WorldWideScience

Sample records for bank twenty years

  1. Twenty years bone banking in Macedonia application and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, L.; Videovski, G.; Nospal, T.

    1999-01-01

    After establishing the Department for Bone Transplantation and Bone Bank as a part of the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje in 1978, we started our activities in bone banking. In the beginning we stored the transplants at -20 degree C in a deep-freezer using standard storage procedures. Since 1986 we stored the transplants at-70 degree C in a special deep-freezer. 1012 transplants were preserved in the Bone Bank. 657 of them (65%) were used in different procedures, mainly in tumor surgery (407), revision total hip replacement (I 70), elongation of long bones (66), pseudoarthroses (I 5) etc. The most common transplants used in our bone bank are femoral heads taken from live donors during THR procedures, or small parts of cortical and cancellous bones taken during TKR and different types of osteotomies. 187 transplants were rejected due to infection after a defect in the storage system. We had good incorporation of the grafts in most of the patients, although we had delayed incorporation in 26 patients (4%), total resorption of the graft in 9 patients (1.4%), and infection in 4 patients (0.6%). Fracture of the graft occurred in 3 cases (0.5%). After the recognition and becoming a regular member of the United Nations as a former Yugoslav Republic in 1992, Republic of Macedonia started with the so-called 'transitional' period in all parts of life, especially in legislation. After bringing the systemic Health Law in 199 1, the Parliament brought 'The Law for taking, exchange, transportation and transplantation of parts of the human body by reason of curing' in June 1995. This Law defines the conditions under which it is possible to take, store, process, exchange, transport and transplant parts of the human body by reason of curing and the rights, obligations and conditions that have to be fulfilled by the Health Organizations and other organizations engaged in these activities. This Law accepts 'brain death' item, as biological death concept. The cell

  2. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10 8 (range 0.7-75×10 8 ), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Overview of Twenty Years of Radiation and Tissue Banking Activity in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of human tissues in Argentina was a consequence of health care products sterilization by gamma radiation. Radiation technology was implemented in 1970 when the first multipurpose gamma facility was built at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of CNEA. Organ and tissue transplantation is a well established effective therapy that saves lives and significantly improves the quality of life. Ionizing radiation is used for sterilization in order to provide clinically safe tissue for therapeutic purposes of implantation in every patient in need. Argentina radiation and tissue banking activity started in 1993 with the establishment of two tissue banks using radiation under the IAEA programme of technical cooperation, a skin bank and a bone one. Additionally to this start, other tissue banks have adopted tissue sterilization by irradiation. The compatible tissues sterilized with this methodology are mainly skin (frozen, glycerolized), bone (lyophilized, frozen), and amniotic membrane (glycerolized, frozen, dehydrated). The donation and transplant of human organ, tissue and cells is regulated and coordinated by the National Institute Unique Central Coordinator of Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). In regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues are regulated and contorted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Eight tissue banks use gamma radiation for sterilization of human tissues (6 musculoskeletal, 1 skin and 1 amniotic membrane). Argentina has participated actively in several IAEA projects regarding radiation and tissue banking program, and it has been selected by the IAEA to host the Regional Training Centre for the Latin American region. The following activities were implemented: regional training courses in Buenos Aires, face to face (five) and virtual (four) modalities; collaboration on several materials related to tissue banking and radiation sterilization of tissue allograft, codes of practice for

  4. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  5. CND twenty years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.; Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of people who were supporters or leaders in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in the 1950s and 1960s. Information is given from questionnaires completed by 403 respondents, about their social and political development during the past 20 years. (author)

  6. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  7. Pragmatist Aesthetics, Twenty Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Dreon, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Pragmatist Aesthetics was published in 1992, by now twenty years ago. Through his book Richard Shusterman was able to revitalize a debate in the aesthetic field, which tended to stagnate. But its claims, implications and consequences went beyond the narrow limits of aesthetics, understood as philosophy of art according to a traditional modern approach. His reinterpretation of pragmatist aesthetics, expressly derived from Dewey’s work, was able to show not only that those defining anxieties ch...

  8. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  9. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  10. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  11. Marr's vision: twenty-five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, Andrew

    2007-06-05

    It is twenty-five years since the posthumous publication of David Marr's book Vision[1]. Only 35 years old when he died, Marr had already dramatically influenced vision research. His book, and the series of papers that preceded it, have had a lasting impact on the way that researchers approach human and computer vision.

  12. Marr's vision: Twenty-five years on

    OpenAIRE

    Glennerster, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    It is twenty-five years since the posthumous publication of David Marr's book Vision [1]. Only 35 years old when he died, Man, had already dramatically influenced vision research. His book, and the series of papers that preceded it, have had a lasting impact on the way that researchers approach human and computer vision.

  13. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  14. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  15. Twenty years of electricity generation in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    1998-01-01

    It will be twenty years to the day on September 2, 1998 that the Olkiluoto-1 nuclear generating unit was first synchronized with the public power grid. Finnish industry in 1969 founded Teollisuuden Voima Oy to meet part of the rapidly growing basic electricity requirement. The partners backed a large power plant project for which nuclear power was soon chosen as the energy source. The largest joint venture of Finnish industry, which was also chosen as the energy source. The largest joint venture of Finnish industry, which was also the largest power plant project at that time, was born. Training the operating personnel of the Olkiluoto unit I was begun in 1975. After a long test and commissioning phase, the authorities in summer 1978 gave permission for the start of nuclear operation. At 5.46 h in the morning of September 2, 1978, the long-awaited moment had come: Olkiluoto-I 1 was connected to the power grid, and the kWh meter began to count the electricity produced. This moment crowned the achievement of five years of hard construction work. For the past twenty years, TVO has generated electricity for its partners safely and cost-effectively. In the course of these years, nuclear power production in Finland has reached the level of the world's best producers. One fifth of the electricity consumed in Finland is generated in Olkiluoto. (orig.) [de

  16. The next twenty years - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of an institution is an appropriate time to look back and to ask what has been achieved. It is also an appropriate time to look ahead and to ask what should be the mission for the future. How can the strengths of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) be best utilized, what new opportunities should be seized upon, and what challenges should the IAEA be prepared to meet in the next twenty years? Forward planning is a very necessary activity in today's world. There are so many demands on national or institutional resources that careful analysis of options is necessary to establish priorities and ultimately to provide for implementation. But such planning must be done carefully with full appreciation for the validity and sensitivity of the input assumptions and data. Furthermore, today's plan, while setting goals and directions, cannot be so inflexible that it cannot be responsive to ever-changing political, economic and technical constraints or opportunities. Thus in looking ahead, the plan must contain provisions for flexibility to provide for further modifications in the light of ever-changing knowledge, attitudes, and world conditions. The experience of the past five years in the energy field, and especially in nuclear energy, underscores this need. In looking ahead for the next twenty years, we are attempting to describe the International Atomic Energy Agency and its role through the twentieth century. In doing so, we are automatically laying the base for the Agency's work going into the twenty-first century. In short, we are trying to visualize a programme that can serve the coming generation and, in doing so, creating a base from which the needs of the succeeding generation can be met. This is a large order and the crystal ball is less than clear. (author)

  17. Twenty years and twenty thousand contact lens patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, J M

    1981-01-01

    A self contained non commercial private office laboratory staffed by office personnel has been used to prepare contact lenses for private office patients. These lenses include hard contact lenses of various materials and various designs. During the past ten years extended wear hydrophilic soft lenses have been prepared in the same manner as hard lenses, all custom made with lens powers, base curves, diameters, and thickness designed according to the needs of each patient. This has provided st...

  18. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  19. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  20. Twenty years and twenty thousand contact lens patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J M

    1981-01-01

    A self contained non commercial private office laboratory staffed by office personnel has been used to prepare contact lenses for private office patients. These lenses include hard contact lenses of various materials and various designs. During the past ten years extended wear hydrophilic soft lenses have been prepared in the same manner as hard lenses, all custom made with lens powers, base curves, diameters, and thickness designed according to the needs of each patient. This has provided strict medical supervision and lens maintenance with maximum convenience for patients and the ophthalmologist.

  1. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  2. AGN outflows and feedback twenty years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. M.; Costa, T.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Flütsch, A.; Kakkad, D.; Perna, M.; Vietri, G.

    2018-03-01

    It is twenty years since the seminal works by Magorrian and co-authors and by Silk and Rees, which, along with other related work, ignited an explosion of publications connecting active galactic nucleus (AGN)-driven outflows to galaxy evolution. With a surge in observations of AGN outflows, studies are attempting to test AGN feedback models directly using the outflow properties. With a focus on outflows traced by optical and CO emission lines, we discuss significant challenges that greatly complicate this task, from both an observational and theoretical perspective. We highlight the observational uncertainties involved and the assumptions required when deriving kinetic coupling efficiencies (that is, outflow kinetic power as a fraction of AGN luminosity) from typical observations. Based on recent models we demonstrate that extreme caution should be taken when comparing observationally derived kinetic coupling efficiencies to coupling efficiencies from fiducial feedback models.

  3. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  4. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  5. Twenty-five years of life lessons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Annemieke; Dorren, Luuk; Noord, Van Hans; Veraart, Josja; Cusell, Casper; Sterk, Henk Pieter

    2017-01-01

    For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns,

  6. Twenty years of immunocontraceptive research: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Eckery, Douglas C

    2013-12-01

    The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) began immunocontraception vaccine research by testing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Early PZP research demonstrated that PZP induced infertility; however, increased length of the rut was observed in PZP-treated deer. An alternative vaccine using a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (KLH-GnRH) conjugate formulated with modified Freund's adjuvant was developed at NWRC. Suppression of GnRH has reduced reproduction in both sexes but is most effective in females. This vaccine was effective in preventing contraception in female deer for several years after a prime and boost. Due to adverse side effects of Freund's adjuvant, NWRC developed a new adjuvant called AdjuVac, a mineral oil/surfactant adjuvant with the addition of Mycobacterium avium as an immunostimulant. The price of KLH prompted a search for a more economical hemocyanin carrier protein for the GnRH peptide. Blue protein, derived from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas, proved to be a successful option. Formulation improvements resulted in a vaccine that can be effective as a single injection for multiple years, now called GonaCon. GonaCon is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in white-tailed deer in urban/suburban areas and for wild horses (Equus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus). Future GonaCon applications may include reducing reproduction to manage populations of other wildlife species, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in urban areas and suppressing reproduction to reduce the spread of venereal diseases such as brucellosis. Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies. The EPA would regulate all these uses. Research is also ongoing on a GnRH vaccine to delay the onset of adrenocortical

  7. Endovascular aortic repair: First twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aortic/aneurysm repair (EVAR was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the nineties. Its fast development had a great influence on clinicians, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists, educational curriculums, patients, industry and medical insurance. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution of clinicians and industry to the development and advancement of endovascular aortic repair over the last 20 years. This review article presents the development of EVAR by focusing on the contribution of physicians, surgeons and interventional radiologists in the creation of the new field of vascular surgery termed hybrid vascular surgery, and also the contribution of technological advancement by a significant help of industrial representatives – engineers and their counselors. This article also analyzes studies conducted in order to compare the successfulness of EVAR with up-to-now applied open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms, and some treatment techniques of other aortic diseases. During the first two decades of its development the EVAR method was rapidly progressing and was adopted concurrently with the expansion of technology. Owing to large randomized studies, early and long-term results indicate specific complications of this method, thus influencing further technological improvement and defining risk patients groups in whom the use of the technique should be avoided. Good results are insured only in centers, specialized in vascular surgery, which have on their disposal adequate conditions for solving all complications associated with this method.

  8. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  9. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  10. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  11. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  12. Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitt, Julian

    In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…

  13. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  14. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  15. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...... tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...

  16. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  17. Twenty Years of Alcohol Septal Ablation in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulos, Angelos G.; Seggewiss, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic cardiac disease and is generally characterised by asymmetric septal hypertrophy and intraventricular obstruction. Patients with severe obstruction and significant symptoms that persist despite optimal medical treatment are candidates for an invasive septal reduction therapy. Twenty years after its introduction, percutaneous transluminal alcohol septal ablation has been increasingly preferred for septal reduction in patients with drug refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial contrast echocardiography and injection of reduced alcohol volumes have increased safety, while efficacy is comparable to the surgical alternative, septal myectomy, which has for decades been regarded as the ‘gold standard’ treatment. Data on medium- and long-term survival show improved prognosis with survival being similar to the general population. Current guidelines have supported its use by experienced operators in centres specialised in the treatment of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. PMID:25563291

  18. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  19. Twenty years of RERTR in Russia: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian RERTR Program started approximately 20 years ago. The USSR always supported principles and goals of the policy of nonproliferation and at the end of 70's the Soviet Government decided to create such national program. Twenty years is the sufficient time to estimate preliminary results of the realization of the program and its prospects on the future. After the first successes of the program, when the enrichment of uranium in fuel elements for foreign supplies was reduced from 80 % to 36 %, the realization of the program was suspended in connection with financial difficulties. But in the beginning of the 90's the Program has received a new pulse connected to the inclusion of Russian scientists and engineers in the international Program. Now basic directions in development of new kinds of fuel are development of works on fuel on a basis dioxide of uranium and development of fuel on a basis of U-Mo alloy. In the future to basic goals of the program the problem of the management of the spent nuclear fuel should be added. The management of HEU at the final stage of a fuel cycle becomes an important objective of the program, since the basic amount of HEU is concentrated in storage of SNF. (author)

  20. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99m Tc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18 F, 85m Kr, 24 Na, 82 Br, 64 Zn, 125 I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  1. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  2. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  3. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  4. Breakthrough cancer pain: twenty-five years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Portenoy, Russell K

    2016-12-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is an episode of severe pain that "breaks through" a period of persistent pain at least partly controlled by a stable opioid regimen. Although mentioned in the literature decades ago, it has been only 25 years since the first effort to define and measure it. Controversy about the definition of BTcP continues despite an international effort to achieve consensus. Nevertheless, common approaches to measurement of BTcP have led to a robust literature, including many surveys that have described prevalence, characteristics, and association with adverse outcomes. Measurement also has been important for clinical trials of new drug formulations specifically designed for BTcP. Several approaches have been reported in the literature, although most of them have never been substantiated with appropriate studies. Administration of an opioid as needed is the most common treatment. Twenty-five years of research has produced a more refined understanding of the safety and efficacy of oral opioids in this context, and provided the clinical trials data necessary to attain regulatory approval of multiple new formulations specifically developed for BTcP. Transmucosal formulations of fentanyl may provide meaningful analgesia within 5 to 15 minutes. Given the difference in cost, transmucosal formulations should be considered in a subset of patients with BTcP, including those with pain that are not adequately controlled with an oral drug and those with distress associated with the rapid pain onset. The long-term use of opioids for BTcP remains to be clarified. Future studies should assess the potential of personalized treatment of BTcP.

  5. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  6. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  7. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  8. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  9. Radiation therapy of laryngeal cancer: a twenty year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, N.L.K.; Oswal, V.H.; Flood, L.M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reviews a 20 year experience of radiation treatment of 286 laryngeal cancers and presents results with a minimum five year follow-up. All cases presented had glottic or supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas with no clinical evidence of nodal metastasis. A policy of primary radiotherapy, with surgery for salvage of treatment failures, produced control of primary disease and prevention of metastases superior to most other regimes documented in the literature. (author).

  10. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... factors influencing the European IS academy in recent years as well as our interpretation of the developing research profile, thus informing future understanding of European IS research and the choices facing individual IS researchers....

  11. International cyclotron conferences: twenty-five years of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This brief introduction reviews a few of the highlights of the nine previous meetings to perhaps convey an appreciation of the time-scale of the significant achievements of past years and to leave the thought that the future is as filled with promise as was the past.

  12. Minorities and the Labor Market: Twenty Years of Misguided Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahey, Richard; Jeffries, John

    1987-01-01

    The failure of industrial policy advocates to discuss Black problems reflects the unconscious influence of the mismatch idea, which asserts that individuals are out of work because they lack skills or education. Blacks suffer disproportionately from America's economic problems and are concentrated in industries which have declined in recent years.…

  13. International cyclotron conferences: twenty-five years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This brief introduction reviews a few of the highlights of the nine previous meetings to perhaps convey an appreciation of the time-scale of the significant achievements of past years and to leave the thought that the future is as filled with promise as was the past

  14. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins w...... of economic issues in defining government policies, and the significance of development and relations with donors....

  15. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  16. A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Katie Mcmillan; Honey, Margaret; Mandinach, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of 20 years of key policy reports addressing the challenges and opportunities in integrating technology into K-12 education in the United States. It summarizes recommendations made in these reports, and comments on the shifting rationales for and expectations of educational technology investments that have shaped…

  17. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  18. Twenty Years of "Writing Center Journal Scholarship": An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShaw, Dana; Mullin, Joan; DeCiccio, Albert C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography tracing 20 years of "Writing Center Journal" scholarship covering a variety of issues which include teacher training, critical thinking, writing apprehension, peer tutoring, Internet sources and individual instruction. Contains annotations of all the articles and reviews published in this journal's…

  19. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  20. Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Amy L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lui, Li-Yung; Hoang, Tina; Blazer, Dan G; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Hillier, Teresa A; Fredman, Lisa; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of depressive symptoms among older adults, especially women, little is known about the long-term course of late-life depressive symptoms. To characterize the natural course of depressive symptoms among older women (from the young old to the oldest old) followed up for almost 20 years. Using latent-class growth-curve analysis, we analyzed women enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study (1988 through 2009). Clinic sites in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; the Monongahela Valley near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Portland, Oregon. We studied 7240 community-dwelling women 65 years or older. The Geriatric Depression Scale short form (score range, 0-15) was used to routinely assess depressive symptoms during the follow-up period. Among older women, we identified 4 latent classes during 20 years, with the predicted probabilities of group membership totaling 27.8% with minimal depressive symptoms, 54.0% with persistently low depressive symptoms, 14.8% with increasing depressive symptoms, and 3.4% with persistently high depressive symptoms. In an adjusted model for latent class membership, odds ratios (ORs) for belonging in the increasing depressive symptoms and persistently high depressive symptoms classes, respectively, compared with a group having minimal depressive symptoms were substantially and significantly (P obesity (ORs, 1.86 and 2.90). During 20 years, almost 20% of older women experienced persistently high depressive symptoms or increasing depressive symptoms. In addition, these women had more comorbidities, physical impairment, and negative lifestyle factors at baseline. These associations support the need for intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depressive symptoms into the oldest-old years.

  1. EBR-II: twenty years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, G.L.; Buschman, H.W.; Smith, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. For the last 20 years EBR-II has operated safely, has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, has shown excellent performance of its sodium components, and has had an excellent plant factor. These years of operating experience provide a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future liquid metal fast reactors. This report provides a brief description of the EBR-II plant and its early operating experience, describes some recent problems of interest to the nuclear community, and also mentions some of the significant operating achievements of EBR-II. Finally, a few words and speculations on EBR-II's future are offered. 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based......Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  3. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  4. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    de Dear, R; Akimoto, T; Arens, E; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K.W.; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S.C.; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has ta...

  5. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Michael A. De; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  6. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  7. Development of tractor engines in the past twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Stirnimann, Roger; Engelmann, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990 years, EU legislation has also been applicable to non-road vehicles, including tractors used in the agricultural sector. As a result of the stepwise introduction of exhaust gas EU emission Stages I to IV, emissions of particle mass and nitrogen oxides, the main pollutants of diesel engines, in the middle and upper power classes have been reduced by about 95 %. This could only be achieved by the intensive further development of both engine and exhaust gas technologies. HAFL and KIT ...

  8. Twenty-two years of psychological science in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, Ma Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The journal Psychological Science (PS) has undergone various changes over 22 years since its birth in 1990. Analysis of Web of Science's records shows that the publication has increased in volume and collaborations between authors, and has become more international. Keyword analysis suggests the new role of neuroscience in contemporary psychology and indicates that the PS of today is more oriented than in the 1990s towards psychosocial and emotional issues as well as natural situations in our daily lives (ecological validity). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Cognition and Emotion over twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Parrott, W Gerrod; Smith, Craig; Watts, Fraser

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years since its foundation, Cognition and Emotion has become a leading psychological journal of research on emotion. Here we review some of the ways in which this has occurred. Questions have included how parallel systems of cognition and emotion can operate in emotion regulation and psychological therapies (including the issue of free will), how the cognitive approach to emotion works, how emotion affects attention, memory, and decision making, and how emotion research is moving beyond the individual mind into the space of the interpersonal.

  10. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  11. Radiation protection training: twenty year experience in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, Sandor; Kanyar, Bela; Zagyvay, Peter; Solymosi, Jozsef; Bujtas, Tibor; Feher, Istvan; Giczi, Ferenc; Deme, Sandor; Uray, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    In Hungary, radiation protection training for radiation workers has been introduced in very early, just following the publication of the ICRP recommendation No. 26. Before that, in some of the institutions, radiation protection training was recommended for technicians and medical doctors working in nuclear medicine, X-ray diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy, as well as in some of industrial applications, but not on regular way. Since 1988, radiation protection training regulated by the Ministry of Health and required for all of the workers in radiation workplaces licensed by the authority the State Public Health and Medical Officers Service (SPHAMOS). Decree No. 16/2000. (VI. 8.) EuM of the Minister of Health on the enforcement of Clauses of the Nuclear Law 116/1996 regulates the radiation protection training of Radiation Workers (RW). Annex 4 of Decree sees radiation protection training and in-service training: Persons performing conducted work in the field of the use of the nuclear energy and any other work within legal relationship shall be educated in training and in-service training at an interval of 5 years. Three levels of the training introduced; basic, extended and comprehensive, based on radiation risk related to the given job. Several institutions are involved in performing radiation protection training, such universities, scientific institutions, Regional Radiological Health Centers (RRHC) of SPHAMOS, private enterprises etc. All training course material is subject to accreditation. Most of the faculties of the universities involved in training of natural sciences and engineering provide subjects on the fundamentals of dosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection within the courses of physics, biophysics, chemistry, biology, ecology etc. These courses take 5-10 contact hours per week on average. The members of the Hungarian Committee of EUTERP Platform summarize their broad experience collected in the past 20 year. (author)

  12. Internet Addiction: A Review of the First Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite heated debates on its addictive nature, consensus is emerging regarding the existence of this problematic behavior. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on Internet addiction in last 20 years. Purpose of this paper is to present crucial findings on Internet addiction to health profession. Besides numerous benefits of Internet use, the virtual environment brings various risks in every age group. The Internet is very significant in the everyday activities of children and youth and professional interventions with this age group should be specific considering their developmental characteristics. Exposure to online risks can have long-lasting and intense negative effects. Effective programs in prevention and treatment should include a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach. Detail review of the symptomatology, diagnosis model an possibilities of treatment can be multiple beneficial to the health professionals and other helping professions due to actual needs for interventions in the field of the internet addiction treatment. Internet addiction is slowly becoming a societal concern as it particularly affects adolescents and children, who are more exposed and consequently more vulnerable. Findings presented in the paper can benefit in practice of treatment internet addiction and also as framework for further researches in the field.

  13. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  14. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  15. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions.

  16. A cumulative (alternating) method of presentation of the twenty two-year periodicity of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.

    1988-01-01

    A cumulative method is shown of graphical presentation of the twenty two-year periodicity of solar activity which allows to see the twenty two-year waves of solar activity as basic elements of a cumulative curve of yearly means of observed relative numbers. The ascending branch of each wave represents the successively summed yearly means belonging to the even eleven-year cycles while the descending branch represents yearly means successively subtracted from such a value belonging to the odd eleven-year cycles. In this way the mutual relations were investigated of the individual eleven-year cycles forming one twenty two-year cycle as well as the secular changes in these relations due to the variability of the power of the individual eleven-year cycles and consequent variations of the general secular trends in solar activity development. Also discussed were the length of the periods of secular activity changes using the method of the correlation periodogram. The fine structure was also shown of the main twenty two-year period and the same twenty two-year waves in other indices of solar activity were searched for. (author). 1 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs

  17. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  18. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  19. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells. Michel Morange. Series Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 537-541. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. A twenty-year review of policy landscape for gender-based violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The struggle for liberation, equity and equality in South Africa has come a long way to the point where South Africa has celebrated twenty years of democracy in 2014. Substantive advancements have been made towards a constitutional framework and domestic policy that is transformational, progressive and empowering.

  1. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    OpenAIRE

    Miccadei Enrico; Piacentini Tommaso; Buccolini Marcello

    2017-01-01

    The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphologi...

  2. The United States Air Force Academy’s First Twenty-Five Years, Some Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    twenty years of teaching ex- perience convinces me that if we do not decentralize the core courses the sheer tyranny of numbers will continue to lock us...excellent original compositions for piano and organ as well as some major murals which permanently adorn prominent walls in the academic building. We...stereo listening equipment and a Steinway baby grand piano . The sculpture studio boasts a bronze casting furnace, pottery wheels, a kiln, welding

  3. Looking backward, 1984-1959: twenty-five years of library automation--a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, I H

    1984-01-01

    A brief profile of Janet Doe is given. Twenty-five years of library automation are reviewed from the author's point of view. Major projects such as the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network and the Regional Online Union Catalog of the Greater Midwest Regional Medical Library Network are discussed. Important figures in medical library automation are considered, as is the major role played by the National Library of Medicine. Images PMID:6388691

  4. The World Bank Annual Report 2008 : Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The World Bank Group's work focuses on achievement of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals call for eliminating poverty and achieving inclusive and sustainable globalization. The MDGs lay out a blueprint for the World Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. The World Bank is the world's largest funder of education; the world's largest external fund...

  5. Global Snow-Cover Evolution from Twenty Years of Satellite Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognard, N.M.; Kouraev, A.V.; Josberger, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Starting in 1979 with the SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer) instrument onboard the satellite NIMBUS-7 and continuing since 1987 with the SSMI (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) instrument on board the DMSP (Defence Meteorological Satellite Program) series, more then twenty years of satellite passive microwave data are now available. This dataset has been processed to analyse the evolution of the global snow cover. This work is part of the AICSEX project from the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. The spatio-temporal evolution of the satellite-derived yearly snow maximum extent and the timing of the spring snow melt were estimated and analysed over the Northern Hemisphere. Significant differences between the evolution of the yearly maximum snow extent in Eurasia and in North America were found. A positive correlation between the maximum yearly snow cover extent and the ENSO index was obtained. High interannual spatio-temporal variability characterises the timing of snow melt in the spring. Twenty-year trends in the timing of spring snow melt have been computed and compared with spring air temperature trends for the same period and the same area. In most parts of Eurasia and in the central and western parts of North America the tendency has been for earlier snow melt. In northeastern Canada, a large area of positive trends, where snow melt timing starts later than in the early 1980s, corresponds to a region of positive trends of spring air temperature observed over the same period.

  6. Twenty years of post-fire plant succession in a "cerrado", São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Soares

    Full Text Available Secondary succession in degraded areas is little studied, especially where long-term observation of evolutionary processes is concerned. The aim of this work was to follow the qualitative and quantitative changes in vegetation throughout the regeneration process after fire in a cerrado with forest physionomy. The area under study is a reserve on CPPSE-EMBRAPA's farm, São Carlos region of São Paulo State, Brazil. In 1981, an especially destructive fire eliminated the aerial part of the vegetation and litter. From that time, the vegetation in three permanent quadrats of 2 x 20 m was recorded for twenty years. The results demonstrated the rapid growth of herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees successively, with a great species richness and, after a certain time, a decline in density at a rate similar to the initial recovery. Both the soil seed bank and sprouting subterranean organs played important parts in the recovery of the vegetation. Three phases were observed in the plant succession: plant growth, followed by intraspecific competition with a reduction in the number of individuals and finally interspecific competition with the disappearance of some species from the quadrats. The different populations behaved similarly and the rise and fall in density of each species over time reflected their ecological role.

  7. Twenty years of post-fire plant succession in a "cerrado", São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J J; Souza, M H A O; Lima, M I S

    2006-05-01

    Secondary succession in degraded areas is little studied, especially where long-term observation of evolutionary processes is concerned. The aim of this work was to follow the qualitative and quantitative changes in vegetation throughout the regeneration process after fire in a cerrado with forest physionomy. The area under study is a reserve on CPPSE-EMBRAPA's farm, São Carlos region of São Paulo State, Brazil. In 1981, an especially destructive fire eliminated the aerial part of the vegetation and litter. From that time, the vegetation in three permanent quadrats of 2 x 20 m was recorded for twenty years. The results demonstrated the rapid growth of herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees successively, with a great species richness and, after a certain time, a decline in density at a rate similar to the initial recovery. Both the soil seed bank and sprouting subterranean organs played important parts in the recovery of the vegetation. Three phases were observed in the plant succession: plant growth, followed by intraspecific competition with a reduction in the number of individuals and finally interspecific competition with the disappearance of some species from the quadrats. The different populations behaved similarly and the rise and fall in density of each species over time reflected their ecological role.

  8. Soil seed banks in four 22-year-old plantations in South China: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Wang; Hai Ren; Long Yang; Danyan Li; Qinfeng. Guo

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the potentials of the soil seed banks in facilitating succession towards a morenatural forest of native tree species, we quantified the size and composition of the soil seed banks inestablished plantations in South China. The seed banks were from four typical 22-year-old plantations, i.e., legume, mixed-...

  9. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  10. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  11. The imaginary Cuban identity in the first twenty years of the Republic (1902-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Pacheco-Valera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction of the Cuban cultural identity imaginary in the first twenty years of the Republic from the dialogues of continuity and discontinuity with the colonia period. The controversies or counterpoints that took place on the theme of blackness as a key identity from the confluences and interinfluences with the social fabric constitute the thematic agenda that is strengthened to join us in the efforts to rethink the mystery of the Cuban identity in the Caribbean orbit.---Original in Spanish.

  12. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  13. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  14. Reliability data bank in electronics: ITALTEL experience over 10 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turconi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the Italtel Reliability Data Bank experience in electronics after ten years from data bank creation. Technological evolution on systems and equipment have originated a reliability data bank evolution in order to maintain and improve its performances. This paper will describe the concepts employed to design the today data bank features enabling it to be an important Company tool for reliability activities. (orig.)

  15. Achievements in the past twenty years and perspective outlook of crop space breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong

    2007-01-01

    Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement, which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987. A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years. More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice, wheat, cotton, sweet pepper, tomato, sesame and alfalfa have been developed, officially released and put into production. A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained. Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses. Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties, exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced. In this paper, the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed. The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed. (authors)

  16. Twenty-year follow-up of metal-ceramic single crowns: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this clinical retrospective study was to evaluate the survival and success of single metal-ceramic crowns after 20 years. The biologic and technical complications as well as patient satisfaction were recorded. Fifty patients treated with 100 single metal-ceramic crowns attended the clinical 20-year follow-up examination. The mean follow-up time was 18.8 years (17.5 to 20.5 years). Twenty-one teeth with single crowns were extracted because of root fractures or esthetic or periodontal reasons. Ninety-seven percent of the subjects had no complaints about the esthetics of the crowns. The most common clinical findings were supragingival crown margins caused by gingival recessions, gingival bleeding on probing, and occlusal wear in opposing teeth. The success of the crowns after 20 years was 75%, and the survival was 78%. In the 20-year follow-up of single metal-ceramic crowns, there were few biologic and technical complications, and patients were satisfied with the crowns. Crown removal was in most cases the result of root fractures in single crowns with endodontic posts.

  17. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  18. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  19. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  20. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  1. Twenty years on: lesbian, gay and bisexual police officers' experiences of workplace discrimination in England and Walespolicing and society

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew Leonard; Williams, Matthew Leighton

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Mark Burke's pioneering research into homosexuality and policing evidenced widespread prejudice and hostility toward lesbian, gay and bisexual police officers in nine forces across England and Wales. These serving officers were felt to represent the most serious kind of contamination and threat to the integrity of the British Police Service by their heterosexual colleagues. Twenty years on this research, which represents one of the largest ever surveys of LGB police officers ...

  2. Reactions to combat stress in Israeli veterans twenty years after the 1982 Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Shklar, Rami; Singer, Yaffa; Mikulincer, Mario

    2006-12-01

    During the war or shortly thereafter, the most common manifestation of combat induced psychopathology is combat stress reaction (CSR). The long-term consequences of CSR have so far received little scientific attention. The aim of this study was to examine whether CSR is a marker for long-term PTSD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Two groups of veterans from the 1982 Lebanon war were assessed 20 years after the war: one comprised 286 CSR casualties and the other comprised 218 matched non-CSR soldiers. Participants were assessed for PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology, social functioning, physical health, and postwar life events. Twenty years after the war, veterans with antecedent CSR reported more PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology and distress, social dysfunction, and health problems than did non-CSR veterans. We conclude that CSR should be seen as a marker for long-term psychiatric distress and impairment. In addition, the implications of combat-related trauma are broad and varied, and go beyond the narrow scope of PTSD.

  3. Twenty Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires: Lessons About Disturbance and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, W.H.; Boyce, M.S.; Gresswell, R.; Merrill, E.H.; Minshall, G.W.; Whitlock, C.; Turner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The 1988 Yellowstone fires were among the first in what has proven to be an upsurge in large severe fires in the western USA during the past 20 years. At the time of the fires, little was known about the impacts of such a large severe disturbance because scientists had had few previous opportunities to study such an event. Ecologists predicted short- and long-term effects of the 1988 fires on vegetation, biogeochemistry, primary productivity, wildlife, and aquatic ecosystems based on scientific understanding of the time. Twenty-plus years of subsequent study allow these early predictions to be evaluated. Most of the original predictions were at least partially supported, but some predictions were refuted, others nuanced, and a few postfire phenomena were entirely unexpected. Post-1988 Yellowstone studies catalyzed advances in ecology focused on the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, contingent influences, and multiple interacting drivers. Post-1988 research in Yellowstone also has changed public perceptions of fire as an ecological process and attitudes towards fire management. Looking ahead to projected climate change and more frequent large fires, the well-documented ecological responses to the 1988 Yellowstone fires provide a foundation for detecting and evaluating potential changes in fire regimes of temperate mountainous regions. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  5. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  6. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  7. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936). Annals of Botany 115: 1–18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal’s achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. Sources of information The account draws principally on the Journal’s own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal’s owners and managers. Content In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany’s 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal’s fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal’s organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. PMID:27974325

  8. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Parcelling activity of the National Bank for Agriculture in interwar Poland in the years 1924-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kłusek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature related to the problem in focus is exceptionally poor. The only book publication concerns the National Bank for Agriculture in the twenty-year interwar period is book position of Marek Nowak’s authorship [Nowak 1988]. But, on account of its modest range, bank agrarian activity has been treated too generally. In this publication author’s opinion is that this activity needs deeper analysis. Parcelling is an economic process which took part in Poland and lasted from the moment of grant freehold. It ran with special intensification towards the end of XIX century and at the beginning of XX century. In inter-war period, on account of source of parcelled soil, parcellation was divided into private and governmental. Governmental parcellation, which related to public property, included lands by Regional District Councils and territories included by military settlement. However, lands allocated by the National Bank for Agriculture and by individual people made private parcellation. The beginning of the National Bank for Agriculture’s agrarian activity’ was enabled by Poland President’s directive from 1924. One of the main tasks put against NBA was support: parcellation and settlement, agricul-tural regulations by landed estates purchase for parcelling aims and giving long-term credits for land purchase. However, according to status, the National Bank for Agriculture was able to parcel out landed properties, both purchased for private property and entrusted to commission state. Tasks put against parcellation conducted by the National Bank for Ag-riculture were not carried out in a satisfactory way. The Bank’s activity did not contribute to shopping the process of farms fragmentation at serious level and process of agrarian overpopulation’s growth among fewer ownership. Similarly, it also was not an essential source of establishing new farms capable of competing with vast-land ownership.

  10. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with fair skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ratrout J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypopigmented variant of mycosis fungoides (MF is charactrized by the presence of hypopigmented patches as the sole manifestation of the disease. This variant is usually observed in the dark skin of African or Asian individuals particularly children, but nevertheless is an uncommonly reported presentation of the disease. The incidence of hypopigmented MF in Caucasian patients and others of fair skin color is rare. We describe hypopigmented lesions arising in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with type IV skin color. The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides stage IA was made based on the clinico-radiological and histological features. The patient responded well to PUVA therapy and is currently clear of lesions. MF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypopigmented macular lesions in patients of any skin color and age. Multiple skin biopsies must be performed on different occasions so as not to miss the diagnosis; and long term follow up is recommended since recurrence is common and occasional cases behave aggressively.

  11. Twenty Years of National Minority Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Tatalović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of policies towards national minorities in the Republic of Croatia in the past twenty years, with reference to the perspective of minority rights implementation. The topic has been analysed in relation to two independent variables – the influence of external factors, i.e. the international community, and internal political processes that have had influence on the realisation of national minority rights. Today, as a country and society on the eve of accession to the European Union, along with a legislatively developed and institutionally branched model of the implementation of national minority rights, we can not claim to have established permanent protection of their rights. The degree of national minority integration in society is the only true indicator of policy success in relation to national minorities. The goal of this policy ought to be complete integration of national minorities into public, cultural, economic and political life, but accompanied by the preservation of their cultural and national identity. The Croatian model has been set up in such a way, but the manner in which it functions will depend on the political will to implement it, the willingness of national minority members to be active subjects of social and political life, as well as on civil society and Croatian society as a whole.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  13. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  14. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  15. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  16. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccadei Enrico

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphological analyses have allowed us to outline the main stages of geomorphological evolution and to identify the factors that have contributed to the landscape shaping of the Apennine Chain, the Adriatic Piedmont and the fluvial plains and coastal sectors, up to the Tremiti islands. In the Apennine Chain, landscape evolution — in a ridge, valley and basin system — is connected to the regional uplift, local tectonic subsidence and local base level variations, which have led to changes in the drainage systems, from exoreic to endorheic (in the intermontane basins and then to exoreic again. In the Adriatic Piedmont, landscape shaping is connected to uplifting and eustatic sea-level fluctuations, which have induced the formation of a structure-controlled drainage system and the shaping of systems of entrenched alluvial fans and large consequent river valleys, with flights of river terraces. In the coastal Adriatic area — composed of a coastal plain-coastal slope system (northern and southern coast and of a cliffed rocky coast (central coast, Tremiti interrupted by river valleys — landscape shaping is the result of selective erosion due to the interaction between marine geomorphic processes and slope processes connected to Late Quaternary eustatic fluctuations.

  17. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, Enrico; Piacentini, Tommaso; Buccolini, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphological analyses have allowed us to outline the main stages of geomorphological evolution and to identify the factors that have contributed to the landscape shaping of the Apennine Chain, the Adriatic Piedmont and the fluvial plains and coastal sectors, up to the Tremiti islands. In the Apennine Chain, landscape evolution — in a ridge, valley and basin system — is connected to the regional uplift, local tectonic subsidence and local base level variations, which have led to changes in the drainage systems, from exoreic to endorheic (in the intermontane basins) and then to exoreic again. In the Adriatic Piedmont, landscape shaping is connected to uplifting and eustatic sea-level fluctuations, which have induced the formation of a structure-controlled drainage system and the shaping of systems of entrenched alluvial fans and large consequent river valleys, with flights of river terraces. In the coastal Adriatic area — composed of a coastal plain-coastal slope system (northern and southern coast) and of a cliffed rocky coast (central coast, Tremiti) interrupted by river valleys — landscape shaping is the result of selective erosion due to the interaction between marine geomorphic processes and slope processes connected to Late Quaternary eustatic fluctuations.

  18. Personal networks and mortality risk in older adults: a twenty-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ellwardt

    Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have

  19. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  20. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  1. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kozma, D?niel; Simon, Istv?n; Tusn?dy, G?bor E.

    2012-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the la...

  2. The World Bank Annual Report 2010 : Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Boards of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

  3. Fast-food consumption among 17-year-olds in the Birth to Twenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Assessment of fast-food consumption in urban black adolescents. Design: The current research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Subjects attending the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) research facility at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg between September 2007 and May ...

  4. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  5. Twenty Years of Data Management in the British Atmospheric Data Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Pepler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC has existed in its present form for 20 years, having been formally created in 1994. It evolved from the GDF (Geophysical Data Facility, a SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council facility, as a result of research council reform where NERC (Natural Environment Research Council extended its remit to cover atmospheric data below 10km altitude. With that change the BADC took on data from many other atmospheric sources and started interacting with NERC research programmes. The BADC has now hit early adulthood. Prompted by this milestone, we examine in this paper whether the data centre is creaking at the seams or is looking forward to the prime of its life, gliding effortlessly into the future. Which parts of it are bullet proof and which parts are held together with double-sided sticky tape? Can we expect to see it in its present form in another twenty years’ time? To answer these questions, we examine the interfaces, technology, processes and organisation used in the provision of data centre services by looking at three snapshots in time, 1994, 2004 and 2014, using metrics and reports from the time to compare and contrasts the services using BADC. The repository landscape has changed massively over this period and has moved the focus for technology and development as the broader community followed emerging trends, standards and ways of working. The incorporation of these new ideas has been both a blessing and a curse, providing the data centre staff with plenty of challenges and opportunities. We also discuss key data centre functions including: data discovery, data access, ingestion, data management planning, preservation plans, agreements/licences and data policy, storage and server technology, organisation and funding, and user management. We conclude that the data centre will probably still exist in some form in 2024 and that it will most likely still be reliant on a file system. However, the

  6. 130 years of the National Bank of Serbia 1884-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Serbia, one of the most important state institutions of the Republic of Serbia, celebrates its grand jubilee this year - 130 years since its establishment. As the 16th central bank in the world, it was funded by equity capital from domestic sources. The Bank started its operations on 2 July 1884 pursuant to the Law on the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia, adopted on 6 January 1883 and published in 'Novine Srpske' on 19 January of the same year. Prior to the adoption of this Law, the Serbian monetary system was regulated by the Law on Minting Silver Coins, enacted in 1873, which set up the dinar as the sole legal tender in Serbia. The role of the Bank was defined by the Law on the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia, enacted in 1883, and was as follows: 'In order to improve trade and crafts in the Kingdom of Serbia using cheap capital and well-designed credit, the Royal Government is empowered to establish the National Bank in accordance with the legal provisions of this Law.' The initial discount rate of the National Bank was low and stable at 5.5% and the Lombard rate amounted to 6.5%. In the years up to 1941 these rates were relatively stable and usually varied between 5.5-8% at the annual level. During World War I, the National Bank was evacuated to Marseilles, while holding a representative office in London during World War II. During the 130 years of its operation, the National Bank has been run by 28 governors, the first of which was Aleksa Spasić, and three of which served two terms in office. The National Bank changed its name several times to reflect the change in the name of the state and its organization, and operated in different economic, social and international environments, including times of war, trade, economic and financial sanctions, hyperinflation and different internal and international political circumstances. Nowadays the National Bank of Serbia is organized as a modern

  7. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  8. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E.; Brognez, J.

    2002-01-01

    longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  9. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  10. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  11. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  12. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  13. Musculoskeletal tissue banking in Singapore: 15 years of experience (1988-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, A

    2004-12-01

    To report 15 years' experience of musculoskeletal tissue banking by the National University Hospital Tissue Bank. This study describes the development of Singapore's national bone bank since its establishment in 1988. The bone bank's protocol follows guidelines recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks and the European Association of Tissue Banks using strict donor selection criteria. Informed consent is obtained from all potential donors for tissue procurement and laboratory tests. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and chart review is performed for consenting donors. Suitable donors are subjected to tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and culture/sensitivity test of tissue for aerobic and anaerobic organisms. For living donors, repeat testing for AIDS and hepatitis C is performed at least 180 days after procurement. Tissue procurement is performed under sterile conditions. Small tissues are procured using the 'sterile double jar technique' and long bones using the 'sterile triple wrap technique', both developed by the author. Deep-frozen bones are gamma irradiated at 25 kilograys. Morsellised bones are lyophilised and gamma irradiated. Meticulous preparation for grafts is performed during transplantation. Antibiotic prophylaxis is used for 2 weeks. The bank maintains a good quality control. In January 2003, it was accredited ISO 9001 status. Up to June 2003, it has procured 440 bones from 440 living donors and 1055 allografts from 63 deceased donors. 854 musculoskeletal transplantations have been performed using tissues processed by the bank. Complication rate encountered was only 2.2%. The tissue bank provides high-quality allografts for safe tissue transplantations.

  14. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy : What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions

  15. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  16. Twenty-five year outcome of sequential abdominopelvic radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellairs, Ellen E.; Twiggs, Leo B.; Potish, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study of sequential surgery, abdominopelvic radiotherapy and single agent alkylating chemotherapy was conducted to evaluate survival and toxicity in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Methods: From 1970-1976, 95 women with stage I-III epithelial ovarian carcinoma were scheduled to receive postoperative radiotherapy consisting of 20.0 Gy to the whole abdomen (1.0 Gy/day), a 29.75 Gy pelvic boost (1.75 Gy/day) and 10 subsequent courses of Melphalan (1 mg/kg/course). Endpoints were overall survival, disease-free survival(DFS), and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: The evaluable 94 patients included 19 stage I, 25 stage II, and 50 stage III. Of the latter, 21 had no palpable disease postoperatively (IIIN) and 29 had postoperative palpable disease (IIIP). Overall survival at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 42%, 30%, 23% and 22%. DFS for the entire group was 54% at 5 years and remained 50% from 10 to 25 years. All but two recurrences were noted within the first 27 months. No recurrence or treatment-related deaths occurred after 8 years. After 10 years, the survival of the study group became parallel to the general population. Prognostic factors were only related to stage (p<.001) and the presence of postoperative palpable disease(p<.001). DFS at 25 years was 95 % for stage I, 71% at 5 years and 66% from 10 to 25 years for stage II, and 17% at 5 years and 11% thereafter for stage III patients(p<.001). Although no stage IIIP patients were cured, 25% lived beyond 2 years. Five year DFS was significantly better in IIIN (45%) vs. IIIP (0%) patients (p<.001). The 65 patients without postoperative palpable disease, (stage I-IIIN) achieved DFS at 5 and 25 years of 69%, and 61%, respectively. Of 31 patients undergoing a second-look surgery, 84% were found to be free of tumor. Two recurred at 3.5 and 7 years after surgery. Acute tolerance was acceptable. Chronic toxicity included an 11.7% rate of small bowel obstruction requiring surgery and a 3% rate of

  17. Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Cserni, Gábor; Vlastos, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival. Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005. The 5-year period (1981–1985) was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8–12.4) and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate) the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–10.8) and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3–9.7) respectively. Using the 1991–1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8–19.6) for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. For the period 1981–1985, the 15-year cause-specific survival for the Connecticut and the San

  18. Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cserni Gábor

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival. Methods Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005. Results The 5-year period (1981–1985 was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8–12.4 and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4 by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–10.8 and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3–9.7 respectively. Using the 1991–1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4 and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8–19.6 for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Conclusions For the period 1981–1985, the 15

  19. Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Cserni, Gábor; Vlastos, Georges

    2004-09-02

    Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival. Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005. The 5-year period (1981-1985) was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8-12.4) and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8-14.4) by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate) the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8-10.8) and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3-9.7) respectively. Using the 1991-1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8-14.4) and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8-19.6) for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. For the period 1981-1985, the 15-year cause-specific survival for the Connecticut and the San Francisco

  20. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  1. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V

    2009-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442

  2. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  3. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  4. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  5. Results after beta-irradiation (106Ru/106Rh) of choroidal melanomas. Twenty years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommatzsch, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    For two decades, from 1964 to 1984, 309 patients suffering from choroidal melanoma were treated with 106 Ru/ 106 Rh applications, following confirmation of diagnosis by a variety of tests. A total of 216 patients (69.9%) were treated successfully and have been under observation for a mean period of 6.7 years after irradiation. 188 patients were followed for more than five years. Results indicate that enucleation for choroidal melanoma, especially in cases of eyes with good vision, may no longer be the standard treatment for this disease. This appears particularly true inasmuch as almost 50% of all patients with large choroidal melanomas who have enucleation die from metastases within 5 years of the operation. Therefore, conservative methods such as photocoagulation, irradiation, and microsurgical excision have been used with more or less success to destroy tumor and save a functioning eye

  6. Twenty years' single-center experience with mechanical heart valves: a critical review of anticoagulation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nooten, Guido J; Caes, Frank; François, Katrien; Van Bellleghem, Yves; Bové, Thierry; Vandenplas, Guy; Taeymans, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1990, a variety of mechanical valves (St. Jude Medical, CarboMedics, ATS Medical) have been implanted routinely at the authors' institution. The study aim was to analyze, retrospectively, the 20-year clinical results of those mechanical valves, and to challenge the anticoagulation policy employed over the years. Between January 1990 and December 2008, a total of 2,108 mechanical valves was inserted into 1,887 consecutive patients (1,346 aortic, 725 mitral, 27 tricuspid, 10 pulmonary). The mean age of the patients was 63 +/- 13.2 years, and the majority (61%) were males. Preoperatively, 71% the patients were in NYHA class > or = III (average 3.01). The most frequent comorbidities included: atrial fibrillation (n = 594), coronary disease (n = 567) and diabetes (n = 398). The follow up (99% complete) totaled 13,721 patient-years (pt-yr), and ranged from 12 to 241 months (average 84 months). In-hospital mortality was 5.2% (n = 98, 14 valve-related). Of the 629 late deaths, the majority were cardiac (n = 276). Survival (Kaplan-Meier estimation) was significantly better for aortic valve patients compared to mitral or multiple valve replacement (Mantel-Cox, p valve thrombosis 0.31, thromboembolism 1.08, and bleeding 0.91. However, as repeated events occurred in several patients, the hazard function was not constant. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) showed age > 70 years (p or = III (p II as significant risk factors for thromboembolism, while long-acting coumadin and NYHA class > II were significant risk factors for bleeding. This 20-year experience demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes for patients with mechanical prostheses, with no valve structural failure and an acceptable incidence of adverse events. INR values between 2-2.5 for aortic valve patients, and 3-3.5 for mitral valve patients, yielded the fewest major adverse events.

  7. Twenty Years in Maine: Integrating Insights from Developmental Biology into Translational Medicine in a Small State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I give my personal reflections on more than 30 years of studying developmental biology in the mouse model, spending 20 of those years doing research in Maine, a small rural state. I also give my thoughts on my recent experience transitioning to a large medical center in Maine, and the issues involved with integrating insights from developmental biology and regenerative medicine into the fabric of translational and clinical patient care in such an environment. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal Study. Twenty Five Year Update, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

    This paper presents data from a 25-year study of women in intercollegiate sports. The opportunity for female athletes to participate in intercollegiate athletics generally increased over time. The same six sports continue to be the most popular: basketball, volleyball, soccer, tennis, cross country, and softball, with soccer exhibiting the…

  9. Twenty Five Years of Cognitive Care Education Research: Time for a Revolutionary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Berry, Jeremy; Cude, Kellie; Anderson, Stephen; Britt, Sanfrena

    2018-01-01

    This is the third study of Cognitive Care Education in New York State nursing homes using cross-sectional methods over a 25 year period. The data indicate that the Cognitive Care Education increased at statistically significant levels, albeit by evolutionary means. It is now time for "A Revolutionary Change," for Cognitive Care…

  10. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  11. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  12. Gifted Girls, Twenty-Five Years Later: Hopes Realized and New Challenges Found.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sally M.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the advancement of gifted girls in the past 25 years and argues that the problem of underachievement of talented females continues to exist. The diversity of gifted women's creativity, their need to engage in meaningful work, and their need to balance work and family is discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Twenty years of change on campsites in the backcountry of Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Pam Foti; Mathieu Brown

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on three separate research and monitoring studies to describe 20-year trends in the number and condition of campsites in the backcountry of Grand Canyon National Park. Results are used to assess the effectiveness of a complex and innovative management program, adopted in 1983, that sought to concentrate use on designated campsites in popular places...

  14. The discovery of mesoporous molecular sieves from the twenty year perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kresge, Ch. T.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2013), s. 3663-3670 ISSN 0306-0012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : liquid crystal phases * surfactant * silica Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 30.425, year: 2013

  15. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    September 2016 marks 25 years since the College of Medicine of the University of Malawi was established. In this article we reflect on its conception, birth, adolescence, and youth. The contributions of multiple stakeholders are celebrated while being mindful of the ongoing efforts to consolidate past and current gains.

  16. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  17. Konference Twenty Years and More: Research into Minority Religions, New Religious Movements and the New Spirituality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2008), s. 160-163 ISSN 1212-8112. [Years and More: Research into Minority Religions, New Religious Movements and the New Spirituality . London, 16.04.2008-19.04.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Sociology of religion * Minority religions * Spirituality Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  18. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum

  19. Twenty Years Can Make a World of Difference. Ounce of Prevention Fund Annual Report, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Since its inception 20 years ago as a public-private partnership, the Ounce of Prevention Fund (OPF) has cultivated promising ideas in early childhood development, has used private funding to test those ideas in real life settings, and has leveraged public funding to support and expand innovative programs that advance the health and well-being of…

  20. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  1. Twenty-year growth of ponderosa pine saplings thinned to five spacings in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett James W.

    1982-01-01

    Diameter, height, and volume growth and yield are given for plots thinned to 1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62 trees per acre in a 40- to 70-year-old stand of suppressed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) saplings in central Oregon. Trees averaged about 1-inch in diameter and 8 feet in height at the time of thinning. Considerations for...

  2. Twenty Golden Years of Battery R&D at CSIR,1974–1994 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a personal reflection of 20 years of sodium- and lithium-based battery R&D in South Africa between 1974 and 1994. The impact of the innovative materials science and engineering research conducted during this period is highlighted by the later successful implementation of batteries in powering practical ...

  3. One Fungus = One Name: DNA and fungal nomenclature twenty years after PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Some fungi with pleomorphic life-cycles still bear two names despite more than 20 years of molecular phylogenetics that have shown how to merge the two systems of classification, the asexual “Deuteromycota” and the sexual “Eumycota”. Mycologists have begun to flout nomenclatorial regulations and use just one name for one fungus. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) must change to accommodate current practice or become irrelevant. The fundamental difference in the size of fu...

  4. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  5. Twenty-Seven Years Experience With Transvenous Pacemaker Implantation in Children Weighing <10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Laura; Chubb, Mark Henry; Bostock, Julian; Rogers, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Epicardial pacemaker implantation is the favored approach in children weighing 5 kg during long-term follow-up. After a median of 14.3 (range, 13.4-17.6) years of pacing, 7 patients continue with their original lead. Transvenous pacing in infants <10 kg results in encouraging short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Subclavian vein occlusion remains an important complication, occurring predominantly in those weighing <5 kg. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Clinical and radiological evolution of a hand arthrosis in twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonje, Julio H; Botero, Misael; Gersner, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    The clinical evolution and X rays of an arthrodosis of the hand followed for 25 years is presented. This is a complement of another article published in the magazine, arthrosis viewed by a doctor patient second part. An emphasis is placed on the good results obtained with a new program of exercises. The problems related to the Alignment and instability of the wrist and its collapse are analyzed in depth in both the example X rays as well as the scannography

  7. Twenty Years Trying to Protect the Brain: What Do We Know?

    OpenAIRE

    Stump, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-five years ago at the Nixon Watergate hearings, a young attorney named Fred Thompson, current US presidential candidate, asked “What did the President know and when did he know it?” A couple of word changes and this question would be appropriate to ask any number of surgical specialties regarding negative neurologic outcomes. Even today, some specialties are in denial about impaired brain function after surgical intervention. Fortunately, the cardiac surgery community has been in the f...

  8. Maxillofacial Fractures: Twenty Years of Study in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. Methods: We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery for the period 2001–2005. We have analyzed those fractures and compared them with the period from 1983 to 2005 only when it was reasonable. Results: During this period, 1,945 patients were treated for trauma in the maxillofacial region by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. This group included 19.8% females and 80.2% males. The largest age group were those between 20 and 20 years of age. Causes of trauma for both periods were predominantly traffic accidents; however, during the period 2001-2005, interpersonal conflicts were increasingly the cause of fractures. Conclusion: Interpersonal conflict as a cause of maxillofacial trauma has risen in recent years. With this increase the methods of treating fractures in this region are also changing. PMID:24167433

  9. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  10. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-01-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods. (author)

  11. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  12. The twenty-year survivorship of two CDH stems with different design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digas, George; Georgiades, George; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Hartofilakidis, George

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that anatomical abnormalities of the femur in dislocated hips require the application of special CDH prosthesis for the reconstruction of the proximal femur in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We have retrospectively examined the clinical records and radiographs of 50 patients (67 hips) with low and high dislocations treated with THA in our institution, between January 1987 and December 1994. For the reconstruction of the femur, the stainless steel Charnley CDH stem, with polished surface, monoblock and collarless, was used in 32 hips; the Harris CDH stem, made of CoCr, precoated at the proximal part, modular and with collar was used in 35 hips. At the time of the latest follow-up, 11 Charnley and 6 Harris CDH stems had been revised for aseptic loosening at an average of 14 years (range 6-20) and 13 years (range 2-19), respectively. The survival rate at 20 years, with failure for aseptic loosening as the end point, was 63% for the Charnley and 78% for the Harris CDH stems. These results provide a basis for evaluation of newer techniques and designs. Therapeutic study, Level IV.

  13. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  14. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2012-06-15

    Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years) is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy's vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future. Data reported in this paper were presented at a national Meeting, Towards the elimination of hepatitis B: celebrating 20 years of vaccination in Italy, held in Milano (19 November 2011) under the high patronage of the President of the Italian Republic. Distinguished figures from the world of Italian Public Health as well as international experts participated and paid tribute to the work of those who had contributed to the saving of lives, prevention of suffering, and the savings made to the State.

  15. Actinomycosis of Distal Phalanx Twenty Years after Flap Reconstruction of Index Finger: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative infection caused by anaerobic bacteria from genus Actinomyces which are normal flora of mouth, colon and vagina. Actinomycosis of upper extremity is rare. We report a case of actinomycosis of the distal phalanx of finger many years after flap reconstruction. The patient presented with two months’ history of chronic discharging sinus from the tip of his right index finger, which had sustained a degloving injury 20 years previously. It had been treated with an anterior chest wall flap which had healed uneventfully but was bulky due to excess tissue from the donor site. Radiograph revealed osetomyelitis changes of distal phalanx. Debulking surgery with curettage of the distal phalanx was done. Wound healing was uneventful. He was treated with six weeks of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. The discharge from the distal phalanx cultured actinomycosis odontolyticus. Histopathology of the debrided tissue showed chronic inflammation. As far as we are aware, there are no reports of actinomycosis in a flap involving the finger treated previously with a chest wall skin flap. The infection was probably dormant for many years before manifesting as a discharging sinus. Although the finger flap was bulky, it was not problematic until it started to have serous discharge. With a thorough debridement of all infected tissue, six weeks of antibiotic was adequate. Ciprofloxacin was prescribed based on discharge culture sensitivity. Metronidazole was added as actinomycosis is anaerobic. Response was prompt as patient was not immunocompromised. At follow-up six months post-surgery the finger had recovered with good function. If not for the discharging sinus, patient would probably have tolerated his bulky finger for the rest of his life.

  16. Twenty-One Year Trends and Correlates of Pressure to Change Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William

    2011-01-01

    Background The vast majority of individuals with alcohol problems in the U.S. and elsewhere do not seek help. One policy response has been to encourage institutions such as criminal justice and social welfare systems to mandate treatment for individuals with alcohol problems (Speiglman, 1997). However, informal pressures to drink less from family and friends are far more common than institutional pressures mandating treatment (Room et al., 1996). The prevalence and correlates of these informal pressures have been minimally studied. Methods This analysis used data from five Alcohol Research Group National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) collected at approximately five-year intervals over a 21 year period (1984 to 2005, pooled N=16,241) to describe patterns of pressure that drinkers received during the past year from family, friends, physicians, police and the workplace. Results The overall trend of pressure combining all six sources across all five NAS surveys indicated a decline. Frequent heavy drinking and alcohol related harms also declined and both were strong predictors of receiving pressure. Trends among different sources varied. In multivariate regression models pressure from friends showed an increase. Pressure from spouse and family showed a relatively flat trajectory, with the exception of a spike in pressure from family in 1990. Conclusions The trajectory of decreasing of pressure over time is most likely the result of decreases in heavy drinking and alcohol related harm. Pressure was generally targeted toward higher risk drinkers, such as heavy drinkers and those reporting alcohol related harm. However, demographic findings suggest that the social context of drinking might also be a determinant of receiving pressure. Additional studies should identify when pressure is associated with decreased drinking and increased help-seeking. PMID:21913944

  17. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  19. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M.; Link, Emma; Leong, Trevor; Heriot, Alexander; Vazquez, Melisa; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T.; Lynch, Craig A.; Mackay, John; Michael, Michael; Tran, Phillip; Ngan, Samuel Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78–88), 92% (95% CI, 89–96), 73% (95% CI, 68–79), and 82% (95% CI, 77–87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  20. Modern history of women in sports. Twenty-five years of Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiano, D A

    2000-04-01

    The impact of federal anti-discrimination laws such as Title IX and the Amateur Sports Act have opened the doors of sport participation opportunity to girls and women in sports over the last 25 years. Such participation has created new and more lucrative consumer markets for sporting goods manufactures, as well as college and professional sports teams. The prospect of economic gain has created significant social changes: Women are now being encouraged to participate in sports and embrace the resulting benefits, and the general public is showing increased support for gender equity in sports.

  1. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  2. Twenty years of high-speed lines in Spain; Zwanzig Jahre Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in Spanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Vega, Tomas [ADIF, Madrid (Spain); Gil Ortiz, Jose Miguel [Balfour Beatty Rail Iberica, Alcobendas (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    In April 1992, i.e. 20 years ago, fast train services started in Spain when high-speed trains were put into operation on the almost 500 km long Madrid-Cordoba-Sevilla railway line. Both the 1,435 mm UIC standard gauge and the 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz overhead line voltage level meant a big step in the development. Today the Spanish high-speed network covers some 2,200 km of railway line, and more lines are planned or already under construction. (orig.)

  3. Twenty-five years of aerodynamic research with IR imaging: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared imaging used in aerodynamic research evolved during the last 25 years into a rewarding experimental technique for investigation of body-flow viscous interactions, such as heat flux determination and boundary layer transition. The technique of infrared imaging matched well its capability to produce useful results, with the expansion of testing conditions in the entire spectrum of wind tunnels, from hypersonic high-enthalpy facilities to cryogenic transonic wind tunnels. With unique achievements credited to its past, the current trend suggests a change in attitude towards this technique: from the perception as an exotic, project-oriented tool, to the status of a routine experimental procedure.

  4. Twenty years trying to protect the brain: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, David A

    2007-12-01

    Thirty-five years ago at the Nixon Watergate hearings, a young attorney named Fred Thompson, current US presidential candidate, asked "What did the President know and when did he know it?" A couple of word changes and this question would be appropriate to ask any number of surgical specialties regarding negative neurologic outcomes. Even today, some specialties are in denial about impaired brain function after surgical intervention. Fortunately, the cardiac surgery community has been in the forefront in efforts to protect the brain.

  5. Twenty years of Hendra virus: laboratory submission trends and risk factors for infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C S; McLAUGHLIN, A; Field, H E; Edson, D; Mayer, D; Ossedryver, S; Barrett, J; Waltisbuhl, D

    2016-11-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition. Peaks in submissions for testing, and visitations to the Government HeV website, were associated with reported equine incidents. Significantly differing between-year HeV detection rates in north and south Queensland suggest a fundamental difference in risk exposure between the two regions. The statistical association between HeV detection and stockhorse type may suggest that husbandry is a more important risk determinant than breed per se. The detection of HeV in horses with neither neurological nor respiratory signs poses a risk management challenge for attending veterinarians and laboratory staff, reinforcing animal health authority recommendations that appropriate risk management strategies be employed for all sick horses, and by anyone handling sick horses or associated biological samples.

  6. IgA Nephropathy: A Twenty Year Retrospective Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a common glomerular disease whose etiology is unknown. Previous studies have described the clinical and laboratory features but none have specifically compared patients during different time periods. This 20 year retrospective study was performed to assess trends in the severity of IgAN from 1989–2008. We reviewed 57 patient charts that contained a confirmed biopsy diagnosis of IgAN and recorded data at the time of diagnosis and the final follow-up appointment. Clinical data included physical examination, urine, and blood tests. Patients were separated into two cohorts, Cohort 1 1989–1998 and Cohort 2 1999–2008. An increase in severity was noted in Cohort 2 based on a significantly higher Up/c and lower serum albumin level. Other prognostic indicators including GFRe, hematocrit, and glomerular injury score also demonstrated a trend towards more severe disease over the past 20 years. The patients in both Cohorts received similar treatments and had comparable renal function at the last follow-up visit. Based on our findings, we suggest that although a kidney biopsy is required to diagnose IgAN, the procedure may not be necessary in patients clinically suspected of having the disease but who have normal kidney function and minimal urine abnormalities.

  7. Twenty years of biliopancreatic diversion: what is the goal of the surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Simon; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Lebel, Stéfane; Marceau, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Simard, Serge; Marceau, Picard

    2004-02-01

    Comparative evaluation of weight loss after bariatric surgery is difficult without definition of success and without a norm for presenting results. We explored the pertinence of defining success: a residual BMI success which would be shared by patients themselves. Presented globally, after a mean follow-up of 7.9 +/- 4.2 years, BMI decreased from 48.4 +/- 9.4 to 31.3 +/- 6.5, and only 10% and 26% of patients would have been considered failures with a residual BMI >or= 40 or >or= 35 respectively. Because heavier patients were losing less in terms of percentage ( P rate doubling every 5 years and a very high failure-rate in heavier patients. The landmarks of BMI 40 and 35 were the same unconsciously used by patients to express their own perception of failure. For patients with an initial BMI success at BMI 40 and 35 were realistic, reasonable and coincided with patients' own expectations. Since initial obesity and duration after surgery made so much difference in results, a comparison of different surgical approaches was useless without stratification for both factors together.

  8. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  9. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  10. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  11. Twenty-one year old female with an iris tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)

  12. Twenty Years of One Astronomy Teacher Professional Development - The EXES Teacher Associate Program at UT Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Sneden, Chris; Lacy, John; Richter, Matthew J.; EXES Teacher Associates

    2018-01-01

    The Astronomy Department and McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin has and continues to offer a suite of different astronomy based K-12 teacher professional development programs. One of our longest running, and most successful programs, is reaching its 20th anniversary, the EXES Teacher Associate Program, which was started in 1998. The EXES Teacher Associate program features sustained and continued professional development opportunities for K-12 science and math educators. It consists of 6 times per year day-long meetings, coupled with other professional development opportunities provided at various times. In total, there are approximately 30 active members of the group currently, but more than 90 teachers have participated in this group over its 20 year history. The program has had astronomy education as its focus throughout its history, but different partnerships and collaborations with other programs have supported the group and have allowed for a variety of professional development opportunities and themes for educators to engage in. We will give an overview of this program, present evaluation data and teacher feedback related to program success and student impact, and highlight a few specific program opportunities that are unique and have been shown to be most impactful for participants.

  13. Merger and Acquisition in the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szewczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents situation on mergers and acquisitions (MA in banking sector during last twenty years. The main motives are selected and analyzed. All is explained on the base on research reports of the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank.

  14. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  15. One Fungus = One Name: DNA and fungal nomenclature twenty years after PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John W

    2011-12-01

    Some fungi with pleomorphic life-cycles still bear two names despite more than 20 years of molecular phylogenetics that have shown how to merge the two systems of classification, the asexual "Deuteromycota" and the sexual "Eumycota". Mycologists have begun to flout nomenclatorial regulations and use just one name for one fungus. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) must change to accommodate current practice or become irrelevant. The fundamental difference in the size of fungi and plants had a role in the origin of dual nomenclature and continues to hinder the development of an ICBN that fully accommodates microscopic fungi. A nomenclatorial crisis also looms due to environmental sequencing, which suggests that most fungi will have to be named without a physical specimen. Mycology may need to break from the ICBN and create a MycoCode to account for fungi known only from environmental nucleic acid sequence (i.e. ENAS fungi).

  16. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  18. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  19. [Infective endocarditis. Systematic review of twenty years of performances in the Sociedad Argentina de Medicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Yorio; Milian Andrés, Escudero; Luis, Camera

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. There have been very few studies published about IE in Argentina. We reviewed all the studies about IE published in the Argentine Medicine Society from 1980 to 2003 and we analyzed demographic, clinical and bacteriological data. 27 studies with 628 patients were included. Mean age of patients was 50.7 years old. The most frequent clinical data were fever, murmur and elevated sedimentation rate. Stafilococcus spp was the most common causative organism, followed by streptococcus spp. The echocardiographic demonstration allowed the definitive diagnosis in 2/3 of the patients. The IE data of Argentina are not different from other data published in different countries and this study shows some clinical features of IE in Argentina.

  20. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tide: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.

    2013-09-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise-tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the sub-mesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  1. Twenty years of work-related injury and illness among union carpenters in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amanda J; Kucera, Kristen L; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Silverstein, Barbara A; Lipscomb, Hester J

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who work in the construction industry are at high risk of occupational injury. Robust surveillance systems are needed to monitor the experiences of these workers over time. We updated important surveillance data for a unique occupational cohort of union construction workers to provide information on long-term trends in their reported work-related injuries and conditions. Combining administrative data sources, we identified a dynamic cohort of union carpenters who worked in Washington State from 1989 through 2008, their hours worked by month, and their workers' compensation claims. Incidence rates of reported work-related injuries and illnesses were examined. Poisson regression was used to assess risk by categories of age, gender, time in the union, and calendar time contrasting medical only and paid lost time claims. Over the 20-year study period, 24,830 carpenters worked 192.4 million work hours. Work-related injuries resulting in medical care or paid lost time (PLT) from work occurred at a rate of 24.3 per 200,000 hr worked (95% CI: 23.5-25.0). Medical only claims declined 62% and PLT claims declined 77%; more substantive declines were seen for injuries resulting from being struck and falls to a lower level than from overexertion with lifting. Differences in risk based on union tenure and age diminished over time as well. Significant declines in rates of reported work-related injuries and illnesses were observed over the 20-year period among these union carpenters. Greater declines were observed among workers with less union tenure and for claims resulting in PLT. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Twenty-year trends in cardiovascular risk factors in India and influence of educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Gupta, V P; Agrawal, Aachu; Gaur, Kiran; Deedwania, Prakash C

    2012-12-01

    Urban middle-socioeconomic status (SES) subjects have high burden of cardiovascular risk factors in low-income countries. To determine secular trends in risk factors among this population and to correlate risks with educational status we performed epidemiological studies in India. Five cross-sectional studies were performed in middle-SES urban locations in Jaipur, India from years 1992 to 2010. Cluster sampling was performed. Subjects (men, women) aged 20-59 years evaluated were 712 (459, 253) in 1992-94, 558 (286, 272) in 1999-2001, 374 (179, 195) in 2002-03, 887 (414, 473) in 2004-05, and 530 (324, 206) in 2009-10. Data were obtained by history, anthropometry, and fasting blood glucose and lipids estimation. Response rates varied from 55 to 75%. Mean values and risk factor prevalence were determined. Secular trends were identified using quadratic and log-linear regression and chi-squared for trend. Across the studies, there was high prevalence of overweight, hypertension, and lipid abnormalities. Age- and sex-adjusted trends showed significant increases in mean body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (quadratic and log-linear regression, p trends showed increase in overweight and decrease in smoking (p trends in BMI and total and LDL cholesterol and accentuated trends in systolic BP, glucose, and HDL cholesterol. There was significant association of an increase in education with decline in smoking and an increase in overweight (two-line regression p trends for systolic BP, glucose and HDL cholesterol, and BMI.

  3. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  4. Twenty-year trends in benzodiazepine dispensing in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Conigrave, K M; Day, C A; Nguyen, Y; Haber, P S

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concern has been expressed about overprescribing of benzodiazepines and related harms. Past analyses have relied on World Health Organization-defined daily doses (DDD) which are sometimes out of keeping with clinical usage. This study examines 20-year (1992-2011) trends of benzodiazepine dispensing in Australia using both DDD and Ashton equivalent dose. Data from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) website were analysed. Trends in number of prescriptions, DDD/1000 people/day and DDD/prescription were examined over time, and between states/territories. In the 20-year period, 174 080 904 scripts were recorded, with temazepam the most dispensed benzodiazepine (35% of scripts), followed by diazepam (23%). Overall recorded utilisation fell from 27.7 DDD/1000 people/day in 1992 to 20.8 in 2011 (24.9% decrease). There were striking changes in use of individual benzodiazepines over time, with reductions in oxazepam and flunitrazepam and dramatic increases in alprazolam. Since 1998, there has been a steady increase, albeit modest, in per script DDD. The DDD/1000 people/day for items dispensed through PBS/Repatriaton-PBS was highest in Tasmania and lowest in Northern Territory. Despite a modest overall decline in the amount of benzodiazepine dispensed, the level of use is still likely to reflect relative over-prescribing given the paucity of accepted indications for long-term use. Since 1998, there was a polynomial increase in quantity dispensed per script. The WHO-defined DDD for clonazepam seems inappropriate and could impede monitoring of its abuse. Other problems include lack of national data for medications not subsidised on PBS/Repatriation PBS. A broad policy approach is required, not one which targets only one particular benzodiazepine. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Twenty years (1990-2010) of geodetic monitoring of Galeras volcano (Colombia) from continuous tilt measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez Medina, Lourdes; Arcos, Darío F.; Battaglia, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Galeras - an andesitic stratovolcano part of the Galeras Volcanic Complex - is one of the most active volcanoes in Colombia. Historic activity is centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest amphitheater, which breaches the west flank of the volcano. At least 30 confirmed eruption periods have been recorded in the past 480 years, with episodes of unrest ranging from weak fumarolic activity and ash emissions to larger explosive events. The most recent eruption periods, recorded instrumentally since 1988, have been characterized by minor explosive eruptions, and the emplacement of three crater domes and small pyroclastic flow deposits. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of volcanic activity using a 20-year-long record of tilt measurements. In particular, we focus on three episodes of unrest occurred in 1991, 2006 and 2008, when the deformation was clearly associated with shallow magma intrusions, and the emplacement and destruction of crater domes. The depth of the intrusions varied from a few hundred meters (August 2005) to two kilometers (January 2009), while the volume change ranged from 104 m3 (May-October 2009) to 106 m3 (January 2009). A comparison with seismic data indicates that the deformation sources were located within the cloud of hypocenters of the volcano-tectonic events. The lack of a clear correlation between the volume change (and depth) of the sources and the total SO2 flux could indicate that the unrest at Galeras was related to a larger intrusive event with only a small part of the magma erupted in the form of tephra and lava domes.

  6. Twenty year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähl, Philippe; Cliquet, Florence; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel; Fournials, Emma; Saint-Jean, Nathalie; Aubert, Michel; Rupprecht, Charles E; Gueguen, Sylvie

    2014-08-10

    The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates. The efficacy of SAG2 baits was demonstrated according to the EU requirements for the red fox and raccoon dog. The use of safe and potent rabies vaccines such as SAG2 largely contributed to the elimination of rabies in Estonia, France, Italy and Switzerland. Importantly, these countries were declared free of rabies after few years of oral vaccination campaigns with SAG2 baits distributed with an appropriate strategy. The excellent tolerance of the SAG2 vaccine has been confirmed in the field since its first use in 1993. No safety issues have been reported, and in particular no vaccine-induced rabies cases were diagnosed, after the distribution of more than 20 million SAG2 baits in Europe.

  7. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  8. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of three antiepileptic drugs - Back on twenty years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serragui, Samira; Zalagh, Fatima; Tanani, Driss Soussi; Ouammi, Lahcen; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Badrane, Narjis; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs is a tool widely used in the management of epilepsy. In Morocco, this monitoring is carried out by the Centre Anti Poison et Pharmacovigilance (CAPM) since April 1995. This is a retrospective study spanning 20 years. It concerns the therapeutic drug monitoring of Phenobarbital (PB) of carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA). Therapeutic drug monitoring of the 3 antiepileptic drugs represent 58.85% of all applications received by the CAPM. The dosage of PB was ranked first followed by that of CBZ and finally by the VPA. Weak demand for therapeutic drug monitoring in Morocco could be explained by the low number of neurologists in addition to social factors. With its affordable price by patients, PB is the most prescribed antiepileptic drug in our country, which explains the high demand for its dosage. As for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antiepileptic drug, they were mainly related to age, the occurrence of adverse effects, the association antiepileptic drugs or in the case of verification of patient compliance. Efforts are required for promoting the interests of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drug in the management of epilepsy in Morocco.

  9. Twenty-Year Survival in Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Molecular Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperduto, Christina Maria; Chakravarti, Arnab; Aldape, Ken; Burger, Peter; Papermaster, Gail Bender; Sperduto, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma (GB) remains grim. Historically, the median survival has been 6 to 9 months. Recent research has improved the outcome slightly. A computer search of the literature reveals few long-term survivors. Method: Presented here is a case report of a 20-year survivor of GB, with pathologic review to confirm the diagnosis. A battery of molecular studies was performed to develop a molecular profile of this unique patient. Results: The results of the molecular genetic testing for this most unusual patient were as follows: (1) methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT) was methylated, (2) p53 positive, (3) PTEN tumor suppressor gene positive, (4) protein kinase AKT (pAKT) negative, and (5) epidermal growth factor receptor negative. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the longest survival of any patient in the literature whose initial diagnosis was GB. Triple-positive GBM patients (MGMT methylated, PTEN, and p53 positive) are uncommon but may be associated with a better prognosis. Further research is needed to confirm whether this molecular profile is prognostic of prolonged survival. Molecular genetics will determine future treatment and prognosis in GB.

  10. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event

  11. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  12. Twenty-four Years of Follow-Up for a Hanford Plutonium Wound Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Medina-Del Valle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    A 1985 plutonium puncture wound resulted in the initial deposition of 48 kBq of transuranic alpha activity, primarily 239Pu and 241Am, in a worker's right index finger. Surgical excisions in the week following reduced the long-term residual wound activity to 5.4 kBq, and 164 DTPA chelation therapy administrations over a 17-month period resulted in urinary excretion of about 7 kBq. The case was published in 1988, but now 20 additional years of follow-up data are available. Annual bioassay measurements have included wound counts, skeleton counts, liver counts, lung counts, axillary lymph node counts, and urinalyses for plutonium and 241Am. These measurements have shown relatively stable levels of 241Am at the wound site, with gradually increasing amounts of 241Am detected in the skeleton. Liver counts has shown erratic detection of 241Am, and lung counts indicate 241Am as shine from the axillary lymph nodes and skeleton. Urine excretion of 239Pu since termination of chelation therapy has typically ranged from 10 to 20 mBq d-1, with 241Am excretion being about 10% of that for 239Pu. In addition, the worker has undergone annual routine medical exams, which have not identified any adverse health effects associated with the intake.

  13. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

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    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  14. HPA axis dysregulation in adult adoptees twenty years after severe institutional deprivation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Golm, Dennis; Moser, Dirk; Kennedy, Mark; Knights, Nicky; Kreppner, Jana; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2017-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is disrupted in institutionally-deprived children - reduced morning cortisol, flattened diurnal slope and blunted reactivity persist even after successful adoption into positive family environments. Here we test whether such effects persist into adulthood. Cortisol release across the day (sampled at awakening, 30 and 45min later, and at four points across the day) was investigated in young adult adoptees who had lived in severe deprivation for up to 43 months in early childhood in Ceaușescu's Romanian orphanages and a comparison group of non-deprived UK adoptees (Total N=57; mean age=24±0.9years). The mediating role of cortisol levels on adult mental health was examined using data from standardized clinical assessments. Cortisol profiles were disrupted in the Romanian adoptees who experienced more than 6 months deprivation marked by a striking absence of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and a significantly flatter cortisol curve until 1h 15min after awakening. Whereas institutional deprivation was associated with both cortisol secretion and emergence of emotional problems in young adulthood, path analysis revealed no evidence for a mediating role of CAR disruption in the sub-sample studied here. The results are in line with findings of HPA axis hypo-functionality following early adverse experience and provide strong evidence for long-term programming effects of HPA axis function through experience of institutional deprivation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  16. Twenty-five years of change in southern African passerine diversity: nonclimatic factors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Guillaume; Altwegg, Res

    2015-09-01

    We analysed more than 25 years of change in passerine bird distribution in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, to show that species distributions can be influenced by processes that are at least in part independent of the local strength and direction of climate change: land use and ecological succession. We used occupancy models that separate species' detection from species' occupancy probability, fitted to citizen science data from both phases of the Southern African Bird Atlas Project (1987-1996 and 2007-2013). Temporal trends in species' occupancy probability were interpreted in terms of local extinction/colonization, and temporal trends in detection probability were interpreted in terms of change in abundance. We found for the first time at this scale that, as predicted in the context of bush encroachment, closed-savannah specialists increased where open-savannah specialists decreased. In addition, the trend in the abundance of species a priori thought to be favoured by agricultural conversion was negatively correlated with human population density, which is in line with hypotheses explaining the decline in farmland birds in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition to climate, vegetation cover and the intensity and time since agricultural conversion constitute important predictors of biodiversity changes in the region. Their inclusion will improve the reliability of predictive models of species distribution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  18. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary

  19. Conjoined twins: twenty years' experience at a reference center in Brazil

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    Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study reports on the experience of one hospital regarding the surgical aspects, anatomic investigation and outcomes of the management of 21 conjoined twin pairs over the past 20 years. METHODS: All cases of conjoined twins who were treated during this period were reviewed. A careful imaging evaluation was performed to detail the abdominal anatomy (particularly the liver, inferior vena cava, spleen and pancreas, either to identify the number of organs or to evaluate the degree of organ sharing. RESULTS: There were eight sets of ischiopagus twins, seven sets of thoracopagus twins, three sets of omphalopagus twins, two sets of thoraco-omphalo-ischiopagus twins and one set of craniopagus twins. Nine pairs of conjoined twins could not be separated due to the complexity of the organs (mainly the liver and heart that were shared by both twins; these pairs included one set of ischiopagus twins, six sets of thoracopagus twins and one set of thoraco-omphalo-ischiopagus twins. Twelve sets were separated, including seven sets of ischiopagus twins, three sets of omphalopagus twins, one set of thoracopagus twins and one set of craniopagus conjoined twins. The abdominal wall was closed in the majority of patients with the use of mesh instead of the earlier method of using tissue expanders. The surgical survival rate was 66.7%, and one pair of twins who did not undergo separation is currently alive. CONCLUSION: A detailed anatomic study of the twins and surgical planning must precede separation. A well-prepared pediatric surgery team is sufficient to surgically manage conjoined twins.

  20. X-linked agammaglobulinemia: Twenty years of single-center experience from North West India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjit; Rawat, Amit; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Garg, Ravinder; Saikia, Biman; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Sehgal, Shobha; Chan, Koon-Wing; Lau, Yu Lung; Kamae, Chikako; Honma, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Oshima, Koichi; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Ohara, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an X-linked genetic defect in maturation of B lymphocytes that results in the absence of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and profound hypogammaglobulinemia. It is caused by a mutation in the BTK gene located on the X chromosome. There are no large series describing XLA from the developing world. To analyze the clinical features, immunologic and genetic characteristics, and outcomes of 36 patients with XLA diagnosed and managed for a period of 2 decades. Diagnosis of XLA was made on the basis of presence of BTK gene mutation or marked reduction of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood with a family history of an affected male relative. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic mutation studies in 28 patients with 25 unique mutations in the BTK gene. There was a significant delay in diagnosis in most of the patients. The mean (SD) delay in the diagnosis was 4.2 (3.5) years. Point mutations were the most common mutations detected, accounting for 68% of all mutations. Deletions and insertions were also seen in a few cases. Four of the mutations are novel mutations that have not been previously reported. Seven of the 36 patients (19%) were dead at the time of analysis in the present cohort. The mean survival was 137 months (95% confidence interval, 13-163 months). The present study is perhaps the largest series of patients with XLA from any developing country so far. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: twenty-year experience at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Mingxin; Tamboli, Pheroze; Ro, Jae Y; Park, Dong Soo; Ro, Jung Sil; Amato, Robert J; Ayala, Alberto G

    2002-09-15

    The incidence of testicular carcinoma in the United States has increased significantly over the last two decades. Germ cell tumors form the majority of malignant testicular tumors. With advances in diagnosis and therapeutic approaches, germ cell tumors are now highly sensitive to treatment, providing long-term survival. It has been speculated that the incidence of bilateral germ cell tumors may increase due to the improved survival of patients with unilateral germ cell tumors. In this report, the authors present a study of bilateral germ cell tumors of the testis in men who were treated at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center over a 20-year period with emphasis on their incidence, histologic features, and clinical features. Between 1978 and 1999, 2431 patients with testicular germ cell tumors were treated at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Among these, 24 patients with bilateral germ cell tumors were identified. Clinical records and all available pathology slides of the tumors were reviewed. The overall incidence of bilateral germ cell tumors in the patients with testicular germ cell tumors was 1% (24 of 2431 patients). The incidence was 1.8% (14 of 776 patients) in patients with seminoma and 0.6% (10 of 1655 patients) in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Patients with seminoma who were age presentation in patients with seminoma. Thus, patients in the second or third decade of life who presented with seminomas as their initial tumor were more likely to develop a second germ cell tumor compared with patients in the fourth or fifth decade of life. These findings have potentially important implications for clinical management by identifying a population of patients with germ cell tumors who are at risk of developing a second tumor and also for studying risk factors of bilateral germ cell tumors of the testis. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.

  3. Leibstadt nuclear power station (KKL): The Future after twenty years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenenberger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Switzerland's largest power plant, KKL (1 165 MW BWR), is situated on the Swiss side of the Rhine River, not far from the entry of the Aare River. In 2003, the plant generated some 17% of the electricity consumed in the country. In line with the importance of the plant, it shareholders are all major Swiss power utilities. KKL was connected to the power grid in December 1984. Its construction cost amounted to approx. euro 3 200 million. After some backfitting measures at an expense of approx. euro 200 million, the plant is now in excellent technical shape. Generating costs, which were very high in the beginning, have been greatly reduced in the meantime. This was helped by a decrease of borrowed capital, the favorable development of interest rates and, above all, the rise in annual production. This, in turn, was achieved in various programs increasing plant power, and by shortening the annual revision outages. From the coming year onward, costs could be below Eurocent 3.3/kWh. Also the organization and the staff of te plant are prepared for the future. They have demonstrated their fitness in various national and international reviews. Also the political environment is favorable, by and large. In 2003, the Swiss voting population so clearly rejected the two opt-out initiatives that there has been a lasting positive change in the policy of continuing the operation of existing plants. Also for KKL, the waste management problem is still unsolved. This is due primarily to political reasons. The envisaged repository for low-level waste was rejected in a referendum in 2003. Technically and in its organization, the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Station is ready for the future. The electricity generated at Leibstadt is desired and accepted politically. (orig.)

  4. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  5. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  6. Twenty years of the grey partridge population in the LAJTA Project (Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragó, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lajta Project covers 3,065 ha. Within this area crop cultivation is dominant. Fields are separated from each other by forest belts and tree rows, extending altogether over roughly 120 ha. This habitat structure characterized by cultivation of 12–15 field crops sustained partridge population with densities of 1.75 birds/km2 (1991. The Project started in 1991/1992 and aimed to increase the carrying capacity for grey partridge and other small game species living in the area. A full–time gamekeeper was employed and habitat improvements were initiated. Four years later, the breeding population increased to 10.1 birds/km2. Besides increased numbers of nesting pairs, the number of reared chicks also increased, from 5.1–11.2 individuals/km2 in 1990 to 27.3–38.4 individuals/km2 in 1994. However, field sizes did not change significantly. Although the lengths of field margins increased by approximately 25% (from 82 m/ha to 115 m/ha under the influence of habitat management, they still reached only half those found in the countries of Central Europe where private ownership of land properties is dominant. After the privatisation of fields in 1995 as part of the political change in Hungary —affecting approximately 50% of the project area— the possibilities of habitat improvement decreased, and the technological pressure on large–scale farming area increased. Following these processes the grey partridge population again decreased to 1.43 birds/km2 in 1997. As a result of the new management strategy applied in the project since 1996 we observed a slow increase in the breeding population, which stabilized at around 5 birds/km2, between 2007 and 2009. The August density increased in the same period from 4.5 birds/km2 to 13–17 birds/km2. During the two decades in which this research was conducted, chick mortality and winter mortality were extremely high. The key factors influencing grey partridge population dynamics in our study area seem to be

  7. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  8. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

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    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  9. Twenty Years of AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Perniola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available About two decades ago, cloning of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene materialized one of the most important actors on the scene of self-tolerance. Thymic transcription of genes encoding tissue-specific antigens (ts-ags is activated by AIRE protein and embodies the essence of thymic self-representation. Pathogenic AIRE variants cause the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, which is a rare and complex disease that is gaining attention in research on autoimmunity. The animal models of disease, although not identically reproducing the human picture, supply fundamental information on mechanisms and extent of AIRE action: thanks to its multidomain structure, AIRE localizes to chromatin enclosing the target genes, binds to histones, and offers an anchorage to multimolecular complexes involved in initiation and post-initiation events of gene transcription. In addition, AIRE enhances mRNA diversity by favoring alternative mRNA splicing. Once synthesized, ts-ags are presented to, and cause deletion of the self-reactive thymocyte clones. However, AIRE function is not restricted to the activation of gene transcription. AIRE would control presentation and transfer of self-antigens for thymic cellular interplay: such mechanism is aimed at increasing the likelihood of engagement of the thymocytes that carry the corresponding T-cell receptors. Another fundamental role of AIRE in promoting self-tolerance is related to the development of thymocyte anergy, as thymic self-representation shapes at the same time the repertoire of regulatory T cells. Finally, AIRE seems to replicate its action in the secondary lymphoid organs, albeit the cell lineage detaining such property has not been fully characterized. Delineation of AIRE functions adds interesting data to the knowledge of the mechanisms of self-tolerance and introduces exciting perspectives of therapeutic interventions against the related diseases.

  10. Twenty years of publishing and editorial activities of the Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes (UVVVR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peknice, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The publishing and editorial activities are reviewed of the Institute for the Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes during the past twenty years. In 1959 it was decided to start the publishing of the bulletin RADIOISOTOPY which, at first, appeared occasionaly and later as a periodical (bimonthly). The diversity of contributions led to the creation of two further specialized non-series periodical SBORNIK PRACI Z OBLASTI JADERNE VEDY A TECHNIKY and UVVVR REPORTS (the latter in English). All these titles are sponsored by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. The paper contains further a number of tables illustrating the publishing activities, number of authors and subscribers, exchange with foreign institutions, detailed instructions for authors, a number of valuable conversion tables and references to a choice of literature useful for editorial and publishing work. (author)

  11. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  12. Muiris O’Sullivan’s “New Storytelling”: The Art of Twenty Years A-Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Shea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its publication in 1933, Muiris O’Sullivan’s Fiche Blian ag Fás (Twenty Years A-Growing has been limited and distorted by critics who view the memoir through a lens shaped by prior assessments of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s earlier Blasket autobiography, An tOileánach (The Islandman. Muiris Mac Conghail voices the standard perspective when he states, “It was the publication of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s An tOileánach, in 1929, which both acted as an incentive and provided an exemplar to Muiris” (150. O’Crohan’s autobiography certainly inspired O’Sullivan; however, Muiris’s more literary sensibility set him on his own inscriptive journey during which he creates a new type of narrative, one which creatively interweaves oral traditions with the contours of the novel. As we investigate what Pádraig Ó Fiannachta terms the author’s nua scéalaíocht, or “new storytelling” techniques, we can more fully appreciate O’Sullivan’s subtle dexterities as both traditional storyteller and novelistic craftsman.

  13. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  14. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post

  15. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era. PMID:26313548

  16. Twenty Years of Regional Safeguards: the ABACC System and the Synergy with the National Nuclear Material Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Palhares, Lilia C.; De Mello, Luiz A.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Maceiras, Elena; Terigi, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    As result of the nuclear integration between Brazil and Argentina, in July 1991 the Agreement for Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy (Bilateral Agreement) was signed and the Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accountancy and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) was created [1]. The main role assigned to ABACC was the implementation and administration of the regional control system and the coordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in all nuclear activities of Argentina and Brazil. In December 1991 the IAEA, ABACC, Argentina and Brazil signed the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435) [2]. The agreement establishes obligations similar to those established by model INFCIRC/153 comprehensive agreements. The Bilateral Agreement establishes that the Parties should make available financial and technical capabilities to support ABACC activities. In order to accomplish this challenge, the National Systems had to improve their structure and capabilities. Through the close interaction with the IAEA and ABACC, the national systems have been enriched by adopting new methodologies, implementing innovative safeguards approaches and providing specialized training to the regional inspectors. All of this also resulted in relevant technical improvements to the regional system as a whole. The approach of both neighborhoods controlling each other increased the confidence between the partners and permitted a better knowledge of their potentialities. The recognized performance of the regional system in the implementation of innovative, efficient and credible safeguards measures increased the confidence of the international community on the implementation of nuclear safeguards in Argentina and Brazil. In this paper, after twenty years of the creation of the ABACC System, the view of the Brazilian and Argentine National Authorities is presented. (authors)

  17. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  18. [Hygiene issues in polish academic centres of the period of twenty years of Poland's independence after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszke, M; Jeszke, J

    1997-01-01

    Within the discipline as such, among Polish scientists of the period of twenty years of independence after the World War I, there was no agreement as to the understanding of the area of hygiene interests and as to the role of it. On one poend it was placed a concept of hygiene as the remedy towards the basic sanitary inadvertences, covering only narrow segments of relationship between the organism condition and individual environment elements of positive or negative importance for health. This depiction was bringing a hygienist closer to such disciplines as physiology, pathophysiology, toxicology, bacteriology etc., it imposed typically natural point of view and research workshop. On the second end the issue of health has been considered within the broad social and cultural context. In such a meaning hygiene goes beyond the narrow concept of medicine, since the latter has not been able to replace the shortages of civilisation and it has not been interested in issues of cultural adaptation of desired sanitary behaviour. As a matter of fact, both views have been excluding each other, adopting different and "incommensurate" visions of the "world and human being" as well as methodological depictions. In the time under discussion, within Polish territories, a thesis, that individual health has a social dimension, makes a considerable economic value, decides on the defence abilities of state, so it is in the interest of the whole society the care for health of all members of society - was still having virtues of uniqueness. It was going like that despite earlier activity of many outstanding Polish hygienists, giving fruits both in information campaigns planned on a wide scale and civilisation experiments. ...

  19. 'Twenty-five years after Chernobyl accident: Safety for the future'. 2011 National report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shindo, Mahito

    2016-02-01

    This is the Japanese translation of the Ukrainian National Report 'Twenty-five Years after Chernobyl Accident: Safety for the Future', published by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies in 2011 (in Ukrainian and English). This Japanese translation is published as an outcome of the KAKENHI research project on liquidations of Nuclear Disasters in the World (headed by Tetsuji Imanaka), in which Shindo participates, and as a KUR report of the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University. The objective of publishing this Japanese translation is to provide basic information on how to overcome the consequences of a large-scale Nuclear Disaster for the wide range of public, including decision-makers and administrative staff. By doing so, this publication aims at invigorating discussions over measures to be applied for overcoming the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster (started in 11th March 2011 at Fukushima), and at forming proper schemes to minimise the consequences on current and future generations. The original text of this translation tightly summarised the whole picture of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, which had been the only large-scale Nuclear Disaster until 11th March 2011. More importantly, it describes all sorts of measures and schemes taken in Ukraine from 1986 to 2011 in order to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, in a quite well structured manner. In other words, from the contents of this text, Japanese readers are able to learn a lot about the very problems currently facing with. Therefore, I wish many Japanese readers will read this text, and utilise the knowledge written here effectively to overcome the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster. (J.P.N.)

  20. Twenty years of high-resolution sea surface temperature imagery around Australia: inter-annual and annual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Scott D; Griffin, David A; Dunstan, Piers K

    2014-01-01

    The physical climate defines a significant portion of the habitats in which biological communities and species reside. It is important to quantify these environmental conditions, and how they have changed, as this will inform future efforts to study many natural systems. In this article, we present the results of a statistical summary of the variability in sea surface temperature (SST) time-series data for the waters surrounding Australia, from 1993 to 2013. We partition variation in the SST series into annual trends, inter-annual trends, and a number of components of random variation. We utilise satellite data and validate the statistical summary from these data to summaries of data from long-term monitoring stations and from the global drifter program. The spatially dense results, available as maps from the Australian Oceanographic Data Network's data portal (http://www.cmar.csiro.au/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show?id=51805), show clear trends that associate with oceanographic features. Noteworthy oceanographic features include: average warming was greatest off southern West Australia and off eastern Tasmania, where the warming was around 0.6°C per decade for a twenty year study period, and insubstantial warming in areas dominated by the East Australian Current, but this area did exhibit high levels of inter-annual variability (long-term trend increases and decreases but does not increase on average). The results of the analyses can be directly incorporated into (biogeographic) models that explain variation in biological data where both biological and environmental data are on a fine scale.

  1. Twenty years of high-resolution sea surface temperature imagery around Australia: inter-annual and annual variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Foster

    Full Text Available The physical climate defines a significant portion of the habitats in which biological communities and species reside. It is important to quantify these environmental conditions, and how they have changed, as this will inform future efforts to study many natural systems. In this article, we present the results of a statistical summary of the variability in sea surface temperature (SST time-series data for the waters surrounding Australia, from 1993 to 2013. We partition variation in the SST series into annual trends, inter-annual trends, and a number of components of random variation. We utilise satellite data and validate the statistical summary from these data to summaries of data from long-term monitoring stations and from the global drifter program. The spatially dense results, available as maps from the Australian Oceanographic Data Network's data portal (http://www.cmar.csiro.au/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show?id=51805, show clear trends that associate with oceanographic features. Noteworthy oceanographic features include: average warming was greatest off southern West Australia and off eastern Tasmania, where the warming was around 0.6°C per decade for a twenty year study period, and insubstantial warming in areas dominated by the East Australian Current, but this area did exhibit high levels of inter-annual variability (long-term trend increases and decreases but does not increase on average. The results of the analyses can be directly incorporated into (biogeographic models that explain variation in biological data where both biological and environmental data are on a fine scale.

  2. Twenty years of DENV-2 activity in Brazil: molecular characterization and phylogeny of strains isolated from 1990 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieli Rodrigues da Costa Faria

    Full Text Available In Brazil, dengue has been a major public health problem since its introduction in the 1980s. Phylogenetic studies constitute a valuable tool to monitor the introduction and spread of viruses as well as to predict the potential epidemiological consequences of such events. Aiming to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of DENV-2 during twenty years of viral activity in the country, viral strains isolated from patients presenting different disease manifestations (n = 34, representing six states of the country, from 1990 to 2010, were sequenced. Partial genome sequencing (genes C/prM/M/E was performed in 25 DENV-2 strains and full-length genome sequencing (coding region was performed in 9 strains. The percentage of similarity among the DENV-2 strains in this study and reference strains available in Genbank identified two groups epidemiologically distinct: one represented by strains isolated from 1990 to 2003 and one from strains isolated from 2007 to 2010. No consistent differences were observed on the E gene from strains isolated from cases with different clinical manifestations analyzed, suggesting that if the disease severity has a genetic origin, it is not only due to the differences observed on the E gene. The results obtained by the DENV-2 full-length genome sequencing did not point out consistent differences related to a more severe disease either. The analysis based on the partial and/or complete genome sequencing has characterized the Brazilian DENV-2 strains as belonging to the Southeast Asian genotype, however a distinction of two Lineages within this genotype has been identified. It was established that strains circulating prior DENV-2 emergence (1990-2003 belong to Southeast Asian genotype, Lineage I and strains isolated after DENV-2 emergence in 2007 belong to Southeast Asian genotype, Lineage II. Furthermore, all DENV-2 strains analyzed presented an asparagine (N in E390, previously identified as a

  3. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  5. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Twenty-Plus Years Later: How an Arts Approach to Teaching and Learning Can Keep the Dream Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarther, Shirley Marie; Davis, Donna M.

    2017-01-01

    Gloria Ladson-Billings' (1995) ground-breaking work around the theory of culturally relevant pedagogy has shaped the discourse in schools and education programs for over twenty years. Her belief that schools should be places where students and teachers come together to have meaningful educational experiences has provided a foundation for…

  6. Review: Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2014, ISBN 9781868147632, 380 pp.

  7. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  8. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  9. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  10. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  11. Effects of 10-year management regimes on the soil seed bank in saline-alkaline grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyuan; Yang, Haoyu; Liang, Zhengwei; Ooi, Mark K J

    2015-01-01

    Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis. We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties. Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate), alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and AP (available phosphorus). Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target species L. chinensis. This approach could be

  12. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  13. Implications of sperm banking for health-related quality of life up to 1 year after cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A; Merrick, H; Arden-Close, E; Morris, K; Rowe, R; Stark, D; Eiser, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sperm banking is recommended for all men diagnosed with cancer where treatment is associated with risk of long-term gonadatoxicity, to offer the opportunity of fatherhood and improved quality of life. However, uptake of sperm banking is lower than expected and little is known about why men refuse. Our aims were to determine: (i) demographic and medical variables associated with decisions about banking and (ii) differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers at diagnosis (Time 1 (T1)) and 1 year later (Time 2 (T2)). Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 91 men (response rate=86.67%) at T1 and 78 (85.71% response rate) at T2. Results: In all, 44 (56.41%) banked sperm. They were younger and less likely to have children than non-bankers. In a subset of men who were not sure if they wanted children in the future (n=36), 24 banked sperm. Among this group, those who banked were younger, more satisfied with clinic appointments and less worried about the health of future children. At T2, there were no differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers. Conclusion: For those who are uncertain about future reproductive plans, decisions depend on their health on diagnosis and satisfaction with clinic care. We conclude that extra care should be taken in counselling younger men who may have given little consideration to future parenting. Results support previous findings that the role of the doctor is vital in facilitating decisions, especially for those who are undecided about whether they wanted children in the future or not. PMID:23470465

  14. [Second Pneumothorax in an Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Patient Initially Treated by Bullaectomy Twenty-two Years Ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yamato; Ueda, Shinsaku; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    A 2nd pneumothorax developed in a 40-years-old man after his 1st bilateral pneumothoraces were successfully treated by bullaectomies 22 years ago. For the past 10 years, he has suffered major complications such as repeated bleeding into the digestive tract due to vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). Although preoperative computed tomography demonstrated multiple bullae at the apex of the right lung, any abnormal findings suggesting tissue fragility was not found. At surgery, visceral pleura of the right lung had an almost normal appearance through a thoracoscope. However, we found that gentle touch with soft surgical equipment resulted in serious pleural damage leading to new air leakage. Our case suggests a progressive fragility of the lung in a vEDS patient, and a less invasive pleural covering technique would therefore be preferable when major complications become evident, despite previous successful bullaectomy.

  15. Training medical students in health promotion: twenty years of experience at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases, the work of medical doctors, be they general practitioners or specialists, involves some dimension of health promotion (HP. There is thus ample justification for increasing the awareness of medical students vis-à-vis HP and its relevance for their future practice.Methods: In the context of a major curriculum reform (problem-based learning [PBL] at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva in the mid-1990s, several steps were taken to strengthen HP throughout the curriculum and include HP in its key domains as defined by the Ottawa Charter (OC.Results: First, the political dimension of HP was developed in a series of first- and fifth-year lectures and third-year workshops; second, community action was strengthened through a third year one-month community immersion program; third, the development of personal skills was integrated into second- and third-year PBL cases and into fourth-and fifth-year learning activities in clinical settings as well as second- and third-year HP electives; in terms of reorienting health services, the chosen approach included the development of a HP-specific track in the context of a Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS in Community Health and a Master of Advanced Studies(MAS in Public Health. Furthermore, a supportive intra-university environment was created through a collaborative convention with Health Promotion Switzerland, which is in charge of coordinating HP in Switzerland.Conclusion: In our view, HP teaching for medical students seems all the more relevant given that future medical doctors will have to take care of an increasing number of patients likely to develop chronic non-communicable diseases.

  16. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short......, and they were also not quantitatively different from the controls. CONCLUSION: After NMO of 22-year duration, metabolic changes, altered diffusivity and magnetic resonance relaxation features of patchy brain areas may suggest tissue damage in NAWM that persist for at least 6 months....

  17. Twenty years of research on fungal-plant interactions on Lyman Glacier forefront—lessons learned and questions yet unanswered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari Jumpponen; Shawn P. Brown; James M. Trappe; Efrén Cázares; Rauni. Strömmer

    2012-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and the periglacial areas that they vacate produce a harsh environment of extreme radiation, nutrient limitations and temperature oscillations. They provide a model system for studying mechanisms that drive the establishment and early assembly of communities. Here, we synthesize more than 20 years of research at the Lyman Glacier forefront in the...

  18. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  19. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  20. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  1. Twenty-two years of HIV-related consultations in Dutch general practice: a dynamic cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.; Dorsman, S.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Broek, I. van den; Bergen, J. van

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the role of general practitioners (GPs) in HIV counselling and testing over a 22-year period. Design: A dynamic cohort study. Setting: General practices (N=42) participating in the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network at Nivel with a nationally representative patient

  2. Twenty-three-year trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa (1993-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Banwari

    2018-04-01

    Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes. Of these, 3935 (14.2%) deaths were related to firearm injuries. The average gunshot death rate during the study period was 29/100,000 of the population annually. The majority (3236; 82%) were males, among whom the death rate was 24.4/100,000 of the population per year. The rate of gunshot deaths was 27/100,000 of the population in 1993, while in 2015 it was 12.8/100,000. About a third (1207; 31%) of victims were between 21 and 30 years of age. Conclusion The gunshot death rate is at an unacceptably high level in the Transkei subregion of South Africa, especially among young people.

  3. Sustaining Change: Successes, Challenges, and Lessons Learned from Twenty Years of Empowering Students through Community-Based Learning Capstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Seanna M.

    2015-01-01

    More than four thousand students engage in the community-based learning capstone program every year by enrolling in one of 240 senior-level courses that culminate their undergraduate education. In this article, the author shares the context and history of the program, its foundational principles and processes, and the nuts-and-bolts details of the…

  4. Twenty years of socio-economic inequalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in Spain, 1987-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espelt, Albert; Kunst, Anton E.; Palència, Laia; Gnavi, Roberto; Borrell, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Background: To analyse trends in socio-economic inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes among men and women aged epsilon 35 years in Spain during the period 1987-2006. Methods: We analysed trends in the age-standardized prevalence of self-reported diabetes and obesity in relation to level of

  5. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  6. Twenty-year growth of thinned and unthinned ponderosa pine in the Methow Valley of northern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Barrett

    1981-01-01

    Diameter, height and volume growth, and yield of thinned and unthinned plots are given for a suppressed, 47-year-old stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Methow Valley of northern Washington that averaged about 3 inches in diameter and 23 feet tall before thinning. Considerations are discussed for choosing tree spacing...

  7. Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease Among Middle Aged Men in Prague: Twenty-year Follow-up Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Hrach, Karel; Tomečková, Marie; Bultas, J.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2006), s. 86-93 ISSN 0021-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B107 Keywords : primary prevention study * atherosclerosis * cardiovascular diseases * coronary artery disease * Framingham risk function * mortality * risk factors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2006

  8. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking. PMID:27709856

  9. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Lim; Cho, Jung Yoon; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Eun Young; Park, Sung Ae; Kim, In Young; Choi, Yong Sung; Bae, Chong Woo; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking.

  10. The past and future of U.S. prison policy. Twenty-five years after the Stanford prison experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, C; Zimbardo, P

    1998-07-01

    In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals drawn from this and related studies on the power of social situations and institutional settings that can be applied to the current crisis in American corrections.

  11. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis; Michelsen, Anders; Ľuptáčik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group o...

  12. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  13. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Montoliu, Alexandra; Marín, José Luis; Almeda, Jesús; González, Victoria; Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Decline of semen quality among Chinese sperm bank donors within 7 years (2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.

  15. SIBAS: a blood bank information system and its 5-year implementation at Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing Nan; Chao, Sam; Chui Dong, Ming

    2007-05-01

    Automation systems and information technology can greatly help medical facilities to improve their working efficiency and optimize the whole workflow. This article surveys electronic information management in blood donation and transfusion service, and explores the rationale and archetype of blood bank information systems, then exemplifies a successful in-running system-Sistema Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS), which is developed by the Institute of Systems and Computer Engineering of Macau (INESC-Macau) in cooperation with the Macau Blood Transfusion Center (CTS-Macau). Its implementation and the related lessons are briefly introduced too. In essence, this article is oriented to serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems.

  16. Twenty Years of Anesthetic and Perioperative Management of Patients With Tetralogy of Fallot With Absent Pulmonary Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochman, John D; Atkinson, Douglas B; Quinonez, Luis G; Brown, Morgan L

    2017-06-01

    Review the authors' institutional experience of the induction and perioperative airway management of children with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve. Retrospective chart review. Large academic children's hospital. Patients with the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve undergoing primary cardiac repair over a 20-year period. None. Forty-four patients were identified with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve from January 1995 through August 2014. Forty-two patients (95%) required surgery in their first year of life. Sixteen patients (36%) required mechanical ventilation preoperatively, including 11 neonates. Of the 28 patients not intubated preoperatively, only 1 (3.8%) exhibited minor airway obstruction following induction that was managed uneventfully. All intubations in the operating room were performed in the supine position. Five patients who were mechanically ventilated preoperatively in a lateral or prone position were supinated in the operating room without significant cardiopulmonary compromise. There were no patients who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest or required mechanical circulatory support. The median time to extubation was 2 days (range 1-13 days) in those patients who were not mechanically ventilated prior to their surgery. Ultimately, 5 patients required tracheostomy and 1 patient underwent lobectomy. Although, there was no mortality at 30 days, 4 children died within 1 year of their surgery. All the children who died had a genetic syndrome and required mechanical ventilation preoperatively. While there are theoretical concerns specific to the induction and airway management of tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve, there were no episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the authors' series. Neonatal age at the time of surgery, preoperative need for mechanical ventilation, and concomitant genetic syndromes are risk factors for respiratory

  17. Trends of breast cancer and its management in the last twenty years in Aden and adjacent governorates, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhra, Nasser Aa; Basaleem, Huda O

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women and the principal cause of death in middle aged women. The objective of this study was to describe the trend of breast cancer and its management in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates of Yemen during the last 20 years. This is a retrospective analysis of previous studies on patients with breast cancer in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates, Yemen (January 1989 through December 2007). The studied variables were: sex, age, time and type of presentation, disease stage, pathological types and the performed surgical treatment. The sources of information were the treatment registry of Aden health office, archives of Al-Gamhouria teaching hospital; major referral and other public and private hospitals in Aden and Aden Cancer Registry. The total number of patients was 476, 99% being females. The age range was 19-88 years. The most affected age was 30-50 years (60.5%), 95% presenting after one month of having breast symptoms. Forty-five percent presented with signs of advanced local disease, while 59.2% had palpable axillary lymph nodes on presentation. Early breast cancer (stages I-II) occurred in 47%, and late breast cancer (stages III-IV) in 51.5%. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the commonest pathology (89.3%). The main surgical treatment was mastectomy (modified radical mastectomy (50%). Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of young with late presentation and advanced disease. Improving health awareness and earlier diagnosis of the disease by health education, encouraging breast self-examination, and providing the mammography equipment and mammary clinics in hospitals are recommended. Establishment of oncology and radiotherapy centers in Aden is a necessity.

  18. Twenty-three years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Meel

    2018-01-01

    Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken. Results Between 1993 and 2015, the number of autopsies performed on people who had died unnatural deaths was 24,693. The records of 12,618 (51%) autopsies on victims of homicide between 1993 and 2015 were available for study. The average rate of murder was 85/100,000 of the population in this region. Of these deaths, on average 34/100,000 were caused by sharp-edged instruments, 30/100,000 by gunshot wounds and 21/100,000 by blunt trauma. The rate of murder of males was significantly higher than that of females, with a ratio of 5.7:1, and over the period of 23 years covered by this study, the incidence was highest (30.5/100,000) in the young age group between 21 and 30 years. Conclusion The rate of homicide is very high in the Transkei region of South Africa. It needs urgent intervention to curb unnecessary deaths.

  19. Twenty-year cytogenetic and molecular follow-up of a patient with ring chromosome 15: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ring chromosome 15 is a rare disorder, with only a few over 40 cases reported in the literature. There are only two previous reports of cases where patients with ring chromosome 15 have been followed-up. Case presentation We report here on the 20-year clinical and cytogenetic follow-up of a patient with a ring chromosome 15. Our patient, a Caucasoid Asian woman, presented with short stature, microcephaly, minor dysmorphic features, hyperextensible knees, generalized hirsutism, café-au-lait and small hypochromic spots spread over her face and the front of her chest and abdomen, dorsolumbar scoliosis and mild intellectual disability. She was followed-up from the age of eight to 28 years. When she was 27 years old, she was reported by her mother to present with compulsive overeating and an aggressive mood when challenged. Karyotyping revealed that the majority of her cells harbored one normal chromosome and one ring chromosome. Silver staining revealed the presence of the nucleolar organizer region in the ring chromosome. Ring loss and/or secondary aberrations exhibited a slight increase over time, from 4.67% in 1989 to 7.67% in 2009, with the presence of two monocentric rings, cells with interlocked rings, a dicentric ring, and broken or open rings. A genome-wide array technique detected a 5.5Mb deletion in 15q26.2. Conclusions We observed that some phenotypic alterations in our patient can be associated with gene loss and haploinsufficiency. Other features may be related to different factors, including ring instability and epigenetic factors.

  20. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  1. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  2. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  3. Twenty years of lichen cover change in a tropical habitat (Costa Rica) and its relation with air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; González, María I; Rivas Rossi, Marta; Méndez-Estrada, Víctor Hugo

    2002-03-01

    We report lichen cover change over a 20 years period for the Costa Rican capitol city. Foliaceous lichen cover was measured with a 10 x 10 cm template positioned 1.5 m above ground on the south, east, north and west sides of ten phorophytic trees per station (11 stations) from 1976 through 1997. Results were compared with previous measurements along an urban transect (at three heights above ground) and in a rural station. Lichen cover was correlated with traffic density and varied between stations and years. Mean lichen cover was 23% in 1976, 12% in 1986, 9% in 1990 and 22% in 1997. Most stations suffered a large cover reduction after 1976 but improved after 1990, possibly reflecting improved traffic regulations and elimination of lead (Pb) from gasoline. Cover values by cardinal orientation were: west 17%, east 14%, north 13% and south 12%. Sidewalks of streets with more traffic had lower cover values. In the rural station, cover was lower than expected (possibly because of climate), and was not correlated with height above ground or cardinal orientation, in contrast with temperate regions. In polluted cities human activity should concentrate above the first floor of buildings (particularly in hospitals or schools) because pollution was found to concentrate in the first 2 m above ground.

  4. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Twenty years of research shows UK child development team provision still varies widely for children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, J R; Jolleff, N; Gray, L; Gibbs, J; Williams, J; McConachie, H

    2013-11-01

    To identify how services provided by child development teams (CDTs) have changed over 20 years. To what extent have major government initiatives aiming to improve the lives of children with disability and their families been implemented by teams? Survey sent to every UK CDT in 2009/2010; comparison with data gathered in 1988 and 1999. Ninety-four per cent (225/240) of CDTs responded; data on 242 teams were available from 1999 and 125 teams from 1988. Despite policy recommendations advocating the value of interdisciplinary team working, there was a decline in numbers of professionals working within the CDT multidisciplinary team. One-third of all teams reported a reduction in their funding over the last 5 years. However, specialist clinics provided increased. Teams reported patchy adoption of national initiatives designed to improve provision. Transition services were underdeveloped. This comprehensive survey of UK CDT service provision, as well as national studies of the healthcare experience of families with a disabled child, shows that improvements in provision are required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The challenge of osteo-articular tuberculosis in the twenty-first century: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesić, A R; Pesut, D P; Marković-Denić, L; Maksimović, J; Cobeljić, G; Milosević, I; Atkinson, H D E; Bumbasirević, M

    2010-09-01

    Serbia, an intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence country in socio-economic transition. To examine the epidemiological and clinical pattern of osteo-articular TB (OATB) in Serbia over 15 years. This retrospective observational study included OATB cases diagnosed between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2007, according to the National Referral Institute of Lung Diseases and TB in Belgrade and the Central TB Register. Population estimates with extrapolations were based on 1991 and 2002 census data. The 295 OATB cases represented 10.9% (range 5.3-20.2) of all extra-pulmonary TB cases notified in Serbia over the period. One tenth of these were relapses. The incidence rate showed a significant increasing trend (y = 0.1167 + 0.0175x, R(2) = 0.3196), with an average age-specific incidence rate of 0.26 per 100 000 population. The peak number of cases was in the 45-64 year age group for both men and women. The average male:female ratio was 0.85. The outcome was favourable for 279 of the 295 patients (94.6%). In addition to a standardised chemotherapy regimen, 25.4% patients underwent surgery. The increasing time trend of OATB is caused by increased morbidity, a higher TB detection rate and better notification. Although rare in children, OATB remains a challenge in clinical practice.

  7. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.              JEL Codes: G21, F23Keywords: Bank, Banking

  8. Looking back to move forward: a twenty-year audit of herpes zoster in Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Arai, Hidenori; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Dong, Birong; Kojima, Taro; Kwon, Ki Tae; Leong, Hoe Nam; Leung, Edward M F; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Xiaohong; Mathai, Dilip; Pan, Jiun Yit; Peng, Li-Ning; Poblete, Eduardo Rommel S; Poi, Philip J H; Reid, Stewart; Tantawichien, Terapong; Won, Chang Won

    2017-03-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a prevalent viral disease that inflicts substantial morbidity and associated healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. Current treatments are not fully effective, especially among the most vulnerable patients. Although widely recommended, vaccination against HZ is not routine; barriers in Asia-Pacific include long-standing neglect of adult immunisation and sparse local data. To address knowledge gaps, raise awareness, and disseminate best practice, we reviewed recent data and guidelines on HZ from the Asia-Pacific region. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and World Health Organization databases for articles about HZ published from 1994 to 2014 by authors from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We selected articles about epidemiology, burden, complications, comorbidities, management, prevention, and recommendations/guidelines. Internet searches retrieved additional HZ immunisation guidelines. From 4007 retrieved articles, we screened-out 1501 duplicates and excluded 1264 extraneous articles, leaving 1242 unique articles. We found guidelines on adult immunisation from Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. HZ epidemiology in Asia-Pacific is similar to elsewhere; incidence rises with age and peaks at around 70 years - lifetime risk is approximately one-third. Average incidence of 3-10/1000 person-years is rising at around 5% per year. The principal risk factors are immunosenescence and immunosuppression. HZ almost always causes pain, and post-herpetic neuralgia is its most common complication. Half or more of hospitalised HZ patients have post-herpetic neuralgia, secondary infections, or inflammatory sequelae that are occasionally fatal. These disease burdens severely diminish patients' quality of life and incur heavy healthcare utilisation. Several countries have abundant data on HZ, but

  9. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...... be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects...

  10. Twenty-five years of the WHO vaccines prequalification programme (1987-2012): lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Nora; Wood, David

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) vaccines prequalification programme was established in 1987. It is a service provided to United Nations procurement agencies to ensure that the vaccines supplied through these agencies are consistently safe and effective under conditions of use in national immunization programmes. This review describes the purpose and aims of the programme, its evolution during 25 years of existence, its added value, and its role in the context of the WHO strategy to ensure the global availability of vaccines of assured quality. The rationale for changes introduced during the implementation of the programme is provided. The paper also discusses the resources involved, both human and financial, its performance, strengths and weaknesses and steps taken to maximize its efficiency. This historical perspective is used to inform proposed future changes to the service. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Twenty years history and the future of Asian-Pacific Association of Laser Medicine and Surgery (APLMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Kazuhiko

    2005-07-01

    In 1986, APLMS was established to promote the various activities of Laser Medicine Surgery in the Asia-pacific regions. The purpose of APLMS is not only to deliver academic information but also technological, industrial and social ones. Until now, the 9 congresses had been taken place in the different countries in Asia-Pacific regions. As the results of the 18years" efforts, the organizations of each country on laser medicine and surgery have been established, and the network of researchers and clinicians has been completed. The next challenges are proposed such as education, training, and standardization of methods. To establish guidelines and regulation for laser medicine and surgery, and to transfer technology are also important issues.

  12. Monitoring centrálních bank - březen 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Česká národní banka

    2010-01-01

    Latest monetary policy developments at selected central banks and news. Spotlight: „Twenty years of monetary policy in Central Europe“. Selected speech: „On Swiss monetary policy“ by Thomas Jordan, Member of the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank.

  13. Twenty-five years of home parenteral nutrition outsourcing: the experience at Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Martín Fuentes, María; García Vázquez, Natalia; Crespo Yanguas, Marta; Lisbona Catalán, Arturo; Campos Del Portillo, Rocío; Palma Milla, Samara

    2014-12-01

    For the last 20 years, most adult patients following home parenteral nutrition (HPN) under the care of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Dept. of the La Paz University Hospital (Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y Dietética del Hospital Universitario La Paz), Madrid, Spain, have received their nutrition formula via a catering system (Nutriservice) responsible for its preparation and home distribution. To assess the clinical characteristics, quality of life and degree of satisfaction with the care received, of patients undergoing HPN who received their nutrition formulae via the named catering service. The characteristics of the patients who received HPN via this service between 1992 and 2013 were retrospectively collected. Those patients still undergoing treatment completed a quality of life questionnaire, plus a survey of their satisfaction with the catering system and the care provided by our department. Seventy eight patients were examined; 57.7% were men. The mean age of the patients was 53.1±14.3 years. The most common underlying disease was cancer, both in advanced stage (33.8% of all cases) and in stages in which active treatment was being provided (34%). The most common indication for HPN was intestinal obstruction (46%). The median duration of HPN treatment was 96 [1-5334] days. The most common complication was catheter infection (72%). For the analysis of the results, the patients were divided depending on disease type: those with advanced stage cancer, those with cancer under active treatment and with a better prognosis, and those with non-oncological disease. The patients undergoing active oncological treatment believed the quality of their lives to have been improved by the Nutriservice catering system, and rated the care received by our department positively. In our experience, patients with cancer are those who most commonly receive HPN, especially those with advanced disease. Given the seriousness of their conditions, and the complexity surrounding

  14. Operative compared with nonoperative treatment of a thoracolumbar burst fracture without neurological deficit: a prospective randomized study with follow-up at sixteen to twenty-two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirkham B; Buttermann, Glenn R; Phukan, Rishabh; Harrod, Christopher C; Mehbod, Amir; Shannon, Brian; Bono, Christopher M; Harris, Mitchel B

    2015-01-07

    Studies comparing operative with nonoperative treatment of a stable burst fracture of the thoracolumbar junction in neurologically intact patients have not shown a meaningful difference at early follow-up. To our knowledge, longer-term outcome data have not before been presented. From 1992 to 1998, forty-seven consecutive patients with a stable thoracolumbar burst fracture and no neurological deficit were evaluated and randomized to one of two treatment groups: operative treatment (posterior or anterior arthrodesis) or nonoperative treatment (a body cast or orthosis). We previously reported the results of follow-up at an average of forty-four months. The current study presents the results of long-term follow-up, at an average of eighteen years (range, sixteen to twenty-two years). As in the earlier study, patients at long-term follow-up indicated the degree of pain on a visual analog scale and completed the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey. Work and health status were obtained, and patients were evaluated radiographically. Of the original operatively treated group of twenty-four patients, follow-up data were obtained for nineteen; one patient had died, and four could not be located. Of the original nonoperatively treated group of twenty-three patients, data were obtained for eighteen; two patients had died, and three could not be located. The average kyphosis was not significantly different between the two groups (13° for those who received operative treatment compared with 19° for those treated nonoperatively). Median scores for pain (4 cm for the operative group and 1.5 cm for the nonoperative group; p = 0.003), ODI scores (20 for the operative group and 2 for the nonoperative group; p years) revealed few significant differences between the two groups, at long-term follow-up (sixteen to twenty-two years), those with a stable burst fracture who were treated

  15. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  16. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  17. Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Joyce; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Burlingame, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    In 1989 the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation recommended the use of the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method for evaluating protein quality. In calculating PDCAAS, the limiting amino acid score (i.e., ratio of first limiting amino acid in a gram of target food to that in a reference protein or requirement) is multiplied by protein digestibility. The PDCAAS method has now been in use for 20 years. Research emerging during this time has provided useful data on various aspects of protein quality evaluation that has made a review of the current methods used in assessing protein quality necessary. This paper provides an overview of the use of the PDCAAS method as compared to other methods and addresses some of the key challenges that remain in regards to protein quality evaluation. Furthermore, specific factors influencing protein quality including the effects of processing conditions and preparation methods are presented. Protein quality evaluation methods and recommended protein intakes currently used in different countries vis-à-vis the WHO/FAO/UNU standards are further provided. As foods are frequently consumed in complement with other foods, the significance of the PDCAAS of single protein sources may not be evident, thus, protein quality of some key food groups and challenges surrounding the calculation of the amino acid score for dietary protein mixtures are further discussed. As results from new research emerge, recommendations may need to be updated or revised to maintain relevance of methods used in calculating protein quality.

  18. Future scenarios for the development of nuclear power. How will nuclear power develop over the next twenty to forty years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power technology has developed significantly over the past 60 years to the point that today it supplies the world with 15% of its electricity; and there are plans for continued development. However, the continued growth of nuclear power is not without challenges. The nuclear industry must remain competitive in the face of challenges ranging from environmental considerations and proliferation concerns to ensuring safe and often transparent operations. Understanding these and other issues, as well as their underlying causes, can help the industry leaders create more robust strategies and effectively implement nuclear fuel cycle decisions. Robust strategies are ones that can be effective even when circumstances change, due to events such as opposition, new scientific information, changes in resource availability, or introduction of competing technologies. Scenario planning is tool which can help planners and decision makers create a strategic conversation about the future and how to manage and plan in a time of accelerated change and complexity. In this paper, scenario planning is introduced and the development of nuclear power is examined against the back drop of four future scenarios, specifically looking at how variations in environmental quality, resource availability, security and proliferation, and safety may affect the development of nuclear power. The scenarios discussed provide a starting point to improve the understanding of issues and opportunities facing the global nuclear power industry and ultimately, to improve strategies for technology development. Such scenarios may be employed as a basis for collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders involved in the development of nuclear technology. (author)

  19. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  1. Modernism and structuralism: Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the last twenty five years of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the second quarter of the twentieth century was marked by structuralism. More precisely, structural analysis that became a must of the analytical interpretation was based on the work of Claude Levi-Strauss, but also on those of the predecessors of structural analysis, like Van Gennep and Prop; British followers of structuralism like E. Leach and M. Douglas, as well as on the Russian semiotic school and Barth’s semiology. Taking aside predecessors of structural analysis, main sources of Serbian structural-semiotic revolution came from Levi-Strauss structural anthropology. When in the 1970s Serbian readers faced anthropological books coming from different intellectual backgrounds and representing major theoretical trends in anthropology, Serbian ethnology, firmly based on its hundred years old romantic roots, gave equally opportunities to all theoretical approaches that fought for the intellectual domination in the discipline. This paper tries to answer the question why structural analysis played a crucial part in the modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology, while the ideas coming from functionalism, culture and personality school, or neo-evolutionism did not have the same revolutionary and deep impact.

  2. Twenty years of Internet-based research at SCiP: A discussion of surviving concepts and new methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2017-10-01

    This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.

  3. Twenty years of therapeutic touch in a Canadian cancer agency: lessons learned from a case study of integrative oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Joanne E; Mackenzie, Gina; Sample, Sarah; Macdonald, Jennifer

    2007-08-01

    Therapeutic touch (TT) is a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment modeled on the ancient practice of "laying on of hands" that has been developed into a contemporary supportive care intervention. Evidence-based support for TT is emerging with increasingly more sophisticated studies; however, flaws in early research contributed to a perception that TT is poor science. Yet TT is a safe CAM treatment that is highly valued by patients and can be integrated into conventional settings. Having offered TT as a supportive care intervention within a provincial cancer agency for 20 years, we have grappled with the issues of evidence and of satisfying both patient demands and administrative needs. Our TT practice evolved in response to changing needs and our experience may be useful to those who are contemplating offering a CAM treatment within a conventional setting. The objectives are to describe TT practice within a conventional cancer agency and to identify the important issues and success factors of this program and, secondly, to discuss TT research and our approach to the issues. TT is a safe and beneficial intervention for cancer patients that can be integrated within a conventional setting, providing that the program evolves with changing patient and organizational needs. Lessons gleaned include (1) positioning TT within the context of research and evidence-based practice, (2) developing and adhering to standards of practice and professionalism, and (3) maintaining a nonpartisan attitude and communicating a plausible rationale.

  4. Twenty-Two Years of Inflation Assessment and Forecasting Experience at the Bulletin of EU & US Inflation and Macroeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Espasa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bulletin of EU & US Inflation and Macroeconomic Analysis (BIAM is a monthly publication that has been reporting real time analysis and forecasts for inflation and other macroeconomic aggregates for the Euro Area, the US and Spain since 1994. The BIAM inflation forecasting methodology stands on working with useful disaggregation schemes, using leading indicators when possible and applying outlier correction. The paper relates this methodology to corresponding topics in the literature and discusses the design of disaggregation schemes. It concludes that those schemes would be useful if they were formulated according to economic, institutional and statistical criteria aiming to end up with a set of components with very different statistical properties for which valid single-equation models could be built. The BIAM assessment, which derives from a new observation, is based on (a an evaluation of the forecasting errors (innovations at the components’ level. It provides information on which sectors they come from and allows, when required, for the appropriate correction in the specific models. (b In updating the path forecast with its corresponding fan chart. Finally, we show that BIAM real time Euro Area inflation forecasts compare successfully with the consensus from the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters, one and two years ahead.

  5. Twenty-five years of Brown Boveri experience in development, design and fabrication of circulators for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelzl, D.

    1988-01-01

    The two circulators for the AVR experimental reactor in Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany, were supplied. The circulators, which are equipped with oil bearings, have been operating troublefree since the start of commissioning in 1966. As a consequence of a water ingress into the reactor resulting from a steam generator damage one bearing was replaced in 1977 after 72,000 operating hours. Up to the present date, each of the circulators has scored 115,000 hours of operation, one of them without any disassembly. In the THTR 300 in Schmehausen, Federal Republic of Germany, 6 BBC circulators are in operation. The insertable circulator units equipped with oil bearings have successfully proven their operating capability without any problems during the commissioning phase and the 100% power operation which was started recently. Currently active magnetic bearings are being developed for advanced gas-cooled reactors such as the HTR 100, the HTR 500 and the heating reactor after excellent results have been furnished by a small prototype in a test loop. This ADI circulator has since scored more than 15,000 operating hours without any trouble. A retainer bearing test stand also equipped with active magnetic bearings has been in operation for nearly 2 years. This test stand serves for developing the conditions for safe rundown of the rotors of even the largest circulators after the magnetic bearings have been deenergized unintentionally. Development work is conducted on the prototype of a safety-relevant circulator held in magnetic bearings, to be used for decay heat removal in the HTR 500. The original aim to have circulators without auxiliary medium for bearing lubrication will thus be reached. The advantages to be obtained in process and systems design are a supplementary support to the inherent safety characteristics of high-temperature reactors. Another advantage of these bearings is cost reduction. 5 refs, 7 figs

  6. Missing for the last twenty years: the case of the southernmost populations of the Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Zanon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1808 is a widespread species in the Neotropics, but its southernmost populations in Brazil are ecologically (and possibly taxonomically distinct, occurring only along the coast in restinga vegetation. Once considered the most common bird in restinga, it is becoming increasingly rare, likely due to habitat loss and illegal capture of nestlings. We conducted field surveys to provide an up-to-date distribution of the Tropical Mockingbird in the southernmost portion of the species' range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, supplying an estimate of its current regional population size and conservation status. We surveyed 21 restinga remnants in Rio de Janeiro, covering all major restinga areas in the state. For sites where the species' presence was confirmed through transect line surveys, we estimated the local population size. The species was found at only four sites. The mean local population density was 52 individuals per km-2. The estimated current and historical Extent of Occurrence (EOO were 256 km2 and 653 km2, respectively. Combining the population size and EOO results, we estimated that the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro currently ranges from 2,662 to 13,312 individuals, corresponding to an estimated reduction of 61% to 92% in population size in the last 20 years. The species, therefore, can be considered "Endangered" in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We recommend that a taxonomic study of the southernmost populations is carried out in order to clarify whether they represent a different, likely threatened species. We also recommend that the environmental regulations that protect restingas are used towards the protection of these populations.

  7. Twenty years since Ottawa and Epp: researchers' reflections on challenges, gains and future prospects for reducing health inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A; Hayes, Michael V

    2007-12-01

    November 2006 marked the 20-year anniversary of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and Canada's Epp Report. Encapsulating the tenets of health promotion (HP), these publications articulated a vision for reducing health inequities, and described a policy framework for achieving this vision, respectively. These documents also triggered the launch of the population health (PH) field, focused on elucidating the empirical relationships between socioeconomic gradients and population health inequities. Over two decades, a rich HP/PH theoretical and evidentiary base on socioeconomic gradients in health has established. Yet, despite valuable contributions from Canadian researchers, insufficient headway has been made in this country to achieve the Charter's vision. There are numerous challenges to reducing population health inequities in Canada. Informational challenges include complexity of HP/PH evidence, and inadequate knowledge translation beyond traditional targets. Institutional challenges include the relative immunity of the healthcare sector to funding reductions, and the organization of policy responsibilities into silos. Concerns from non-healthcare sectors of 'health imperialism', and inter-governmental tensions are interest-related challenges, while ideological challenges include lack of media discourse on health inequities and a strong neo-liberal political climate. Gains have been made in Canada towards reducing health inequities. The HP/PH discourses are firmly entrenched in academic and policy spheres across the country, while several inter-sectoral policy initiatives are currently underway. HP/PH researchers could be more proactive in the knowledge-translation sphere by engaging other researchers outside of medicine and health, non-healthcare policy-makers, and the general public, vis-à-vis the media, on the health inequities knowledge base. Ultimately, significant and sustained progress will only be made if researchers and other champions recognize

  8. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  9. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density

  10. Lessons learned from twenty-year operation of the Large Helical Device poloidal coils made from cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Kazuya; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Ooba, Kouki; Takami, Shigeyuki; Iwamoto, Akifumi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku

    2018-04-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) superconducting magnet system consists of two pairs of helical coils and three pairs of poloidal coils. The poloidal coils use cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors, which have now been adopted in many fusion devices, with forced cooling by supercritical helium. The poloidal coils were first energized with the helical coils on March 27, 1998. Since that time, the coils have experienced 54,600 h of steady cooling, 10,600 h of excitation operation, and nineteen thermal cycles for twenty years. During this period, no superconducting-to-normal transition of the conductors has been observed. The stable operation of the poloidal coils demonstrates that a CIC conductor is suited to large-scale superconducting magnets. The AC loss has remained constant, even though a slight decrease was observed in the early phase of operation. The hydraulic characteristics have been maintained without obstruction over the entire period of steady cooling. The experience gained from twenty years of operation has also provided lessons regarding malfunctions of peripheral equipment.

  11. Twenty years of operation of the Radioisotope Department of the 3rd Medical Clinic, Faculty of General Medicine, Charles University in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years ago a radioisotope department was established in the old building of the 3rd Medical Clinic in Prague 2. The department is suitably placed and meets present requirements. It was set up as part of the 3rd Medical Clinic and of the Laboratory for endocrinology and Metabolism which gave it its main orientation and scope. Its present scope is much broader. In the twenty years since it was established 115,800 examinations were carried out, some 40 examination methods were introduced, 103 publications published, members of the department were co-authors of another 113 publications, they completed 11 research projects. The production of the department represents a substantial part of laboratory material especially in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy and metabolic disorders at the Clinic and is a significant part of the material of a number of research projects. The department has significantly contributed to the development of nuclear medicine in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in thyroid diagnosis, by the first introduction of radioimmunoassay methods, by the introduction of certain other special examination and laboratory methods and is currently taking part in the fulfilment of tasks given by the zoning of nuclear medicine in health care in Czechoslovakia in general and in Prague in particular. (author)

  12. The New York Brain Bank of Columbia University: practical highlights of 35 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Etty Paola Cortes; Keller, Christian Ernst; Vonsattel, Jean Paul

    2018-01-01

    The New York Brain Bank processes brains and organs of clinically well-characterized patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and for comparison, from individuals without neurologic or psychiatric impairments. The donors, either patients or individuals, were evaluated at healthcare facilities of the Columbia University of New York. Each source brain yields four categories of samples: fresh frozen blocks and crushed parenchyma, and formalin-fixed wet blocks and histology sections. A source brain is thoroughly evaluated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively any changes it might harbor using conventional neuropathologic techniques. The clinical and pathologic diagnoses are integrated to determine the distributive diagnosis assigned to the samples obtained from a source brain. The gradual standardization of the protocol was developed in 1981 in response to the evolving requirements of basic investigations on neurodegeneration. The methods assimilate long-standing experience from multiple centers. The resulting and current protocol includes a constant central core applied to all brains with conditional flexibility around it. The New York Brain Bank is an integral part of the department of pathology, where the expertise, teaching duties, and hardware are shared. Since details of the protocols are available online, this chapter focuses on practical issues in professionalizing brain banking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  14. Aluminum: The Next Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M. Desmond; Pollio, Gerald

    1982-12-01

    This report concludes that the outlook for the world aluminum industry is quite favorable. Demand is expected to expand at a more rapid rate than for other basic metals, but not sufficiently to put undue strain on productive capacity. Capital requirements of the world aluminum industry are projected at 95.5 billion in 1980 prices — more than 200 billion in current prices—over the balance of the century. Given the aluminum industry's past success in generating internal funds, this level of capital expanditure should not cause undue financing problems. Finally, we expect changes to occur in the structure of the industry over the forecast period, with virtually all new alumina capacity being installed in proximity to bauxite production, and—with the exception of Australia—a major shift in smelting capacity away from other industrialized economies. While the large multinational companies will still play a dominant role in the world aluminum market, their share of production and ownership is likely to decline progressively during the period.

  15. Twenty Years of Cultural Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Kathryn J.

    1986-01-01

    Traces history and contributions of cultural journalism since the inception of the first Foxfire Book in 1966. Reviews successful student projects across the country. Discusses significance of cultural journalism as source of cultural identity with potential to increase understanding among different groups of people. (NEC)

  16. Changes in Reef Fish Abundances Associated with the Introduction of Indo-Pacific Lionfish to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: a Twenty Year Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gittings, S.; Stallings, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a partnership between academic, private, and government researchers seeking to understand how marine biodiversity changes over long periods of time. In this context, a study of the multi-agency Reef Visual Census (RVC) data, collected over twenty years in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), was analyzed to measure possible changes in reef fish abundances as a result of possible predation by lionfish predation or due to related trophic cascading. Lionfish were first sighted in the FKNMS in January 2009, with abundances and frequency of occurrence increasing three to six fold throughout the sanctuary by 2011. Their high consumption rates of smaller fish, coupled with their rapidly increasing densities may be having a significant effect on coral reef fish communities. The study compares the natural variability in reef fish abundances from 1994-2009 in the FKNMS, 15 years prior to the first lionfish detected in the sanctuary, to changes in reef fish abundances 5 years after the invasion. The MBON project also aims to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) technology for conducting biodiversity assessments. eDNA is an emerging technique that seeks to quantify biodiversity in an area by obtaining genetic material directly from environmental samples (soil, sediment, water, etc.) without any obvious signs of biological source material. All marine organisms shed DNA into their surrounding habitat, leaving a "fingerprint." Similar to forensic science, the DNA can be collected from seawater and analyzed to determine what species were recently present. The MBON team is evaluating whether eDNA can be used to adequately monitor reef fish biodiversity in coral reef ecosystems. We will compare species detected in our samples to the taxonomic composition of reef fish communities at the sample site as recorded over the past twenty years in the Reef Visual Census data.

  17. Sperm banking for male reproductive preservation: a 6-year retrospective multi-centre study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Yao, Kang-Shou; Xu, Peng; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Sperm banking can preserve male fertility effectively, but the current conditions of sperm cryopreservation in China have not been investigated. This retrospective investigation was based on data collected at multiple centres in China from January 2003 to December 2008. The collected data included urogenital history, indication for cryopreservation, semen parameters, use rate, type of assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcome. The study population included 1 548 males who had banked their semen during the study period at one of the clinics indicated above. Approximately 1.9% (30/1 548) of the cryopreserved semen samples were collected from cancer patients; about 88.8% (1 374/1 548) of the patients had banked their semen for ART and 8.6% (134/1 548) had a male infertility disease (such as anejaculation, severe oligozoospermia and obstructive azoospermia). The total use rate of cryopreserved semen was 22.7% (352/1 548), with 119 live births. The cancer group use rate was 6.7% (2/30), with one live birth by intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI). The ART group use rate was 23.2% (319/1 374), with 106 live births. The reproductive disease group use rate was 23.1% (31/134), with 12 live births. The semen parameters in each category varied; the cancer patient and infertility disease groups had poor semen quality. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI were the most common ART treatments for cryopreserved sperm. Semen cryopreservation as a salvage method is effective, but in many conditions it is underutilized, especially in cancer patients. Lack of awareness, urgency of cancer treatment and financial constraints are the main causes of the low access rate. The concept of fertility preservation should be popularized to make better use of this medical service in China. PMID:20348941

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF SOILS IN BULGARIA TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The twenty years period past after the contamination with radionuclides in 1986, as a result of the accident in the Chernobyl’s NPP, allowed the accumulation of rich data base for the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Objective of many years studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hilly and flat (the region of Kozlodouy NPP and the Danube river valley. Ceasium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils, few years after the accident. The content of ceasium-137 and strontium-90 in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains is several times higher then that in the soils from Northern Bulgaria and Sofia field. High non-homogeneity in the pollution within small areas (scores of square meters even was determined. No significant horizontal redistribution was observed for the period after 1986. The tendency of changes in the radioactive status of the soils in Bulgaria after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is not due to trans-border transfer of radioactive materials or to any breakdown at the Kosloduy Nuclear Power Plant.

  19. Twenty years after accident in Chernobyl atomic power plant. Present and future states of studies on pediatric thyroid cancer induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    The accident in the title occurred in April, 1986 and 20 years after, the international conference of Chernobyl Forum was held in Kiev of Ukraine on details of health problems, of which report is given in World Health Organization (WHO) hp (www.who.int./ionizing r adiation/Chernobyl/ern). The purpose of making the report was the scientific, objective evaluation of health problem to provide residents the correct information and to make recommendation to governments of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. This paper describes the outline of the WHO report and characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer increased after the accident. The report has the description about the effect of the accident on human beings including thyroid diseases, tumors, death numbers, mental and genetic influences, and cataract. The increased pediatric thyroid cancer is found mostly the papillocaricinoma, of which pathogenesis is considered to be due to DNA break of the region encoding MAP kinase pathways. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA mutations, by micro-array, of chromosome, and of SNPs have been also performed and have given many suggestive findings. Further continuation of the CTB (Chernobyl Tissue Bank, where nucleic acids of the cancer are stored by international cooperation) activity is concluded to be important for release of residents' anxiety and for understanding of radiation carcinogenesis. (R.T.)

  20. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  1. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  3. Low birthweight and subsequent emotional and behavioural outcomes in 12-year-old children in Soweto, South Africa: findings from Birth to Twenty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Farnaz; Richter, Linda M; Ramchandani, Paul G; Stein, Alan; Quigley, Maria A; Norris, Shane A

    2009-08-01

    The fetal origins hypothesis suggests that an adverse prenatal environment, indexed by low birthweight (LBW), may increase the risk of developing later disease. Recently the hypothesis has been extended to psychological outcomes, especially depression. The aim of this analysis was to test, for the first time in a developing country setting, the association between LBW and psychological symptoms, in Soweto, South Africa. A sample of 1029 children was drawn from Birth to Twenty, a longitudinal cohort followed from pregnancy to young adulthood. This sample completed the Youth Self Report at age 12 years, a validated psychological measure of behavioural and emotional adjustment. Scores were compared between LBW (children using multivariate analysis with adjustment for potential birth and life events confounding factors. No associations were found between LBW and total [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.74], internalizing (adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52-1.28) or externalizing profiles (adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49-1.36). The only difference detected was for the internalizing sub-profile of Somatic Complaints (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.21-3.38), which on subgroup analysis was greatest among females. We found no convincing evidence of an association between LBW and emotional and behavioural outcomes in 12-year olds in this sample in urban South Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first published assessment of this association in a developing world context.

  4. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning. Twenty-five years of progress; the last five years - 2006 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement constituting the CPD has been continuously extended, although modified in 2003, with the current programme period lasting until the end of 2013. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme and the projects involved. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The number of projects in the programme has grown from 42 to 59 over the past five years. The Programme now covers 35 reactor related projects and 24 fuel related projects representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all phases of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 25 years of experience of the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, and in particular through the information exchange and review within the TAG, it has become evident that: - decommissioning can and has been done in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner; - the evolution of technologies have demonstrated their effectiveness in performance improvements in all aspects of conducting decommissioning projects; - the upkeep and maintenance of design, construction and operational records can significantly enhance performance through all stages of a decommissioning project; - in the absence of waste disposal facilities, interim waste storage facilities with integrated waste processing facilities can effectively be used to keep all levels of waste streams moving and avoid delays to project schedules; - cleanup of material for recycle and reuse or disposal as conventional waste is cost

  5. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  6. An investigation of customer switching/defection behaviour in a selected segment of Standard Bank retail division

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Increasing customer longevity in branch banking is a difficult process, with the average bank loosing fifteen (15%) to twenty (20%) percent of its customers each year, any help a bank can get in holding on to them is welcome (Power, 2000: 19). Central to these concerns is researchers and practitioners realization that: Not all customers should be targeted with retention and loyalty efforts and, Some of the most satisfied and loyal customers might still switch / defect for reasons be...

  7. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2001 (September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Baldwin, Casey; Woller, Heather

    2003-03-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  8. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  9. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu

    2016-02-27

    A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI's load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis as mandatory. The aim of the current study was to assess the trend and prevalence of TTI among blood donors in Jijiga Blood Bank between 2010 and 2013. A Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records from 2010 to 2013 at Jijiga Blood Bank. All blood donors who presented to the blood bank and screened for TTI during the study period were included. The data was collected, entered and analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1 & Microsoft Excel 2007. The descriptive statistics were determined in means of percentages. Chi-square was used for trend analysis and p-value was used to declare the statistical significance between the variable. There were a total of 4224 people donated blood during study period. Males formed the majority of the donor population accounting for 4171 (98.7%). Majority 4139 (98%) of donors were Replacement donors. The overall prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection was 487/4224 (11.5%). The prevalence for HBsAg, HCV, HIV, & Syphilis antibodies was 460 (10. 9%), 17 (0.4%), 6 (0.1%) and 4 (0.1%) respectively. Majority 460/487 (94.5%) of infection was HBsAg. Statistically significant difference was observed in number of donation as well as sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013 (Chi-square 9.24, p value = 0.02), in Trends of HBsAg from year to year (Chi-square 11.14, p value = 0.01), HIV virus was seen as the age of donors increases (Chi-square 8.37, p value = 0.01) and There was also statistically significance

  10. Postnatal depressive symptoms and child psychological development at 10 years: a prospective study of longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuijl, Nienke E; Richter, Linda; Norris, Shane A; Stein, Alan; Avan, Bilal; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2014-11-01

    In high-income countries, maternal postnatal depression is associated with adverse outcomes in the child. However, few studies have investigated this relation in countries of low and middle income. Furthermore, to our knowledge, no studies have followed up cohorts into later childhood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal depression 6 months after birth is associated with psychological difficulties in a socioeconomically disadvantaged South African cohort of children at age 10 years. Birth to Twenty is a prospective, longitudinal, birth-cohort study based in the Soweto area of Johannesburg, South Africa. Mothers and children in this cohort have been followed up at timepoints ranging from before birth to age 10 years. Maternal mood was measured at 6 months with the Pitt depression inventory and at 10 years with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CES-D). Child psychological functioning was assessed at 10 years with the South African child assessment schedule (SACAS). Our primary outcome was psychological development of children at age 10 years, measured by total score on the SACAS. Secondary outcomes were scores on externalising and internalising subscales of the SACAS. We used t tests to compare psychological outcomes between children whose mother had postnatal depression at 6 months and those whose mother did not have postnatal depression. We examined associations between maternal postnatal depression and child psychological outcomes by multivariate linear-regression analysis, adjusting for socioeconomic status and maternal depression at 10 years, and we used logistic regression to provide odds ratios for associations identified by linear regression. 1866 mothers completed the Pitt depression inventory 6 months after the birth of their child; of these, 453 (24%) had symptoms of postnatal depression. At the 10-year assessment, 1012 mothers completed the CES-D questionnaire, of whom 747 (74%) were judged to have depression. Sociodemographic

  11. The Müller self-locking cemented total hip prosthesis with polyethylene liner: After twenty years, what did they become?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erivan, Roger; Villatte, Guillaume; Khelif, Youcef Reda; Pereira, Bruno; Galvin, Myriam; Descamps, Stéphane; Boisgard, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The M.E. Müller (MEM) prosthesis is a self-locking straight stem. Although this prosthesis is widely used, few outcomes have been published thus far. We examined long-term outcomes with the MEM cemented self-locking total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a polyethylene liner and 28-mm head. Between 1993 and 1994, 167 patients (173 hips) underwent primary THA implantation and were invited for clinical and radiological review a mean of 20.6 (20.1 - 21.7) years later; 111 patients had a metal and 62 a ceramic head. Hip function was assessed using the Postel Merle d'Aubigné Score. Overall, 121 patients died and six were lost to follow-up. Forty patients (41 hips) were reviewed. Five patients required revision, of whom two were due to acetabular loosening, one to premature haematoma, one to recurrent dislocation and one to femoral fracture. Wear levels were significantly lower with ceramic than metal heads. The majority of radiological or clinical failures were acetabular (7.3 % versus 2.4 % femoral). At the femoral level, osteolysis was observed in seven patients (17 %). Twenty-year survival was 88.67 ± 6.61 % using an endpoint of all-cause revision and 97.9 ± 2.1 % using femoral failure as the endpoint. Our retrospective analysis confirms the good results seen with the MEM stem in the literature and support the "French paradox" concept. Failures of these prostheses with a cemented polyethylene cup are largely on the acetabular side and, as such, the cup is the weak link. Improvements in survival will require optimisation of cup fixation and the use of a ceramic head to reduce wear in patients with a long life expectancy.

  12. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  13. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  14. Twenty years of experimental and direct numerical simulation access to the velocity gradient tensor: What have we learned about turbulence?a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    2009-02-01

    Twenty years ago there was no experimental access to the velocity gradient tensor for turbulent flows. Without such access, knowledge of fundamental and defining properties of turbulence, such as vorticity dissipation, and strain rates and helicity, could not be studied in the laboratory. Although a few direct simulations at very low Reynolds numbers had been performed, most of these did not focus on properties of the small scales of turbulence defined by the velocity gradient tensor. In 1987 the results of the development and first successful use of a multisensor hot-wire probe for simultaneous measurements of all the components of the velocity gradient tensor in a turbulent boundary layer were published by Balint et al. [Advances in Turbulence: Proceedings of the First European Turbulence Conference (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 456]. That same year measurements of all but one of the terms in the velocity gradient tensor were carried out, although not simultaneously, in the self-preserving region of a turbulent circular cylinder wake by Browne et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 179, 307 (1987)], and the first direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel flow was successfully carried out and reported by Kim et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 177, 133 (1987)], including statistics of the vorticity field. Also in that year a DNS of homogeneous shear flow by Rogers and Moin [J. Fluid Mech. 176, 33 (1987)] was published in which the authors examined the structure of the vorticity field. Additionally, Ashurst et al. [Phys. Fluids 30, 2343 (1987)] examined the alignment of the vorticity and strainrate fields using this homogeneous shear flow data as well as the DNS of isotropic turbulence of Kerr [J. Fluid Mech. 153, 31 (1985)] who had initiated such studies. Furthermore, Metcalfe et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 184, 207 (1987)] published results from their direct simulation of a temporally developing planar mixing layer in which they examined coherent vortical states resulting from

  15. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  16. Enhancing the use of internet banking in an emerging market

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Nel; Christo Boshoff

    2014-01-01

    Electronic banking services such as internet banking offer bank clients substantial benefits over traditional banking channels. Although internet banking has been around for many years, increasing the use of the service by bank clients remains a priority for many managers of internet banking services. To address this managerial concern, the study investigates the factors that contribute to the enhanced use of internet banking by bank clients. Based on a literature review, internet-banking fac...

  17. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorová, Silvie

    2012-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  18. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the

  19. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  20. Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance, power-sharing has (so far not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktlösung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewalttätigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere während des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Versöhnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschließenden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur

  1. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Ricchezza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Geology (GLY program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosciences in 2013, the merging departments re-examined their various curricular programs. An online survey of the Geology Alumni Society found that “express quantitative evidence in support of an argument” was more favorably viewed as a workplace skill (4th out of 69 than algebra (51st, trig (55th and calculus 1 and 2 (59th and 60th. In that context, we decided to find out from successful alumni, “What did you get out of Computational Geology?” To that end, the first author carried out a formal, qualitative research study (narrative inquiry protocol, whereby he conducted, recorded, and transcribed semi-structured interviews of ten alumni selected from a list of 20 provided by the second author. In response to “Tell me what you remember from the course,” multiple alumni volunteered nine items: Excel (10 out of 10, Excel modules (8, Polya problem solving (5, “important” (4, unit conversions (4, back-of-the-envelope calculations (4, gender equality (3. In response to “Is there anything from the course that you used professionally or personally since graduating?” multiple alumni volunteered seven items: Excel (9 out of 10, QL/thinking (6, unit conversions (5, statistics (5, Excel modules (3, their notes (2. Outcome analysis from the open-ended comments arising from structured questions led to the identification of alumni takeaways in terms of elements of three values: (1 understanding and knowledge (facts such as conversion factors, and concepts

  2. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  3. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalia, Samir; Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul; Cualing, Hernani; Sokol, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  4. WHO Global Oral Data Bank, 1986-96: an overview of oral health surveys at 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithila, A.; Bourgeois, D.; Barmes, D. E.; Murtomaa, H.

    1998-01-01

    The global oral health situation of 12-year-old children--decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and the percentage of population affected--is described in this article using the latest representative studies for 80 countries included in the WHO Global Oral Data Bank (GODB) between 1986 and 1996. The quantity of information varied considerably: 68% of developed market economies had at least one national data set, compared with 38% of developing countries and 36% of economies in transition. By WHO region, the proportions were as follows: Eastern Mediterranean, 55%; European, 50%; Western Pacific, 48%; African, 39%; South-East Asia, 30%; and the Americas, 26%. Globally, the weighted DMFT index for all data in the GODB is Internationale goal for the year 2000. For the data reviewed in this article, achievement and nonachievement of this goal are discussed, as is the variation in DMFT means and proportions of children affected for various country groupings. There are difficulties in obtaining recent data for many countries, but the article emphasizes the need to maintain and develop the GODB to facilitate the compilation of valid, reliable and comparable data on oral health. PMID:9744243

  5. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  6. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  7. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by

  8. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...

  9. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...... that are socially responsible may have economic advantages....

  10. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive emission...

  11. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  12. Role of Foreign Banks in Integration of Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.

  13. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    safety include the aging of the material base of the NPPs with the prolongation of the working life for nuclear reactors with the expired terms of exploitation; the existence of a «nuclear legacy» sites of the former USSR in the territories of enterprises for the extrac tion and processing of uranium ores. About 5,000 institutions and enterprises use more than 25,000 sources of ionizing radiation in general. The use of radiological technologies and sources of ionizing radiation in medicine is increasing, in particular the burden on patients and staff in invasive cardiac sur gery. This will require significant efforts from the NRCRM to ensure an adequate radiation protec tion of the population, taking into account the experience collected during the mitigation of health effects of Chornobyl. Radiological threats of malev olent use of nuclear technology hasn't be forgotten.The mission of the NRCRM is to expand basic research of the health effects of ionizing radiation, elaboration and implementation of the care and radiation protection of population. Background for future is paved by a successful implementation of a special program of medical and biophysical control of personnel during transformation of the Shelter object into an environmentally safe sys tem, the State social program of increasing safty, labor hygiene and environment for 2014-2018; many years of successful cooperation with the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate, the Natio nal Commission for Radiation Protection, «Ener goatom» company, the relevant departments of the Ministry of Health, international organizations such as WHO, UNSCEAR, IAEA, IARC, the US National Cancer Institute, IRSN, Nagasaki, Hiroshima, Fukushima universities and others.From the editorial board I congratulate the staff of the Center with the twenty fifth anniversary of the Academy. I would like also to wish the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine new ad vances in medical science and practice, sustainabil ity, unity

  14. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  15. Liquidity, Banking, and Bank Failures.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephen D

    1988-01-01

    A multiperiod model with risk-neutral agents is constructed in which a liquidity problem arises in an equilibrium with decentralized tradin g in capital, which banking institutions are able to alleviate. Depos it contracts provide for early withdrawal, banks hold debt, and agent s who borrow from banks hold compensating balances. Institutional col lapse, or a state of the world when bank failures are experienced, is associated with a high demand for liquidity, low output, and a lower than ave...

  16. Akselerasi Pertumbuhan Bank Syariah Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Muhammad Kamal

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to show the growth of Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. In this time, fast growth of Islamic banking industry progressively is office network side as consequence of improvement of requirement of society and enthusiasm of bank to provide service. Bank of Indonesia estimate in the this year 2008, Islamic banking industry will enjoy high growth to be compared to national banking in general. This prediction based on the finishing Law of Islamic Securities (SBSN) and Law of Is...

  17. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  18. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  19. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2008 (March 1, 2008 to February 1, 2009).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration, and continued project tasks in 2008. The objective was to evaluate factors that could limit kokanee in Banks Lake, including water quality, prey availability, harvest, and acute predation during hatchery releases. Water quality parameters were collected twice monthly from March through November. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in May and stratification was apparent by July. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to 15 meters deep, with temperatures of 21-23 C in the epilimnion and 16-19 C in the hypolimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 8 mg/L until August when they dropped near or below 5 mg/L deeper than 20-meters. Secchi depths ranged from 3.2 to 6.2 meters and varied spatially and temporally. Daphnia and copepod densities were the highest in May and June, reaching densities of 26 copepods/liter and 9 Daphnia/liter. Fish surveys were conducted in July and October 2008 using boat electrofishing, gill netting, and hydroacoustic surveys. Lake whitefish (71%) and yellow perch (16%) dominated the limnetic fish assemblage in the summer, while lake whitefish (46%) and walleye (22%) were the most abundant in gill net catch during the fall survey. Piscivore diets switched from crayfish prior to the release of rainbow trout to crayfish and rainbow trout following the release. The highest angling pressure occurred in May, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 45% of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. Ice fishing occurred in January and February at the south end of the lake. An estimated total of 4,397 smallmouth bass, 11,106 walleye, 371 rainbow trout

  20. Twenty-Five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Broeren, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood anxiety disorders during the past 25 years, and this increase…

  1. The Structure and Evolution of the Strategic Management Field: A Content Analysis of Twenty-six Years of Strategic Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer,Olivier; Thomas, Howard; Goussevskaia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses 26 years of strategic management research published in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly and Strategic Management Journal. Through a content analysis, it studies the relationships between the subfields of strategic management. A multiple correspondence analysis provides a map of keywords and authors, and a framework to track this literature over the 26-year period. A discussion of future pathways in the strategic ...

  2. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  3. Twenty years of activity of the radiation protection service of the El Cabril storage center; Veinte anos de actividad del servicio de proteccion radiologica del centro de almacenamiento de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, L.; Pinilla, J. L.; Ortiz, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    All controls of internal contamination by body radioactivity counter have been lower than the level of logging for internal doses (1 mSv/year). External personal pollution incidents have not occurred. With respect to the dose to the public these remain very low and lower than the limits specified in the authorization. Also the results of the PVRA indicate no influence of the installation in your environment. During the twenty years of operation of the El Cabril Storage Center has not occurred any incidents radiological and doses both to workers and the public in general, are kept very low and lower than the established dose limits. (Author)

  4. Twenty-Year Outcome of a Longitudinal Prospective Evaluation of Isolated Endoscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Patellar Tendon or Hamstring Autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon Michael; Salmon, Lucy J; Waller, Alison; Linklater, James; Roe, Justin P; Pinczewski, Leo A

    2016-12-01

    Long-term prospective studies of isolated endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are limited and may include confounding factors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of isolated ACL reconstruction using the patellar tendon (PT) autograft and the hamstring (HT) autograft in 180 patients over 20 years. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 180 participants undergoing isolated ACL reconstruction between 1993 and 1994 were prospectively recruited. Evaluation was performed at 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years after surgery and included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) knee ligament evaluation with radiographic evaluation, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference, and subjective scores. Over 20 years, there were 16 patients (18%) and 9 patients (10%) with an ACL graft rupture in the HT and PT groups, respectively (P = .13). ACL graft rupture was associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.9; P = .007), nonideal tunnel position (OR, 3.6; P = .019), and age <18 years at the time of surgery (OR, 4.6; P = .003). The odds of a contralateral ACL rupture were increased in patients with the PT graft compared with patients with the HT graft (OR, 2.2; P = .02) and those aged <18 years at the time of surgery (OR, 3.4; P = .001). The mean IKDC scores at 20-year follow-up were 86 and 89 for the PT and HT groups, respectively (P = .18). At 20 years, 53% and 57% of the PT and HT groups participated in strenuous or very strenuous activities (P = .55), kneeling pain was present in 63% and 20% of the PT and HT groups (P = .018), and radiographic osteoarthritic change was found in 61% and 41% of the PT and HT groups (P = .008), respectively. Compared with patients who received the HT graft, patients who received the PT graft had significantly worse outcomes with regard to radiologically detectable osteoarthritis, kneeling pain, and contralateral ACL injury. At 20-year follow-up, both HT and PT autografts continued to provide good

  5. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  6. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2010

  7. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  8. Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood

  9. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  10. Ewing's sarcoma in children: twenty-five years of experience at the Instituto Portugês de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil (I.P.O.F.G.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, M B; Vilhena, M; Neves, M; Raposo, S; Catita, J; De Sousa, V; Martins, A G

    1991-05-01

    Fifty children with Ewing's sarcoma were consecutively treated from 1962 to 1987 and retrospectively analyzed at the I.P.O.F.G. of Lisbon. At first diagnosis, 10 cases had distant metastases. The remaining 40 patients had clinically localized disease, and different protocols were followed over the years. The best results were obtained with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without surgery; and for these children the two-year survival rate was 42.8% vs. 8.3% for the group of patients submitted to local treatment alone. Besides the treatment modality, other factors influenced the prognosis, such as inflammatory signs, sex, tumor volume, and tumor site as well as evidence of distant metastases.

  11. Twenty-year progression of body mass index in a county-wide cohort of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder identified at their first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Kotov, Roman; Cornaccio, Danielle; Fochtmann, Laura; Harvey, Philip D; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2017-08-01

    There is an increased prevalence of obesity in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, leading to a disproportionate risk of adverse health conditions. Prospective, long-term weight gain data, however, are scarce. We analyzed data from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort of consecutive first admissions with psychosis recruited from September 1989 to December 1995 and subsequently followed for 20 years, focusing on people with schizophrenia (n=146) and bipolar disorder (n=87). The time course of weight gain was examined using a 2 (group)×5 (time) mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA, and body mass index (BMI) scores at the first (6 months) and second (2 years) assessments were compared to examine whether early overweight predicted later obesity. There was a statistically significant effect of time (F(1,210)=68.06, Pdiagnosis (F(1,210)=29.18, Pdiagnosis (F(1,210)=0.88, P=.48). Most participants had normal BMIs at the first two assessments. Early overweight was a predictor of eventual obesity for both groups. At the 20-year follow-ups, approximately 50% of the bipolar and 62% of the schizophrenia sample were obese, with a greater prevalence of obesity in schizophrenia at each assessment (all Pschizophrenia and over half of those with bipolar disorder were obese 20 years after first hospitalization for psychosis, considerably higher than the rate for adults in New York State (27%). Early intervention may be required to prevent long-term consequences of obesity-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Twenty-year outcome analysis of genetic screening programs for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia disease carriers in high schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, J. J.; Capua, A.; Clow, C.; Scriver, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Programs for education, screening, and counseling of senior-high-school students, in populations at high risk for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases, have existed for >20 years in Montreal. Four process and outcome variables are reported here: (i) voluntary participation rates in the high-school cohort; (ii) uptake rates for the screening test; (iii) origin of carrier couples seeking the prenatal diagnosis option in the programs; and (iv) change in incidence of the two diseases. Between ...

  13. The Bert and Peggy DuPont lecture. "Love, death, and commitment: twenty three years of HIV and genocide prevention in Africa" or "Passionate not equal unhinged".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, HIV emerged as the #1 cause of death in African adults, and the Rwanda genocide became the most concentrated mass murder in recorded history. Though one catastrophe surfaced slowly and inexorably while the other smoldered for years before exploding in 1994, the lessons learned are similar. In both situations, the international community has combined moral bankruptcy with a spectacular display of incompetence. Genocide masterminds continue living in Michigan, Minneapolis and Boston, brazenly planning the final extermination of the Tutsi. Students of law, diplomacy and international development are astoundingly sanguine about this, as though our current abdication of responsibility today is mitigated by the centuries of unprincipled idiots who preceded us. If medicine operated this way we'd still be treating syphilis with arsenic. Unfortunately, medicine has lost the moral high ground in Africa through missed opportunities and misappropriation of resources. In the last five years we have spent 20% of the US bilateral foreign assistance budget putting 2.5 million Africans on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), while twice that number of new HIV infections occurred. We tested 50 million Africans for HIV without acting on the evidence and common sense: rather than-transmission happens between two people. Had we tested Africans as couples, a prevention strategy proven to be effective in multiple publications since the early '90s, we could have averted more HIV infections than we are now treating, and at a fraction of the cost.

  14. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  16. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  17. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  18. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Twenty-year follow-up of children with and without speech-language impairments: family, educational, occupational, and quality of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla J; Beitchman, Joseph H; Brownlie, E B

    2010-02-01

    Parents, professionals, and policy makers need information on the long-term prognosis for children with communication disorders. Our primary purpose in this report was to help fill this gap by profiling the family, educational, occupational, and quality of life outcomes of young adults at 25 years of age (N = 244) from the Ottawa Language Study, a 20-year, prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of individuals with (n = 112) and without (n = 132) a history of early speech and/or language impairments. A secondary purpose of this report was to use data from earlier phases of the study to predict important, real-life outcomes at age 25. Participants were initially identified at age 5 and subsequently followed at 12, 19, and 25 years of age. Direct assessments were conducted at all 4 time periods in multiple domains (demographic, communicative, cognitive, academic, behavioral, and psychosocial). At age 25, young adults with a history of language impairments showed poorer outcomes in multiple objective domains (communication, cognitive/academic, educational attainment, and occupational status) than their peers without early communication impairments and those with early speech-only impairments. However, those with language impairments did not differ in subjective perceptions of their quality of life from those in the other 2 groups. Objective outcomes at age 25 were predicted differentially by various combinations of multiple, interrelated risk factors, including poor language and reading skills, low family socioeconomic status, low performance IQ, and child behavior problems. Subjective well-being, however, was primarily associated with strong social networks of family, friends, and others. This information on the natural history of communication disorders may be useful in answering parents' questions, anticipating challenges that children with language disorders might encounter, and planning services to address those issues.

  20. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.

  1. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251

  2. Long-term follow-up after surgical treatment of talar fractures: Twenty cases with an average follow-up of 7.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Xavier; Harisboure, Alain; Hemery, Xavier; Dehoux, Emile

    2011-01-01

    Displaced talar neck and body fractures are rare and serious injuries with important outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of these fractures after operative treatment in our centre between 1993 and 2005. Displaced talar fractures have a high rate of long-term complications. This was a retrospective study concerning 20 patients with an average follow-up of 7.5 years. The final follow-up examination included determination of the AHS score (ankle-hindfoot scale) from the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), range of motion evaluation and radiological analysis. Mean age at the time of trauma was 38.8 years. This study comprised ten talar neck fractures and ten talar body fractures. We always used a single surgical approach and obtained anatomical reduction in 30% of the whole series of both groups. Four early complications were noted in four patients (20%). We noted no skin complications and the rate of consolidation was 100%. Four patients (20%) developed avascular necrosis of the talus, and at final follow-up seven patients (35%) had undergone secondary surgery. Radiographic analysis showed an osteoarthritis rate of 94% and a malunion rate of 59%. The mean AOFAS score was 66.9/100 and range of motion was systematically decreased. Contrary to undisplaced talar fractures, displaced talar fractures are a therapeutic challenge with many early or late complications. The outcome often revealed stiffness and osteoarthritis.

  3. Stress-testing banks under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, T.; Vasilopoulos, C.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Years of turmoil in the banking sector have revealed the need to assess bank performance under deep uncertainty and identify vulnerabilities to different types of risks. Banks are not the safe houses of old. Today, banks are highly uncertain dynamically complex systems that are permanently at risk

  4. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years.

  5. The certifying examination of the american board of surgery: the effect of improving communication and professional competency: twenty-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Pamela A; Trus, Thadeus L; Lang, Nicholas P; Henriques, Horace; Reed, William P; Sadighi, Parvis J; Sutton, John E; Alseidi, Adnan A; Cahalane, Michael J; Gauvin, Jeffrey M; Pofahl, Walter E; Sartorelli, Kennith H; Goldin, Steven B; Greenburg, A Gerson

    2012-01-01

    In 1985, a small research group identified variables affecting applicant success on the oral Certifying Examination (CE) of the American Board of Surgery (ABS). This led to the design of an oral examination course first taught in 1991. The success of and need for this program led to its continuation. The results from the first 10 years were presented at the 2001 Association of Program Directors in Surgery annual meeting.(1) We now report the outcomes for the course of the second 10 years as measured by success on the CE. Thirty-six courses were held over 20 years. There were 57 invited faculty from 27 general surgery programs throughout the United States and Canada. The participant-to-faculty ratio ranged from 16:7 to 5:1 in the newer 3-day format (2007). Courses were offered at sites that replicated the actual examination setting. Each course included (1) pretest and posttest examinations, (2) analysis of case presentation skills, (3) measurement of communication apprehension, (4) 1:1 faculty feedback, (5) small-group practice sessions, (6) individual videotaping, (7) didactic review of specific behaviors on examinations, (8) a debrief session with two faculty members, and (9) a written evaluative summary that included an improvement strategy. There were 36 courses with 326 participants (30-54 years). Follow-up data are available for 225 participants. Trends were analyzed between 1991-2001 and 2002-2011. As resident performance on the CE increased in importance, applicant profiles changed from those who had previously failed (1991-2001) to residents identified by program directors as needing assistance (52%). Since 2002, most course participants (69%) who had failed the CE had completed at least 1 other review course. Participants reported more significant stressors (2002-2011) 9%, but communication apprehension remained the same. As a result, individual counseling for anger and family stressors was integrated into the course. The perception of knowledge deficits

  6. Radical prostatectomy versus expectant treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate. Twenty-three year follow-up of a prospective randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Madsen, P O; Corle, D K

    1995-01-01

    In a study by the Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group (VACURG), 142 patients with localized prostate cancer, VACURG stage I and II, were randomized between radical prostatectomy plus placebo versus placebo alone as initial treatment. 111 patients were evaluable for treat......In a study by the Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group (VACURG), 142 patients with localized prostate cancer, VACURG stage I and II, were randomized between radical prostatectomy plus placebo versus placebo alone as initial treatment. 111 patients were evaluable...... for treatment comparison. Median follow-up for survival is 23 years. The prognostic value of Gleason histologic grading was confirmed. A difference in overall survival in favor of radical prostatectomy was observed in stage I patients. However, after adjustment for imbalance in age distribution...

  7. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  8. Twenty-year outcome analysis of genetic screening programs for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia disease carriers in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. J.; Capua, A.; Clow, C.; Scriver, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Programs for education, screening, and counseling of senior-high-school students, in populations at high risk for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases, have existed for >20 years in Montreal. Four process and outcome variables are reported here: (i) voluntary participation rates in the high-school cohort; (ii) uptake rates for the screening test; (iii) origin of carrier couples seeking the prenatal diagnosis option in the programs; and (iv) change in incidence of the two diseases. Between 1972 and 1992, we screened 14,844 Ashkenazi-Jewish students, identified 521 HexA-deficient carriers (frequency 1:28), reached 89% of the demographic cohort in the educational component of the program, and achieved 67% voluntary participation in the subsequent screening phase. The corresponding data for the beta-thalassemia program are 25,274 students (mainly of Mediterranean origin) representing 67% of the cohort with 61% voluntary participation in the screening phase (693 carriers; frequency 1:36). From demographic data, we deduce that virtually all the carriers identified in the high-school screening program remembered their status, had their partner tested if they did not already know they were a carrier couple, and took up the options for reproductive counseling/prenatal diagnosis. In Montreal, the current origin of all couples using prenatal diagnosis for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases is the corresponding genetic screening/testing program, whereas, at the beginning of the programs, it was always because there was a history of an affected person in the family. Incidence of the two diseases has fallen by 90%-95% over 20 years; the rare new cases are born (with two exceptions) outside the target communities or to nonscreened couples. PMID:8808593

  9. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D.; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. PMID:15682248

  10. Os 22 anos da Horticultura Brasileira: a revista chega a maioridade Twenty-two years: Horticultura Brasileira reaches the adult age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2004-12-01

    .The genesis and growth of a scientific journal are unique events to be observed and studied. Horticultura Brasileira (HB is the official journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, and in 2004 the journal accomplishes 22 years of uninterrupted publishing since the release of its first issue in 1983. The journal succeeded 'Olericultura' (later 'Revista de Olericultura', the previous annual journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, published between 1961 and 1980, which presented abstracts and full papers of the annual meetings. Back to 1983, HB was a semestrally journal, created to publish original research papers of horticultural sciences, with an editorial board of four members and the peer review system, all new for the Society members. HB differed from the previous journal by its new format (28 cm x 20.5 cm, the colorful cover changed at each issue and the modern graphic design. HB was divided in distinct sections to include all segments of the Society, such as vegetable growers, rural extensionists, researchers, professors and students. During the last 22 years, HB published a total of 1,083 papers in 5,207 pages, divided in different sections: 'Letters to the Editor', 24 articles; 'Invited Articles', 37; 'Research', 561; 'Grower's Page', 133; 'Pesticides and Fertilizers in Test', 131; 'Economy and Rural Extension', 31; 'New Cultivar', 43; 'Note', 153 (this last section was abolished in 1996. During the 1983-1995 period, the journal published 34.6 articles/year, 47.3 articles/year during 1996-2001 and 116.3 articles/year from 2002 to 2004. Presently, HB is quarterly issued and has an editorial board of 30 editors of different research areas and institutions. The challenges faced by HB today are the raise of publication costs and the constant improvement of the publishing processes.

  11. Twenty-Year Predictors of Peripheral Arterial Disease Compared With Coronary Heart Disease in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Peters, Sanne A E; Woodward, Mark; Struthers, Allan D; Belch, Jill J F

    2017-09-18

    Coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affect different vascular territories. Supplementing baseline findings with assays from stored serum, we compared their 20-year predictors. We randomly recruited 15 737 disease-free men and women aged 30 to 75 years across Scotland between 1984 and 1995 and followed them through 2009 for death and hospital diagnoses. Of these, 3098 developed coronary heart disease (19.7%), and 499 PAD (3.2%). Hazard ratios for 45 variables in the Cox model were adjusted for age and sex and for factors in the 2007 ASSIGN cardiovascular risk score. Forty-four of them were entered into parsimonious predictive models, tested by c-statistics and net reclassification improvements. Many hazard ratios diminished with adjustment and parsimonious modeling, leaving significant survivors. The hazard ratios were mostly higher in PAD. New parsimonious models increased the c-statistic and net reclassification improvements over ASSIGN variables alone but varied in their components and ranking. Coronary heart disease and PAD shared 7 of the 9 factors from ASSIGN: age, sex, family history, socioeconomic status, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and systolic blood pressure (but neither total nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); plus 4 new ones: NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cystatin-C. The highest ranked hazard ratios for continuous factors in coronary heart disease were those for age, total cholesterol, high-sensitivity troponin, NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, apolipoprotein A, and waist circumference (plus 10 more); in PAD they were age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, expired carbon monoxide, cotinine, socioeconomic status, and lipoprotein (a) (plus 5 more). The mixture of shared with disparate determinants for arterial disease in the heart and the legs implies nonidentical pathogenesis: cholesterol dominant in the former, and inflammation (high-sensitivity C

  12. Soil-plant relationships and contamination by trace elements: A review of twenty years of experimentation and monitoring after the Aznalcóllar (SW Spain) mine accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, Paula; Domínguez, María T; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M

    2018-06-01

    Soil contamination by trace elements (TE) is a major environmental problem and much research is done into its effects on ecosystems and human health, as well as into remediation techniques. The Aznalcóllar mine accident (April 1998) was a large-scale ecological and socio-economic catastrophe in the South of Spain. We present here a literature review that synthesizes the main results found during the research conducted at the affected area over the past 20years since the mine accident, focused on the soil-plant system. We review, in depth, information about the characterization of the mine slurry and contaminated soils, and of the TE monitoring, performed until the present time. The reclamation techniques included the removal of sludge and soil surface layer and use of soil amendments; we review the effects of different types of amendments at different spatial scales and their effectiveness with time. Monitoring of TE in soil and their transfer to plants (crops, herbs, shrubs, and trees) were evaluated to assess potential toxicity effects in the food web. The utility of some plants (accumulators) with regard to the biomonitoring of TE in the environment was also evaluated. On the other hand, retention of TE by plant roots and their associated microorganisms was used as a low-cost technique for TE stabilization and soil remediation. We also evaluate the experience acquired in making the Guadiamar Green Corridor a large-scale soil reclamation and phytoremediation case study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the most successful optical technologies implemented in medicine and clinical practice mostly due to the possibility of non-invasive and non-contact imaging by detecting back-scattered light. OCT has gone through a tremendous development over the past 25 years. From its initial inception in 1991 [Science 254, 1178 (1991)1957169] it has become an indispensable medical imaging technology in ophthalmology. Also in fields like cardiology and gastro-enterology the technology is envisioned to become a standard of care. A key contributor to the success of OCT has been the sensitivity and speed advantage offered by Fourier domain OCT. In this review paper the development of FD-OCT will be revisited, providing a single comprehensive framework to derive the sensitivity advantage of both SD- and SS-OCT. We point out the key aspects of the physics and the technology that has enabled a more than 2 orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity, and as a consequence an increase in the imaging speed without loss of image quality. This speed increase provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to comprehensive 3D in vivo imaging, whose clinical impact is still actively explored by a large number of researchers worldwide. PMID:28717565

  14. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  15. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  16. Twenty-year follow-up of a familial case of PTH1R-associated primary failure of tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Cláudia Misue; de Oliveira, José Américo; Garcia, José Fernando; Roth, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2017-03-01

    Nonsyndromic primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of dental eruption with no obvious dental or soft tissue interference. The purposes of this study were to genetically and clinically characterize a family with many members affected by PFE and to describe the natural evolution of the disorder. Three generations of a family with 18 members, 10 of them clinically affected by PFE, were evaluated periodically during 20 years of clinical follow-up. PFE was observed in varying degrees of severity in both sexes. Clinical presentation became more severe in adulthood. One patient had spontaneous reeruption of 2 posterior teeth. Cervical root resorptions were observed in 3 members. Genetic analysis showed a deleterious heterozygous mutation in intron 9 of the PTH1R gene (c.639-2A>G) and diagnosed an additional affected member. The long-term follow-up of PFE cases in this family permitted the following observations: (1) the onset occurred from the preemergence to the postemergence phases, (2) PFE appeared to be closely related to ankylosis, (3) affected teeth maintained the eruptive potential even in adulthood, (4) the earlier the onset the more severe the open bite, and (5) cervical root resorptions occurred in 3 affected members. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Twenty-Year Trajectory of Suicidal Activity Among Post-Hospital Psychiatric Men and Women with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J; Harrow, Martin; Clews, Kelsey

    2016-07-02

    The Chicago Follow-up Study has followed the course of severe mental illness among psychiatric patients for more than 20 years after their index hospitalization. Among these patients are 97 schizophrenia patients, 45 patients with schizoaffective disorders, 102 patients with unipolar nonpsychotic depression, and 53 patients with a bipolar disorder. Maximum suicidal activity (suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and suicide completions) generally declines over the 3 time periods (early, middle, and late follow-ups) following discharge from the acute psychiatric hospitalization for both males and females across diagnostic categories with two exceptions: female schizophrenia patients and female bipolar patients. A weighted mean suicidal activity score tended to decrease across follow-ups for male patients in the schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and depressive diagnostic groups with an uneven trend in this direction for the male bipolars. No such pattern emerges for our female patients except for female depressives. Males' suicidal activity seems more triggered by psychotic symptoms and potential chronic disability while females' suicidal activity seems more triggered by affective symptoms.

  18. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  19. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  20. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the depletion of base cations in shallow flow paths in WB. Progressive depletion of Ca and Mg at greater soil depth occurred, causing stream concentrations to decline to pre-manipulation values. Mean monthly Si concentrations did not change in EB or WB, suggesting that the manipulation had no effect on mineral weathering rates. DOC concentrations in both streams did not exhibit inter- or intra-annual trends.

  1. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  2. O SUS nos seus 20 anos: reflexões num contexto de mudanças Twenty years of SUS: reflections in a context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Costa de Araújo Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma breve retrospectiva sobre o direito à saúde conquistado pelo cidadão brasileiro, este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ao longo da sua trajetória de 20 anos, destacando em forma de análise crítica os avanços conquistados na saúde e os desafios a serem superados. São discutidas as temáticas do direito à saúde como responsabilidade do Estado a partir da Conferência de Alma-Ata, da Constituição Federal e das Leis Orgânicas da Saúde; as diretrizes do SUS envolvendo as competências da União, do Estado e do Município. Discute ainda a importância da Estratégia Saúde da Família na consolidação da Atenção Básica no Brasil, as dificuldades do processo de regionalização e o papel da gestão e da participação social como bases para a construção do SUS que queremos.From a brief review of the right to healthcare won by the Brazilian citizens, this article aims to discuss Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System throughout its trajectory of 20 years, providing a critical review of the progress achieved in healthcare and the challenges to be overcome. It discusses the issues of: the right to healthcare as the State's responsibility based on the Alma-Ata Conference, the Federal Constitution and the Organic Laws on Health; SUS guidelines involving the competences of the Union, States and Municipalities. It also approaches the importance of the Family Health Strategy for the consolidation of Primary Care in Brazil, the difficulties in the process of regional health planning, and the role of management and social participation as the bases for the construction of the SUS we want.

  3. Twenty years of home-based palliative care in Malappuram, Kerala, India: a descriptive study of patients and their care-givers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Rekha Rachel; Philip, Sairu; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Manima, Abdulla; Venables, Emilie

    2018-02-14

    The well lauded community-based palliative care programme of Kerala, India provides medical and social support, through home-based care, for patients with terminal illness and diseases requiring long-term support. There is, however, limited information on patient characteristics, caregivers and programme performance. This study was carried out to describe: i) the patients enrolled in the programme from 1996 to 2016 and their diagnosis, and ii) the care-giver characteristics and palliative care support from nurses and doctors in a cohort of patients registered during 2013-2015. A descriptive study was conducted in the oldest community-based palliative clinic in Kerala. Data were collected from annual patient registers from 1996 to 2016 and patient case records during the period 2013-2015. While 91% of the patients registered in the clinic in 1996 had cancer, its relative proportion came down to 32% in 2016 with the inclusion of dementia-related illness (19%) cardiovascular accidents (17%) and severe mental illness (5%).Among patients registered during 2013-15, the median number of home visits from nurses and doctors in 12 months were five and one respectively. In the same cohort, twelve months' post-enrolment, 56% of patients died, 30% were in continuing in active care and 7% opted out. Those who opted out of care were likely to be aged care-giver at home, 85% of these care-givers being female. The changing dynamics over a 20-year period of this palliative care programme in Kerala, India, highlights the need for similar programmes to remain flexible and adapt their services in response to a growing global burden of Non Communicable Diseases. While a high death rate is expected in this population, the high proportion of patients choosing to stay in the programme suggests that home-based care is valued within this particular group. A diverse range of clinical and psycho-social support skills are required to assist families and their caregivers when caring for a

  4. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. Strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. Still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems even in EU countries. In order to determine the spatial and temporal variation of pollutant and nutrient loads in different environmental media a unique ecological response cadastre (Okologisches Wirkungskataster, OKWI) was set up in the Land of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) in the mid 1980s. As a part of the program a state-wide bioindicator network was established in 64 forest and 18 permanent grassland ecosystems, in which selected chemical elements were measured over time. Here, we report on the results of these analyses and discuss the general spatio-temporal trends in pollution loads. Sixty-four forest and 18 permanent grassland plots were established in state-owned forest and nature conservation areas of SW Germany representing different landscapes and geologies of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Apart from performing vegetation relevées in marked plots of either the grassland or forest sites, plant samples were collected in intervals of 2 to 3 years following a standardised protocol. To be able to compare the different monitoring sites, four common species were chosen as indicator species in the grasslands. Later on, also bulk grassland samples were taken regardless of the species. In the forests, foliage of the dominant tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Abiea alba or Fraxinus excelsior) was sampled in the crown of marked trees and from the same species in the herb layer. The elements analysed in the plant material were the essential plant

  5. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  6. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  7. Urban Cooperative Banks :At CrossRoads

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajapillai, Ramu

    2008-01-01

    Urban Cooperative Bank in India, with their long history of over 100 years, play an important role in financial inclusion. The mainstay of these banks was rooted in their captive clientele the forms of shareholders, and also in some cases specific community or location. This shielded them from the competition from large commercial banks. Recently, Indian banking industry has witnessed failure of a large number of Urban Cooperative banks. What are the reasons for these failures and what lays a...

  8. Ecotourism revisited: Last twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandel Abhinav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecotourism evolves differently in developing and developed nations due to which the basic principles of ecotourism are in question. The existing literature on ecotourism suggests ambiguity in conceptual understanding of ecotourism. Due to this qualm, ecotourism is evolving into various forms. Different stakeholders with varying objectives related to ecotourism make it further difficult to form the consensus on what constitutes ecotourism. Without the clear understanding of ecotourism, it is difficult to evolve ethics on which the ecotourism principles are based. The focus of this research is to find out the principle components or themes of ecotourism using a content analysis for the development of ecotourism policy and applications. This study identified six key components of ecotourism which are widely accepted by researchers and could be used to shape the fundamental understanding of ecotourism. These themes are: (1 Nature oriented travel; (2 Support of conservation; (3 Learning and appreciation; (4 Socio-economic development of local area; (5 Support and respect for local culture and (6 Local people (area participation.

  9. Twenty years of improvements in LWR safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, S. III; Mulkey, J.P.; Moonka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the safety of light-water reactors in the US during the past two decades, making currently operating reactors safer than ever before. Safety improvements have resulted both from regulatory and operational changes and from new knowledge and technology. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Department of Energy, and the American nuclear power industry have worked together and with the international community to enhance the safety of existing plants and to incorporate lessons learned from prior operation into designs for a new generation of advanced, inherently safer reactors

  10. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  11. UNESCO's twenty years of work for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    When UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, celebrated its twentieth anniversary in November, the Agency was happy to join in the congratulations sent from all parts of the world. In this case there were special reasons, since UNESCO was interested in the peaceful development of atomic energy before IAEA was set up, and there have been a number of areas of common interest

  12. Twenty Years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. PMID:25047131

  13. Twenty years of acanthamoeba diagnostics in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Asian development bank: can it become an actual development bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank(ADB) was founded in the mid-sixties. In addition to the Asian countries, it also has members from among the wealthy countries in North America, Europe and Oceania. Over the years, ADB has grown in size and prestige among the regional development banks. As Khan (2004, 2007 and 2012) argues, within a hybrid workable global financial architecture, regional development banks like the ADB can play a constructive role.

  15. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  16. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  17. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The findings of this study have motivated new recommendations for bank customers, bank management and shareholders with regard to electronic banking adoption for banking operations. Keywords: Electronic banking, returns on assets (ROA), returns on Equity (ROE), difference between means and ...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.715 - How do I bank emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1054.715 How do I bank emission credits? (a) Banking is... future model years for averaging or trading. You may use banked emission credits only within the...

  20. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century

  1. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  2. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  3. Factors Determining Bank Competitive Strategy: An Empirical Study on Local Development Banks (LDBS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad IRFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.

  4. Does Foreign Ownership Foster Bank Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effect of a rise in foreign ownership on banks' interest revenues and profitability using panel data of banks worldwide. We determine the exact yearly foreign ownership for each bank and construct a continuous foreign ownership variable. Estimating with the system generalized methods

  5. The Interrelationship Between Bank Failure and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years there has been an increase in the number of bank failures in both centralized and decentralized economies (Saunders, 1994; Williams, 1995; The Economist, 1992; European Bank of Reconstruction, 1993). Internal reasons given for the bank failures include reckless lending, corruption, non-use of prudent ...

  6. Why High Leverage is Optimal for Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Harry DeAngelo; René M. Stulz

    2013-01-01

    Liquidity production is a central role of banks. We show that, under idealized conditions, high leverage is optimal for banks when there is a market premium for (socially valuable) liquid financial claims and no deviations from Modigliani and Miller (1958) due to agency problems, deposit insurance, taxes, or any other distortions. Our model can explain (i) why bank leverage increased over the last 150 years or so, (ii) why high bank leverage per se does not necessarily cause systemic risk, an...

  7. APPLIED ISSUES ABOUT BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina Clipici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper emphasizes the need to deepen the understanding of the notion of banking risk management by explaining the significant risks the bank encounters during financial exercises as well as their additional entries. The study of the paper will focus on UniCredit Bank during the years 2014 and  2015 on all types of risks, in which we will provide comprehensive data on how the UniCredit Bank management applies its risk policies.

  8. Effect of Postmortem Interval and Years in Storage on RNA Quality of Tissue at a Repository of the NIH NeuroBioBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimberly; Yang, Peixin; Li, Ling; Farshori, Amna; Medina, Alexandre E; Zielke, Horst Ronald

    2018-04-01

    Brain tissue from 1068 donors was analyzed for RNA quality as a function of postmortem interval (PMI) and years in storage. Approximately 83% of the cortical and cerebellar samples had an RNA integrity number (RIN) of 6 or greater, indicating their likely suitability for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction research. The average RIN value was independent of the PMI, up to at least 36 hours. The RNA quality for specific donated brains could not be predicted based on the PMI. Individual samples with a low PMI could have a poor RIN value, while a sample with a PMI over 36 hours may have a high RIN value. The RIN values for control brain donors, all of whom died suddenly and unexpectedly, were marginally higher than for individuals with clinical brain disorders. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of samples confirmed that RIN values were more critical than PMI for determining suitability of tissue for molecular biological studies and samples should be matched by their RIN values rather than PMI. Importantly, PCR analysis established that tissue stored up to 23 years at -80°C yielded high-quality RNA. These results confirm that postmortem human brain tissue collected by brain and tissue banks over decades can serve as high quality material for the study of human disorders.

  9. Assault in children admitted to trauma centers: Injury patterns and outcomes from a 5-year review of the national trauma data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Dhillon, Navpreet K; Smith, Eric J T; Tatum, James M; Chung, Rex; Melo, Nicolas; Ley, Eric J; Margulies, Daniel R

    2017-07-01

    While assault is commonly reported or suspected in children with traumatic wounds, a recent overview of these injuries, especially those requiring trauma surgery consultation is lacking in the literature. Explore the incidence, demographics and injury patterns of children presenting to trauma centers following an assault. Retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank 2007 to 2011. Subjects up to 18 years old with "assault" reported as the intent of injury. Patients were divided into infants (age groups and race. Of 609,207 children, 58,299 (9.6%) were victims of an assault. The median age was 16 years and 81% were male, with a median injury severity score (ISS) of 8. The majority of patients were adolescents (76%), followed by infants (17%) and young children (4%). There was a stepwise increase in the proportion of assaulted Black children with increasing age (23.2% for infants and up to 46.7% for adolescents, trend p age, White subjects had the highest trend of being assaulted during an unarmed fight or brawl (p age and race. Assault in children is associated with a high mortality risk. These data highlight the magnitude of the problem and calls for further involvement of trauma surgeons to improve outcomes, bring awareness and promote preventative strategies to eliminate assault in children. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  12. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  13. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  14. Living planktonic foraminifera of the Wadge bank, Northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Panikkar, B.M.; Kutty, M.K.

    Twenty three species of living planktonic Foraminifera belonging to 11 genera have been studied from the Wadge Bank area off southern tip of the Indian peninsula. The fauna is characterized by species such as Globigerinoides conglobatus, G...

  15. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  16. Common Problems of Mortgage Banking Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the mortgage banking plays a basic role in the housing funding. The Polish model of the housing funding in large measure grounded on banking loans. However, more than 95% of mortgage loans come from universal banks. Mortgage banks, which have existed in the Polish economy for 10 years still play a small role in housing funding.

  17. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  18. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan (Santamarian) Oana Raluca

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations...

  1. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  2. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  3. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.

  4. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  5. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum Dan Sesudah Diakuisisi Oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris Pada Bank Central Asia Dan Bank Niaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the writer interesting to compare the bank’s financial performance before and after being acquired using two banks as samples of empirical study. Data is based on financial statements published by the companies and Central Bank of Indonesia in 1995-1996, and 2003-2004. Two sample of banks have been selected based on several criteria, they are BCA and Bank Niaga. To analyse their financial performance, several analysis tools will be using, specifically CAMELS (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, LDR minus mangement and sensitivity. The result of the study observed that after being acquired, financial performance of BCA and Niaga Bank is getting better in CAR, NIM, BOPO, but NPL and LDR is less favorable for BCA and so NPL is less favorable for Niaga Bank. Moreover, in terms of profitability analysis, both banks shows better performance. While, the result of credit analysis indicates that the credit risk for both banks is in the stable range at CCC.

  6. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  7. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... powerful vehicle for research. Banks can provide information and services online which customers can pay for and receive. Banking processes are made more efficient and cost effective by integrating other aspects of banking operations such as management and financial control. Ovia. [6] posits that on-line ...

  8. isk governance: Experience of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohaya Mat Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk governance has evolved tremendously in the banking industry. Risk governance recommends the imperative roles of Chief Risk Officer (CRO to oversee risk. This study explores risk governance influence over the Islamic banks performances. Multivariate analysis techniques measure simultaneously via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. This study employed cross-sectional sample of 200 Islamic banks across 21 countries for the year 2014. To examine risk governance and Islamic banks performance, the study captures seventeen variables developed from risk management and corporate governance (ROA, ROE, Profit Margin, CRO, Shariah committee member, CEO, board size, remuneration meeting, credit rating, external audit, accounting standard, loan loss provision, capital adequacy ratio, total deposit ratio, GDP, central bank lending rate and inflation. The simulation result reveals, risk governance act as mediating variables towards Islamic banks performance. This study has practical and significance contribution for Islamic banks to understand risk governance, aligning with the fundamental risk management and corporate governance

  9. An Indicator Based Assessment Methodology Proposal for the Identification of Domestic Systemically Important Banks within the Turkish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge ULKUTAS SACCI; Guven SAYILGAN

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify domestic systemically important banks (D-SIB) operating within the Turkish Banking Sector. In this regard, adopting an indicator based assessment methodology together with the cluster analysis application, banks in the sample are classified in terms of their degree of systemic importance by using publicly available year-end data of 2012. The study has shown that a total of 7 banks with the highest systemic importance clustered away from the remaining 21 banks in th...

  10. Pengukuran Tingkat Efisiensi Bank Syariah dan Bank Konvensional di Indonesia dengan Formula David Cole’s Roe For Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachruddin Bachruddin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze the difference in the rate of efficiency between the group of Syariah Bank with the group of conventional Banks in Indonesia during 2003 and 2004. To analyze the rate of efficiency indicated by the Rate of Return (ROE, the research uses three factors namely Profit Margin (PM, Asset Utilization (AU and Equity Multiplier (EM. The research was based on secondary data consisted of finan¬cial reports collected from the said two group of banks, comprising 4 Syariah Bank and 4 Conventional Banks, for the period of 2003 and 2004.The tools of analysis used in the research consisted of two methods. The first was variance test analy¬sis for the average of ROE between the two groups of banks. The second was regression analysis applied for each group of banks. In this model, the factors i.e. PM, AU and EM were estimated to influence the ROE.The result of the research showed that the ROE of Syariah Bank was significantly difference with the ROE of Conventional Banks. In this result the standard deviation of ROE of Syariah Banks was smaller than con¬ventional banks. Further, the result indicated that PM, AU and EM of Syariah Bank were significantly influenced to ROE. Meanwhile, the three factors were not significantly influenced to ROE of Conventional Banks.In order to get the better result in the next research of this topic, the number of samples should be greater and it is suggested to apply the other method of analysis like discriminate analysis. Further, the period of empirical study should be longer at least five years.Keywords: rate of efficiency, profit margin, asset utilization, equity multiplier, bank syariah

  11. A new paradigm of modern central banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szunke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the modern monetary policy, which took place at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in response to the global financial crisis led to the transformation of the place and the role of central banks. The strategic aim of the central monetary institutions has become preventing financial instability. So far, central banks have defined financial stability as a public good, which took care independently of other monetary purposes (Pyka, 2010. Unconventional monetary policy resulted in changes the global central banking. The aim of the study is to identify a new paradigm of the role and place of the central bank in the financial system and its new responsibilities, aimed at countering financial instability.

  12. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  13. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  14. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...

  15. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...

  16. Fast risetime one megajoule capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markins, D.; Baker, W.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Clark, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A 100 kV, 1.1 MJ capacitor bank for plasma research experiments has been constructed for the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The system consists of twenty, individual, low inductance capacitor modules, each utilizing a four element switch package approximately 2 meters wide. Each module contains twenty-four ''scyllac'' type 1.85 μF capacitors. A 100 kV output pulse is obtained by charging the top half of each module to +50 kV and the bottom half to -50 kV. A pressurized, low inductance multichannel switch package incorporating four separately triggered elements is designed to fit into the parallel plate transmission line system of the capacitor module. The bank is configured in a cross shape with twenty modules spaced uniformly around the perimeter of a parallel plate transmission line. The transmission line is constructed with 32 mil aluminum and insulated with 60 mils of mylar. The bank is designed to feed an easily replaceable central coaxial load. The entire system has been repeatedly fired at 100 kV with a dummy resistive load and has delivered 2.2 x 10 7 amperes of current with a risetime of 1.1 μsec. The total measured system inductance is 2.2 nH. This system represents a significant advance in the development of reliable, fast, high current capacitor banks

  17. Bank, Banking System, Macroprudential Supervision, Stability of Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vasilyeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid

  18. Toward a Twenty-First Century Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Antelman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Library catalogs have represented stagnant technology for close to twenty years. Moving toward a next-generation catalog, North Carolina State University (NCSU Libraries purchased Endeca’s Information Access Platform to give its users relevance-ranked keyword search results and to leverage the rich metadata trapped in the MARC record to enhance collection browsing. This paper discusses the new functionality that has been enabled, the implementation process and system architecture, assessment of the new catalog’s performance, and future directions.

  19. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  20. Bank stress testing under different balance sheet assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Ramona; Drescher, Christian; Memmel, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Using unique supervisory survey data on the impact of a hypothetical interest rate shock on German banks, we analyse price and quantity effects on banks' net interest margin components under different balance sheet assumptions. In the first year, the cross-sectional variation of banks' simulated price effect is nearly eight times as large as the one of the simulated quantity effect. After five years, however, the importance of both effects converges. Large banks adjust their balance sheets mo...

  1. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    -structural indicators and compare it with the structural indicators of competition. In particular, we measure competition using Lerner index and the H-statistic, indicators what are estimated using bank-level data and are compared with a standard market structure measure of concentration like HHI and CR5. There are no other studies that measure both structural and non-structural competition indicators for Romanian banking sector. Also, our assessment contains a period of seven years including the begging of the implications of the present international financial crises on Romanian banking sector. The structural indicators show continuous increase of competition in the Romanian banking system. Lerner index and H statistic demonstrate that Romanian banking system is characterized by monopolistic competition and relatively competitive practices. Personnel cost, operational cost and financial cost are statistically significant at conventional levels, which imply good fit of the revenue equations. The results also demonstrate that excess fixed assets do not generate abnormal revenue.

  2. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  3. Regional Banks in the Russian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank

  4. Vinte anos do MST: a psicologia nesta história Veinte años de lo movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra: la psicología en esta historia Landless peasants’ movement after twenty years: psychology and the movement’s history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Domingues

    2007-12-01

    resultados y conclusiones de las pesquisas. Se destaca la necesidad de estudios sobre la infancia, desterritorialización y sufrimiento psíquico y salud mental en el campo.The Landless Peasants’ Movement (MST in Brazil commemorated twenty years in 2004. Throughout its lifetime, it has aroused the interest of researchers hailing from different areas, mainly from those involved in Education and Sociology. Few researches on the movement are extant within Psychology. The mapping of general scientific production on the Movement and an analysis of the specific production within Psychology are the objects of current research. An online search was undertaken at the CAPES data bank with regard to the 1987-2004. All abstracts were printed and classified. Whereas the abstracts revealed the theses and dissertations developed in postgraduate programs for Master’s degree in Psychology, the dissertations were read to identify pre-oriented subject matter in the researches, their main results and their conclusions. The need for further studies concerning childhood, de-territorialization, psychic suffering and mental health conditions in the rural area is emphasized.

  5. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  6. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  7. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  8. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  9. International Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and to some extent descriptive analysis is to highlight the Islamic banking & finance theory, and to explain the practical disparity all over the Muslim Umma along with commonalities of Islamic banking in them. Islamic banking has been now become a value proposition which transcends cultures and will do speedily in next decades despite of cutting throat competition expected in global banking scenario. The size of Islamic Financial Industry has now reached size ...

  10. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...

  11. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  12. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  13. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  14. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  15. Banking in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are

  16. Bank profitability during recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; de Haan, Leo; Hoeberichts, Marco; van Oordt, Maarten R C; Swank, Job

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between bank profitability and economic activity. When allowing for stronger co-movement of bank profit with economic activity during deep recessions, we find a much larger impact of output growth on bank profitability than commonly found in

  17. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  18. Blood banking services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, V N

    1996-01-01

    India's health care sector has made impressive strides toward providing health for all by the year 2000. That progress, however, has not been supported by a modern transfusion services network which continues to improve itself. In India, blood collection, storage, and delivery occur mainly in blood banks attached to hospitals, most of which are under central and state government controls. A significant portion of blood banking activity is also done by voluntary agencies and private sector blood banks. A study found the blood transfusion services infrastructure to be highly decentralized and lacking of many critical resources; an overall shortage of blood, especially from volunteer donors; limited and erratic testing facilities; an extremely limited blood component production/availability/use; and a shortage of health care professionals in the field of transfusion services. Infrastructural modernization and the technical upgrading of skills in the blood banks would, however, provide India with a dynamic transfusion services network. The safety of blood transfusion, the national blood safety program, HIV testing facilities, modernization of blood banks, the rational use of blood, program management, manpower development, the legal framework, voluntary blood donation, and a 1996 Supreme Court judgement on the need to focus greater attention upon the blood program are discussed.

  19. Banco Mundial: concepção, criação e primeiros anos (1942-60 World Bank: conception, creation and the first years (1942-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Márcio Mendes Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os embates em torno da concepção da criação e dos primeiros anos de funcionamento do Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento (BIRD, mais conhecido como Banco Mundial. Para isso, remonta ao início dos anos 1940, quando começaram as negociações entre os EUA e a Inglaterra em torno da criação da arquitetura monetária e financeira internacional do pós-guerra. O trabalho discute as propostas originais de ambas as potências, a primazia dos EUA na criação do banco e a forma pela qual a correlação de forças dentro dos EUA jogou um papel importante na modelagem da instituição. Analisa, ainda, a trajetória do banco entre 1946 e 1960, mostrando como as injunções da política externa norte-americana pressionaram a atuação da entidade e de que maneira o banco se inseriu na estratégia de contenção do comunismo. Por fim, discute os fatores econômicos e políticos que levaram à ampliação do BIRD na segunda metade dos anos 1950, mediante a criação da Corporação Financeira Internacional e da Associação Internacional de Desenvolvimento.This article analyzes the disputes around the conception, creation and the first years of work of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRD, better known as the World Bank. For such, it goes back to the early 1940s when the negotiations between the United States and England for the creation of a post-war international monetary and financial architecture began. The work discusses the original propositions of both potencies, the primacy of the United States in the creation of the bank and the way the force correlations inside the USA played an important role in institution's modeling. It also analyzes the bank's trajectory between 1946 an 1960, showing how the North-American foreign policy's injunctions pressed the entity's actions and in which ways the bank inserted itself in the communism containment strategy. Finally, it discusses the

  20. Can retail banking clients' attrition be managed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaliotis Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rurrο_e of all banks across the universe is to satisfy their clients' necessities. One of the predominant impacts of the last few years' financial crisis in Europe was the way in which customers interact with their banks. The theory of 'main bank' is not any more the case as clients' trust toward banks fades away together with their loyalty. Nowadays, it is necessary for banks to segment their clientele data base, and target the most profitable clients. The retention strategy of each financial institution becomes more and more important as the value of each retained customer is disproportional to the cost of acquiring a new one. The main findings of the subject retail banking clients' retention policy analysis prove that clients of different lifetime value have different propensity to defect. At the same time, the ability of a bank to retain a potential defector does not depend directly on satisfying the defection reason. Many of the various bank counter offers which do not directly satisfy the reason that a client refers to as the 'defection' one, are enough in order to retain a client. Equally important to the identification of clients' behavioural patterns is the use of the subject findings on behalf of the retail oriented banks in order to predict accurately the cost of future defection, as well as, to incorporate one more measurable parameter in their credit risk scorecards i.e. the intention to increase credit exposure.

  1. Predicting PTSD following bank robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. We investigated multiple predictors of PTSD severity in a highly representative Danish cohort study of bank employees...... exposed to robbery (N = 371, response rate = 73 %, dropout rate = 18 %). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that 51 % of the variance in PTSD severity could be explained with only peritraumatic dissociation, acute stress disorder (ASD) severity, and negative cognitions about self...

  2. CHANGES INSIDE THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM IN THE FRAME OF THE FINANCIAL AND BANKING CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After the year 1990, bashfully at first, but then more and more prominently, the countries of Central andEastern Europe have become major loan recipients from foreign banks, either cross-border, or local through opensubsidiaries in the emerging European countries. The Romanian banking system continues to be among the mostdynamic economic areas in Romania. Further on characterized by a relatively low level of financial intermediation,the Romanian banking market is considered to have potential for the possible buyers, especially in the crisis periodwhen many small banks looked for a merger with another small or medium bank for consolidation reasons. Althoughthe Romanian banking system faced crisis pretty well comparative with the rest of the world countries, if we considerits equity, its profits kept on decreasing every year and the rate of the non-performing loans increased.

  3. Operational Risk Management in the UK Banking Industry: The Enlightenment for Chinese Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chenjing

    2009-01-01

    Operational risk is the oldest kind of risk facing by banks, and it emerges in almost every aspect of the business environment. As financial scandals have appeared regularly, operational risk has been receiving increasingly significant media attention in recent years. This dissertation is written to identify the meaning of operational risk management and focus on the operational risk management situations in the UK banking sector by studying on four major British banks. Besides, Chinese banki...

  4. To what extent does banks' credit stimulate economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the extent to which banks' credit affects economic growth in Nigeria. The data used was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for a period of 24 years from 1990 to 2013. We used credit to the private sector, credit to the public sector and inflation to proxy commercial bank credit ...

  5. The Response of Performance to Merger Strategy in Indonesian Banking Industry: Analyses on Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Lestari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break

  6. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  7. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  8. SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, E S

    2008-05-14

    In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

  9. Predictive factors for disability outcome at twenty weeks and two years following a pain self-management group intervention in patients with persistent neck pain in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Catharina; Bergström, Jakob; Denison, Eva; von Koch, Lena

    2013-02-01

    To explore possible predictors associated with short-term (post-treatment) and long-term (2 years) treatment success in terms of pain-related disability for patients with persistent neck pain following a pain and stress self-management intervention (PASS). Data from 77 participants assigned to PASS in a randomized controlled trial were explored to identify possible predictors of favourable outcome regarding pain-related disability as measured by the Neck Disability Index (NDI), by use of Pearson correlation analysis, partial least squares (PLS) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses. Data from self-assessment questionnaires completed by the participants before, post-treatment (i.e. 20 weeks after inclusion) and 2 years after inclusion in the study, were used. Multivariate PLS regression analysis showed that baseline scores in NDI, the Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) and pain intensity explained 31% of the variance in disability (NDI) post-treatment. Multivariate PLS regression analysis showed that post-treatment scores in NDI, SES and pain intensity explained 68% of the variance in disability (NDI) at 2 years. Treatment gains, as measured by post-treatment scores at 20-week follow-up, in disability, self-efficacy and pain intensity were associated with long-term outcome in pain-related disability at 2 years, in patients with persistent neck pain participating in a self-management group intervention in primary health care.

  10. Femoral Component Revision with Use of Impaction Bone-Grafting and a Cemented Polished Stem: A Concise Follow-up, at Fifteen to Twenty Years, of a Previous Report*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Stroet, M.A.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported our results for thirty-three consecutive femoral component revisions with impaction bone-grafting, performed with the X-change femoral revision system and a cemented polished Exeter stem, at a minimum of eight years of follow-up. The present updated study shows the results

  11. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Pemanfaatan E-Banking Dalam Industri Perbankan Ditinjau Dari Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Barusman, M.Yusuf S

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of e-banking in the banking industry in Indonesia began in 2000, until the year 2008 a new 9 banks from 122 banks that use e-banking. The decision to implement e-banking is considered as a very courageous decision, since there is no legality that protects the use of e-banking. Since 2008, the government issued regulations on the Information and Electronic Transactions (ITE). In this research, the problems are: 1) How does the impact of utilization of e-banking in the development o...

  13. The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

  14. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  15. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  16. EFISIENSI BANK PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH: PENDEKATAN STOCHASTIC FRONTIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein Fadhlullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the efficiency rate at Islamic regional banks (BPD in Indonesia, with case of 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012. The method that used in this research is stochastic frontier analysis approach (SFA, which uses the input variable (such as human resources cost, administration cost, and other expenses and the output variable is SFA (operational income. The average efficiency rate from 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012 with SFA method is 53.21 percent and all of the Islamic regional banks doesn’t achieve the 100 percent efficiency. The most efficient banks is Islamic regional bank of Kalimantan Barat which the efficiency rate achieve 90.42 percent and the most inefficiency banks is Islamic regional bank of Sumatera Barat. The average efficiency rate from 2008-2012 is always increase each year. In 2008 the average efficiency rate only 33.57 percent and in the last of 2012 achieve 71.81 percent.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v4i1.2291

  17. BRAND AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rutecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition companies enterprises in every sector of the economy. In the age of twenty-first century all parties compete with each other for recognition and trust of cus-tomers. It is a tough challenge especially in the banking services sector. These institutions are not able to stand out in the market offer, because this is similar to competitors. High barriers to entry and a large number of entities that provide services similar to banks threaten these organizations. Currently on the market of banking services is proving to be an important brand. Distinguishing itself from the competition image and brand loyalty is a source of advantage for Polish banks. The building of a strong brand plays an important role such factors as internal communication-on company, advertising, business processes, quality, relations with investors and customers. Its construction is a challenge for many banks, because around it must focus on the whole strategy of the company.

  18. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 571-598 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign bank entry * bank efficiency * market power Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  19. The Bert and Peggy DuPont Lecture: “Love, Death, and Commitment: Twenty Three Years of HIV and Genocide Prevention in Africa” or “Passionate ≠ Unhinged”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, HIV emerged as the #1 cause of death in African adults, and the Rwanda genocide became the most concentrated mass murder in recorded history. Though one catastrophe surfaced slowly and inexorably while the other smoldered for years before exploding in 1994, the lessons learned are similar. In both situations, the international community has combined moral bankruptcy with a spectacular display of incompetence. Genocide masterminds continue living in Michigan, Minneapolis and Boston, brazenly planning the final extermination of the Tutsi. Students of law, diplomacy and international development are astoundingly sanguine about this, as though our current abdication of responsibility today is mitigated by the centuries of unprincipled idiots who preceded us. If medicine operated this way we'd still be treating syphilis with arsenic. Unfortunately, medicine has lost the moral high ground in Africa through missed opportunities and misappropriation of resources. In the last five years we have spent 20% of the US bilateral foreign assistance budget putting 2.5 million Africans on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), while twice that number of new HIV infections occurred. We tested 50 million Africans for HIV without acting on the evidence and common sense: rather than—transmission happens between two people. Had we tested Africans as couples, a prevention strategy proven to be effective in multiple publications since the early '90s, we could have averted more HIV infections than we are now treating, and at a fraction of the cost. PMID:20697563

  20. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)