 Learning and appreciation; (4 Socio-economic development of local area; (5 Support and respect for local culture and (6 Local people (area participation.

  3. Twenty Years of Diagnosis and the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1999-01-01

    The process of diagnosing mental disorders and the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been increasingly important for counselors. This article provides information on the hallmarks of this shift. Reviews and discusses the changes form the third and fourth editions of the DSM. Offers predictions as to future…

  4. UNESCO's twenty years of work for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    When UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, celebrated its twentieth anniversary in November, the Agency was happy to join in the congratulations sent from all parts of the world. In this case there were special reasons, since UNESCO was interested in the peaceful development of atomic energy before IAEA was set up, and there have been a number of areas of common interest

  5. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  6. Twenty years of an international nuclear laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1982-01-01

    The laboratories of the International Atomic Energy Agency were started in 1959 with a physics laboratory, a chemistry laboratory and an electronics workshop. Early work centred on absolute radionuclide calibrations and on assessments of the consequences of radioactive fallout from atomic weapons testing on the health of the people in Member States. Subsequently, work was started on the use of radioactive and stable isotopes in agriculture, in hydrology, in medical applications, in pest and insect control and with the entry into force of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty a Safeguard Analytical Laboratory was established to provide support for the Agency's safeguards inspection responsibilities. Together with WHO a network of 43 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories were set up in Member States to improve dosimetric accuracy in medicine and radiation protection worldwide. Throughout their history, the laboratories of the IAEA have lent great importance on their training programmes that have enabled many workers in nuclear or nuclear related research to gain experience. This emphasis on training has been stressed particularly to benefit research workers from developing countries

  7. Twenty years of improvements in LWR safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, S. III; Mulkey, J.P.; Moonka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the safety of light-water reactors in the US during the past two decades, making currently operating reactors safer than ever before. Safety improvements have resulted both from regulatory and operational changes and from new knowledge and technology. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Department of Energy, and the American nuclear power industry have worked together and with the international community to enhance the safety of existing plants and to incorporate lessons learned from prior operation into designs for a new generation of advanced, inherently safer reactors

  8. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  9. Liquidity of Czech and Slovak commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Vodová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasized, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to evaluate comprehensively the liquidity positions of Czech and Slovak commercial banks via different liquidity ratios in the period of 2001–2010 and to find out whether the strategy for liquidity management differs by the size of the bank. We used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2001 to 2010 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech and Slovak banks. The sample includes significant part of Czech and Slovak banking sector (not only by the number of banks, but also by their share on total banking assets. We have calculated five different liquidity ratios for each bank in the sample. The results showed that liquidity of Czech banks has declined during last ten years. On the contrary, liquidity of Slovak banks fluctuated only slightly during the period 2001–2008. Bank liquidity has fallen due to the financial crisis in both countries; the impact is worse for Slovak banks. Both Czech and Slovak banks have become less liquid also as a result of increase in lending activity. Czech and Slovak banks have the same strategies how to insure against liquidity crises: big banks rely on the interbank market or on a liquidity assistance of the Lender of Last Resort, small and medium sized banks hold buffer of liquid assets.

  10. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  11. Urban Cooperative Banks :At CrossRoads

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajapillai, Ramu

    2008-01-01

    Urban Cooperative Bank in India, with their long history of over 100 years, play an important role in financial inclusion. The mainstay of these banks was rooted in their captive clientele the forms of shareholders, and also in some cases specific community or location. This shielded them from the competition from large commercial banks. Recently, Indian banking industry has witnessed failure of a large number of Urban Cooperative banks. What are the reasons for these failures and what lays a...

  12. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  13. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  14. Preparation of pre-cut corneas from fresh donated whole globes for Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty: 3-year results at the Central Eye Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Javadi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Tahereh

    2014-09-01

    To describe the technique and the results of the preparation of pre-cut corneas for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) during a 3-year period at the Central Eye Bank of Iran (CEBI). The method of preparation of pre-cut corneas from donated whole globes at the CEBI is described and the frequency and percentage of pre-cut corneas prepared for DSAEK, between April 2009 and March 2012, are specified. Moreover, post-operative reports are reviewed for any complaints about using pre-cut tissues for DSAEK. Out of the 1,518 donated whole globes appropriate for DSAEK, 1,478 (97.4 %) pre-cut corneas were successfully prepared. The method of preparation failed in 40 (2.6 %) cases. Based on the eye bank post-operative reports, thickness of pre-cut tissues for DSAEK was deemed unacceptable in only 6 (0.4 %) cases prior to surgery; five of these were too thick and one was too thin. Preparation of pre-cut corneas, for DSAEK from donated whole globes, in the CEBI is a safe and easy method, with very good preservation of endothelial cells after the preparation of the pre-cut corneas and reduced risks from corneal manipulation.

  15. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  16. 26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual savings banks, building and loan... § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. (a) While the... deduction provided in section 172, any taxable year for which a mutual savings bank, building and loan...

  17. RELATION BETWEEN ISLAMIC BANK AND CENTRAL BANK

    OpenAIRE

    PAKSOY, H. Mustafa; ABAROSS, Nour

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the nature of Islamic banks and their features, and requirements of these features in terms of control tools and methods appropriate with the particularity of their business and their relation with the traditional central bank. At the same time aims to view the relationship between Islamic bank and central bank. To explain this relation the researcher started to explain what is the central bank, objectives of central bank, and characteristics, what is Islamic bank and ob...

  18. Enhancing the use of internet banking in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Nel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking services such as internet banking offer bank clients substantial benefits over traditional banking channels. Although internet banking has been around for many years, increasing the use of the service by bank clients remains a priority for many managers of internet banking services. To address this managerial concern, the study investigates the factors that contribute to the enhanced use of internet banking by bank clients. Based on a literature review, internet-banking factors that could influence bank clients’ actual use of internet banking were identified. Data were collected from 1 156 users of internet banking. The results of the study showed that two factors influence internet banking usage, namely internet banking facilitating conditions and internet banking risk beliefs. The more favourable internet banking facilitating conditions are perceived to be, the more likely bank clients are to increase their use of internet banking. On the other hand, the greater the perceived risks associated with internet banking, the less the chances are that clients will do their banking through the internet. On the basis of these results, recommendations are provided to enhance the use of internet banking.

  19. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  20. RASIONALITAS KONVERSI BANK KONVENSIONAL KE BANK SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Damanuri

    2016-02-01

    Aji Damanuri   Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.

  1. Direitos sociais na constituição cidadã: um balanço de 21 anos Social rights in the citizen Constitution: a balance of twenty-one years of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.

  2. Surgical Approach, Findings, and Eight-Year Follow-Up in a Twenty-Nine Year Old Female With Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Presenting With Blepharophimosis Causing Near-Complete Visual Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Augusto L; Poling, Mikaela I; McCormick, Rodger J

    2016-07-01

    The authors describe the surgical approach, findings, and 8-year follow-up in a 29-year-old woman, with severe Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, presenting with congenital blepharophimosis of both upper eyelids resulting in near-complete functional visual obstruction. To avoid possible Freeman-Sheldon syndrome-associated complications of malignant hyperthermia, difficult vascular access, and challenging endotracheal intubation, the surgery was completed under local anesthesia without sedation, and anatomical and functional correction was immediate and remained stable at 8-year follow-up. Unlike many congenital craniofacial syndromes, which frequently involve life-long impairments, important implications exist for plastic surgeons to facilitate opportunities for patients to overcome functional limitations.

  3. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  4. Report on the activities of banking supervision in the Czech Republic (1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Česká národní banka

    1999-01-01

    This publication analyzes the individual years of banking supervision since 1990, when the two-tier banking system, which created the conditions for the rapid development of commercial banking and expansion of banking services and products.

  5. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century

  6. Effects of e-banking on growth of customer base in kenyan banks

    OpenAIRE

    Okibo, Bichanga Walter; Wario, Ali Yattani

    2014-01-01

    The study highlights the effects of E-banking services on growth of customer base in Kenyan banks for over the last five years. It addresses issues that affect effective utilization of E-banking facilities by customers. The study generally investigates how lack of technological know-how, illiteracy, unreliability, and transaction limits has hindered growth of on-line customer base in Kenyan banks. E-banking provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of time saving and cost of transactio...

  7. DISTANCE BANKING SERVICES - A SOLUTION FOR THE ROMANIAN MANAGEMENT BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA SILVIA DINCULESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Involved in the competition to attract and turn the clientele faithful, banks develop a series of activities that could increase their popularity, trust, and acknowledgement. Thus, creating a distance banking service is an opportunity that must be put into value. The present tendency at international level is the significant decrease of the importance of distribution channels through the classic banking network. In this context, active banks in Romania cannot be dissociated from the existing tendencies, and the spectacular dynamics of distance banking services in the last years has shown that, in a future closer than expected, clients might abandon the services of a bank with bad quality e-banking.

  8. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... deploying information Technology in banks therefore can ... profitability indices and other control of financial ..... impact of e-banking on bank profitability ..... [13] Nikolai L. and Bazlay J.D (1997) Intermediate Accounting, South-.

  9. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Keuangan Bank Swasta Nasional Dan Bank Pemerintah Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia (Bei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hastuti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance or performance of bank is the image of reached achievement in banking operational in all aspect, covering monetary management of bank and ability of bank’s assets had to yield profit efficiently, so bank can stay and compete in the middle of inflation distortion and policy of Bank Indonesia, hence the bank had to have up to standard performance or performance - condition health of bank determined by Bank Indonesia. This research aim to analyse and prove the difference flattens which isn't it in monetary performance Private National Bank and State Bank pursuant to ratioes of CAMEL. Sampel the used to amount to 12 banks, consist of 9 Private National Bank and 3 taken State Bank pursuant to Purposive Sampling with criterion enlist in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI, routine deliver financial statement, period of year 2005-2007.

  10. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  11. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  12. Factors Determining Bank Competitive Strategy: An Empirical Study on Local Development Banks (LDBS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad IRFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.

  13. Effect of Postmortem Interval and Years in Storage on RNA Quality of Tissue at a Repository of the NIH NeuroBioBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimberly; Yang, Peixin; Li, Ling; Farshori, Amna; Medina, Alexandre E; Zielke, Horst Ronald

    2018-04-01

    Brain tissue from 1068 donors was analyzed for RNA quality as a function of postmortem interval (PMI) and years in storage. Approximately 83% of the cortical and cerebellar samples had an RNA integrity number (RIN) of 6 or greater, indicating their likely suitability for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction research. The average RIN value was independent of the PMI, up to at least 36 hours. The RNA quality for specific donated brains could not be predicted based on the PMI. Individual samples with a low PMI could have a poor RIN value, while a sample with a PMI over 36 hours may have a high RIN value. The RIN values for control brain donors, all of whom died suddenly and unexpectedly, were marginally higher than for individuals with clinical brain disorders. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of samples confirmed that RIN values were more critical than PMI for determining suitability of tissue for molecular biological studies and samples should be matched by their RIN values rather than PMI. Importantly, PCR analysis established that tissue stored up to 23 years at -80°C yielded high-quality RNA. These results confirm that postmortem human brain tissue collected by brain and tissue banks over decades can serve as high quality material for the study of human disorders.

  14. isk governance: Experience of Islamic banks

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rohaya Mat Rahim; Fauziah Mahat

    2015-01-01

    Risk governance has evolved tremendously in the banking industry. Risk governance recommends the imperative roles of Chief Risk Officer (CRO) to oversee risk. This study explores risk governance influence over the Islamic banks performances. Multivariate analysis techniques measure simultaneously via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). This study employed cross-sectional sample of 200 Islamic banks across 21 countries for the year 2014. To examine risk governance and Islamic banks performanc...

  15. APPLIED ISSUES ABOUT BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina Clipici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper emphasizes the need to deepen the understanding of the notion of banking risk management by explaining the significant risks the bank encounters during financial exercises as well as their additional entries. The study of the paper will focus on UniCredit Bank during the years 2014 and  2015 on all types of risks, in which we will provide comprehensive data on how the UniCredit Bank management applies its risk policies.

  16. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  17. A Near-Annual Record of Hurricane Activity From the Little Bahama Bank Over the Last 700 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, T. S.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Sullivan, R.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term and high-resolution records of hurricane activity that extend past the short observational record (8m vibracores collected with a Rossfelder P-3. The previous core analyzed (TPBH-C1, Continental Shelf Research, 2014) was likely obtained from the cave-area of the bluehole, and previous radiocarbon-dated bivalves deeper in the core were likely impacted by an old-carbon effect, casting doubt on the veracity of the previous age-model at this site. Recent overwash beds from Hurricane Jeanne (2004) and Hurricane Floyd (1999) are present at all coretops, and additional radiocarbon dating that includes terrestrial organic matter fragments indicates a near-annual sedimentation rate in the bluehole (>1cm yr-1), with the record spanning the last 700 years. Since 1866 CE, 12 hurricanes with wind speeds exceeding Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale (wind speeds 154-177 km hr-1) have passed within a 50 km radius of TPBH, many of which can be associated with coarse-grained overwash deposits in the top 200 cm of TPBH-C3. It appears from this high-resolution record that 1500-1650 CE and 1750-1800 CE were active intervals for hurricanes near Abaco, which were previously identified in a lower-resolution (multi-decadal) hurricane reconstruction from Abaco (Blackwood Sinkhole). Additionally, these active intervals coincide with evidence of regional storminess from multiple reconstructions based on historical archives (e.g.: Archivo General de Indias, newspapers, ships' logbooks, meteorological journals), and the 1500-1650 CE active interval falls within a previously identified 1400-1675 CE active interval of intense hurricane strikes on the Northeastern United States. Once the age-model is finalized, further comparison of this record to other regional oceanographic and high-resolution hurricane reconstructions may provide further insight into the drivers of hurricane activity during the last millennium.

  18. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  19. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  20. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  1. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  2. Living planktonic foraminifera of the Wadge bank, Northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Panikkar, B.M.; Kutty, M.K.

    Twenty three species of living planktonic Foraminifera belonging to 11 genera have been studied from the Wadge Bank area off southern tip of the Indian peninsula. The fauna is characterized by species such as Globigerinoides conglobatus, G...

  3. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  4. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  5. Common Problems of Mortgage Banking Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the mortgage banking plays a basic role in the housing funding. The Polish model of the housing funding in large measure grounded on banking loans. However, more than 95% of mortgage loans come from universal banks. Mortgage banks, which have existed in the Polish economy for 10 years still play a small role in housing funding.

  6. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  7. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  8. Bank Ownership, Board Characteristics and Performance: Evidence from Commercial Banks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Sarkar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of board governance in state-owned and private banks by undertaking a study of commercial banks in India that has both bank groups. Covering a ten-year period from 2003 to 2012 that witnessed a large number of governance reforms in India, the results of our empirical analysis provide evidence of strong ownership effects with board independence exhibiting a significant positive correlation with the performance of private banks and a significant but negative correlation with the performance of state-owned banks. The effect of CEO duality is negative in state-owned banks where incidence of CEO duality is high. We find that a longer CEO tenure has significant positive effects on bank outcomes with these effects strengthening in the later years of CEO tenure. Our results have governance implications for strengthening the composition of board of directors and CEO tenure especially in state-owned banks.

  9. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  10. En Ung bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Maria Benedicte; Rice, Harrie Emily; Andersen, Lærke Maria; Elfort, Amanda Josefine; Pedersen, Sophie Espe; Sahibzada, Qamar Un Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine the campaign Øhhkonomi from Danske Bank. The project is based on examining which assumptions the campaign, and further actions surrounding the campaign, expresses about the audience. The campaign audience is specifically 18-27 years old and addresses problems regarding their personal finance skills and understanding thereof. Starting from a communication point of view, the project examines the campaign and the sender in itself. The purpose hereof is t...

  11. The Bank of Canada's Monetary Policy Framework; Have Recent Changes Enhanced Central Bank Credibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito; Brenda Gonzalez-Hermosillo

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Bank of Canada has made important changes in the way it conducts monetary policy. In particular, the bank has adopted explicit inflation targets and introduced significant changes to its operational framework designed to increase transparency and reduce market uncertainty. This paper examines the key issues associated with the recent changes in the Bank of Canada’s monetary policy framework and analyzes various indicators of central bank credibility.

  12. A STUDY OF BANK CUSTOMERS’ PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF ADOPTING ONLINE BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh-Ying Wu; Chun-Chun Lin; Cheng-Lung Li; Hsing-Hui Lin

    2010-01-01

    As information technology rapidly changes the fabrics of industries in recent years, the trade of online banking has become more diversified. Specializing in unlimited, speedy and convenient services, online banking has transformed traditional banking in many countries. The managements’ ability to anticipate and respond to such changes in the financial marketplace, thus, has a decisive influence on the success or failure of many retail banks. The present study, exploratory in nature, was in...

  13. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum Dan Sesudah Diakuisisi Oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris Pada Bank Central Asia Dan Bank Niaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the writer interesting to compare the bank’s financial performance before and after being acquired using two banks as samples of empirical study. Data is based on financial statements published by the companies and Central Bank of Indonesia in 1995-1996, and 2003-2004. Two sample of banks have been selected based on several criteria, they are BCA and Bank Niaga. To analyse their financial performance, several analysis tools will be using, specifically CAMELS (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, LDR minus mangement and sensitivity. The result of the study observed that after being acquired, financial performance of BCA and Niaga Bank is getting better in CAR, NIM, BOPO, but NPL and LDR is less favorable for BCA and so NPL is less favorable for Niaga Bank. Moreover, in terms of profitability analysis, both banks shows better performance. While, the result of credit analysis indicates that the credit risk for both banks is in the stable range at CCC.

  14. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  15. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  16. Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Eaton

    1994-01-01

    The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...

  17. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  18. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU

    2008-01-01

    Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....

  1. isk governance: Experience of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohaya Mat Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk governance has evolved tremendously in the banking industry. Risk governance recommends the imperative roles of Chief Risk Officer (CRO to oversee risk. This study explores risk governance influence over the Islamic banks performances. Multivariate analysis techniques measure simultaneously via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. This study employed cross-sectional sample of 200 Islamic banks across 21 countries for the year 2014. To examine risk governance and Islamic banks performance, the study captures seventeen variables developed from risk management and corporate governance (ROA, ROE, Profit Margin, CRO, Shariah committee member, CEO, board size, remuneration meeting, credit rating, external audit, accounting standard, loan loss provision, capital adequacy ratio, total deposit ratio, GDP, central bank lending rate and inflation. The simulation result reveals, risk governance act as mediating variables towards Islamic banks performance. This study has practical and significance contribution for Islamic banks to understand risk governance, aligning with the fundamental risk management and corporate governance

  2. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  3. Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...

  4. Insights into Motivating Internet Users towards Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ramola Premalatha

    2016-01-01

    Internet banking has evolved from helping customers meet their basic banking needs to meeting their sophisticated needs. In recent years, the number of internet banking users has been increasing exponentially. As customers get more and more educated, getting insight about internet banking has become a primary area of concern for all leading banks in India. Hence, the study is made to analyse the perception of customers specifically who are computer literate, in a semi-urban area about interne...

  5. The Determinants Of Islamic Retail Banking Adoption In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Seethaletchumy Thambiah; Shanti Ramanathan; Mohammad Nurul Huda Mazumder

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting the adoption of Islamic retail banking (IRB) products and services among the banking customers of Malaysia. The market share of Islamic retail banking remains low despite being in operation for the past 28 years. Therefore, an empirical analysis was conducted to study the usage of Islamic retail banking products and services between the urban and rural banking customers of Malaysia. Comparisons were also made on the usage of Islamic deposits an...

  6. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  7. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview (v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  8. ONLINE BANKING SECURITY INDUSTRY IN EMERGING CHINA MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    In China, although traditional banks are still taking a wait-and-see approach in terms of offering their customers authentication tokens, online security technology is gaining momentum among Internet banks. During the last 15 years, technology for online banking security has undergone remarkable progress. The number of online banking users and the volume of transactions are increasing daily. Moreover, Chinese customers are paying more attention to online banking security issues, and are gradu...

  9. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  10. An analysis of river bank slope and unsaturated flow effects on bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca; Brunner, Philip; McCallum, James; Cook, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the underlying mechanisms of bank storage and return flow is important for understanding streamflow hydrographs. Analytical models have been widely used to estimate the impacts of bank storage, but are often based on assumptions of conditions that are rarely found in the field, such as vertical river banks and saturated flow. Numerical simulations of bank storage and return flow in river-aquifer cross sections with vertical and sloping banks were undertaken using a fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model. Sloping river banks were found to increase the bank infiltration rates by 98% and storage volume by 40% for a bank slope of 3.4° from horizontal, and for a slope of 8.5°, delay bank return flow by more than four times compared with vertical river banks and saturated flow. The results suggested that conventional analytical approximations cannot adequately be used to quantify bank storage when bank slope is less than 60° from horizontal. Additionally, in the unconfined aquifers modeled, the analytical solutions did not accurately model bank storage and return flow even in rivers with vertical banks due to a violation of the dupuit assumption. Bank storage and return flow were also modeled for more realistic cross sections and river hydrograph from the Fitzroy River, Western Australia, to indicate the importance of accurately modeling sloping river banks at a field scale. Following a single wet season flood event of 12 m, results showed that it may take over 3.5 years for 50% of the bank storage volume to return to the river. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Global financial crisis, ownership and bank profit efficiency in the Bangladesh's state owned and private commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Fakarudin; Sufian, Fadzlan; Nassir, Annuar Md.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of global financial crisis focusing on State Owned Commercial Banks (SCBs) and Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) ownership and others bank specific and macroeconomics factors influencing profit efficiency level of the Bangladesh banking sector. The Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis (SBM-DEA) method employed to compute the profit efficiency of 31 commercial banks operating in the Bangladesh over the years 2004-2011. Furthermore, the multivariate panel ...

  12. An Indicator Based Assessment Methodology Proposal for the Identification of Domestic Systemically Important Banks within the Turkish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge ULKUTAS SACCI; Guven SAYILGAN

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify domestic systemically important banks (D-SIB) operating within the Turkish Banking Sector. In this regard, adopting an indicator based assessment methodology together with the cluster analysis application, banks in the sample are classified in terms of their degree of systemic importance by using publicly available year-end data of 2012. The study has shown that a total of 7 banks with the highest systemic importance clustered away from the remaining 21 banks in th...

  13. A new paradigm of modern central banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szunke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the modern monetary policy, which took place at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in response to the global financial crisis led to the transformation of the place and the role of central banks. The strategic aim of the central monetary institutions has become preventing financial instability. So far, central banks have defined financial stability as a public good, which took care independently of other monetary purposes (Pyka, 2010. Unconventional monetary policy resulted in changes the global central banking. The aim of the study is to identify a new paradigm of the role and place of the central bank in the financial system and its new responsibilities, aimed at countering financial instability.

  14. Efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas na fertilidade do solo, após vinte anos Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on soil fertility attributes after twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são escassos os estudos disponíveis com experimentos de longa duração em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas. Após vinte anos (1985 a 2005, a fertilidade de solo foi avaliada, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo (RS, em quatro sistemas de manejo de solo (SMSs - 1 plantio direto (PD, 2 cultivo mínimo (CM, 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com grade de discos (PCD e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e com grade de discos (PCA - e em três sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRCs: I (trigo/soja, II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho e III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja, incluindo como testemunha um fragmento adjacente de floresta subtropical (FST. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas (4 x 90 m no total de 12, foram constituídas pelos SMSs, e as subparcelas, pelos SRCs (4 x 10 m, no total de 72. Os valores de pH, carbono, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os SMSs. No PD, houve acúmulo de carbono orgânico, P e K, na camada superficial. Não houve diferença do nível de matéria orgânica (MOS entre PD e FST, em todas as camadas estudadas. O nível de MOS e os teores de P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-0,05 m, quando comparados com os observados de 0,15-0,20 m de profundidade, sob PD e nas rotações II e III. Observou-se que em FST os valores de pH, Ca, P e de K foram menores do que os dos SMSs e SRCs.Long term field studies on crop rotation and soil tillage systems under Brazilian conditions are scarce. Soil fertility characteristics were assessed after twenty years (1985 to 2005 on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol located in Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Four soil tillage systems (STS - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using disk plow followed by disk harrow, and 4

  15. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRĂGAN (SÂNTĂMARIAN OANA RALUCA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the strategic implication of corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development for the banking sector. A few years ago, banks did not give much importance to the social and environmental problems. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the banking system. In this context, the development of a bank management system based on sustainable principles is one of the current challenges. For this purpose this paper focuses on issues such as the importance and advantages of implementing sustainability bank management, international standards regarding sustainable banking management such as: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. In addition, we have developed a practical case study about the implementation of sustainable banking management; the case study presents Romanian Commercial Bank as an example of good practice in the Romanian banking sector.

  16. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  17. What is shadow banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow

  18. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumer-Alkan, G.

    2008-01-01

    The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’

  19. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  20. Evolution in banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Banking supervision must keep pace with technical innovations in the banking industry. The international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision currently is reviewing public comments on its proposed new method for judging whether a bank maintains enough capital to absorb unexpected losses. This Economic Commentary explains how existing standards became obsolete and describes the new plan.