WorldWideScience

Sample records for bank twenty years

  1. Twenty years bone banking in Macedonia application and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After establishing the Department for Bone Transplantation and Bone Bank as a part of the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje in 1978, we started our activities in bone banking. In the beginning we stored the transplants at -20 degree C in a deep-freezer using standard storage procedures. Since 1986 we stored the transplants at-70 degree C in a special deep-freezer. 1012 transplants were preserved in the Bone Bank. 657 of them (65%) were used in different procedures, mainly in tumor surgery (407), revision total hip replacement (I 70), elongation of long bones (66), pseudoarthroses (I 5) etc. The most common transplants used in our bone bank are femoral heads taken from live donors during THR procedures, or small parts of cortical and cancellous bones taken during TKR and different types of osteotomies. 187 transplants were rejected due to infection after a defect in the storage system. We had good incorporation of the grafts in most of the patients, although we had delayed incorporation in 26 patients (4%), total resorption of the graft in 9 patients (1.4%), and infection in 4 patients (0.6%). Fracture of the graft occurred in 3 cases (0.5%). After the recognition and becoming a regular member of the United Nations as a former Yugoslav Republic in 1992, Republic of Macedonia started with the so-called 'transitional' period in all parts of life, especially in legislation. After bringing the systemic Health Law in 199 1, the Parliament brought 'The Law for taking, exchange, transportation and transplantation of parts of the human body by reason of curing' in June 1995. This Law defines the conditions under which it is possible to take, store, process, exchange, transport and transplant parts of the human body by reason of curing and the rights, obligations and conditions that have to be fulfilled by the Health Organizations and other organizations engaged in these activities. This Law accepts 'brain death' item, as biological death concept. The cell

  2. In Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡汉玉

    2000-01-01

    My father told me that China would be the only country which could be strong enough to cope(与……竞争) with America. He said that Chinese would become a widely-spread language. If I study hard and master it well I will be a famous person in the future. I don't know whether his words are true or not, because it will be the thing in twenty years.

  3. Twenty years of KSHV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  4. Deformation Quantization: Twenty Years After

    OpenAIRE

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, "conventional" physics. For the mathematical part we...

  5. Twenty years of inflation targeting

    OpenAIRE

    David Baqaee; Christie Smith

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, in conjunction with Northwestern University’s Centre for International Economics and Development (CIED), hosted a monetary policy conference to mark the 20th anniversary of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act. Passed in December 1989, the Act was one of the seminal events in the development of inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. As of 2009, 26 countries have explicitly adopted inflation targeting, including Canada, the UK, Austral...

  6. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  7. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  8. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, K.; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-10-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron {bar p}p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held.

  9. Refugees in Serbia - twenty years later

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotović Vlasta; Filipović Marko

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of refugees, twenty years after their settling to Serbia. According to population Census 2011, the share of refugees in total population is 1.04%.The most significant contribution of the refugee contigent are reflecting in quantitative terms (increasing of population). The paper represents the scope and territorial distribution of refugees, some of the demographic components were analyzed, including influence of refugee migrations on demographic increase o...

  10. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State Unive...

  11. Twenty years of electricity generation in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It will be twenty years to the day on September 2, 1998 that the Olkiluoto-1 nuclear generating unit was first synchronized with the public power grid. Finnish industry in 1969 founded Teollisuuden Voima Oy to meet part of the rapidly growing basic electricity requirement. The partners backed a large power plant project for which nuclear power was soon chosen as the energy source. The largest joint venture of Finnish industry, which was also chosen as the energy source. The largest joint venture of Finnish industry, which was also the largest power plant project at that time, was born. Training the operating personnel of the Olkiluoto unit I was begun in 1975. After a long test and commissioning phase, the authorities in summer 1978 gave permission for the start of nuclear operation. At 5.46 h in the morning of September 2, 1978, the long-awaited moment had come: Olkiluoto-I 1 was connected to the power grid, and the kWh meter began to count the electricity produced. This moment crowned the achievement of five years of hard construction work. For the past twenty years, TVO has generated electricity for its partners safely and cost-effectively. In the course of these years, nuclear power production in Finland has reached the level of the world's best producers. One fifth of the electricity consumed in Finland is generated in Olkiluoto. (orig.)

  12. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  13. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron p-bar p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multi-gap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed. The results obtained on soft and hard diffraction exhibit regularities that point to the QCD nature of the Pomeron. The most striking feature of the data is the s-independence of the single diffractive dσ/dM2 differential cross-section. This scaling behaviour provides a clue to understanding the Pomeron as a composite structure built up from a combination of gluons and/or quarks with the quantum numbers of the vacuum in accordance with QCD color constraints

  14. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  15. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  16. Inexpensive Complex Hand Model Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. From this hand grew the author’s meter-tall robot (nicknamed ANNIE: Android With Neural Networks, Intellect and Emotions). It received machine vision, facial expressiveness, speech synthesis and speech recognition; a simian version also received a dexterous ape foot. New artificial intelligence features included op-amp neurons for OCR and simulated emotions, hormone emulation, endocannabinoid receptors, fear-trust-love mechanisms, a Grandmother Cell recognizer and artificial consciousness. Simulated illnesses included narcotic addiction, autism, PTSD, fibromyalgia and Alzheimer’s disease. The author gave 13 robotics-AI presentations at NASA in Houston since 2006. A meter-tall simian robot was proposed with gripping hand-feet for use with space vehicles and to explore distant planets and moons. Also proposed were: intelligent motorized exoskeletons for astronaut force multiplication; a cognitive prosthesis to detect and alleviate decreased crew mental performance; and a gynoid robot medic to tend astronauts in deep space missions. What began as a complex hand model evolved into an innovative robot-AI within two decades. PMID:25996742

  17. Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Manuel B

    2008-05-01

    Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

  18. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions operating in Spain during the last twenty-two years – generating almost twenty-three million bank loan records in total. Spanish monetary conditions were exogenously determined during the entire sam...

  19. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty-Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Gabriel; Ongena, Steven; Peydró, José Luis; Saurina, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions operating in Spain during the last twenty-two years – generating almost twenty-three million bank loan records in total. Spanish monetary conditions were exogenously determined during the entire sam...

  20. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  1. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  2. Twenty Years on ...Time to Take Stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert

    1996-01-01

    An Australian psychiatrist reviews the history of child abuse, especially trends in the last 20 years. Issues addressed include a lack of standards for the diagnosis of maltreatment, lack of knowledge concerning effective prevention, high rates of worker burnout and turnover, and decision making by unqualified workers. (DB)

  3. Twenty years of immunocontraceptive research: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Eckery, Douglas C

    2013-12-01

    The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) began immunocontraception vaccine research by testing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Early PZP research demonstrated that PZP induced infertility; however, increased length of the rut was observed in PZP-treated deer. An alternative vaccine using a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (KLH-GnRH) conjugate formulated with modified Freund's adjuvant was developed at NWRC. Suppression of GnRH has reduced reproduction in both sexes but is most effective in females. This vaccine was effective in preventing contraception in female deer for several years after a prime and boost. Due to adverse side effects of Freund's adjuvant, NWRC developed a new adjuvant called AdjuVac, a mineral oil/surfactant adjuvant with the addition of Mycobacterium avium as an immunostimulant. The price of KLH prompted a search for a more economical hemocyanin carrier protein for the GnRH peptide. Blue protein, derived from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas, proved to be a successful option. Formulation improvements resulted in a vaccine that can be effective as a single injection for multiple years, now called GonaCon. GonaCon is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in white-tailed deer in urban/suburban areas and for wild horses (Equus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus). Future GonaCon applications may include reducing reproduction to manage populations of other wildlife species, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in urban areas and suppressing reproduction to reduce the spread of venereal diseases such as brucellosis. Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies. The EPA would regulate all these uses. Research is also ongoing on a GnRH vaccine to delay the onset of adrenocortical

  4. Endovascular aortic repair: first twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncar, Igor; Tolić, Momcilo; Ilić, Nikola; Cvetković, Slobodan; Dragas, Marko; Cinara, Ilijas; Kostić, Dusan; Davidović, Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular aortic/aneurysm repair (EVAR) was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the nineties. Its fast development had a great influence on clinicians, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists, educational curriculums, patients, industry and medical insurance. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution of clinicians and industry to the development and advancement of endovascular aortic repair over the last 20 years. This review article presents the development of EVAR by focusing on the contribution of physicians, surgeons and interventional radiologists in the creation of the new field of vascular surgery termed hybrid vascular surgery, and also the contribution of technological advancement by a significant help of industrial representatives--engineers and their counselors. This article also analyzes studies conducted in order to compare the successfulness of EVAR with up-to-now applied open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms, and some treatment techniques of other aortic diseases. During the first two decades of its development the EVAR method was rapidly progressing and was adopted concurrently with the expansion of technology. Owing to large randomized studies, early and long-term results indicate specific complications of this method, thus influencing further technological improvement and defining risk patients groups in whom the use of the technique should be avoided. Good results are insured only in centers, specialized in vascular surgery, which have on their disposal adequate conditions for solving all complications associated with this method. PMID:23350259

  5. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model. PMID:21139123

  6. Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Race, Kane

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the ways in which populations at risk of HIV in the developed world have enculturated the knowledges and technologies of both the medical and the social sciences. By revisiting a number of review papers and by reviewing findings from a range of studies, we argue that gay men have appropriated information that has enabled them to sustain safe practices while they have eschewed information that has made maintenance difficult. The paper describes a range of risk reduction strategies and compares the responses of populations at risk of HIV in the years before the advent of highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) with their responses after the introduction of HAART in 1996. We concentrate our argument on the changing responses to HIV risk of gay men, although occasionally illustrate our argument with reference to the responses of injecting drug users. The responses of gay men to risk post-HAART--particularly those who reside in Australia--speak to the adoption of a range of considered strategies, not altogether safe, to reduce harm. We argue that such strategies need to be understood and addressed within a 'new' social public health, that is, a public health that takes what social analysis has to say seriously. The paper examines the differences between the traditional, the 'modern' epidemiological/clinical and the 'new' social or socio-cultural public healths and describes the tensions between the medical and the social science disciplines in their efforts to inform public health. Key concepts provided by social science such as agency (including individual and collective agency), alongside its methodological reflexivity are key to effective public health. The risk avoidance strategies adopted by gay men suggest a way forward by turning our attention to the ways in which medicine is taken in(to) their practice. PMID:12753812

  7. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  8. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  9. Trends in International Business Research: Twenty-Five Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Richard W.; David A Ricks

    1994-01-01

    International business (IB) research has made enormous strides in the quarter century since JIBS was inaugurated. This article reflects upon the development of IB research during that period. It first reviews the findings and recommendations of a comprehensive survey of the embryonic field of IB research, conducted twenty-five years ago. Several early trends identified then are discussed: the astonishing acceleration in the pace of IB research; the broadening of research activity across a gre...

  10. Twenty Years of Compressor Innovation at NTU, Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Kim Tiow

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, innovations in refrigeration compressors and their mechanisms which were conceptualised (and some of these were commercialised) at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore over the past twenty years are discussed and presented. These innovations include piezo compressor [1-3], sliding cam compressor [4], rotaprocating compressor [5], revolving vane compressor and its variants [6-14], revolving vane expander [15] and cross-vane mechanism for expander-compressor unit [16]. T...

  11. Symposium Summary and Outlook: Twenty Years of Meson Factory Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Haxton, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    The opening of the meson factories twenty years ago provided nuclear physics with new beams, higher momentum transfers, and new opportunities for precision measurements. The resulting changes in nuclear physics were substantial, altering not only the range of physics issues identified with the field but also the manner and size of the collaborations that do nuclear physics. Inspired by the talks of this symposium, I discuss some of the accomplishments as well as some of the goals not yet reac...

  12. Twenty years of the hydrogen movement. 1974-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now the twentieth anniversary of the beginning of the Hydrogen Energy Movement. Over the twenty years, there have been accomplishments in every front: from the acceptance of the concept as an answer to energy and environment related global problems, to research, development and commercialization. The Hydrogen Energy System has now taken firm roots. Activities towards the implementation are growing. Many achievements and happenings are discussed briefly. 17 figs

  13. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  14. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  15. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99mTc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18F, 85mKr, 24Na, 82Br, 64Zn, 125I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  16. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  17. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  18. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the

  19. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  20. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  1. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  2. After the Storm: Ojibwe Treaty Rights Twenty-Five Years after the "Voigt" Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Patty; Thannum, James

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a "perfect storm" of economic, environmental, and social conditions swirled in northern Wisconsin and battered attempts by the Ojibwe to exercise their treaty-based fishing rights. This article examines the socioeconomic, political, and cultural factors that contributed to the spearfishing crisis twenty-five years ago and the…

  3. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.;

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  4. International cyclotron conferences: twenty-five years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief introduction reviews a few of the highlights of the nine previous meetings to perhaps convey an appreciation of the time-scale of the significant achievements of past years and to leave the thought that the future is as filled with promise as was the past

  5. Twenty years in: An essay in two parts

    OpenAIRE

    Heilker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this essay traces the evolution of my understanding of the exploratory essay as a discursive form and a genre for teaching writing. Part II explores my motivations for advocating a polarized definition of the essay and then concludes with a call to expand the purview of composition beyond first-year courses.

  6. EBR-II: twenty years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. For the last 20 years EBR-II has operated safely, has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, has shown excellent performance of its sodium components, and has had an excellent plant factor. These years of operating experience provide a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future liquid metal fast reactors. This report provides a brief description of the EBR-II plant and its early operating experience, describes some recent problems of interest to the nuclear community, and also mentions some of the significant operating achievements of EBR-II. Finally, a few words and speculations on EBR-II's future are offered. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  8. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2015-01-01

    Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE) was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972) within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations). The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statu...

  9. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  10. Household Location and Race: A Twenty-Year Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Stuart A.; Gary D. Painter

    2011-01-01

    In a paper published in The Review of Economics and Statistics some 20 years ago, we sought to assess the disparate residential location choices of black and white households in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area (Gabriel and Rosenthal [1989]). The paper showed that simulated closure of large socio-economic gaps between blacks and whites did little to diminishprevailing high levels of residential segregation or otherwise enhance moves by black households to areas of educational, employmen...

  11. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668. ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  12. Interaction between cars and their drivers in twenty years time

    OpenAIRE

    Pijoan i Forcada, Meritxell

    2009-01-01

    Today, the word automobile means much more than what used to mean some years ago. Nowadays, cars have more values than just offering the possibility of travelling from the point X until the point Y. Automobiles have an added value of safety, comfort, aesthetics and, why not, socialization. Cars are highly technologically complex. Despite the built-in driver information systems permits the drivers get as much information as they want, the drivers have to select the most suitable information...

  13. Twenty Years of Experience on Stem Cell Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Derakhshandeh, Roshanak; Jalali, Arash; Jahani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT. Objectives Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Co...

  14. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally

    2013-01-01

    : This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discu...

  15. Twenty years of ABACC: Accomplishments, lessons learnt and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the inception of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435), in 1991, ABACC has had an important role at the non-proliferation agenda and has also been an active player in the international safeguards. It was necessary for ABACC to develop a technical capacity to face the challenges to be a safeguards agency and to gain credibility in the nuclear safeguards world. This capacity means to develop and implement safeguards systems in the technical area, in the inspection framework, in the conceptual analysis of processes and approaches and in the political scenario. These tasks conducted the strategic plan of ABACC on the last 20 years. Among the accomplishments, ABACC has been involved in the application of safeguards to sensitive and complex installations, in developing safeguards instrumentation, in establishing a technical and trained inspectorate, in constructing a cooperative and coordinate environment with IAEA for safeguards application. Other challenges as R and D of equipment and quality assurance systems were also managed during all these years. ESARDA is one forum that ABACC is involved and always shares experience and ideas. On July 18th, 2011 ABACC will formally complete 20 years. This paper summarizes the accomplishments, lessons learnt and future actions for strengthen the ABACC safeguards role. It also addresses the collaboration of ABACC with other organizations in the non-proliferation and international safeguards arena.

  16. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  17. Twenty Years of FORS Science Operations on the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, G.; Böhnhardt, H.; Moehler, S.; Møller, P.; Saviane, I.; Ziegler, B.

    2010-06-01

    Celebrating the double jubilee of ten years in operation of FORS1 and FORS2, this article summarises, from an insider’s point of view, the history of the FORS instruments, arguably the most prolific on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. The FORS story began in the early 1990s and FORS1 was the first VLT user instrument to be commissioned. Both FORS instruments have undergone considerable evolution and quickly parted from the original concept of being identical twins. They have both made major contributions to scientific research and have helped shape VLT operations. In 2009, FORS1 was retired, but FORS2 continues, fusing the best of both.

  18. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of...

  19. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  20. Total body irradiation in France in the past twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation (TBI) in France in the last 20 years is presented. In order to have on overall view of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation in France, the group of cancer centre radiation oncologists sent a questionnaire to all the cancer centres or public hospitals radiotherapy departments dealing with this treatment. Thirty-six questionnaires were sent and thirty-one departments answered. Three departments do not offer this treatment. Five departments did not answer. Results, therefore, concern the activity of the 28 departments that agreed to give detailed and clear answers. A total of 10 630 TBIs have been documented, 850 to 900 TBI have been done each year since 1995. Single fraction TBIs are used in only five centres and are being progressively abandoned. For Multiple-fraction TBIs, the techniques described here are the ones used in 1999, at the time the questionnaires were sent. A majority (98%) of the teams used linear accelerators. The collected data are synthesised in tables. Nowadays, single fraction TBIs are only indicated in exceptional cases, Most of the TBIs are fractionated in six twice-daily fractions with pulmonary shielding to limit the dose between 6 and 11 Gy depending on departments' protocols and pathologies. (author)

  1. Twenty years of WAK reprocessing pilot plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration pertaining to the construction of a German pilot facility for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel goes back to 1950s. In 1960, the Hoechst AG presented a project study of a prototype plant to the federal ministry responsible. In accordance with a recommendation by the German Nuclear Commission, the construction of a small facility was included in the German nuclear program for the years 1963-1967. As early as in the summer of 1964, a preproject had been drawn up. The PUREX process already used abroad was selected, and 35 t uranium was set as the annual throughput. The design assumed a two cycle PUREX process with a mechanical headend, consistent recycling of process solution and waste minimization. The construction was completed in 1969, and the hot operation of the WAK began with the reprocessing of the fuel from the Karlsruhe research reactor FR-2. From 1971 to the end of 1990, the WAK reprocessed 208t of uranium in 31 campaigns. The operation of the WAK ceased at the end of December, 1990. The summary of 20 years of reprocessing, the essential operational and facility improvement and others are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Twenty years of ISAREN: an amphibian biologist in Wonderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuyama, Sakae

    2010-09-01

    The 6th International Symposium on Amphibian and Reptilian Endocrinology and Neurobiology (ISAREN), the former International Symposium on Amphibian Endocrinology (ISAE), was recently held in Berlin. ISAREN developed from two symposia on amphibian biology held in European countries in 1988-1990. In this article, the history of ISAREN was briefly stated. In addition, some of the topics of our researches carried out in collaboration with several groups, using various amphibian species during the past 20 years and/or presented in the past symposia were reviewed. The topics included the discovery of pancreatic chitinase, involvement of growth hormone in vitellogenin synthesis, changes of ANF-like immunoreactivity in the frogs sent into the space, discovery of a peptide sex-pheromone, origin of the epithelial pituitary, and hypothalamic regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone. PMID:20138045

  3. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  4. Twenty years on: the impact of fragments on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A; Fesik, Stephen W; Hubbard, Roderick E; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Jhoti, Harren

    2016-09-01

    After 20 years of sometimes quiet growth, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become mainstream. More than 30 drug candidates derived from fragments have entered the clinic, with two approved and several more in advanced trials. FBDD has been widely applied in both academia and industry, as evidenced by the large number of papers from universities, non-profit research institutions, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, FBDD draws on a diverse range of disciplines, from biochemistry and biophysics to computational and medicinal chemistry. As the promise of FBDD strategies becomes increasingly realized, now is an opportune time to draw lessons and point the way to the future. This Review briefly discusses how to design fragment libraries, how to select screening techniques and how to make the most of information gleaned from them. It also shows how concepts from FBDD have permeated and enhanced drug discovery efforts. PMID:27417849

  5. Twenty-Five Years of Interdisciplinary Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard

    2014-12-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to global change research is required for scientific advances that are both fundamental and relevant to real-world problems. The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI), under the leadership of director John Katzenberger, has provided global leadership for such interdisciplinary science over the past 25 years. From its first workshop, AGCI has brought together physical and social scientists researching the drivers of change, Earth system response, natural and human system impacts, and options for risk management. The sessions are small (usually around 30 participants), held in a retreat-like setting (recently in a tent near a stream), and long enough (a week or more) to allow communication, reflection, and planning. Landmark AGCI science sessions have frequently set the course of future global change research.

  6. Radiation protection training: twenty year experience in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Hungary, radiation protection training for radiation workers has been introduced in very early, just following the publication of the ICRP recommendation No. 26. Before that, in some of the institutions, radiation protection training was recommended for technicians and medical doctors working in nuclear medicine, X-ray diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy, as well as in some of industrial applications, but not on regular way. Since 1988, radiation protection training regulated by the Ministry of Health and required for all of the workers in radiation workplaces licensed by the authority the State Public Health and Medical Officers Service (SPHAMOS). Decree No. 16/2000. (VI. 8.) EuM of the Minister of Health on the enforcement of Clauses of the Nuclear Law 116/1996 regulates the radiation protection training of Radiation Workers (RW). Annex 4 of Decree sees radiation protection training and in-service training: Persons performing conducted work in the field of the use of the nuclear energy and any other work within legal relationship shall be educated in training and in-service training at an interval of 5 years. Three levels of the training introduced; basic, extended and comprehensive, based on radiation risk related to the given job. Several institutions are involved in performing radiation protection training, such universities, scientific institutions, Regional Radiological Health Centers (RRHC) of SPHAMOS, private enterprises etc. All training course material is subject to accreditation. Most of the faculties of the universities involved in training of natural sciences and engineering provide subjects on the fundamentals of dosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection within the courses of physics, biophysics, chemistry, biology, ecology etc. These courses take 5-10 contact hours per week on average. The members of the Hungarian Committee of EUTERP Platform summarize their broad experience collected in the past 20 year. (author)

  7. Twenty plus years of underground research at Canada's URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) addressed the needs of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program with a comprehensive research and development program of geologic characterization and large-scale geotechnical experiments in granite. This program contributed to the technical acceptance in 1998 of an Environmental Impact Statement to move forward in the development of a deep geologic repository for used CANDU fuel in the crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The URL is presently in its final R and D phase, closure. The URL is now 25-years old and is closing. The URL R and D program has met most of its objectives and will continue to do so by capturing valuable information pertaining to its sealing and closure. AECL has 30 years of R and D experience in used-fuel characterization, metallurgy, geosciences and geo-engineering. These comprehensive, multidisciplinary and integrated R and D programs have led to a technically robust concept for a used CANDU fuel deep geologic repository. The NWMO is moving forward based on the technologies pioneered by AECL and the international community. AECL continues to service the NWMO's R and D programs by means of surface-based laboratory and office studies and by participating, under the NWMO's auspices, in international underground research facility programs. AECL's staff have a wealth of experience in solute transport, rock-mass characterization, excavation design and engineered-barrier design within a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. Separate to the service provided to Canada's NWMO, the expert geotechnical R and D capabilities of AECL are being provided via service contracts to a number of international customers. The key messages from this paper are not just that a great deal of important scientific work has been performed at the URL to date, but that AECL's experienced staff are still going strong and continue to play an important role in Canada and internationally. The URL provided

  8. THE TWENTY-FIVE YEAR LICK PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lick Planet Search program began in 1987 when the first spectrum of τ Ceti was taken with an iodine cell and the Hamilton Spectrograph. Upgrades to the instrument improved the Doppler precision from about 10 m s–1 in 1992 to about 3 m s–1 in 1995. The project detected dozens of exoplanets with orbital periods ranging from a few days to several years. The Lick survey identified the first planet in an eccentric orbit (70 Virginis) and the first multi-planet system around a normal main sequence star (Upsilon Andromedae). These discoveries advanced our understanding of planet formation and orbital migration. Data from this project helped to quantify a correlation between host star metallicity and the occurrence rate of gas giant planets. The program also served as a test bed for innovation with testing of a tip-tilt system at the Coudé focus and fiber scrambler designs to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer optics. The Lick Planet Search with the Hamilton Spectrograph effectively ended when a heater malfunction compromised the integrity of the iodine cell. Here, we present more than 14,000 velocities for 386 stars that were surveyed between 1987 and 2011

  9. Twenty-five years after the foundation of Isar-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past nineteen years since the commissioning of KKI-1 were characterized by time consuming and very costly backfitting measures designed to keep the plant abreast of current safety requirements. The success of these measures was confirmed by the licensing authority. Also the radiation exposure of the staff and the environment was reduced step by step, and plant availability was raised further. As a consequence, the plant is in a condition now which is better than that of 1977, when the plant was commissioned. KKI-1 thus is well equipped to meet new challenges in the future. The agreement about the electricity directives reached in Luxemburg in mid-1996 will introduce completely new boundary conditions for the power economy in the European Union (EU). According to the new provisions, each EU member country is to open its electricity market to competition step by step from 1999 at the latest. All electricity producers will be able to supply their customers through direct transmission lines. All end user or distributor customers will be in a position to choose their electricity suppliers freely. Also KKI-1 will have to face this competition. The plant is fit for the new era. (orig.)

  10. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions. PMID:12178879

  11. Disclosure of CEO bonus plans : A study of twenty leading EU banking companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chroscik, Angela; Lake, Malin

    2013-01-01

    The CEO bonus of banking companies has become a hot media topic around the world accelerated by the recent financial crisis of 2007-2008 where the excessive pay and risk-taking in the banking sector were recognized. This has raised public concerns around executive remuneration and the transparency of the companies. According to the regulations, the bonus of the CEO is indexed to the firm´s performance. However, the compensation of many CEO’s has been paid out during the financial crisis altho...

  12. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Horta Andrade; Lenis Medeiros de Freitas; Valéria de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleo...

  13. The Last Twenty Years of Experience with Fast Reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast reactor development experience gained in Japan in the last twenty years is summarized in this paper. In this twenty years, the safety, reliability and economic goals of fast reactors have become more ambitious than in the past. However, twenty years of progress have shown that the domestic commercialized sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) concept, the Japanese SFR, could achieve those targets discussed in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) projects. The Monju prototype fast breeder reactor is finally going to restart by the end of this Japanese fiscal year (March 2010) and will take on the role of a technology and human resource development centre from both a domestic and an international point of view. (author)

  14. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  15. Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-Analysis of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Despite the hundreds of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) publications over the past twenty years, statistically reliable measures of learning outcomes are few and far between. In part, this is due to the fact that well over half of all MALL-related studies report no objectively quantifiable learning outcomes, either because they did not…

  16. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed-pow...

  17. A STUDY OF THE CHANGE IN INTELLIGENCE DISTRIBUTION OVER A TWENTY YEAR PERIOD IN CENTRAL IOWA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DREIER, WILLIAM H.; YOUNG, BEVERLY S.

    THERE WAS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RISE IN THE MEAN IQ SCORE OF CHILDREN WHOSE PARENTS OBTAINED THEIR LIVING BY FARMING IN MAHASKA COUNTY, IOWA, DURING THE TWENTY YEARS PRECEEDING 1961-63. HOWEVER, THIS INCREASE WAS NOT PARALLELED BY THE NONFARM CHILDREN LIVING WITHIN THE SAME RURAL COMMUNITY. SELECTIVE MIGRATION WAS SHOWN TO BE AN ACTIVE…

  18. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics ...

  19. Consumer Socialization of Children: A Retrospective Look at Twenty-Five Years of Research.

    OpenAIRE

    John, Deborah Roedder

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-five years of consumer socialization research have yielded an impressive set of findings. The purpose of our article is to review these findings and assess what we know about children's development as consumers. Our focus is on the developmental sequence characterizing the growth of consumer knowledge, skills, and values as children mature throughout childhood and adolescence. In doing so, we present a conceptual framework for understanding consumer socialization as a series of stages,...

  20. Philosophy of Technology in the Americas in the Last Twenty-Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Durbin, Paul T.

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes and analyzes some of the most important contributions to the voluminous literature in philosophy of technology that has been produced during the past twenty-five years in North, Central, and South America. (Major focus is on North America.) The survey emphasizes the variety of standards the authors have attempted to measure up to, and ends with a plea that, whatever the standard invoked, an overarching standard ought to be to contribute to the solution of real-world pr...

  1. Fast reactor core management in Japan: twenty years of evolution at JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years of operations at the experimental fast reactor JOYO provide a wealth of experience with core and fuel management. This experience has been applied to several core modifications to upgrade JOYO's irradiation capability. Core physics tests and Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results have been used to confirm the accuracy of neutron diffusion theory calculations. These experiences and accumulated data will be useful for the core design in future fast reactors in Japan's development. (author)

  2. The concept of routines twenty years after Nelson and Winter (1982) A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Markus C. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since Nelson and Winter (1982) proposed routines as the unit of analysis of an evolutionary theory of economic change. Since then, the concept of routines has been taken up widely in the economics and business literature. Many ambiguities and open questions still persist, however. The article presents a review of the literature on routines (mainly) since 1982, focussing on the questions 'What progress has been made in understanding what routines are', a...

  3. Twenty-five Years of Lattice Gauge Theory: Consequences of the QCD Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Kronfeld, Andreas S

    2010-01-01

    When the Lake Louise Winter Institute started twenty-five years ago, many properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) were believed to be true, but had not been demonstrated to be true. This talk surveys a variety of results that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian, shedding light on the origin of (your) mass and its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as some further intriguing features of the natural world.

  4. US poverty studies and poverty measurement: the past twenty-five years

    OpenAIRE

    Glennerster, Howard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution made by American social scientists to the study of poverty in the past twenty five years. It has three parts. The first concentrates on the measurement of poverty and the fact that the US poverty line remained unchanged in that period despite its increasingly important deficiencies. Proposals to produce a revised poverty line and an Annual Poverty Report are advanced. The second part traces the change of emphasis in US writing about poverty both in terms ...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    OpenAIRE

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency devel...

  6. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  7. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  8. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  9. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  10. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  11. Twenty Beautiful Years of Bottom Physics: proceedings of the b20 Symposium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnstein, R.A.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rubin, H.A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Illinois (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The proceedings are based on papers presented at the Twenty Beautiful Years of Bottom Physics Symposium held in June, 1997 in Chicago. It marked the Twentieth Anniversary of the 1977 discovery of the b quark. The papers included in these proceedings present a snapshot of the current state of b physics. The topics covered are too numerous to list, briefly, they included experiments at electron{minus}positron colliders, hadronic production of heavy quark, quarkonium, B mesons, QCD of heavy quarks, physics at LEP and SLD, and the future hadroproduction experiments. There were 35 papers and out of these, 18 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  12. Over Twenty Years Of Experience In ITU TRIGA MARK-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor, rated at 250 kW steady-state and 1200 MW pulsing power is the only research and training reactor owned and operated by a university in Turkey. Reactor has been operating since March 11, 1979; therefore the reactor has been operating successfully for more than twenty years. Over the twenty years of operation: - The tangential beam tube was equipped with a neutron radiography facility, which consists of a divergent collimator and exposure room; - A computerized data acquisition system was designed and installed such that all parameters of the reactor, which are observed from the console, could be monitored both in normal and pulse operations; - An electrical power calibration system was built for the thermal power calibration of the reactor; - Publications related with I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor are listed in Appendix; - Two majors undesired shutdown occurred; - The I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor is still in operation at the moment. (authors)

  13. Achievements in the past twenty years and perspective outlook of crop space breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement, which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987. A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years. More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice, wheat, cotton, sweet pepper, tomato, sesame and alfalfa have been developed, officially released and put into production. A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained. Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses. Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties, exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced. In this paper, the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed. The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed. (authors)

  14. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  15. Twenty-five years of continuous sulphur dioxide emission reduction in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vestreng

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty-five years European emission data have been compiled and reported under the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP as part of the work under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. This paper presents emission trends of SO2 reported to EMEP and validated within the programme for the period 1980–2004. These European anthropogenic sulphur emissions have been steadily decreasing over the last twenty-five years, amounting from about 55 Tg SO2 in 1980 to 15 Tg SO2 in 2004. The uncertainty in sulphur emission estimates for individual countries and years are documented to range between 3% and 25%. The relative contribution of European emissions to global anthropogenic sulphur emissions has been halved during this period. Based on annual emission reports from European countries, three emission reduction regimes have been identified. The period 1980–1989 is characterized by low annual emission reductions (below 5% reduction per year and 20% for the whole period and is dominated by emission reductions in Western Europe. The period 1990–1999 is characterised by high annual emission reductions (up to 11% reduction per year and 54% for the whole period, most pronounced in Central and Eastern Europe. The annual emission reductions in the period 2000–2004 are medium to low and reflect the unified Europe, with equally large reductions in both East and West. The sulphur emission reduction has been largest in the sector Combustion in energy and transformation industries, but substantial decreases are also seen in the Non-industrial combustion plants together with the sectors Industrial Combustion and Industrial Production Processes. The majority of European countries have reduced their emissions by more than 60% between 1990 and 2004, and one quarter have already achieved sulphur emission

  16. Outcomes of Renal Transplantation in Brunei Darussalam over a Twenty-Year Period (1993–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Tan, Si Yen; Ahmed, Dalinatul; Zinna, Shaukat; Chong, William

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Brunei Darussalam has a high prevalence and incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Up until 2012, all renal transplantations were performed in overseas centres, either as government-sponsored (living-related transplantation) or as self-sponsored (commercialized transplantation) ones. We hypothesize that graft and patient survival of Brunei renal transplant patients are on a par with international standards. Materials and Methods. Data of all renal transplant patients in Brunei were analysed over a twenty-year period from registry records and case notes. Comparative survival data from other countries were obtained from PubMed-listed literature. Results. A total of 49 transplantation procedures were performed in foreign centres between 1993 and 2012. 29 were government-sponsored and 20 were self-sponsored transplantations. The 5- and 10-year overall patient survival rates were 93.3% and 90.1%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall graft survival rates were 91.1% and 81.2%. There is no difference in the survival outcomes of government-sponsored and self-sponsored patients. Living-related (government-sponsored) and commercialised (self-sponsored) grafts had equivalent survival to those reported in the literature. Conclusion. Our survival data was on par with those achieved in many countries. We hope to use this information to convince local stakeholders and patients to favour transplantation as the preferred modality of RRT. PMID:25478205

  17. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  18. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  19. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count. PMID:22896763

  20. Monitoring result of radioactivity level in external environment around Qinshan NPP base during past twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past twenty years, a continuous supervision monitoring of environmental radioactivity level around Qinshan NPP (QNPP) Base was carried out by Zhejiang Province Radiation Environmental Monitoring Center. The monitoring results show that the γ radiation dose rate around QNPP Base, the activity concentration of gross α, gross β, 40K, and 137Cs in aerosol samples, the gross β daily settlement in fallout, the activity concentration of 14CO2 in air, the activity concentration of gross α, gross β, 90Sr, and 137Cs in environmental freshwater (drinking water, lake water and well water), the average specific activity of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 137Cs in soils, and the average specific activity of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 14C in edible plants, are not abnormal. The radionuclide contents in those samples are of the same levels compared with the background values before the operation of QNPP Base and the monitored values of Hangzhou reference site. However, the activity concentrations of 3H in air, rain water, drinking water, pond water, sea water of discharge site, and terrestrial plants are higher than the monitored values of Hangzhou reference site. and in some medium the activity concentrations of 3H outclass that of background around QNPP Base. The results indicate that after 20 years operation of QNPP Base, especially after the third phase heavy water reactors operation commercially, the external environment around QNPP Base has been affected by 3H in radioactive effluent. (authors)

  1. The Last Twenty Years of Experience with Fast Breeder Reactors: Lessons Learnt and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has made significant achievements in the design and development of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors over the last twenty years. Attaining a maximum burnup of 165 GW.d/t for the plutonium-rich carbide fuel without any cladding failure, coupled with excellent performance of sodium components, including primary pumps, heat exchangers and steam generators over the last 24 years, reprocessing of carbide fuel with a burnup of 150 GW.d/t and engineering tests performed for validating the plant dynamics computer codes, are the achievements from the successful operation of the 40 MW(th) capacity loop type fast breeder test reactor. Indigenous design of the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), executing high quality multidisciplinary R and D and successful manufacturing and erection of large dimensioned thin walled shell structures are the achievements in PFBR development. These achievements, apart from providing confidence in the PFBR project, are instrumental for the design of innovative future reactors. National and international collaboration established with R and D establishments and academic institutions would go a long way towards helping India to attain world leadership by 2020. (author)

  2. Commercial NAA - Is it a success? Evaluation of a twenty year experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes experiences gathered over twenty years of running a commercial neutron activation analysis and radiochemistry service in the UK. The service was set up in 1984 following a reduction in government funding to what was then the University of London Reactor Centre. The analytical service was introduced to make up the shortfall in funding required to support the small (100 kW) nuclear research reactor operated by Imperial College London. Initially the work built up slowly, mainly based on mineral exploration, working for a few key customers. As the customer base developed the work became diverse and included everything from small specialist jobs on a few samples to routine analysis of thousands of samples per year, providing an income of several hundred thousand dollars per year. Irradiation facilities were developed for specialist analyses, such as delayed neutron counting, providing further sources of income. Typical jobs, including work for chemical, oil, minerals and nuclear industry, are discussed with a description of how demands have changed over the years. The particular problem of advertising and where to seek customers is a key area for the development of a successful service and this paper includes reference to ways of sourcing business. It also describes how a quality system can be operated with a small team of staff and how staffing levels are maintained with fluctuating levels of work. Finally the paper evaluates the reasons why the income from the nuclear analytical service is no longer adequate to support the operation of the nuclear reactor and discusses the problems that can arise from taking too commercial a view of running a research reactor. (author)

  3. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  4. Twenty-five years of continuous sulphur dioxide emission reduction in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vestreng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty-five years European emission data have been compiled and reported under the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP as part of the work under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. This paper presents emission trends of SO2 reported to EMEP and validated within the programme for the period 1980–2004. These European anthropogenic sulphur emissions have been steadily decreasing over the last twenty-five years, amounting from about 55 Tg SO2 in 1980 to 15 Tg SO2 in 2004. The uncertainty in sulphur emission estimates for individual countries and years are documented to range between 3% and 25%. The relative contribution of European emissions to global anthropogenic sulphur emissions has been halved during this period. Based on annual emission reports from European countries, three emission reduction regimes have been identified. The period 1980–1989 is characterized by low annual emission reductions (below 5% reduction per year and 20% for the whole period and is dominated by emission reductions in Western Europe. The period 1990–1999 is characterised by high annual emission reductions (up to 11% reduction per year and 54% for the whole period, most pronounced in Central and Eastern Europe. The annual emission reductions in the period 2000–2004 are medium to low (below 6% reduction per year and 17% for the whole period and reflect the unified Europe, with equally large reductions in both East and West. The sulphur emission reduction has been largest in the sector Combustion in energy and transformation industries, but substantial decreases are also seen in the Non-industrial combustion plants together with the sectors Industrial combustion and Industrial production processes. The majority of European countries have reduced their emissions by more than

  5. Twenty Years of Ablative Photodecomposition (Industrial Applications of Physics Prize Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rangaswamy

    2004-03-01

    It was a little over twenty years ago that two groups, one in the U.S. and another in Hull, U.K. working independently, reported that ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration were capable of etching organic polymer films without any need for further development.In 1982, our group at the IBM Research Center which studied this phenomenon at 193nm named the process "Ablative Photodecomposition". Dyer and his group in Hull reported similar results at 248nm and 308nm in 1983. We also showed that the process worked well in the etching of tissue and had the potential to be of use in surgery since there was no detectable heat damage around the exposed area. These reports led to a burst of activity from numerous groups all over the world which has not slowed down significantly to the present day. The driving force behind the activity was and continues to be the potential for applications in several areas of computer hardware technology as well as in corneal refractive surgery. Today these applications can be said to be firmly in place and well-accepted. Strangely, the science behind the process is still a subject for serious discussion. The reason for this is the mix of physicists, chemists, medical doctors and engineers who have stepped into the debate. The result is a true 'Babel' which will be pointed out.

  6. Twenty years of packaging testing at the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti - INR, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Institute for Nuclear Research, INR, at Pitesti has developed a combination packaging to satisfy the Fundamental Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in Romania, as well as to comply with the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. These packages were designed and manufactured for transportation, temporary storage and disposal of low activity radioactive materials. To ensure that Statutory Regulations are complied, the container has been designed and manufactured in accordance with national and international standards (where applicable) and regulations to an approved Quality Assurance System. The paper will present the qualification and production testing for the packages manufactured in INR Pitesti during this period of time-twenty years. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design are also presented and commented. Post test examination criteria showed that in the impact zone, through plastic deformation of packages and the drum lid, the predominant of the impact energy has been absorbed. All structured welds and other components remained intact. The package integrity was thus maintained and there was observed no particular releases. The paper concludes that the packages tested and intended to be used for transportation, temporary storage and disposal of radioactive materials in Romania are in accordance with the Romanian and IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. (author)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  8. Borehole Fluid Logging Methods for Hydrogeologic Characterization: What Have We Learned in Twenty-Five Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, several methods have been developed and enhanced to improve the capability to characterize hydraulically conductive intervals in wellbores. The principal, and most commonly employed, methods include the heat pulse flow meter, the electromagnetic flow meter, and hydrophysical (or FEC) logging. The primary objective of each of these methods is to identify the depth of the water bearing (conductive) intervals and estimate the volumetric flow rate of each conductive interval under one or more pressure conditions. The pressure conditions under which measurements are taken include ambient (native), pumping or injection of the subject well and/or pumping a well proximate to the subject (cross-hole testing). During this period, these methods have been applied in effectively all of the hydrogeologic systems including fractured bedrock, fractured sandstones, porous alluvium, massive and fractured clays, karst, and volcanics. Project applications range from contaminant fate and transport, geotechnical, mining and water supply. These methods evaluate flow in the wellbore fluid column by applying either stationary and/or profile-type logging measurements. Each of these methods evaluates flow in a distinct and unique way and, as such, there are limitations associated with each measurement method. The analytical methods to reduce the field data to the stated objectives also vary in complexity between the different methods. Numerous field and laboratory comparative studies have been conducted to evaluate, compare and verify the results of these methods. This poster will present a summary of these methods, recent updates, variety of applications and associated limitations.

  9. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  10. Seventy Years of Central Banking: The Bank of Canada in International Context, 1935-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Bordo; Angela Redish

    2005-01-01

    On the seventieth birthday of the Bank of Canada, we evaluate the Bank's contribution to monetary policy in an international context. We focus on: the reasons for the establishment of the central bank in 1935, its unique record of floating in a sea of fixed currencies under Bretton Woods; its experience with the Great Inflation and monetarism; its pioneering adoption of inflation targeting; and recent innovations in the payments and the phasing out of reserve requirements.

  11. The Green Bank Telescope: A radio telescope for the twenty-first century: Final proposal June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific goals, design, and projected performance of a 100-m-aperture steerable radio telescope to be built at Green Bank, WV are discussed in a proposal to the NSF. The goals considered include observations of pulsars, stars and the solar system; studies of Galactic and extragalactic H I, spectroscopic studies, measurements of continuum radiation; and VLBI observations. Detailed attention is given to the antenna, electronics, control and monitor system, data processing, operational factors, the telescope site, and cost estimates. Drawings, diagrams, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided

  12. Commercial NAA — Is It a Success? Evaluation of a Twenty Year Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial service at Imperial College was maintained for twenty years by juggling staff, equipment and irradiation facilities, building when required and downsizing when necessary. At no point was the service entirely self-sufficient since staff had more than one role and participated in teaching and research as well as the analytical service. The balance was of benefit everyone concerned, including students who have studied with us and gained experience of working within a well maintained and quality assured laboratory. The benefits of collaborating with industry cannot be overestimated, with the secondary effects for research and teaching identified previously. A key change took place in the early 2000s, which can be seen in Figure 5 by the fall in income from 2002. The author’s academic department became a separate cost centre to the Reactor Centre, and irradiations were charged at a more realistic price. Once the true costs were built in, including space, overheads and irradiation charges, it was not possible to maintain a viable business plan without reducing staff to a non-viable number. As a result, in 2003 the analytical service was handed to the Reactor Centre, in which the business could remain viable because the irradiation charge became income not expenditure. Without the continued interactions that academic research generated, the NAA service has diminished with very few customers in the past few years. Staff are occupied with internal work for the reactor such as routine monitoring using gamma spectrometry. In summary the introduction and operation of a commercial service is to be recommended, particularly in those situations where it can complement other parts of the organisation such other analytical or academic activities. It is not practical to fund reactor operations entirely on commercial activities, but it can result in a number of spin-offs that can increase other income streams such as teaching and research projects. Over the past 28

  13. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  14. Twenty Years of Litter and Root Manipulations: Insights into Multi-Decadal SOM Dynamics and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, J.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reforestation, reducing deforestation, and sustainable forest management are often recommended by policy makers to mitigate the greenhouse gas contributions of the forestry sector. However, underlying many of these policy recommendations is the assumption that increasing above-ground carbon stocks corresponds to long-term increases in ecosystem carbon stocks, the majority of which is stored in soils. We analyzed soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forest soils that had undergone twenty years of continuous manipulations of above- and below-ground organic inputs as part of the Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) network. Although we expected that increased C inputs would correspond to significantly elevated C in surface mineral soils, our data suggest that increasing above-ground litter inputs has had a positive priming effect in this soil. Positive priming occurs when increased rates of litter addition to soil lead to disproportionate increases in microbial respiration rates of native soil C, resulting in a net decrease of soil C. Soil respiration rates in a year-long laboratory incubation support this theory: increased above-ground litter inputs led to decreased respiration rates, suggesting a relative deficit of labile organic matter. Removal of below ground inputs, either with or without above-ground litter inputs, also led to decreased respiration in laboratory incubations, demonstrating the importance of fresh root inputs to labile C. Trends in non-hydrolyzable C fractions, a proxy for the more stable C pool, agree with our respiration measurements. Data from sequential density fractionation are consistent with the hypotheses that priming has occurred in response to increased above-ground litter inputs and that root inputs are an important control of the labile C pool. The importance of roots inputs for C stabilization is well documented in the literature, and our hypothesis that increased above-ground litter inputs leads to priming is supported by

  15. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  16. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  17. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  18. Eighty Years of History of the Central Bank of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Leonardo Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Chile was founded in 1925, to provide the country with an institution that could stabilize the currency, regulate interest and discount rates, and avoid disruptions in the country’s financial, industrial and economic development (Decree Law Nº486, August 22, 1925). But a weak institutional framework meant that the Bank, far from ameliorating these problems, aggravated them, leading to decades of high and persistent inflation. Inflation became under control only during the ...

  19. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  20. Parcelling activity of the National Bank for Agriculture in interwar Poland in the years 1924-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kłusek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature related to the problem in focus is exceptionally poor. The only book publication concerns the National Bank for Agriculture in the twenty-year interwar period is book position of Marek Nowak’s authorship [Nowak 1988]. But, on account of its modest range, bank agrarian activity has been treated too generally. In this publication author’s opinion is that this activity needs deeper analysis. Parcelling is an economic process which took part in Poland and lasted from the moment of grant freehold. It ran with special intensification towards the end of XIX century and at the beginning of XX century. In inter-war period, on account of source of parcelled soil, parcellation was divided into private and governmental. Governmental parcellation, which related to public property, included lands by Regional District Councils and territories included by military settlement. However, lands allocated by the National Bank for Agriculture and by individual people made private parcellation. The beginning of the National Bank for Agriculture’s agrarian activity’ was enabled by Poland President’s directive from 1924. One of the main tasks put against NBA was support: parcellation and settlement, agricul-tural regulations by landed estates purchase for parcelling aims and giving long-term credits for land purchase. However, according to status, the National Bank for Agriculture was able to parcel out landed properties, both purchased for private property and entrusted to commission state. Tasks put against parcellation conducted by the National Bank for Ag-riculture were not carried out in a satisfactory way. The Bank’s activity did not contribute to shopping the process of farms fragmentation at serious level and process of agrarian overpopulation’s growth among fewer ownership. Similarly, it also was not an essential source of establishing new farms capable of competing with vast-land ownership.

  1. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  2. The Chinese Banking Sector: Challenges and Prospects in the Coming Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunjieLi

    2004-01-01

    China's banking sector will continue its rapid expansion in the next few years. However,competition will intensify, and return on banks' assets will be unlikely improved substantially.In several years merger and consolidation will become inevitable in the sector, and many small- and medium-sized banks will need to fight for their survival. To assure long-term viability, small-and medium-sized banks should either take advantage of the rapid market expansion in the near term to increase their sizes to the next level, or to specialize in certain products or customer groups. The tasks of bank regulations currently include enhancingbanks' internal management and control, improving asset quality, and carrying out China'srelevant WTO commitments. But at a more fundamental level, the regulatory, objective should be to establish a healthy and orderly market environment in China's banking sector,control systemic risks, and foster efficient allocation of financial resources.

  3. Pediatric urolithiasis in the central coast of Tunisia: Epidemiologic changes over the past twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najjar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Pediatric urolithiasis has been constantly decreasing during the past twenty-four years (1982-2007 in Tunisia as well as in other Mediterranean countries. This study was undertaken to observe the incidence of stone disease and its composition in children. Our study shows a downward trend of incidence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients over the last 25 years. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has constantly increased with decrease in the stones related to infections Whewellite (calcium oxalate was more frequent in children of school age. In conclusion, the decrease in struvite frequency in children patients during the past twenty-five years and the stabilization of calcium phosphate stones are the result of a significant im-provement of diagnostics and the treatment of urinary tract infections in the young children in our country.

  4. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010): Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson M. López López; Pablo e. Vera-Villarroel; Andrés M. Pérez-Acosta; María Constanza Aguilar Bustamante; Camilo Hurtado-Parrado; Pilar Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990),B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1)radical behaviorism; 2) the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3) applied behavior analysis; 4) the Skinnerbox; 5) the Horcones community (Mexico).Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand...

  5. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department : The First 30 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick G. Grasso; Sulaiman S. Wasty; Rachel V. Weaving

    2003-01-01

    During the course of 2002-03 the Bank's Operations Evaluation Department (OED) held a series of major events, including seminars and workshops, leading up to the thirtieth anniversary of the founding of OED by Robert McNamara on July 1, 1973. This volume captures the history of OED as related by many of those who participated in making that history. It is divided into four sections. The fi...

  6. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure

  7. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

  8. Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival. Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005. The 5-year period (1981–1985) was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8–12.4) and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate) the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–10.8) and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3–9.7) respectively. Using the 1991–1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8–19.6) for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. For the period 1981–1985, the 15-year cause-specific survival for the Connecticut and the San

  9. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  10. DYNASTY-Leading Wine Brand for Twenty-Eight Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Co.,Ltd.,since the establishment in 1980,has had a history of steady development of 28 years.In the past 28 years,Dynasty Winery continues the market expansion,and increasing the market share,and strengthening the influence of the brand and the company.Till now,"Dynasty Wine",has become popular among the consumors.

  11. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  12. Analysis of the Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence in Tianjin Over a Recent Twenty-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Kexin Chen; Min He; Shufen Dong; Haixin Li; Fengju Song

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the incidence rate and trend of thyroid cancer in Tianjin over a recent 20-year period.METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to study the occurrence of thyroid cancer.RESULTS During 1981~2001, the average incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 1.770 per 100,000 with a male to female incidence ratio of 1:2.74, the occurrence being higher in females than in males. Thyroid cancer incidence increased gradually with time over the 20 years in both males and females, especially the incidence peaked in females of 35~50 years of age.CONCLUSION The rapid increase in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer, especially in females, suggests that further research on the risk factors and preventive efforts related to high-risk women should be conducted.

  13. Intraoperative EBRT and resection for renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-year outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F.A. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Sole, C.V. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Spain). Service of Radiation Oncology; Martinez-Monge, R.; Aristu, J. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Azinovic, I. [Hospital de San Jaime, Torrevieja (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zudaire, J.; Berian, J.M. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Urology; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General Surgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: We report the outcomes of a multimodality treatment approach combining maximal surgical resection and intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with locoregionally (LR) recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy or LR advanced primary RCC. Patients and methods: From 1983 to 2008, 25 patients with LR recurrent (n = 10) or LR advanced primary (n = 15) RCC were treated with this approach. Median patient age was 60 years (range, 16-79 years). Fifteen patients (60%) received perioperative EBRT (median dose, 44 Gy). Surgical resection was R0 (negative margins) in 6 patients (24%) and R1 (residual microscopic disease) in 19 patients (76%). The median dose of IOERT was 14 Gy (range, 9-15). Overall survival (OS) and relapse patterns were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 22.2 years (range, 3.6-26 years). OS and DFS at 5 and 10 years were 38% and 18% and 19% and 14%, respectively. LR control (tumor bed or regional lymph nodes) and distant metastases-free survival rates at 5 years were 80% and 22%, respectively. The death rate within 30 days of surgery and IOERT was 4% (n = 1). Six patients (24%) experienced acute or late toxicities of grade 3 or higher according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTCAE) v4. Conclusion: In patients with LR recurrent or LR advanced primary RCC, a multimodality approach consisting of maximal surgical resection and IOERT with or without adjuvant EBRT yielded encouraging local control results, justifying further evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Twenty Five Years of Neutron Activation Analysis: A Personal Perspective on Utilization of the Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1970's there have been enormous changes in the methods, techniques and applications of neutron activation analysis. Having been a research scientist at the National Research Council of Canada and the McMaster Nuclear Reactor, as well as a professor for ten years at the University of Illinois and 15 years at the University of Texas, I have a unique perspective on the research performed by my many MS, PhD and even undergraduate students. Below is a personal perspective on the utilization of the neutron activation analysis. (author)

  15. The discovery of mesoporous molecular sieves from the twenty year perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kresge, Ch. T.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2013), s. 3663-3670. ISSN 0306-0012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : liquid crystal phases * surfactant * silica Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 30.425, year : 2013

  16. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  17. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  18. Lessons from a Comprehensive School System for Curriculum Theory and Research: Sweden Revisited after Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Kallos, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes Swedish curriculum theory and research over the last 20 years. Relates this to changes in the comprehensive school system and the decline of the welfare state. Recounts the break-up of the cooperative relationship among the research community, the National Board of Education, and the Ministry of Education. (MJP)

  19. Macro-level change and micro level effects: a twenty-year perspective on changing grocery shopping behaviour in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    de Kervenoael, Ronan; Hallsworth, Alan; Clarke, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we summarise key elements of retail change in Britain over a twenty-year period. The time period is that covered by a funded study into long-term change in grocery shopping habits in Portsmouth, England. The major empirical findings—to which we briefly allude—are reported elsewhere: the present task is to assess the wider context underlying that change. For example, it has frequently been stated that retailing in the UK is not as competitive as in other leading economies. As a r...

  20. Twenty-eight years of Aedes albopictus in Brazil: a rationale to maintain active entomological and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Gabriel Menezes Pancetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aedes albopictus was first detected in Brazil in 1986. This mosquito species presents a major threat to public health because Brazilian populations have shown substantial vector competence for arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. METHODS: We updated the records of Ae. albopictus in several States of Brazil, focusing on areas in which its presence had been reported after 2002. RESULTS: Twenty-eight years after its arrival in Brazil, Ae. albopictus has been detected in 24 of 27 States. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid spread of this species and its high vector competence demonstrate the danger of Ae. albopictus in Brazil.

  1. Pattern of acute poisonings in childhood in Ankara: what has changed in twenty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiran, Nesibe; Sarikayalar, Fikriye

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies in childhood, and epidemiological properties differ from country to country. Thus, special epidemiological surveillance for each country is necessary to determine the problem according to which preventive measures can be taken. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a pediatric referral hospital. All poisoned patients under 17 years of age, except for cases food poisoning, presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) from January 1995 to December 2000 were determined. The information about each case was recorded on standardized forms and a retrospective chart review survey was done. Complete epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 489 patients. The mean age of all poisoned patients (mean +/- standard deviation) was 5.96 +/- 4.87 years, and the age range was 0.01 to 17 years. Three hundred and thirty-one children, forming 63.6% of all patients, were under five years of age. Slightly more boys (52.3%) than girls were intoxicated at ages less than 10 years, after which more girls (79%) than boys were involved. The majority of all cases were due to accidental poisoning (78.1% of all poisonings) which occurred mostly in children under five years of age (73.3%). While accidental poisonings (97.1%) were the most common mode of poisoning between 1-5 years, self-poisonings (67.3%) had the highest ratio in cases over 10 years of age. In patients younger than one year of age, 74.2% of all poisonings were due to therapeutical error. Drugs were the most frequent offending agent (57.7%), followed by ingestion of a caustic/corrosive substance (16.8%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (9.4%). Analgesics were the most common agents, forming 23.7% of all poisonings due to drugs, followed by ingestion of multiple drugs and tricyclic antidepressants at ratios of 21.6% and 9.6%, respectively. The most common route of poisoning was ingestion of the

  2. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  3. [Twenty years' review and prospect of modernization research on traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-li; Zhang, Jun-hua

    2015-09-01

    The modernization strategy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been implemented for 20 years, which has provided a strong impetus to the development of TCM and gained remarkable achievements in scientific research platform, research result, industry scale, clinical evaluation, internationalization and professionals training as well. The achievements of TCM modernization greatly improved the clinical service ability and level of TCM, broadened the scope of service, become the important foundation of the big health industry. TCM has played an irreplaceable role in the health care reform, benefiting people's livelihood, promoting industrial structure adjustment and cultivating strategic emerging industries. This article summarized the main achievements of the modernization of TCM and prospected the direction and tasks in the next 20 years in order to further promote the modernization process of TCM. PMID:26978967

  4. Maxillofacial Fractures: Twenty Years of Study in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. Methods: We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Sur...

  5. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: Twenty-Five Years of Survey and Biological Data Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; den Braber, Anouk; van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; van Dongen, Jenny; van ‘t Ent, Dennis; Geels, Lot M.; van Lien, Rene; Ligthart, Lannie; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Mbarek, Hamdi; De Moor, Marleen H.M.; Neijts, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most i...

  6. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Nathan W.; Badley, Andrew D.; Kasten, Mary J.; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W.; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Stacey A Rizza

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and ...

  7. Conjoined twins – twenty years' experience at a reference center in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri; Julio Americo Pereira Batatinha; Manoel Carlos Prieto Velhote; Uenis Tannuri

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports on the experience of one hospital regarding the surgical aspects, anatomic investigation and outcomes of the management of 21 conjoined twin pairs over the past 20 years. METHODS: All cases of conjoined twins who were treated during this period were reviewed. A careful imaging evaluation was performed to detail the abdominal anatomy (particularly the liver), inferior vena cava, spleen and pancreas, either to identify the number of organs or to evaluate the degree...

  8. Heights of twenty years old males of Friuli (Italy) born between 1846 and 1890

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Breschi; Alessio Fornasin; Luciana Quaranta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reconstruct the historical trend of heights of conscripts born in the province of Friuli in the years 1846-90. This work is dedicated to identifying the problems encountered when using enrolment lists and to proposing solutions which can, at least in part, correct these problems. Particular interest is posed in evidencing the very high importance of using homogeneous measurements and in introducing some techniques which have allowed us to render statures uniform ...

  9. Clinical and radiological evolution of a hand arthrosis in twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical evolution and X rays of an arthrodosis of the hand followed for 25 years is presented. This is a complement of another article published in the magazine, arthrosis viewed by a doctor patient second part. An emphasis is placed on the good results obtained with a new program of exercises. The problems related to the Alignment and instability of the wrist and its collapse are analyzed in depth in both the example X rays as well as the scannography

  10. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Annika K. Jägerbrand; Peter Čuchta

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified....

  11. The legacy of Guttman and Kalish (1956): Twenty-five years of research on stimulus generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Honig, Werner K.; Urcuioli, Peter J

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a selective review of the methods, problems, and findings in the area of operant stimulus generalization over the 25 years since the publication of the original paper by Guttman and Kalish (1956) on discriminability and spectral generalization in the pigeon. The paper falls into five main sections, which encompass the main themes and problems stemming from the Guttman and Kalish work and its immediate successors. The first section addresses the relationship between stimulus gene...

  12. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prättälä Ritva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002 that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the

  13. Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. R...

  14. “You Have To Be There”: Twenty-five Years of SCAMC/AMIA Symposia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Donald A. B.; Humphreys, Betsy L.

    2002-01-01

    The AMIA Annual Symposium began life as the Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (SCAMC) in 1977. Inaugurated as a multidisciplinary meeting with multiple sponsors, the Symposium quickly became a force in the development of the field of medical informatics. The authors summarize the 25-year history of the meeting and its proceedings, drawing on information in the printed programs and proceedings and on the personal recollections of some Symposium organizers and attendees. They a...

  15. Developments in personal dosimetry for external radiations over the past twenty-one years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 when SRP was founded the basic philosophy and the techniques employed in personal dosimetry have continuously been developed. New measurement quantities have been recommended by ICRP and ICRU, primary radiation standards have been extended and reference radiations specified. Substantial effort has been spent on the development of new measuring techniques as well as the introduction of automation and computerised dose record keeping systems. This article highlights the major changes in personal dosimetry introduced during the past 21 years. (author)

  16. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  17. Maxillofacial Fractures: Twenty Years of Study in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. Methods: We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery for the period 2001–2005. We have analyzed those fractures and compared them with the period from 1983 to 2005 only when it was reasonable. Results: During this period, 1,945 patients were treated for trauma in the maxillofacial region by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. This group included 19.8% females and 80.2% males. The largest age group were those between 20 and 20 years of age. Causes of trauma for both periods were predominantly traffic accidents; however, during the period 2001-2005, interpersonal conflicts were increasingly the cause of fractures. Conclusion: Interpersonal conflict as a cause of maxillofacial trauma has risen in recent years. With this increase the methods of treating fractures in this region are also changing. PMID:24167433

  18. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  19. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  20. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78–88), 92% (95% CI, 89–96), 73% (95% CI, 68–79), and 82% (95% CI, 77–87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  1. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  2. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  3. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  4. Twenty-five years of confirmatory adaptive designs: opportunities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Bretz, Frank; Dragalin, Vladimir; König, Franz; Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-02-10

    'Multistage testing with adaptive designs' was the title of an article by Peter Bauer that appeared 1989 in the German journal Biometrie und Informatik in Medizin und Biologie. The journal does not exist anymore but the methodology found widespread interest in the scientific community over the past 25 years. The use of such multistage adaptive designs raised many controversial discussions from the beginning on, especially after the publication by Bauer and Köhne 1994 in Biometrics: Broad enthusiasm about potential applications of such designs faced critical positions regarding their statistical efficiency. Despite, or possibly because of, this controversy, the methodology and its areas of applications grew steadily over the years, with significant contributions from statisticians working in academia, industry and agencies around the world. In the meantime, such type of adaptive designs have become the subject of two major regulatory guidance documents in the US and Europe and the field is still evolving. Developments are particularly noteworthy in the most important applications of adaptive designs, including sample size reassessment, treatment selection procedures, and population enrichment designs. In this article, we summarize the developments over the past 25 years from different perspectives. We provide a historical overview of the early days, review the key methodological concepts and summarize regulatory and industry perspectives on such designs. Then, we illustrate the application of adaptive designs with three case studies, including unblinded sample size reassessment, adaptive treatment selection, and adaptive endpoint selection. We also discuss the availability of software for evaluating and performing such designs. We conclude with a critical review of how expectations from the beginning were fulfilled, and - if not - discuss potential reasons why this did not happen. PMID:25778935

  5. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  6. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally "lonely" (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highes...

  7. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven. PMID:27345198

  8. Twenty years a growing: gains in the intelligence test scores of Irish children over two decades

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from Gill and Byrt's 1972 standardization of the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) on a national sample of Irish primary school children, O'Connor & Ruddle's 1987 survey of a large sample of school children in Clare and Jeffer's and Fitzgerald's 1989 survey of 9-12 year olds in a Dublin suburb, we found that over the period from 1972-1989 the mean gain in IQ points on the RSPM was approximately 9 IQ points. This gain of about 0.6 standard deviations in IQ points has occur...

  9. Heights of twenty years old males of Friuli (Italy born between 1846 and 1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Breschi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the historical trend of heights of conscripts born in the province of Friuli in the years 1846-90. This work is dedicated to identifying the problems encountered when using enrolment lists and to proposing solutions which can, at least in part, correct these problems. Particular interest is posed in evidencing the very high importance of using homogeneous measurements and in introducing some techniques which have allowed us to render statures uniform and therefore also comparable over time. The results obtained bring to light some possible weak points of the series of Italian historical heights which has been used up to date.

  10. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus associated with eventration of diaphragm in a twenty-six-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man. PMID:25901269

  11. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Marhuenda, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Navas Saurin, Almudena A.; Abiétar López, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education  programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and  conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as  analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength an...

  12. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  13. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  14. Twenty-Six Years of Operating Experience with the FBTR and Feedback for Future Reactor Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has limited uranium, but abundant thorium resources. For better utilization of uranium and to use the available thorium, a fast reactor programme is indispensable for India because fast reactors can generate electricity and breed additional fissile materials for future reactors. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has provided a valuable test bed for the performance assessment of unique carbide fuel, materials, etc., experience in safe handling of sodium, in addition to generating employment of human resources. The knowledge gained through successful operation of the FBTR for the past 26 years has provided vital inputs for the commercialization of the fast breeder reactor programme through the construction of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). The PFBR is a 500 MW(e), sodium cooled, pool type fast breeder reactor currently under construction. It is essential to reduce the capital cost of future fast breeder reactors to make them competitive with thermal reactors. Operating experience gained with the FBTR provides vital input towards simplification of the design, improving its reliability, enhancing safety and achieving overall cost reduction. This paper includes a summary of 26 years of operating experience gained with the FBTR and its feedback into the PFBR design. (author)

  15. Twenty thousand-year-old huts at a hunter-gatherer settlement in eastern Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22-11,600 cal BP inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity--precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood.

  16. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  17. IgA Nephropathy: A Twenty Year Retrospective Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a common glomerular disease whose etiology is unknown. Previous studies have described the clinical and laboratory features but none have specifically compared patients during different time periods. This 20 year retrospective study was performed to assess trends in the severity of IgAN from 1989–2008. We reviewed 57 patient charts that contained a confirmed biopsy diagnosis of IgAN and recorded data at the time of diagnosis and the final follow-up appointment. Clinical data included physical examination, urine, and blood tests. Patients were separated into two cohorts, Cohort 1 1989–1998 and Cohort 2 1999–2008. An increase in severity was noted in Cohort 2 based on a significantly higher Up/c and lower serum albumin level. Other prognostic indicators including GFRe, hematocrit, and glomerular injury score also demonstrated a trend towards more severe disease over the past 20 years. The patients in both Cohorts received similar treatments and had comparable renal function at the last follow-up visit. Based on our findings, we suggest that although a kidney biopsy is required to diagnose IgAN, the procedure may not be necessary in patients clinically suspected of having the disease but who have normal kidney function and minimal urine abnormalities.

  18. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  19. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  20. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan

  1. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools. PMID:26599313

  2. [Military physician Colonel Robert Yout. Twenty years as a paratrooper medical officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yout, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Robert Yout was born on June 15th, 1930. A rugby player and a member of the French Volleyball team, he was already an outstanding sportsman when he began his studies at the Health Services School in Lyons. His career as an army medical officer among the paratroopers was atypical. He spent many years among the most prestigious elite paratroopers of the French army: the 2nd REP, the 1st CHOC and the CINC (The Army Training School for Combat Swimmers) . When he retired, he was Head Doctor of the Paratroopers parent company: The Airborne School of Pau. For the army medical historian, Robert Yout is the perfect example of a man with an outstanding and remarkable career: A crack soldier, a brave army medical officer, a parachuting and diving pioneer and a sportsman of international class. PMID:24908785

  3. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  4. Twenty years on: Atmospheric blocking representation in Global Climate Models from AMIP to CMIP-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davini, Paolo; D'Andrea, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric blocking simulation has always been a big concern for Global Climate Models (GCMs). Making use of a series of equivalent metrics, the improvement of GCMs since the 90s to nowadays is assessed. Results from the AMIP (1992), the CMIP-3 (2007) and the CMIP-5 (2012) inter-comparison projects are analyzed, using both coupled and atmospheric-only models for a total of 82 climate models. Although large improvements are seen over the Pacific ocean minor success has been achieved over the Euro-Atlantic sector, where many state-of-the-art GCMs still exhibits the same negative bias as 20 years ago - associated with large geopotential height systematic errors. Even though, some of the CMIP-5 models reasonably represent the climatological frequency of blocking over both basins. Negligible differences emerge among coupled or atmospheric-only simulations, suggesting weak relevance of sea surface temperatures biases. Conversely, increased horizontal resolution seems cardinal to resolve European Blocking.

  5. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  6. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  7. Combined immunodeficiencies: twenty years experience from a single center in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, H Haluk; Patiroglu, Turkan; Hershfield, Michael; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) include a group of inherited monogenic disorders. CIDs are characterized by defective cellular and humoral immunities that lead to severe infections. CIDs can be classified according to immunologic phenotypes as T(-)B(-)NK(-) CID, T(-)B(-)NK(+) CID, T(-)B(+)NK(-) CID and T(-)B(+)NK(+) CID. In a 20-year period, from 1994 to 2014, a total of 40 CID patients were diagnosed at the Pediatric Immunology of Erciyes University Medical Faculty in Kayseri, Turkey. The gender ratio (F/M) was 3/5. The median age at the onset of symptoms was 2 months (range, 15 days - 15 years). Of the 14 T(-)B(-)NK(-) CIDs, 6, 2 (siblings), 1, 1 and 4 had a mutation in the ADA, PNP, Artemis, RAG1 genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 15 T(-)B(-)NK(+) CIDs, 3, 2 (siblings) and 10 had a mutation in the RAG1, XLF/Cernunnos genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 9 T(-)B(+)NK(-) CIDs, 2 siblings, 1, 1 and 5 had a mutation in the ZAP70, IL2RG, DOCK8 genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 2 T(-)B(+)NK(+) CIDs, 2 had a mutation in the MAGT1 and ZAP70 genes respectively. Of the 40 CIDs, 26 (65%) were died and 14 (35%) are alive. Eight patients received HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) with 62.5% survival rate. As a result, patients presented with severe infections in the first months of life have to be examined for CIDs. Shortening time of diagnosis would increase chance of HSCT as life-saving treatment in the CID patients. PMID:27095930

  8. Twenty-Year Experience of Heart Transplantation: Early and Long-Term Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Yeom, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Ho Young; Choi, Jae-Woong; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, Hae-Young; Huh, Jae-Hak; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated early and long-term results after heart transplantation (HTPL). Methods One hundred five consecutive patients (male:female=80:25) who underwent HTPL between 1994 and 2013 were enrolled. Based on the changes in immunosuppressive regimen, the study patients were divided into two groups. Early and long-term clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between the patients who underwent HTPL before (group E, n=41) and after July 2009 (group L, n=64). The group L patients were older (p<0.001), had higher incidence of hypertension (p=0.001) and chronic kidney disease (p<0.001), and more frequently needed preoperative mechanical ventilation (p=0.027) and mechanical circulatory support (p=0.014) than the group E patients. Results Overall operative mortality was 3.8%, and postoperative morbidities included acute kidney injury (n=31), respiratory complications (n=16), reoperation for bleeding (n=15) and wound complications (n=10). There were no significant differences in early results except acute kidney injury between group E and group L patients. Overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 83.8%, 67.7%, and 54.9%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two patient groups. Rejection-free rates at 1 and 5 years were 63.0% and 59.7%, respectively; rates were significantly higher in group L than in group E (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite increased preoperative comorbidities, group L patients showed similar early and long-term outcomes and significantly higher rejection-free rates when compared with group E patients. PMID:27525232

  9. Inter-American Development Bank Annual Report 2008: The Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2009-01-01

    This Annual Report 2008: A Year in Review contains a review of the Bank's operations in 2008, loans, guarantees and grants, and in a separate volume, Management's Discussion and Analysis: Ordinary Capital; the financial statements of the Bank; and general appendices. The IDB's response to the effects of the global financial, economic, and social crisis on our region has been swift and sure, as they provided flexibility to those most in need (Haiti, for example), so that they could provide sub...

  10. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  11. The last twenty years experience with fast reactors; lessons learnt and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Importance of rapid growth of electricity generation capacity for development of India is well recognized. Energy planners are of the strong view that nuclear energy has to form significant portion in ensuring long term energy security for India. The Nuclear Energy Programme in India has been visualized to grow in three stages. Stage-I consists of natural uranium fuelled Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors. The known reserves in the country can support only 10 GWe of installed electrical capacity. The second stage consist of Fast Breeder Reactors. The energy potential can be realized to 530 GWe. Third stage is based on utilization of vast reserves of thorium to build reactors based on U-233 fuel. The first step in the introduction of fast reactors in the country was the construction of 40 MWth, 13.5 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) with the help of French Atomic Energy and industry. The reactor has been in operation since 1985 and is serving as excellent facility for research and development for irradiation of fuel and structural materials and has generated valuable data and experience for the successful operation of fast breeder reactors. Successful operation of FBTR has provided valuable feedback to launch the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Unlike FBTR, this reactor has been designed indigenously backed up by strong research and development. As PFBR would be head of a series of at least a few reactors, cost effective design has been made by decreasing the number of components like primary and secondary pumps as 2 each, increasing the design life to 40 years and detailed optimization studies for each component and system. The reactor design incorporates the lessons learnt from the operating experience of sodium cooled fast reactors and the designs in vogue at the time of finalization of PFBR design. Realizing a big jump from FBTR to PFBR, the manufacturing technology development of important nuclear components was undertaken with the

  12. TWENTY-THREE-YEAR LONG-TERM HEALTH OUTCOME AFTER THE WAR IN VUKOVAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko; Dujaković, Tatjana; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Jurković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Results of the first research of this kind on the 23-year long-term outcome in children born during the war in Vukovar are presented. This retrospective clinical study surveyed the potential 23-year long-term consequences and morbidity of children born between May 1, 1991 and November 19, 1991, during the siege and occupation of Vukovar. Data were obtained from women having delivered their babies in that period and from delivery protocols of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vukovar County Hospital. According to the survey and the data collected, there were 9 (3.98%) preterm deliveries, 60 (81%) of the total of 77 subjects were breastfed, 14 (19%) were not breastfed, while three babies died in the postpartum period. However, the breastfeeding period was evidently shorter, as only 10 women breastfed for a period longer than 6 months, while the mean length of the breastfeeding period was 9.9 weeks, i.e. 2.5 months. Allergy-related illnesses and proneness to infections in childhood and preschool age were found in 27.3% and 16.9% of children, respectively, while two children developed diabetes type 1. One child had atopic diathesis, two started speaking after the age of two, one child started walking late (after 20 months) and started speaking after the age of two, one child had loud sound phobia, and one used to overreact and express anger in inconvenient situations, all of them being of female gender and born prematurely. Cognitive and attention disorders and stress reactions were found in 6.5% of the children. Regular elementary school education was completed by 74 (96%) children, while three (3.8%) children experienced failure at school due bad behavior, i.e. delinquency. At the age of 23, 34 (46%) children had developed bad habits, i.e. 33 of them smoked, 2 were addicted to alcohol, whereas one was addicted to both smoking and alcohol. Forty (54%) subjects did not use any harmful substances. Psychiatric disorders related to anxiety, depression or other

  13. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally ``lonely'' (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period-ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect is very small, but a loud minority of stars, including, apparently, HD 154345, show very strong RV-activity correlations.

  14. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  15. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: twenty-five years of survey and biological data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; den Braber, Anouk; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Draisma, Harmen H M; van Dongen, Jenny; van 't Ent, Dennis; Geels, Lot M; van Lien, Rene; Ligthart, Lannie; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Moor, Marleen H M; Neijts, Melanie; Pool, Rene; Stroo, Natascha; Kluft, Cornelis; Suchiman, H Eka D; Slagboom, P Eline; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most individuals having completed two or more surveys. Smaller projects provided in-depth phenotyping, including measurements of the autonomic nervous system, neurocognitive function, and brain imaging. For 46% of the ANTR participants, DNA samples are available and whole genome scans have been obtained in more than 11,000 individuals. These data have resulted in numerous studies on heritability, gene x environment interactions, and causality, as well as gene finding studies. In the future, these studies will continue with collection of additional phenotypes, such as metabolomic and telomere length data, and detailed genetic information provided by DNA and RNA sequencing. Record linkage to national registers will allow the study of morbidity and mortality, thus providing insight into the development of health, lifestyle, and behavior across the lifespan. PMID:23298648

  16. Lime treatment experiments gob revegetation in Illinois: A twenty-five year record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 and 1972, an attempt was made to achieve direct coal refuse revegetation on an Illinois coal refuse (gob) pile by testing six lime application rates and six grass and legume species. Following achievement of some initial success, a larger plot employing best treatment was established. Additionally, a small test was installed using best treatment and six-inch thick soil cover. In 1976, early results were published, in which short term success was presented. At that time, the prevailing question seemed to be, how long will the vegetation persist? In 1984 and 1985, the gob pile excluding the research plots, was lime-treated and revegetated, but the research plot was left undisturbed. In 1997, after a 25-year time lapse, the original plots were re-staked from original records, and plot-by-plot, existing vegetation on the plots was evaluated. Data is presented correlating for each treatment (each treatment repeated three times), sulfur analysis, vegetation status and lime adequacy. Related research is discussed. Ramifications concerning relevant acid mine drainage is addressed. Eleven conclusions are offered at the end of the paper

  17. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally "lonely" (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period- ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect ...

  18. Twenty-Year Survival in Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Molecular Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma (GB) remains grim. Historically, the median survival has been 6 to 9 months. Recent research has improved the outcome slightly. A computer search of the literature reveals few long-term survivors. Method: Presented here is a case report of a 20-year survivor of GB, with pathologic review to confirm the diagnosis. A battery of molecular studies was performed to develop a molecular profile of this unique patient. Results: The results of the molecular genetic testing for this most unusual patient were as follows: (1) methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT) was methylated, (2) p53 positive, (3) PTEN tumor suppressor gene positive, (4) protein kinase AKT (pAKT) negative, and (5) epidermal growth factor receptor negative. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the longest survival of any patient in the literature whose initial diagnosis was GB. Triple-positive GBM patients (MGMT methylated, PTEN, and p53 positive) are uncommon but may be associated with a better prognosis. Further research is needed to confirm whether this molecular profile is prognostic of prolonged survival. Molecular genetics will determine future treatment and prognosis in GB.

  19. Impacts from surface mining on ground-water system: A twenty-year record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater impacts from a surface lignite mine in east-central Texas have been predicted and monitored since 1974. Minimal impacts on groundwater quantity and quality were predicted. Because aquifers in the mine area have very low permeabilities, volumes of groundwater to dewatering pits and reclaimed spoils were expected to be small. Potential groundwater contamination was predicted to be insignificant because of the geology of the area. Seeping to and dewatering from the mine pits were predicted to prevent any potential contamination because the flow would be toward the mine pits. The predictions made are proved correct. Groundwater depletion and recovery have been observed in six mine blocks. Compaction of the spoil is heterogeneous. The bottom of the spoil deposit has higher porosity and permeability causing rapid resaturation and preferential flow. Groundwater recovery rate is predictable, reaching a steady-state condition within 7 to 8 years after reclamation begins. Examination of the geochemical evolution of groundwater in spoil aquifers reveals many trends. Most ion concentrations exhibit an increasing trend until groundwater recovery is complete. After that the ion concentrations decline as groundwater is flushed and reacting minerals precipitate. The groundwater quality monitored is not abnormally higher than state groundwater standards

  20. Review of twenty-five years' activities of Co-60 irradiation facility in Tokai Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Co-60 irradiation facility was established in Tokai Research Establishment in 1958, it has been used for many irradiation services in a wide field in responce to the various needs both in JAERI and from the outside of JAERI. During this period the reconstructions and repairs have been performed in many respects of the equipments and the building, and the irradiation sources were newly added in several times. The present report is a history of the activity of the Co-60 irradiation facility for 25 years, describing 1) the maintenance and the reformations of the equipments associated with the cave such as a reinforcement of the cave shielding, the renewal of the shielding windows and the reformation of the source storage, 2) the specifications and the assembly workes of the sources, 3) the summary of the main apparatuses used in the experiments, 4) the extention and the reconstructions of the building, 5) the historical changes of the themes of experiments performed by the users. (author)

  1. Twenty-year follow-up of a Pu/Am inhalation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 a technician inhaled a mixture of Pu/Am aerosols in an accidental situation in the hot lab of Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI). This case is of interest for long-term follow-up since the technician was relatively young (26 y) at the time of intake, no chelating agent was used to alter retention and excretion and the inhaled activity was rather high (≅ 20 kBq of alpha emitters). The results obtained from periodic lung counts, urinary and faecal excretions as well as from some bone and liver measurements up to the year 2003 are presented. The measurements were mainly made at PSI but also at FZK Karlsruhe (Germany)), and PNNL Hanford, USA. The evaluation and dose estimation of this case was done by several institutions, such as FZK, PNNL and NRPB in addition to PSI. Elements of the case were used in international biokinetic model validation programs by EURADOS/EULEP and IAEA and the 241Am data are given as example in Annex E of the ICRP 'Guide for the Practical Application of the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model'. An overview is given on the various results obtained by the different institutions using their models and methods for interpretation of the measured data. While estimation of intake varies by more than an order of magnitude, final estimation of effective committed dose varies only in the range of 0.5-1.5 Sv. (authors)

  2. Twenty years of barrel-stave flextensional transducer technology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-04-01

    The barrel-stave flextensional transducer, a compact underwater sound source, was conceived at DRDC Atlantic in 1986 [G. W. McMahon and D. F. Jones, U.S. Patent No. 4,922,470 (1 May 1990); Canadian Patent No. 1,285,646 (2 July 1991)]. Over the years, five barrel-stave designs belonging to three flextensional classes were built and tested at DRDC Atlantic. Three Class I transducers with operating frequencies ranging from 800 to 1600 Hz were integrated into submarine communications buoys, low frequency active horizontal projector arrays, and a broadband sonar towbody. A high-power Class II and broadband (1-7 kHz) Class III transducer were deployed under the ice in the Lincoln Sea for research related to rapidly deployable surveillance systems. These barrel-stave flextensional transducers have also supported a variety of marine mammal studies including vocal mimicry in long-finned pilot whales, coda dialects in sperm whales, and the R&D of acoustic detection and tracking systems for endangered northern right whales. In August 2004 a barrel-stave transducer was used to lure a trapped juvenile humpback whale to the sluice gates of a tidal generating station on the Annapolis River in Nova Scotia by transmitting humpback whale calls underwater. The acoustic performance parameters for all 5 transducers will be presented.

  3. Part I: twenty-year literature overview of veterinary and allopathic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant H; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Meldrum, J Blair

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, numerous reports, symposia, and workshops have focused on the challenges and changes facing veterinary and allopathic medicine. Many of these have specifically considered the changing economic and demographic profiles of the health professions, the specific roles of health professionals in society, and the importance of professional curricula in meeting changing professional and societal needs. Changing curricula to address future demands is a common thread that runs through all of these reports. Future demands most consistently noted include the fact that modern veterinary curricula must emphasize the acquisition of skills, values, and attitudes in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. Skills relating to business management, strong interpersonal communication, and problem solving have often been noted as lacking in current curricula. Furthermore, future curricula must allow for greater diversification and "specialization" among veterinary students; should promote greater opportunities for an emphasis on public health and population medicine, including food safety, food security, and bio- and agro-terrorism; and should motivate students to be active learners who possess strong lifelong learning skills and attitudes. PMID:18339961

  4. The trend of body tissues share of Simmental cattle in about twenty years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the bone, muscle and fat tissue shares in Simmental breed. The trial comprised 917 young bulls, progeny of 81 sires, during the period of 18 years. Sires were in their progeny testing for meat production traits. Average young bulls final body weight was 557.73±1.78kg in range between 385 and 729kg. Average body tissue share was as follows: bone 19.21±0.10%, muscle 61.91±0.15% and fat 14.13±0.11%. Significant (P<0.001 phenotypic correlations existed between final body weight and share of muscle (0.34 and fat (0.16, and between shares of bone and muscle (-0.13, bone and fat (-0.42 and muscle and fat (-0.28. Trend of increase in final body weight, muscle and bone share followed by slight decrease of fat share in investigated period was noted. It is suggested that was due to selection of large and robust sires.

  5. Twenty-Five Years of Endocrine Disruption Science: Remembering Theo Colborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Carol F.; Bolden, Ashley L.; Liroff, Richard A.; Rochester, Johanna R.; Vandenbergh, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: For nearly 30 years, Dr. Theo Colborn (1927–2014) dedicated herself to studying the harmful effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, humans, and the environment. More recently, she extended this effort to address the health impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Colborn was a visionary leader who excelled at synthesizing scientific findings across disciplines. Using her unique insights and strong moral convictions, she changed the face of toxicological research, influenced chemical regulatory policy, and educated the public. In 2003, Colborn started a nonprofit organization—The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). As we celebrate the 25th anniversary of endocrine disruption science, TEDX continues her legacy of analyzing the extensive body of environmental health research and developing unique educational resources to support public policy and education. Among other tools, TEDX currently uses the systematic review framework developed by the National Toxicology Program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, to answer research questions of pressing concern. In this article, we pay homage to the tenacious woman and the exemplary contribution she made to the field of environmental health. Recommendations for the future of the field are drawn from her wisdom. PMID:27580976

  6. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  7. Eye health in the future: what are the challenges for the next twenty years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking ahead, it is really important to know where we have come from. This allows us to project identified trends and to reflect on the tremendous amount of change that can happen over a relatively short period.Reflect for a moment on the intensity of the debate regarding the use of intraocular lenses (IOLs in low-income settings in the 1990s. As they were still very expensive, some insisted that aphakic correction after surgery was the best approach for these countries. The subsequent availability of low-cost IOLs made the debate irrelevant. It dramatically changed our ability to provide modern IOL cataract surgery and control cataract blindness worldwide, and it laid the basis for VISION 2020. Other dramatic changes occurred with the introduction of ivermectin for onchocerciasis and azithromycin for trachoma, which gave us the ability to eliminate these two devastating and previously intractable causes of blindness. Our medical management of glaucoma or of age-related macular degeneration today is totally different from what it was 20 years ago, although there is still a long way to go. Our approach to refractive error has also altered dramatically, thanks to the recognition of its importance and the availability of high-quality, low-cost spectacles.So, given what we know about the past, what are the challenges we face in the future?

  8. Conjoined twins: twenty years' experience at a reference center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study reports on the experience of one hospital regarding the surgical aspects, anatomic investigation and outcomes of the management of 21 conjoined twin pairs over the past 20 years. METHODS: All cases of conjoined twins who were treated during this period were reviewed. A careful imaging evaluation was performed to detail the abdominal anatomy (particularly the liver, inferior vena cava, spleen and pancreas, either to identify the number of organs or to evaluate the degree of organ sharing. RESULTS: There were eight sets of ischiopagus twins, seven sets of thoracopagus twins, three sets of omphalopagus twins, two sets of thoraco-omphalo-ischiopagus twins and one set of craniopagus twins. Nine pairs of conjoined twins could not be separated due to the complexity of the organs (mainly the liver and heart that were shared by both twins; these pairs included one set of ischiopagus twins, six sets of thoracopagus twins and one set of thoraco-omphalo-ischiopagus twins. Twelve sets were separated, including seven sets of ischiopagus twins, three sets of omphalopagus twins, one set of thoracopagus twins and one set of craniopagus conjoined twins. The abdominal wall was closed in the majority of patients with the use of mesh instead of the earlier method of using tissue expanders. The surgical survival rate was 66.7%, and one pair of twins who did not undergo separation is currently alive. CONCLUSION: A detailed anatomic study of the twins and surgical planning must precede separation. A well-prepared pediatric surgery team is sufficient to surgically manage conjoined twins.

  9. Fog occurrence and chemical composition in the Po valley over the last twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianelli, L.; Gilardoni, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Decesari, S.; Carbone, C.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency of fog events together with fog water chemical composition, pH, conductivity and liquid water content have systematically been measured from the end of the 1980's at the field station of San Pietro Capofiume, in the eastern Po Valley, Northern Italy. In agreement with what has been observed in other regions in Europe, fog frequency (visibility Ionic strength and conductivity of fog samples also decreased over the period indicating a reduction of the ionic load of the droplets. Specifically, the three major inorganic ions (NH4+, SO42-, NO3-), accounting for 86% of the total fog water ionic strength, show a decreasing trend in concentration over the period, which can be linked to the decreasing trend of NH3, SO2 and NOx emissions registered in northern Italy over the same period. Sulphate exhibits the highest relative decrease (76%). Seasonal volume-weighted means of pH show an increasing trend over the observed period. The available data of total water-soluble organic matter concentrations indicate that organic compounds represent a considerable fraction (25% on average) of the total solute mass of fog water. Fog water samples often contain suspended insoluble particles, which were collected by filtering fog water through quartz fibre filters. EC-OC analysis performed on the filters collected over a four-year period, show that the sum of elemental carbon (EC) and water-insoluble organic mass accounts on average for 46%-56% of the total suspended material mass. Insoluble carbonaceous material is composed mainly of organic matter, with EC accounting on average only for 19% of the insoluble carbon.

  10. Twenty-year changes in coral near Muscat, Oman estimated from manta board tow observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Steve L; Looker, Elayne; Burt, John A

    2015-02-01

    The coastline of Muscat, Oman, contains some of the most extensive and diverse coral reefs in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula. In the past two decades this region has been impacted by expanding coastal development, the largest cyclone ever recorded in the Arabian Sea, and a large-scale harmful algal bloom which resulted in mass mortality of reefs elsewhere in the Gulf of Oman. In 2012 we estimated live and dead coral using manta tow observations on 370 transects at 13 locations along the coastline and nearshore islands of Muscat Oman. We compared these estimates against observations made on 389 transects at the same 13 locations two decades earlier (1993-94) in order to determine long-term changes in benthos along the Muscat coast. Results were mapped and differences in categorical mean values for transect locations were statistically compared between survey years. Live hard and soft coral decreased over the past two decades at most survey sites, and decreases were significant at three exposed coastline sites and one semi-enclosed embayment. One sheltered embayment site showed a significant increase in live hard coral over the study period. Declines in live hard coral were associated with increases in dead coral framework at 8 of the 13 sites, but these changes were non-significant. We attribute these changes primarily to long-term effects of Cyclone Gonu, which struck the Oman coast in June 2007. The study results suggest that the manta tow method can be an effective way to detect long-term changes in coral and other benthic parameters over large areas, despite limitations on its precision. PMID:25460063

  11. Tissue banking in Bangladesh: 12 years of experience (2003-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naznin; Rahman, Md Shaifur; Jamil, Hossen Mohammad; Arifuzzaman, Md; Miah, M M; Asaduzzaman, S M

    2016-06-01

    Tissue Banking and Biomaterial Research Unit (TBBRU), the only tissue bank of Bangladesh, has been established to create an available supply of human tissue allografts for transplantation in Bangladesh. Since its establishment in 2003, TBBRU strictly follows the guidelines of tissue banking setup by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Association of Tissue Banks and the American Association of Tissue Banks. Though started serving from earlier, regular supply of tissue allografts from this bank were documented at the end of 2006. From January 2007 to December 2014, 3747 bones and 5772 amniotic sacs were collected from live tissue donors. During this period, 59,489 cc bone allografts and 23,472 pieces of amniotic membrane allografts were processed. In the same period, 58,483 cc bone allografts and 20,786 pieces membrane were supplied to different hospitals throughout the country on the basis of demand. The outcomes of the concerted efforts of tissue banking professionals and physicians were the restoration of health and hope of 3662 patients during the last 8 years. PMID:26915083

  12. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  13. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  14. Endocavitary radiation for treatment of distal rectal carcinoma and twenty years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    %) of which achieved local control and 6 (15%) achieved good palliation. Conclusion: Approximately 15-20% of all rectal cancer patients may be expected to fulfill the criteria for selection, which are sufficiently strict that local control and five year survival rate can exceed those of surgery for comparable disease and preserve anal sphincter and sexual function of the patient. Endocavitary radiation for rectal carcinoma in an outpatient procedure and cost only one third of the surgical procedure comparatively

  15. JFK: Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Herbert

    1984-01-01

    The presidency of John F. Kennedy is assessed. Considered are J.F.K's positions on, and national and world leaders' reactions to, such issues as oil depletion allowances, the Civil Rights Bill, the Vietnam situation, and the Cold War missile gap. (RM)

  16. Merger and Acquisition in the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szewczyk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents situation on mergers and acquisitions (MA in banking sector during last twenty years. The main motives are selected and analyzed. All is explained on the base on research reports of the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank.

  17. Merger and Acquisition in the Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Szewczyk

    2008-01-01

    The article presents situation on mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in banking sector during last twenty years. The main motives are selected and analyzed. All is explained on the base on research reports of the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank.

  18. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  19. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  20. The Italian National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism: twenty years of surveillance and study of congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Antonella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All the Italian Centres in charge of screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of infants with congenital hypothyroidism participate in the Italian National Registry of affected infants, which performs the nationwide surveillance of the disease. It was established in 1987 as a program of the Health Ministry and is coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The early diagnosis performed by the nationwide newborn screening programme, the prompt treatment and the appropriate clinical management of the patients carried out by the Follow-up Centres, and the surveillance of the disease performed by the National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism are the components of an integrated approach to the disease which has been successfully established in our country. The aim of the Register is to monitor efficiency and effectiveness of neonatal screening, to provide disease surveillance and to allow identification of possible aetiological risk factors for the disease. During the past twenty years the active and continuous collaboration between the Register and the Italian Screening and Follow up Centres for Congenital Hypothyroidism allowed to perform a standardization of screening procedures and considerable improvements in the time at starting treatment and in the dose of therapy. Furthermore, the large amount and the high quality of information collected in the Register provided a unique opportunity for research into the disease. This because data collected in the Register are highly representative as referred to the entire Italian population with congenital hypothyroidism. The results derived from the epidemiological studies performed in these years, by using the Register database, contributed to deepen the knowledge of congenital hypothyroidism, to start identifying the most important risk factors for the disease, and to orient molecular studies aimed at identifying new genes involved in the aetiology of this condition.

  1. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  2. Twenty Years of Regional Safeguards: the ABACC System and the Synergy with the National Nuclear Material Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As result of the nuclear integration between Brazil and Argentina, in July 1991 the Agreement for Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy (Bilateral Agreement) was signed and the Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accountancy and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) was created [1]. The main role assigned to ABACC was the implementation and administration of the regional control system and the coordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in all nuclear activities of Argentina and Brazil. In December 1991 the IAEA, ABACC, Argentina and Brazil signed the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435) [2]. The agreement establishes obligations similar to those established by model INFCIRC/153 comprehensive agreements. The Bilateral Agreement establishes that the Parties should make available financial and technical capabilities to support ABACC activities. In order to accomplish this challenge, the National Systems had to improve their structure and capabilities. Through the close interaction with the IAEA and ABACC, the national systems have been enriched by adopting new methodologies, implementing innovative safeguards approaches and providing specialized training to the regional inspectors. All of this also resulted in relevant technical improvements to the regional system as a whole. The approach of both neighborhoods controlling each other increased the confidence between the partners and permitted a better knowledge of their potentialities. The recognized performance of the regional system in the implementation of innovative, efficient and credible safeguards measures increased the confidence of the international community on the implementation of nuclear safeguards in Argentina and Brazil. In this paper, after twenty years of the creation of the ABACC System, the view of the Brazilian and Argentine National Authorities is presented. (authors)

  3. Twenty-five years of shared life with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: is it time to divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-five years ago, isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREm) was reported both in the UK and in France. Since then, VREm has spread worldwide in hospitals. Hospital outbreaks appeared to be related to the evolution since the end of 1980s of a subpopulation of E. faecium highly resistant to ampicillin and fluoroquinolones (the so-called clonal complex CC17) that later acquired resistance to vancomycin. CC17 isolates are presumably better adapted than other E. faecium isolates to the constraints of the hospital environment and most contain mobile genetic elements, phage genes, genes encoding membrane proteins, regulatory genes, a putative pathogenicity island and megaplasmids. Colonization and persistence are major features of VREm. Inherent characteristics of E. faecium including a remarkable genome plasticity, in part due to acquisition of IS elements, in particular IS16, have facilitated niche adaptation of this distinct E. faecium subpopulation that is multiply resistant to antibiotics. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are licensed for the treatment of VREm infections, with linezolid often used as a first-line treatment. However, the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to linezolid by production of a Cfr methyltransferase in Enterococcus faecalis is worrying. Daptomycin has not been extensively evaluated for the treatment of VREm infections and resistant mutants have been selected under daptomycin therapy. Although control of VRE is challenging, a laissez-faire policy would result in an increased number of infections and would create an irreversible situation. Although so far unsuccessful, dissemination of glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with van genes acquired from resistant enterococci cannot be ruled out. PMID:23208830

  4. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  5. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  6. Mechanisms of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Sports Activities: A Twenty-Year Clinical Research of 1,700 Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Kobayashi; Tomonao Kanamura; Sentaro Koshida; Koji Miyashita; Tsuruo Okado; Takuya Shimizu; Kiyoshi Yokoe

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are still inconclusive from an epidemiological standpoint. An epidemiological approach in a large sample group over an appropriate period of years will be necessary to enhance the current knowledge of the ACL injury mechanism. The objective of the study was to investigate the ACL injury occurrence in a large sample over twenty years and demonstrate the relationships between the ACL injury occurrence and the dynamic knee alignment at ...

  7. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  8. Exhumation and update of a 25 year old data bank on the Messinian in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cita, M.B.; Università di Milano; Casati, P.; Università di Milano; Dela Pierre, F.; Università di Torino; Malinverno, A.; Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory; Monegato, G.; Università di Padova; Scardia, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2009-01-01

    The end product of a three years long research project on the distribution of Messinian age sediments in Italy, carried out by the Operational Unit 5.2.10 of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica CNR, is represented by a data bank and a series of graphic outputs published in 1983 in a 467 pages long volume. Publication n. 514 described 610 subsurface sections from commercial wells and 245 measured sections from land. Outputs included graphic logs and a number of maps, originally produced at th...

  9. Volume transport and mixing of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow from one year of moored measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Ullgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One-year long time series of current velocity and temperature from ten moorings deployed in the Faroe Bank Channel (FBC are analysed to describe the structure and variability of the dense overflow plume on daily to seasonal time scales. Mooring arrays are deployed in two sections: located 25 km downstream of the main sill, in the channel that geographically confines the overflow plume at both edges (section C, and 60 km further downstream, over the slope (section S. At section C, the average volume transport of overflow waters (−4 m2 s−1 and (119 ± 43 × 10−4 m2 s−1, respectively.

  10. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  11. Twenty years of chemistry associated with the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication covers nine review papers on the following topics related to the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences during previous twenty years: radiochemistry, hot atom chemistry, isotope production, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, chemistry of transuranium elements; liquid radioactive waste processing, purification of reactor coolant water by inorganic ion exchangers, research related to deuterium concentration processes, and chemical dosimetry at the RA reactor

  12. Spatial and seasonal abundance of sand seatrout (Cynoscion arenarius) and silver seatrout (C. nothus) off the coast of Texas, determined with twenty years of data (1987–200

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Dusty L.; Anderson , Joel D.; Bumguardner, Britt W.; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Harper, Josh O.

    2009-01-01

    Sand seatrout (Cynoscion arenarius) and silver seatrout (C. nothus) are both found within the immediate offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico, especially around Texas; however information is limited on how much distributional overlap really occurs between these species. In order to investigate spatial and seasonal differences between species, we analyzed twenty years of bay and offshore trawl data collected by biologists of the Coastal Fisheries Division, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department...

  13. Safe and sound banking, 20 years later: what was proposed and what has been adopted

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick T. Furlong; Simon H. Kwan

    2006-01-01

    In 1986, a task force of banking academics organized and sponsored by the American Bankers Association convened to examine the banking industry and the efficacy of its regulatory system. The group was charged with reviewing the problems of ensuring the safety and soundness of the banking system and evaluating a number of policy options to improve the efficiency, performance, and safety of the system by changing the structure of the deposit insurance system and the bank regulatory and supervis...

  14. Customer Perception of Mobile Banking: An Empirical Study in National Capital Region Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    SHAMSHER SINGH

    2014-01-01

    Internet technology is regarded as the third wave of revolution after agricultural and industrial revolution. After phone and net banking, technology is heralding the era of mobile banking in India. The growth of Mobile banking is phenomenal compared to previous deliver channels. It took approximately twenty years for ATMs to become popular while online banking took a decade. More so, with India all set to emerge as the second largest mobile subscriber base in the world after China, the telec...

  15. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  16. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  17. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  18. Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease Among Middle Aged Men in Prague: Twenty-year Follow-up Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Hrach, Karel; Tomečková, Marie; Bultas, J.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2006), s. 86-93. ISSN 0021-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B107 Keywords : primary prevention study * atherosclerosis * cardiovascular diseases * coronary artery disease * Framingham risk function * mortality * risk factors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2006

  19. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  20. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  1. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  2. Twenty-year advanced DInSAR analysis of severe land subsidence: The Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera García, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Béjar Pizarro, Marta; Zucca, Francesco; González, Pablo J.; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás Jover, Roberto; Fernández Torres, José; Fernández-Merodo, José Antonio; Mulas de la Peña, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Mora, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    A twenty-year period of severe land subsidence evolution in the Alto Guadalentín Basin (southeast Spain) is monitored using multi-sensor SAR images, processed by advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. The SAR images used in this study consist of four datasets acquired by ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, ALOS and COSMO-SkyMed satellites between 1992 and 2012. The integration of ground surface displacement maps retrieved for different time periods allows us to quan...

  3. The patterns of the twenty two-year cycle of solar activity in sunspots statistics and in the global magnetic field and activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previously introduced method of presentation of the twenty two-year unit of solar activity periodicity allows to attach a certain evolutionary pattern in the global magnetic field and activity distribution, to a particular phase of the periodicity wave. It concerns the latitudinal as well as the longitudinal distribution. Indications were also found of correlation of both these distributions, showing that the periods of the magnetic field longitudinal redistribution coincide with the moments of discrete magnetic flux into the photosphere while the intervals of magnetic field polewards migration in both hemispheres correspond with the periods of the most pronounced regularities and best visibility of Magnetic Active Longitudes. This connection of the individual parts of one twenty two-year periodicity unit with certain stages of the global field and activity distribution and development patterns makes it possible to estimate the situation in the magnetic field polarity and activity distribution for several years into the past and for shorter time intervals even into the future, on the solar surface as well as in its reflection in the interplanetary space. (author). 3 figs., 12 refs

  4. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  5. Clustering of Trauma and Associations with Single and Co-Occurring Depression and Panic Attack over Twenty Years

    OpenAIRE

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Andrew C Heath; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who experience one type of trauma often experience other types, yet few studies have examined the clustering of trauma. This study examines the clustering of traumatic events and associations of trauma with risk for single and co-occurring major depressive disorder (MDD) and panic attack for 20 years after first trauma. Lifetime histories of MDD, panic attack, and traumatic events were obtained from participants in an Australian twin sample. Latent class analysis was used to deriv...

  6. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male. In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06 vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02 g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7 vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8 mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02 vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00 mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  7. Twenty five years of requests for euthanasia and physician assisted suicide in Dutch general practice: trend analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marquet, R. L.; Bartelds, A; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed that the Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician assisted suicide (PAS) may lead to an exponential increase in the number of requests and use. Many Dutch general practitioners, nursing home physicians, and pharmacists have a fairly positive attitude and have become more tolerant over the years. We investigated the effect of increasing acceptance on the number of and underlying reasons for requests for E/PAS in Dutch general practice from 1977 to 2001.

  8. Regeneration of Native Trees and Wetlands: Results of an Unplanned, Twenty Year Experiment in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2007-05-01

    Historically, cottonwood and willow trees were common on the Lower Colorado River, although quantitative estimates of their former abundance are not available. During the past hundred years, dams and flow regulation have altered the riparian habitat to favor dominance by exotic saltcedar and other salt-tolerant shrubs over the floodplain. It is widely assumed that, once established, saltcedar competitively excludes native trees, and that removal of saltcedar will be necessary as part of restoration programs. We studied the regeneration of cottonwood and willow trees in the presence of saltcedar in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico from 1992 to 2002 in response to flood releases from the U.S. Flood releases of 50 cms to 750 cms in El Nino years of 1993, 1997-1998 and 2000 each germinated cohorts of trees amidst saltcedar stands and in bare soil scoured by the floods. During their establishment year, these trees rooted into the shallow aquifer under the river channel, and became dominant age classes of trees in subsequent years. Low-volume administrative spills (water ordered by irrigators but not used) provided a nearly perennial run of water in the river in non-flood years. The large and small flows created a rich avian habitat, containing backwaters, marsh areas, and a multi-stored canopy of native trees, saltcedar and other shrubs. Bird density and diversity in this river stretch are higher than has been reported anywhere else on the Lower Colorado River. The acreage of cottonwood and willow trees in the delta might be as high today as was reported in a 1904 timber survey before the era of dams and agriculture. The main threats to the ecosystem are fires, many deliberately set, timber harvesting, and vegetation clearing projects. Although surface flows are needed to wash salts from the riverbanks, germinate seeds, and enhance avian habitat, the main water source for the trees is the regional aquifer maintained by irrigation of the surrounding agricultural

  9. Twenty years of the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry: where we stand and what remains to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, Antonio M; Marotta, Serena; Calzone, Rita; Grimaldi, Francesco; Zatterale, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    The natural history of Fanconi anemia remains hard to establish because of its rarity and its heterogeneous clinical presentation; since 1994, the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry has collected clinical, epidemiological and genetic data of Italian Fanconi Anemia patients. This registry includes 180 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fanconi anemia who have either been enrolled prospectively, at diagnosis, or later on. After enrollment, follow-up data were periodically collected to assess the clinical course, possible complications and long-term survival; the median follow up was 15.6 years. The main goal of the study was to describe the natural history of Fanconi anemia, focusing on the following variables: family history, disease presentation, development of hematological manifestations, development of malignancies, occurrence of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and survival. Typical morphological and/or hematological abnormalities and/or growth retardation were the most common manifestations at diagnosis; the majority of patients (77%) exhibited hematological abnormalities at the initial presentation, and almost all (96%) eventually developed hematological manifestations. More than half of the patients (57%) underwent a bone-marrow transplant. The occurrence of cancer was quite rare at diagnosis, whereas the cumulative incidence of malignancies at 10, 20 and 30 years was 5%, 8% and 22%, respectively, for hematological cancers and 1%, 15% and 32%, respectively, for solid tumors. Overall survival at 10, 20 and 30 years were 88%, 56% and 37%, respectively; the main causes of death were cancer, complications of the hematological presentation and complications of transplantation. These data clearly confirm the detrimental outcome of Fanconi anemia, with no major improvement in the past decades. PMID:26635036

  10. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  11. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  12. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae) in Central Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys) during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened) in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994–2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17). Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites), correlated positively with the previous year’s growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry’s elfin C. henrici (11 sites), co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist) had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin. PMID:26462687

  13. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae in Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994–2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17. Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites, correlated positively with the previous year’s growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry’s elfin C. henrici (11 sites, co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin.

  14. Cancer incidence in the population exposed to dioxin after the "Seveso accident": twenty years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubagotti Maurizia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Seveso, Italy accident in 1976 caused the contamination of a large population by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Possible long-term effects have been examined through mortality and cancer incidence studies. We have updated the cancer incidence study which now covers the period 1977-96. Methods The study population includes subjects resident at the time of the accident in three contaminated zones with decreasing TCDD soil levels (zone A, very high; zone B, high; zone R, low and in a surrounding non-contaminated reference territory. Gender-, age-, and period-adjusted rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using Poisson regression for subjects aged 0-74 years. Results All cancer incidence did not differ from expectations in any of the contaminated zones. An excess of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms was observed in zones A (four cases; RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.52-3.71 and B (29 cases; RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.07-2.27 consistent with the findings of the concurrent mortality study. An increased risk of breast cancer was detected in zone A females after 15 years since the accident (five cases, RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.07-6.20. No cases of soft tissue sarcomas occurred in the most exposed zones (A and B, 1.17 expected. No cancer cases were observed among subjects diagnosed with chloracne early after the accident. Conclusion The extension of the Seveso cancer incidence study confirmed an excess risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms in the most exposed zones. No clear pattern by time since the accident and zones was evident partly because of the low number of cases. The elevated risk of breast cancer in zone A females after 15 years since the accident deserves further and thorough investigation. The follow-up is continuing in order to cover the long time period (even decades usually elapsing from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals and disease occurrence.

  15. Duodenal ulcer during the period of twenty years after discovering of Helicobacter pylori: Experience gained at our centre

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    Jovanović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is now well established that Helicobacter pylori eradication can significantly modify the natural history of peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of duodenal ulcer among patients endoscopically examined for dyspeptic symptoms and analyse the disease time trend during two ten-year long distinctive retrospective periods (1987-2006. Material and methods Data were obtained through retrospective analysis of outpatients upper endoscopy reports. Full reports were available for 58 515 patients which were analysed for selected clinicopathological features in two clearly defined time periods. The first one, starting from 1987 to 1996 in which Helicobacter pylori infection was not assessed and treated accordingly and the second period from 1997 to 2006 during which the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection in certain diseases was routinely assessed and then treated with PPI based triple therapy. Results Syptoms of dyspepsia appeared to be approximately the same as the indication for endoscopy in both periods (65.1%:63.3%. The frequency of duodenal ulcer disease significantly decreased in the second period of analysis (t=14761; p<0.01. In both periods men had more often duodenal ulcer comparing to women (χ²= 218.53, p<0.01; χ²=21.7, p<0.01. During the second examined period the number of women who had duodenal ulcer significantly increased comparing to the first ten-year period (χ²=17232; p<0.01. Conclusion The test-and-treat strategy and the implementation of consensus on diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of duodenal ulcer disease.

  16. Modernism and structuralism: Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the last twenty five years of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the second quarter of the twentieth century was marked by structuralism. More precisely, structural analysis that became a must of the analytical interpretation was based on the work of Claude Levi-Strauss, but also on those of the predecessors of structural analysis, like Van Gennep and Prop; British followers of structuralism like E. Leach and M. Douglas, as well as on the Russian semiotic school and Barth’s semiology. Taking aside predecessors of structural analysis, main sources of Serbian structural-semiotic revolution came from Levi-Strauss structural anthropology. When in the 1970s Serbian readers faced anthropological books coming from different intellectual backgrounds and representing major theoretical trends in anthropology, Serbian ethnology, firmly based on its hundred years old romantic roots, gave equally opportunities to all theoretical approaches that fought for the intellectual domination in the discipline. This paper tries to answer the question why structural analysis played a crucial part in the modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology, while the ideas coming from functionalism, culture and personality school, or neo-evolutionism did not have the same revolutionary and deep impact.

  17. Future scenarios for the development of nuclear power. How will nuclear power develop over the next twenty to forty years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power technology has developed significantly over the past 60 years to the point that today it supplies the world with 15% of its electricity; and there are plans for continued development. However, the continued growth of nuclear power is not without challenges. The nuclear industry must remain competitive in the face of challenges ranging from environmental considerations and proliferation concerns to ensuring safe and often transparent operations. Understanding these and other issues, as well as their underlying causes, can help the industry leaders create more robust strategies and effectively implement nuclear fuel cycle decisions. Robust strategies are ones that can be effective even when circumstances change, due to events such as opposition, new scientific information, changes in resource availability, or introduction of competing technologies. Scenario planning is tool which can help planners and decision makers create a strategic conversation about the future and how to manage and plan in a time of accelerated change and complexity. In this paper, scenario planning is introduced and the development of nuclear power is examined against the back drop of four future scenarios, specifically looking at how variations in environmental quality, resource availability, security and proliferation, and safety may affect the development of nuclear power. The scenarios discussed provide a starting point to improve the understanding of issues and opportunities facing the global nuclear power industry and ultimately, to improve strategies for technology development. Such scenarios may be employed as a basis for collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders involved in the development of nuclear technology. (author)

  18. Surgery for wrist ganglia: one-hundred and twenty-two patients reviewed 8 years after operation

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    Vilhjalmur Finsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrist ganglia give few symptoms, but are a common reason for referral to a hand surgeon. We studied patient long-term satisfaction after operation. We reviewed 122 patients, who were operated for dorsal (n=82 and volar (n=40 wrist ganglia 8 years before (range 3-11. Three radial arteries were injured during surgery for volar a ganglion. By the time of review 33 patients (27% had a recurrence or had been re-operated. Radical surgery did not reduce the recurrence rate significantly. Reported general complaints from the wrist improved from a mean visual analogue scores (VAS, 0=best; 100= worst of 56 before surgery to VAS 14 at review and unsightliness from VAS 50 to VAS 14. Patients were equally happy with transverse and longitudinal scars. Ten patients (8% stated that they would not have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that, in spite of a high recurrence rate, most patients are happy with the results of surgery.

  19. The association between driving anger and driving outcomes: A meta-analysis of evidence from the past twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S

    2016-05-01

    Through the use of meta-analysis, this study investigated the relationships between driving anger and five types of driving outcomes (aggressive driving, risky driving, driving errors, near misses and accidents). The moderating effects of three variables (age, study publication year, and participants' country of origin) on these relationships were also examined. A total of 51 studies published over the past two decades met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The results showed that driving anger significantly predicted all three types of aberrant driving, with zero-order correlations of 0.312, 0.243, and 0.179 with aggressive driving, risky driving and driving errors, respectively. The correlations between driving anger and accident-related conditions, though at relatively weaker levels, were still statistically significant. Tests for effects of the moderating variables suggested that driving anger was a stronger predictor of risky driving among young drivers than among old drivers. Also, the anger-aggression association was found to decrease over time and vary across countries. The implications of the results and the directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26918282

  20. The Bank of England Bank Liabilities Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Venetia; Butt, Nick; Talbot, James

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve understanding of the role of bank liabilities in driving credit and monetary conditions, the Bank of England began conducting a formal Bank Liabilities Survey last year. This survey is intended to supplement the data collected on the asset side of bank balance sheets by the Bank of England’s quarterly survey of credit conditions, which was introduced in 2007. The first results of the Bank Liabilities Survey will be published on 26 March. This article introduces the survey.

  1. Twenty-five years of Brown Boveri experience in development, design and fabrication of circulators for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two circulators for the AVR experimental reactor in Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany, were supplied. The circulators, which are equipped with oil bearings, have been operating troublefree since the start of commissioning in 1966. As a consequence of a water ingress into the reactor resulting from a steam generator damage one bearing was replaced in 1977 after 72,000 operating hours. Up to the present date, each of the circulators has scored 115,000 hours of operation, one of them without any disassembly. In the THTR 300 in Schmehausen, Federal Republic of Germany, 6 BBC circulators are in operation. The insertable circulator units equipped with oil bearings have successfully proven their operating capability without any problems during the commissioning phase and the 100% power operation which was started recently. Currently active magnetic bearings are being developed for advanced gas-cooled reactors such as the HTR 100, the HTR 500 and the heating reactor after excellent results have been furnished by a small prototype in a test loop. This ADI circulator has since scored more than 15,000 operating hours without any trouble. A retainer bearing test stand also equipped with active magnetic bearings has been in operation for nearly 2 years. This test stand serves for developing the conditions for safe rundown of the rotors of even the largest circulators after the magnetic bearings have been deenergized unintentionally. Development work is conducted on the prototype of a safety-relevant circulator held in magnetic bearings, to be used for decay heat removal in the HTR 500. The original aim to have circulators without auxiliary medium for bearing lubrication will thus be reached. The advantages to be obtained in process and systems design are a supplementary support to the inherent safety characteristics of high-temperature reactors. Another advantage of these bearings is cost reduction. 5 refs, 7 figs

  2. A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

  3. The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond: Governor Seay and the issues of the early years

    OpenAIRE

    James Parthemos

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the Richmond Bank from its incorporation in 1914 through the stock market crash of 1929. This article focuses on George J. Seay, the Bank’s first Governor (President, in today’s parlance).

  4. The ARPANET after twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    The ARPANET began operations in 1969 with four nodes as an experiment in resource sharing among computers. It has evolved into a worldwide research network of over 60,000 nodes, influencing the design of other networks in business, education, and government. It demonstrated the speed and reliability of packet-switching networks. Its protocols have served as the models for international standards. And yet the significance of the ARPANET lies not in its technology, but in the profound alterations networking has produced in human practices. Network designers must now turn their attention to the discourses of scientific technology, business, education, and government that are being mixed together in the milieux of networking, and in particular the conflicts and misunderstandings that arise from the different world views of these discourses.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING SECTORS IN KOSOVO AND MONTENEGRO IN THE YEARS 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kubiszewska

    2012-01-01

    The article presents main aspects of the development of banking markets in two Balkan countries – Kosovo and Montenegro. Both of them are charaterised by similar recent history, both in political and economical fields. Their financial sectors had to be built almost from scratch. The author describes the stages of development of competition in the banking sectors, using the following ratios: performace, structure, liquidity. The data is based on the information achieved from Kosovar and Monten...

  6. Effects of 10-year management regimes on the soil seed bank in saline-alkaline grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Ma

    Full Text Available Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis.We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties.Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate, alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage and AP (available phosphorus.Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target species L. chinensis. This approach could

  7. Twenty Years of Learning: How To Do Research in Chemical Education. 2003 George C. Pimentel Award, sponsored by Dow Chemical Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    2004-05-01

    It is twenty years since the first symposium on research in chemical education was held at the American Chemical Society meeting in St. Louis. Over the course of two decades, the number of people who have devoted their careers to doing research on the teaching and learning of chemistry has increased significantly. There have also been significant developments in the methodology for doing research in this area, and in the sophistication of the questions being investigated. This paper tries to summarize some of what the author has learned while working with graduate students pursuing research-based M.S. and/or Ph.D. degrees in chemical education. It describes the three fundamental elements of a good research study—the theoretical framework, the methodological framework, and the guiding research questions—and examines the process by which the choice of theoretical framework is made.

  8. The French experience of twenty-five years of co-operative research programs in the field of two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-liquid or liquid-vapour two-phase flows are encountered in many industrial systems and processes, such as nuclear reactors, cryogenic engines for space rockets, chemical engineering contactors, oil wells, pipelines and conventional components in use in the thermal industry (e.g. evaporators or condensers). Research and Development projects undertaken by French laboratories are reviewed and illustrated in this paper. Co-operative research programs on two-phase flows have been carried out in France for more than twenty-five years and have led to a network of French laboratories which are now internationally recognised. They have also made possible the transfer of technology resources from from basic research to industrial applications. (author)

  9. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  10. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  11. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years.

  12. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.              JEL Codes: G21, F23Keywords: Bank, Banking

  13. Perspective: PhD scientists completing medical school in two years: looking at the Miami PhD-to-MD program alumni twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Cheung, Michael C; Garrison, Gwen; Awad, William M; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2010-04-01

    Producing and retaining physician-scientists remains a major challenge in advancing innovation, knowledge, and patient care across all medical disciplines. Various programs during medical school, including MD-PhD programs, have been instituted to address the need for continued production of physician-scientists. From 1971 through 1989, 508 students with a prior PhD in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering graduated in two years from an accelerated MD program at the University of Miami School of Medicine. The program, designed to address potential clinical physician shortages rather than physician-scientist shortages, quickly attracted many top-notch scientists to medicine. Many program graduates went to top-tier residencies, pursued research careers in academic medicine, and became academic leaders in their respective fields. A retrospective examination of graduates conducted in 2008-2009 demonstrated that approximately 59% took positions in academic university medical departments, 3% worked for governmental agencies, 5% entered industry as researchers or executives, and 33% opted for private practice. Graduates' positions included 85 full professors, 11 university directors or division heads, 14 academic chairs, 2 medical school deans, and 1 astronaut. Overall, 30% of graduates had obtained National Institutes of Health funding after completing the program. These results suggest that accelerated medical training for accomplished scientists can produce a large number of successful physician-scientists and other leaders in medicine. Furthermore, these results suggest that shortening the medical portion of combined MD-PhD programs might also be considered. PMID:20354390

  14. ‘This is education as the practice of freedom': Twenty Years of Women’s Studies at the University of Oxford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleri Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On 23 May 2015 students on the Women’s Studies Masters (M.St course at the University of Oxford organised a conference to commemorate twenty years of Women’s Studies at Oxford, entitled: ‘Teaching to Transgress’: Twenty Years of Women’s Studies at Oxford. The conference consisted of a mixture of papers from leading academics in the field of Women’s Studies, as well as from postgraduate students currently enrolled on the M.St programme at Oxford, with the intention of giving young early career women the opportunity to present their research to a broad interdisciplinary audience.Since its foundation in 1995, the Women’s Studies course has strived to enact what the American feminist and activist bell hooks terms ‘education as the practice of freedom’.[1] Reflecting upon the discussions emerging from the conference, the conference organisers Charlotte De Val and Eleri Anona Watson ask: ‘what are the new and repeated challenges we face in fulfilling this practice of freedom?’ They also consider the changing scope of Women’s Studies as an academic field alongside present debates regarding its future in the UK and further afield. Examining debates of ‘possibility’ and ‘impossibility’ within Women’s Studies—that is to say, materialist versus post-structuralist critiques—in conjunction with questions of accessibility and ‘intellectual gatekeeping’, this article proposes that the future of Women's Studies is not the ‘apocalyptic’ vision that its critics would often have us believe. Indeed, one of the themes emerging from the conference was that as long as the field practices radical self-questioning and self-critique, Women’s Studies will maintain its academically and socially transformative potential.[1] bell hooks’s writings cover gender, race, teaching, education and media, emphasising the connections with systems of oppression. hooks is the author of pioneering works such as Ain’t I a Woman?: Black

  15. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning. Twenty-five years of progress; the last five years - 2006 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement constituting the CPD has been continuously extended, although modified in 2003, with the current programme period lasting until the end of 2013. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme and the projects involved. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The number of projects in the programme has grown from 42 to 59 over the past five years. The Programme now covers 35 reactor related projects and 24 fuel related projects representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all phases of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 25 years of experience of the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, and in particular through the information exchange and review within the TAG, it has become evident that: - decommissioning can and has been done in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner; - the evolution of technologies have demonstrated their effectiveness in performance improvements in all aspects of conducting decommissioning projects; - the upkeep and maintenance of design, construction and operational records can significantly enhance performance through all stages of a decommissioning project; - in the absence of waste disposal facilities, interim waste storage facilities with integrated waste processing facilities can effectively be used to keep all levels of waste streams moving and avoid delays to project schedules; - cleanup of material for recycle and reuse or disposal as conventional waste is cost

  16. Twenty years after accident in Chernobyl atomic power plant. Present and future states of studies on pediatric thyroid cancer induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in the title occurred in April, 1986 and 20 years after, the international conference of Chernobyl Forum was held in Kiev of Ukraine on details of health problems, of which report is given in World Health Organization (WHO) hp (www.who.int./ionizingradiation/Chernobyl/ern). The purpose of making the report was the scientific, objective evaluation of health problem to provide residents the correct information and to make recommendation to governments of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. This paper describes the outline of the WHO report and characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer increased after the accident. The report has the description about the effect of the accident on human beings including thyroid diseases, tumors, death numbers, mental and genetic influences, and cataract. The increased pediatric thyroid cancer is found mostly the papillocaricinoma, of which pathogenesis is considered to be due to DNA break of the region encoding MAP kinase pathways. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA mutations, by micro-array, of chromosome, and of SNPs have been also performed and have given many suggestive findings. Further continuation of the CTB (Chernobyl Tissue Bank, where nucleic acids of the cancer are stored by international cooperation) activity is concluded to be important for release of residents' anxiety and for understanding of radiation carcinogenesis. (R.T.)

  17. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  18. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  19. Externally organized exercises for nuclear emergency response. Knowledge gained from twenty years of practical work as a technical expert adviser for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the eighties the TUeV NORD established an expert consultation service for radiation protection in case of nuclear accidents. Since that time, educated and regularly trained surveyors also take part as expert advisors in out of plant emergency exercises for radiation protection in the federal countries Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Their responsibility is to assist and to advise the emergency response commander regarding both the predicted and the current radiological situation. Furthermore, the technical expert adviser for radiation protection communicates with other expert advisers (agent of the operator, medical staff, and meteorologists) as well as with measuring and emergency services. The experience gained during emergency exercises is summarized and documented. In the course of the past twenty years the implementation of central structures, the software systems for determination of the radiological impact and the change of communication systems have especially proved to be successful. For the future it can be assumed that exercises covering several days will be performed more often, so that not only the accident process is simulated correctly but also the conditions for the personnel of each disaster prevention unit can be simulated more realistically. (orig.)

  20. The UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG): its formation, development, and influence on the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark L; Stephenson, Paul; Barritt, Peter; Bellamy, David; Haughney, John; Hilton, Sean; Holmes, Steve; Jones, Kevin; Neville, Ron; Price, David; Ryan, Dermot; Smith, Anne

    2007-06-01

    This article describes the formation and development of the UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG), from its inception as a small respiratory special-interest group founded by six general practitioners in 1987 through to its transformation into the largest primary care specialist society in the UK. It highlights the historical context in which the GPIAG was founded - at a time when there was increasing concern about under-treatment and under-diagnosis of asthma in primary care - and describes the way in which its foundation was one of the major influences that led to profound innovation in the primary care management of respiratory disease as well as changes across the primary/secondary care interface. The GPIAG is now a registered charity, has an expanding membership, and has acquired a high profile both nationally and internationally as an advisory body on policy and strategy for the management of respiratory disease in primary care. This review is a 20th anniversary tribute not only to those who have contributed to the success of the GPIAG over the last twenty years, but also to its current membership who enable the GPIAG to continue working towards its charitable aim of "optimal respiratory care for all." PMID:17530149

  1. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  2. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  3. Twenty-year brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Factors associated with accrual of damage and central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Matteo; Peltz, Maria Teresa; Montaldo, Carlo; Perra, Daniela; Sanna, Giovanni; Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term progression of cerebral MRI abnormalities in patients with longstanding SLE, 30 patients (age 53.5 ± 11.3) underwent brain MRI at baseline (b-MRI) and after 19.4 ± 3.7 years of follow-up (fu-MRI). Two neuroradiologists visually analyzed the MRIs comparing: 1) white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs), 2) cerebral volume, and 3) parenchymal defects; these outcomes were also built in a modified MRI scoring system (mMSS) to estimate the cumulative parenchymal damage. The independent risk factors for accrual of MRI brain damage, as well as the association between MRI abnormalities and the development of new neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations classified according to the 1999 ACR case definition were also analyzed. Twenty-three patients (76.7%) showed worsening of mMSS; 19 (63.3%) had increased number and volume of WMHIs, 8 (26.7%) had significant cerebral volume loss, and 6 (20%) showed new ischemic parenchymal lesions. Only 6 patients had normal MRI. Antimalarial agents (p=0.006; OR 0.08) were protective against worsening of WMHIs. High cumulative dose of corticosteroids (p=0.026; OR 8.8) and dyslipidemia (p=0.044; OR 10.1) were associated with increased mMSS and cerebral volume loss, respectively. Higher mMSS score at baseline was independently associated with worsening of WMHIs (p=0.001; OR 5.7) and development of new NP events (p=0.019; OR 2.0); higher load of deep WMHIs at b-MRI (p=0.018; OR 2.0) was independently associated with stroke risk. This study shows that MRI brain damage in SLE patients progresses independently from NP involvement as effect of potentially modifiable risk factors and it is associated with increased risk of new NP events. PMID:25617815

  4. Customer Perception of Mobile Banking: An Empirical Study in National Capital Region Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHER SINGH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology is regarded as the third wave of revolution after agricultural and industrial revolution. After phone and net banking, technology is heralding the era of mobile banking in India. The growth of Mobile banking is phenomenal compared to previous deliver channels. It took approximately twenty years for ATMs to become popular while online banking took a decade. More so, with India all set to emerge as the second largest mobile subscriber base in the world after China, the telecom operators and banks are raring to use this medium to offer banking services including fund transfers to all sorts of people. Mobile banking can be categorized as the latest advancement in electronic banking. This paper has examined the adoption and impact of mobile banking in on customer of different banks. The study surveys the opinion of 200 customers of banks located in Delhi. ANOVA and Factor Analysis have been used for having insights in the mobile banking services provided by the different banks. The population studied here is urban population which can be considered as representative of banking customers in Delhi.

  5. Some banking activities of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.

  6. Some banking activities of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2013-01-01

    Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.

  7. Norges Bank Watch 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Juel, Steinar; Molnar, Krisztina Molnar; Røed, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Norges Bank has gone a long way in being open about its decisions and it is one of the most transparent central banks; this report makes a few recommendations about further improving the bank in this respect. Since Norges Bank already has a history of many years of transparency about its decisions and the principles used to make these decisions, it is possible to make a retrospective analysis and evaluate the bank. We think that evaluating and discussing the monetary policy of ...

  8. Do Foreign Banks Lead in Internet Banking Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooi Guan CHEAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.

  9. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  10. Customer Experience in Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...

  11. Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance, power-sharing has (so far not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktlösung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewalttätigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere während des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Versöhnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschließenden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur

  12. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  13. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  14. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  15. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  16. A two-year revision: cross comparison and modeling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately two years ago we presented results of price modeling and extensive statistical analysis for share prices of five banks: Bank of America (BAC), Franklin Resources (BEN), Goldman Sachs (GS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), and Morgan Stanley (MS). Using monthly closing prices (adjusted for splits and dividends) as a proxy to stock prices, we estimated the best fit (LSQ) quantitative price models based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of...

  17. High quality cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices. The eight-year experience and current status of the national Swedish Cord Blood Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frändberg, Sofia; Waldner, Berit; Konar, Jan; Rydberg, Lennart; Fasth, Anders; Holgersson, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The National Swedish Cord Blood Bank (NS-CBB) is altruistic and publicly funded. Herein we describe the status of the bank and the impact of delayed versus early clamping on cell number and volume. Cord Blood Units (CBUs) were collected at two University Hospitals in Sweden. Collected volume and nucleated cell content (TNC) were investigated in 146 consecutive Cord Blood (CB) collections sampled during the first quarter of 2012 and in 162 consecutive CB collections done in the first quarter of 2013, before and after clamping practices were changed from immediate to late (60 s) clamping. NS-CBB now holds close to 5000 units whereof 30 % are from non-Caucasian or mixed origins. Delayed clamping had no major effect on collection efficiency. The volume collected was slightly reduced (mean difference, 8.1 ml; 95 % CI, 1.3-15.0 ml; p = 0.02), while cell recovery was not (p = 0.1). The proportion of CBUs that met initial total TNC banking criteria was 60 % using a TNC threshold of 12.5 × 10(8), and 47 % using a threshold of 15 × 10(8) for the early clamping group and 52 and 37 % in the late clamping group. Following implementation of delayed clamping practices at NS-CBB; close to 40 % of the collections in the late clamping group still met the high TNC banking threshold and were eligible for banking, implicating that that cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices. PMID:27342904

  18. 149 Sources and 15 Years Later: The Navy-NRAO Green Bank Interferometer Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. J. W.; Waltman, E. B.; Ghigo, F.; Johnston, K. J.

    2000-12-01

    Flux densities for 149 sources were monitored with the Green Bank Interferometer for durations ranging from 3 to 15 yrs, covering the interval 1979--1996, with most sources observed for 6 yrs. Observations were at two radio frequencies (approximately 2.5 and 8.2 GHz) and have a typical sampling of one flux density measurement every 2 days. We have used these light curves to conduct various variability analysis of the sources. We find suggestive, though not unambiguous evidence, that these sources have a common, broadband mechanism for intrinsic variations. We also find that the extrinsic variation is more consistent with radio-wave scattering in an extended medium rather than in a thin screen. The primary motivation for this monitoring program was the identification of extreme scattering events. In an effort to identify ESEs in a systematic manner, we have taken the wavelet transform of the light curves. We find 15 events in the light curves of 12 sources that we classify as probable ESEs. However, we also find that five ESEs previously identified from these data do not survive our wavelet selection criteria. Future identification of ESEs will probably continue to rely on both visual and systematic methods. We present examples of the light curves and variability analyses. Instructions for obtaining the data are also given. The GBI is a facility of the National Science Foundation and was operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory under contract to the USNO and NRL during these observations. A portion of this work was performed while TJWL held a National Research Council-NRL Research Associateship. Basic research in radio astronomy at the NRL is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  19. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  20. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  1. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  2. More Localized Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign

  3. The National Bank of Romania during the years of the Great Depression – 1929-1933

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeta Blejan; Brîndusa Costache; Adriana Aloman

    2009-01-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, the Great Depression had a powerful impact not only on the world economy, but also on the social and political structures at international level by establishing new economic rules and relations, novel ideologies, and a different line of thinking. In Romania, the crisis made itself felt with a time lag, and had specific features combining the general issues with the local ones, which were typical of the weaknesses the domestic economy was mired in. This paper is aimed ...

  4. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  5. Measuring The Financial Stability of Islamic and Conventional Banks in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Elbadri, Marei M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is measure and compare the financial stability of Islamic and conventional banks operating in Turkey for the period of 2006 to 2013.The sample consist of twenty four banks, including four Islamic banks and twenty conventional banks. The study focus on three kinds of variables, bank specific, banking sector, and macro- economic. Variables of banks are z-score, total assets, ratio of credits to assets, cost to income ratio, and income diversity....

  6. 12 CFR 543.11 - Organization plan for governance during first years after issuance of Federal mutual savings bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization plan for governance during first...-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 543.11 Organization plan for governance during first..., shall call a meeting of the members. Notice for, and conduct of, such meeting shall be in...

  7. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  8. Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHA, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.

  9. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: First, a brief overview is provided of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE. PIXE and also its application to aerosol samples started with the seminal paper of Johansson et aI. [1]. The potential of PIXE for aerosol analysis was soon recognized by Tom Cahill from UC Davis and Jack Winchester from Florida State University (FSU) and accelerators that were previously dedicated to nuclear physics research were from the early 1970s on also used for this new type of application. The enthusiasm of Tom and Jack stimulated many others and researchers from several other countries, including Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Italy, Brazil, and South Africa, started with applying PIXE to aerosol analysis. Spectrum acquisition was done with energy-dispersive Si(Li) detectors, which were introduced in the second half of the 1960s, and the spectrum analysis profited from the increasing use of minicomputers and the publication of the very timely book by Bevington [2] with ready-to-use Fortran routines. Aerosol samplers with high time and/or size resolution, such as the Nelson streaker, the PIXE Int. cascade impactor, and the Davis DRUM impactor, were developed and intensively employed. The number of papers on aerosol analysis by PIXE increased steadily over the 1970-1989 period. Moreover, PIXE became the preferred aerosol analysis technique. Over the above 20-year period, its share in the total number of publications on the elemental analysis of aerosols grew from 9% in the first 5 years to as large as 65% in the last 5 years. Secondly, results are presented from a 1 O-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel. From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at this site with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2-2-3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analyzed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a

  10. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, W. [Ghent University, Dept. Analytical Chemistry, Gent (Belgium); Dept. Pharm. Sci., University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Karnieli, A. [Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Andreae, M.O. [Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: First, a brief overview is provided of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE. PIXE and also its application to aerosol samples started with the seminal paper of Johansson et aI. [1]. The potential of PIXE for aerosol analysis was soon recognized by Tom Cahill from UC Davis and Jack Winchester from Florida State University (FSU) and accelerators that were previously dedicated to nuclear physics research were from the early 1970s on also used for this new type of application. The enthusiasm of Tom and Jack stimulated many others and researchers from several other countries, including Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Italy, Brazil, and South Africa, started with applying PIXE to aerosol analysis. Spectrum acquisition was done with energy-dispersive Si(Li) detectors, which were introduced in the second half of the 1960s, and the spectrum analysis profited from the increasing use of minicomputers and the publication of the very timely book by Bevington [2] with ready-to-use Fortran routines. Aerosol samplers with high time and/or size resolution, such as the Nelson streaker, the PIXE Int. cascade impactor, and the Davis DRUM impactor, were developed and intensively employed. The number of papers on aerosol analysis by PIXE increased steadily over the 1970-1989 period. Moreover, PIXE became the preferred aerosol analysis technique. Over the above 20-year period, its share in the total number of publications on the elemental analysis of aerosols grew from 9% in the first 5 years to as large as 65% in the last 5 years. Secondly, results are presented from a 1 O-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel. From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at this site with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2-2-3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analyzed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a

  11. Twenty-year results of treatment of patients with stage i-IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma using radiation therapy with accelerated dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of investigation of 20-year survival of 234 patients with stage IA-IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are analyzed. In case of a favorable prognosis according to EORTC criteria total relapse-free survival was 90 and 76% respectively at 10-year and 79 and 73% at 20 year terms of observation. The use of chemoradiation therapy at unfavorable prognosis eliminated the difference in the survival of the patients from different prognostic groups.

  12. Twenty-Five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Broeren, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood anxiety disorders during the past 25 years, and this increase…

  13. Skin donors and human skin allografts: evaluation of an 11-year practice and discard in a referral tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Sonia; Khaznadar, Zena; Gourevitch, Jean-Claude; Jarraya, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Louis hospital tissue bank provides skin allografts to pediatric and adult burn units in the Paris area. The aim of this study was to analyze our activity during the last 11 years focusing on the reasons for skin discard. Skin is procured solely from the back of the body, which is divided into 10 zones that are harvested and processed separately. This retrospective study included all skin donors harvested between June 2002 and June 2013, representing a total of 336 donors and 2770 zones. The donors were multiorgan heart-beating donors in 91 % of cases (n = 307). The main reason for discarding harvested skin was microbial contamination, detected in 99 donors (29 %). Most contaminants were of low pathogenicity. Other reasons for discard included positive serologic tests for 2 donors [17 zones (0.61 %)], unsuitable physical skin characteristics for 3 zones (0.11 %), the donor's medical history for 53 zones (1.91 %), and technical issues with processing or distribution for 61 zones (2.2 %). In our experience, microbial contamination continues to be the main reason for discarding potential skin allografts. However, discards are limited by separate harvesting and processing of multiple zones in each donor. PMID:26275343

  14. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools. PMID:10772550

  15. Directed sibling cord blood banking for transplantation: the 10-year experience in the national blood service in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Jon; Armitage, Sue; McDonald, Dorothy; Pamphilon, Derwood; Guttridge, Martin; Brown, Juliette; Green, Ann; Brown, Colin; Warwick, Ruth M; Lankester, Alan; Fehily, Deirdre; Contreras, Marcela; Navarrete, Cristina; Watt, Suzanne M

    2007-08-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Although UCB is often collected from unrelated donors, directed umbilical cord blood (DCB) from sibling donors also provides an important source of UCB for transplantation. This report summarizes the experience in collection, testing, storage, and transplantation of DCB units by the National Blood Service for England and North Wales over 10 years. Eligibility for collection was based on an existing sibling suffering from a disease that may be treated by stem cell transplantation or a family history that could result in the birth of a sibling with a disease that could be treated by stem cell transplantation. Collections were made on the provision that the sibling's clinician was willing to financially support the collection and to take responsibility for medical review of the mother and potential recipient. Given the high investment in UCB banking and the introduction of new regulations and mandatory licensing under the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive and those proposed in the U.S., this report details the procedures that we have used for DCB donations, the outcome data where donations have been used for transplantation, and it provides some timely recommendations for best practices. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17510215

  16. Twenty-two year follow-up of an Indian family with dysferlinopathy-clinical, immunocytochemical, western blotting and genetic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations over a period of 22 years in an Indian family with primary dysferlinopathy are recorded, defining phenotypic variability. In the propositus, the dystrophy began distally in the tibialis anterior muscles, before involving the gastrocnemius. Transient painful calf hypertrophy, followed by calf wasting was observed. The proximal lower and upper limbs weakened after three to four years. The younger sibling presented with the proximo-distal phenotype. Both patients showed very high creatine kinase values early into the illness. Disease progression was slow. The younger sibling lost ambulation 14 years after onset, while the elder one remains ambulatory 22 years into the illness. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features and absence of dysferlin. Monocyte western blotting confirmed absence of dysferlin. Genetic analysis detected a heterozygous mutation in Exon 54 [c.6124C>T] in the DYSF gene. This is the first family with a diagnosis of dysferlinopathy supported by genetic data, reported from India.

  17. Twenty-two year follow-up of an Indian family with dysferlinopathy-clinical, immunocytochemical, western blotting and genetic features

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar Satish; Singh Rakesh; Agarwal Pankaj; Krahn Martin; Levy Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Long-term observations over a period of 22 years in an Indian family with primary dysferlinopathy are recorded, defining phenotypic variability. In the propositus, the dystrophy began distally in the tibialis anterior muscles, before involving the gastrocnemius. Transient painful calf hypertrophy, followed by calf wasting was observed. The proximal lower and upper limbs weakened after three to four years. The younger sibling presented with the proximo-distal phenotype. Both patients showed ve...

  18. Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Broeren, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    We examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood anxiety disorders during the past 25 years, and this increase was particularly strong for post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, social phobia, and multiple anxiety disorders. Most studi...

  19. BankCaR (Bank Capital-at-Risk): A credit risk model for US commercial bank charge-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Jon; Pelz, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    BankCaR is a credit risk model that forecasts the distribution of a commercial bank's charge-offs. The distribution depends only on systematic factors; BankCaR takes each bank and projects its expected charge-off across a distribution of good years and bad years. Since most bank failures occur in bad years, this analysis has promise for both banks and bank supervisors. In BankCaR, charge-offs depend on the bank's loan balances and the charge-off rates of twelve categories of lending. A joint ...

  20. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  1. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45. ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year : 2010

  2. Twenty-Year Follow-Up of Children with and without Speech-Language Impairments: Family, Educational, Occupational, and Quality of Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla J.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Brownlie, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents, professionals, and policy makers need information on the long-term prognosis for children with communication disorders. Our primary purpose in this report was to help fill this gap by profiling the family, educational, occupational, and quality of life outcomes of young adults at 25 years of age (N = 244) from the Ottawa Language…

  3. Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood a

  4. Retail Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one – trends, especially household deposits and credits and last – retail banking in particular banks.

  5. The Bulgarian Banks' competitiveness: the case of Remote banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the banks have started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking becomes one of the main channels for bank services distribution. This paper presents results from a research, which aims to describe actual picture of remote banking products and services offered by ...

  6. Potential of developing and using mobile banking apps in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nhat

    2014-01-01

    Banking services have been a part of society for hundreds of years. Traditional banking services require physical interactions between customers and banks. However, mobile technology has brought banking services to another stage. Banking services have developed from cash in the bank to internet banking and now mobile banking. In recent years, the number of people using banking services in Vietnam has shown a dramatic increase. Instead of storing and using cash in every transaction, Vietname...

  7. Twenty-one-year-old male with congenital anomalies, obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure: is this a case of Townes Brocks syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuigbe, E I; Azubike, C A; Okaka, E I; Osarenkhoe, J O; Onuora, V C

    2007-03-01

    Townes Brocks syndrome is an autosomal dominant multiple malformations syndrome comprising of ear anomalies/hearing loss, limb defects, anal, genitourinary, eye, spine anomalies, heart defects and sometimes mental retardation. This report presents the case of a 21-year-old secondary school leaver as a likely case of Townes-Brocks syndrome. He was born with congenital abnormalities consisting of fixed flexion deformities of hands, wrist and elbows, urethral meatal stenosis, scoliosis and aortic stenosis. He was diagnosed with obstructive uropathy at the age of 19 years and subsequently developed chronic renal failure. The report aims to highlight the need for early recognition of potentially preventable conditions, which, if left unattended to, can lead to unnecessary fatality. PMID:17668723

  8. The evolution of car power, weight and top speed during the last twenty years in Belgium: a consideration for future policies

    OpenAIRE

    De Mol, Johan; Vlassenroot, Sven; ZWERTS, Enid; Allaert, Georges; Witlox, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Traffic is one of the main causes of the most serious environmental problems worldwide. Accidents, photochemical air pollution, climate change, air quality and noise levels are some of these factors. The challenge of today is how to reduce these negatives effects in the coming years. As “sustainable development” and “sustainable consumption” are getting more important or even becoming preconditions for a better environment, the tendencies within road traffic can be labeled as “unsustainable,”...

  9. Statistical analysis of twenty years (1993 to 2012) of data from mainland China’s first intervention center for children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Sun, Zhong-Kai; Tian, Hope Huiping; Pu, Tad Zhengzhang; Wu, Yu-Yu; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Ming-Zhen; Lu, Shu-Juan; Yang, Chang-Hong; Wei, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. This study aimed to analyze trends in ASD diagnosis and intervention in 20 years of data from the Beijing Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (SR), the first autism intervention center in mainland China, and from a recent survey of members of the Heart Alliance, an industry association...

  10. Twenty-year outcome analysis of genetic screening programs for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia disease carriers in high schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, J. J.; Capua, A; Clow, C.; Scriver, C R

    1996-01-01

    Programs for education, screening, and counseling of senior-high-school students, in populations at high risk for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases, have existed for >20 years in Montreal. Four process and outcome variables are reported here: (i) voluntary participation rates in the high-school cohort; (ii) uptake rates for the screening test; (iii) origin of carrier couples seeking the prenatal diagnosis option in the programs; and (iv) change in incidence of the two diseases. Between ...

  11. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability capital equipment cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This estimate covers capital equipment costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt, of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all capital equipment and replacement costs for a repository constructed in accordance with the design shown in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and Special Study No. 1, KE Report No. 78-60-RE for 25-year retrievability

  12. The Bert and Peggy DuPont lecture. "Love, death, and commitment: twenty three years of HIV and genocide prevention in Africa" or "Passionate not equal unhinged".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, HIV emerged as the #1 cause of death in African adults, and the Rwanda genocide became the most concentrated mass murder in recorded history. Though one catastrophe surfaced slowly and inexorably while the other smoldered for years before exploding in 1994, the lessons learned are similar. In both situations, the international community has combined moral bankruptcy with a spectacular display of incompetence. Genocide masterminds continue living in Michigan, Minneapolis and Boston, brazenly planning the final extermination of the Tutsi. Students of law, diplomacy and international development are astoundingly sanguine about this, as though our current abdication of responsibility today is mitigated by the centuries of unprincipled idiots who preceded us. If medicine operated this way we'd still be treating syphilis with arsenic. Unfortunately, medicine has lost the moral high ground in Africa through missed opportunities and misappropriation of resources. In the last five years we have spent 20% of the US bilateral foreign assistance budget putting 2.5 million Africans on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), while twice that number of new HIV infections occurred. We tested 50 million Africans for HIV without acting on the evidence and common sense: rather than-transmission happens between two people. Had we tested Africans as couples, a prevention strategy proven to be effective in multiple publications since the early '90s, we could have averted more HIV infections than we are now treating, and at a fraction of the cost. PMID:20697563

  13. Empirical Relationship between Capital Base and Profitability of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okpala Kenneth Enoch; Olagunju Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    The research work attempts to assess the relationship between capital base and profitability of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The research analysis used published audited accounts of seventeen (17) out of twenty-five (25) banks that emerged from the consolidation exercise and data from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The research denotes year 2003 to 2005 as the pre-consolidation and 2006 to 2008 as post-consolidation periods for our analysis. Data used for the work were collected from b...

  14. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum dan Sesudah Diakuisisi oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris pada Bank Central Asia dan Bank Niaga

    OpenAIRE

    Yen Sun

    2011-01-01

    Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the ...

  15. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  16. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  17. INTERNAL AUDIT APPROACH IN BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU

    2008-01-01

    Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and ...

  18. Make a difference. Twenty years NWS in Utrecht, Netherlands, 1988-2008; Verschil maken. Twintig jaar NW+S in Utrecht, 1988-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hoeven, D.

    2008-04-15

    Issue published on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Department of Science, Technology and Society of Utrecht University. This anniversary report examines to what extent the group made a difference in the ambition of bringing about a sustainable development in the 20 years of its existence. [Dutch] Uitgave t.g.v. het 20-jarig jubileum van de vakgroep Natuurwetenschap en Samenleving van de Universiteit Utrecht. In dit jubileumboek wordt onderzocht in hoeverre de groep in haar twintigjarig bestaan een verschil heeft gemaakt in de ambitie bij het tot stand brengen van een duurzame ontwikkeling.

  19. Genotyping and interpretation of STR-DNA: Low-template, mixtures and database matches-Twenty years of research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Peter; Haned, Hinda; Bleka, Oyvind; Hansson, Oskar; Dørum, Guro; Egeland, Thore

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA was a revolution within a revolution that transformed forensic DNA profiling into a tool that could be used, for the first time, to create National DNA databases. This transformation would not have been possible without the concurrent development of fluorescent automated sequencers, combined with the ability to multiplex several loci together. Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) increased the sensitivity of the method to enable the analysis of a handful of cells. The first multiplexes were simple: 'the quad', introduced by the defunct UK Forensic Science Service (FSS) in 1994, rapidly followed by a more discriminating 'six-plex' (Second Generation Multiplex) in 1995 that was used to create the world's first national DNA database. The success of the database rapidly outgrew the functionality of the original system - by the year 2000 a new multiplex of ten-loci was introduced to reduce the chance of adventitious matches. The technology was adopted world-wide, albeit with different loci. The political requirement to introduce pan-European databases encouraged standardisation - the development of European Standard Set (ESS) of markers comprising twelve-loci is the latest iteration. Although development has been impressive, the methods used to interpret evidence have lagged behind. For example, the theory to interpret complex DNA profiles (low-level mixtures), had been developed fifteen years ago, but only in the past year or so, are the concepts starting to be widely adopted. A plethora of different models (some commercial and others non-commercial) have appeared. This has led to a confusing 'debate' about the 'best' to use. The different models available are described along with their advantages and disadvantages. A section discusses the development of national DNA databases, along with details of an associated controversy to estimate the strength of evidence of matches. Current methodology is limited to

  20. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  1. Technological Change, Financial Innovation, and Diffusion in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Frame, W. Scott; Lawrence J. White

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the technological change and financial innovation that commercial banking has experienced during the past twenty-five years. The paper first describes the role of the financial system in economies and how technological change and financial innovation can improve social welfare. We then survey the literature relating to several specific financial innovations, which we define as new products or services, production processes, or organizational forms. We find that the past q...

  2. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years. PMID:17406285

  3. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. PMID:27373943

  4. Twenty-year outcome analysis of genetic screening programs for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia disease carriers in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J J; Capua, A; Clow, C; Scriver, C R

    1996-10-01

    Programs for education, screening, and counseling of senior-high-school students, in populations at high risk for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases, have existed for >20 years in Montreal. Four process and outcome variables are reported here: (i) voluntary participation rates in the high-school cohort; (ii) uptake rates for the screening test; (iii) origin of carrier couples seeking the prenatal diagnosis option in the programs; and (iv) change in incidence of the two diseases. Between 1972 and 1992, we screened 14,844 Ashkenazi-Jewish students, identified 521 HexA-deficient carriers (frequency 1:28), reached 89% of the demographic cohort in the educational component of the program, and achieved 67% voluntary participation in the subsequent screening phase. The corresponding data for the beta-thalassemia program are 25,274 students (mainly of Mediterranean origin) representing 67% of the cohort with 61% voluntary participation in the screening phase (693 carriers; frequency 1:36). From demographic data, we deduce that virtually all the carriers identified in the high-school screening program remembered their status, had their partner tested if they did not already know they were a carrier couple, and took up the options for reproductive counseling/prenatal diagnosis. In Montreal, the current origin of all couples using prenatal diagnosis for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases is the corresponding genetic screening/testing program, whereas, at the beginning of the programs, it was always because there was a history of an affected person in the family. Incidence of the two diseases has fallen by 90%-95% over 20 years; the rare new cases are born (with two exceptions) outside the target communities or to nonscreened couples. PMID:8808593

  5. “中国创业教育二十年”引论%Introduction of China's entrepreneurship education in the past twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 贾万刚

    2011-01-01

    中国创业教育自1990年启动以来,已经经历了二十年的时间。通过对这二十年的初步梳理,可以发现中国的创业教育还多局限于大学生创业,还没有纳入到整个现代国民教育体系之中;创业教育的土壤还没有丰饶,还需要社会各界的共同培育;高校举办的创业教育还没有跟社会发展紧密关联,还是处在某种救急性的、片面的功利性职业训练中。中国创业教育之路任重而道远。%Since its initiation in 1999,entrepreneurship education in China has been carried out for more than 20 years.Through an initial study of the experience in the 20 or so years,entrepreneurship education has been mostly limited to the undertakings by college students rather than been introduced into the whole system of modern national education.The foundation of the entrepreneurship is still in an immature state which calls for collective efforts and attention of the whole society.Lacking close connections with social development,the entrepreneurship education promoted by higher educations institutions is still too utilitarian and unbalanced.Therefore the task for promoting entrepreneurship education in China is still very challenging.

  6. Os 22 anos da Horticultura Brasileira: a revista chega a maioridade Twenty-two years: Horticultura Brasileira reaches the adult age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2004-12-01

    .The genesis and growth of a scientific journal are unique events to be observed and studied. Horticultura Brasileira (HB is the official journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, and in 2004 the journal accomplishes 22 years of uninterrupted publishing since the release of its first issue in 1983. The journal succeeded 'Olericultura' (later 'Revista de Olericultura', the previous annual journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, published between 1961 and 1980, which presented abstracts and full papers of the annual meetings. Back to 1983, HB was a semestrally journal, created to publish original research papers of horticultural sciences, with an editorial board of four members and the peer review system, all new for the Society members. HB differed from the previous journal by its new format (28 cm x 20.5 cm, the colorful cover changed at each issue and the modern graphic design. HB was divided in distinct sections to include all segments of the Society, such as vegetable growers, rural extensionists, researchers, professors and students. During the last 22 years, HB published a total of 1,083 papers in 5,207 pages, divided in different sections: 'Letters to the Editor', 24 articles; 'Invited Articles', 37; 'Research', 561; 'Grower's Page', 133; 'Pesticides and Fertilizers in Test', 131; 'Economy and Rural Extension', 31; 'New Cultivar', 43; 'Note', 153 (this last section was abolished in 1996. During the 1983-1995 period, the journal published 34.6 articles/year, 47.3 articles/year during 1996-2001 and 116.3 articles/year from 2002 to 2004. Presently, HB is quarterly issued and has an editorial board of 30 editors of different research areas and institutions. The challenges faced by HB today are the raise of publication costs and the constant improvement of the publishing processes.

  7. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  8. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 137Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 137Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 137Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 90Sr level nearly 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 90Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input and sedimentation on

  9. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  10. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  11. O SUS nos seus 20 anos: reflexões num contexto de mudanças Twenty years of SUS: reflections in a context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Costa de Araújo Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma breve retrospectiva sobre o direito à saúde conquistado pelo cidadão brasileiro, este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ao longo da sua trajetória de 20 anos, destacando em forma de análise crítica os avanços conquistados na saúde e os desafios a serem superados. São discutidas as temáticas do direito à saúde como responsabilidade do Estado a partir da Conferência de Alma-Ata, da Constituição Federal e das Leis Orgânicas da Saúde; as diretrizes do SUS envolvendo as competências da União, do Estado e do Município. Discute ainda a importância da Estratégia Saúde da Família na consolidação da Atenção Básica no Brasil, as dificuldades do processo de regionalização e o papel da gestão e da participação social como bases para a construção do SUS que queremos.From a brief review of the right to healthcare won by the Brazilian citizens, this article aims to discuss Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System throughout its trajectory of 20 years, providing a critical review of the progress achieved in healthcare and the challenges to be overcome. It discusses the issues of: the right to healthcare as the State's responsibility based on the Alma-Ata Conference, the Federal Constitution and the Organic Laws on Health; SUS guidelines involving the competences of the Union, States and Municipalities. It also approaches the importance of the Family Health Strategy for the consolidation of Primary Care in Brazil, the difficulties in the process of regional health planning, and the role of management and social participation as the bases for the construction of the SUS we want.

  12. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...... socially responsible may have economic advantages....

  13. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  14. Crash Testing German Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Duellmann; Martin Erdelmeier

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of twenty-eight German banks based on a Merton-type multifactor credit-risk model. The stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile sector. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low for all banks in the sample, the expected loss conditional on the stress event increases substantially by 70–80 percent for the total portfolio. This result confirms the need to account for hidden sectoral concentration r...

  15. About Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  16. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2008 (March 1, 2008 to February 1, 2009).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration, and continued project tasks in 2008. The objective was to evaluate factors that could limit kokanee in Banks Lake, including water quality, prey availability, harvest, and acute predation during hatchery releases. Water quality parameters were collected twice monthly from March through November. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in May and stratification was apparent by July. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to 15 meters deep, with temperatures of 21-23 C in the epilimnion and 16-19 C in the hypolimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 8 mg/L until August when they dropped near or below 5 mg/L deeper than 20-meters. Secchi depths ranged from 3.2 to 6.2 meters and varied spatially and temporally. Daphnia and copepod densities were the highest in May and June, reaching densities of 26 copepods/liter and 9 Daphnia/liter. Fish surveys were conducted in July and October 2008 using boat electrofishing, gill netting, and hydroacoustic surveys. Lake whitefish (71%) and yellow perch (16%) dominated the limnetic fish assemblage in the summer, while lake whitefish (46%) and walleye (22%) were the most abundant in gill net catch during the fall survey. Piscivore diets switched from crayfish prior to the release of rainbow trout to crayfish and rainbow trout following the release. The highest angling pressure occurred in May, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 45% of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. Ice fishing occurred in January and February at the south end of the lake. An estimated total of 4,397 smallmouth bass, 11,106 walleye, 371 rainbow trout

  17. Career Concerns of Banking Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...

  18. Twenty-Five Years of INR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Image Navigation and Registration (INR) is the engineering discipline that deals with the problem of calibrating and stabilizing image geometry, particularly in the domain of geostationary weather satellites where the term appears to have first come into use within the GOES program. GOES I-M represented the transition from spin-stabilization to three-axis control within the GOES program. A spin-stabilized spacecraft, with its large gyroscopic stiffness, is a stable platform for supporting challenging Earth-observation missions from geostationary orbit. Unfortunately, a telescope deployed on a spin-stabilized spacecraft looks towards the Earth only about 5% of the time. NASA and NOAA were justifiably concerned in the GOES I-M epoch by the idea of adapting what was essentially communications satellite attitude control technology to host precision-pointed scanning instruments and accorded special attention to these concerns within the GOES I-M specifications under the heading of INR. The technology and performance of INR systems have evolved considerably since then and the field has found application in a host of non-U.S. systems, including Meteosat, MTSAT, and COMS. This paper looks back at the field beginning with GOES I-M and traces its evolution through Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), MTSAT, COMS, and GOES N-P with advanced stellar-inertial attitude control. It concludes with an analysis of where the field is likely to be heading for the next generation systems, in particular, GOES-R and Meteosat Third Generation (MTG).

  19. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  20. Competition and Insurance Twenty Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rothschild; Stiglitz, Joseph E

    1997-01-01

    We are honored to address the European Group of Risk and Insurance Economists and will take the opportunity to make some reflections on the rather uneasy relationship between insurance and competition.Economists generally prescribe competition as a solution for markets that do not work well. Competition allocates resources efficiently and encourages innovation and attention to what customers want. Insurance markets differ from most other markets because in insurance markets competition can de...

  1. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  2. Twenty-five Years from Hiroshima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Jonathan

    1971-01-01

    Describes the film Hiroshima - Nagasaki, August, 1945," and makes suggestions for its classroom use in conjunction with other instructional resources. Procedures for inquiry and discussion are included. (Author/JB)

  3. Remembering Alcatraz: Twenty-Five Years After.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy; Nagel, Joane

    1994-01-01

    Describes circumstances that set the stage for the 1969 occupation of Alcatraz Island by American Indians, including federal relocation of thousands of reservation Indians to urban areas, national civil rights and antiwar movements, and growth of urban Indian and Indian college student organizations. Briefly traces events of the occupation. Lists…

  4. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  5. Mobile Banking in Russia: User Intention towards Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Belousova; Nikolay Chichkanov

    2015-01-01

    Mobile banking is currently one of the most dynamic and rapid growth types of distance banking services. In recent years in Russia, the number of individual bank accounts that can be accessed remotely using mobile devices has increased by more than 20 times. With every year, an increasing number of banks offer mobile banking services. Nevertheless, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile banking adoption ...

  6. Sedimentological record over the last million year on a modern carbonate contourite system: example of the Little Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, Ludivine; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Mulder, Thierry; Giraudeau, Jacques; Conesa, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The Bahamian Banks are a classic study area for carbonate sedimentation because it provides many modern analogues for ancient limestones. Several sedimentary and seismic dataset collected during oceanographic research cruises (including ODP expeditions) have revealed significant accumulation rates along the slopes of the slopes of the Bahama Banks. In this work, we focus on the major sedimentary body of the northwestern slope of the Little Bahama Bank (LBB), the second largest carbonate bank of the Bahamian archipelago. Our main topic is a better understanding of the export processes from the bank to the northern slope of the LBB, exposed to the prevalent winds (windward side), and of the sediment deposition related to the regional Antilles Current. Analyses of two marine cores allow to determine the sediment sources (nature and origin of the particles) and to generate a high-resolution stratigraphic model. Those two cores (CARKS-20 and CARKS-21) are located along the western side of the northern slope of the LBB and have been collected during the CARAMBAR cruise (2010). CARKS-21 penetrates the wedge of this major sedimentary body over 12 m. CARKS-20 penetrates the same sedimentary body in its thickest part over 13.25 m. The stratigraphical methods include faunal and floral analyses (planktonic foraminifera and coccoliths), radiometric dating, XRF analyses and isotope stratigraphy. The sedimentary analyses encompass spectrophotocolorimetry and grain-size measurements, indurated thin sections petrographical study and identification of bioclasts. Stratigraphical results from core CARKS-21 allow to consider long-term climatic trends extending from present to the marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 (424 kyr, from the top to 9.3 m), and highlight perturbation in the sedimentation from 9.3 to 12 m (from MIS 12 to MIS 25). Higher resolutions are highlighted in core CARKS-20 which extends from MIS 1 to MIS 11. Glacial periods and sea-level lowstands corresponding to exposure of

  7. INTERNAL AUDIT APPROACH IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria STANCIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and practice in the field. In the dynamic banking environment the internal audit has to define and strengthen its statute and role. We can say that in the new context – regulatory environment for banking system and professional requirements – internal audit become one of the most influential and value added function in the bank. The present paper presents the role of internal audit in the Romanian banks and its major areas of interest.

  8. The Determinants of De Novo Bank Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Robert DeYoung; Iftekhar Hasan; Hunter, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The number of newly chartered, or 'de novo,' commercial banks in the U.S. has increased every year since 1994. These new banks are potentially important for preserving competition and providing credit in consolidating banking markets. However, like other new business ventures, newly chartered banks can be prone to failure. To investigate the long-run financial viability of newly chartered banks, we estimate a 'split-population' duration model for 656 commercial banks chartered in 1984 and 198...

  9. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. PMID:15682248

  10. Bank panics in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses recent bank runs in seven transition economies (Russia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania), comparing them against the older US experience and theoretical research. Bank runs seem to usually be information based. For example, improvements in bank transparency such as new accounting rules can reveal a bank’s insolvency and trigger a run. However, bank runs, as seen a few years ago in East Asia, Bulgaria and Russia, may also be accompanied by runs on...

  11. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  12. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pozsar, Zoltan; Adrian,Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam; Boesky, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s changed the nature of financial intermediation in the United States profoundly. Within the market-based financial system, "shadow banks" are particularly important institutions. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. Examples of shadow banks include finance companies, asset-backed c...

  13. Investment banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lejot, P

    2013-01-01

    Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...

  14. Direitos sociais na constituição cidadã: um balanço de 21 anos Social rights in the citizen Constitution: a balance of twenty-one years of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.

  15. 12 CFR 34.84 - Future bank expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future bank expansion. 34.84 Section 34.84... APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.84 Future bank expansion. A national bank normally should use real estate acquired for future bank expansion within five years. After holding such real estate for one...

  16. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  17. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  18. BankCaR (Bank Capital-at-Risk): a credit risk model for U.S. commercial bank charge-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Frye; Eduard A. Pelz

    2008-01-01

    BankCaR is a credit risk model that forecasts the distribution of a commercial bank's charge-offs. The distribution depends only on systematic factors; BankCaR takes each bank and projects its expected charge-off across a distribution of good years and bad years. Since most bank failures occur in bad years, this analysis has promise for both banks and bank supervisors. In BankCaR, charge-offs depend on the bank's loan balances and the charge-off rates of twelve categories of lending. A joint ...

  19. The Twenty-One Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de, Franciska; Kraaij, Wessel

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-One is a project funded within the EU Telematics Applications Programme, sector Information Engineering. In Twenty-One non-profit environmental organisations, companies and research organisations work together to make documents on sustainable development and the environment more easily accessible. The most important deliverable of the project is the Twenty-One disclosure and retrieval system which produces an index on the multilingual multimedia document base. This index will be availa...

  20. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  1. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  2. Mobile Banking in Russia: User Intention towards Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Belousova; Nikolay Chichkanov

    2015-01-01

    Mobile banking is one of the most dynamic developing types of distance banking services. For the recent years in Russia, the amount of individual bank accounts with the ability of the distance access through mobile devices increased more than by 20 times. Every year more and more banks start to offer mobile banking services. Despite this, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile ...

  3. The EuroBioBank Network: 10 years of hands-on experience of collaborative, transnational biobanking for rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marina; Angelini, Corrado; Bignami, Fabrizia; Bodin, Anne-Mary; Crimi, Marco; Di Donato, Jeanne-Hélène; Felice, Alex; Jaeger, Cécile; Karcagi, Veronika; LeCam, Yann; Lynn, Stephen; Meznaric, Marija; Moggio, Maurizio; Monaco, Lucia; Politano, Luisa; de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Saker, Safaa; Schneiderat, Peter; Ensini, Monica; Garavaglia, Barbara; Gurwitz, David; Johnson, Diana; Muntoni, Francesco; Puymirat, Jack; Reza, Mojgan; Voit, Thomas; Baldo, Chiara; Bricarelli, Franca Dagna; Goldwurm, Stefano; Merla, Giuseppe; Pegoraro, Elena; Renieri, Alessandra; Zatloukal, Kurt; Filocamo, Mirella; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2015-09-01

    The EuroBioBank (EBB) network (www.eurobiobank.org) is the first operating network of biobanks in Europe to provide human DNA, cell and tissue samples as a service to the scientific community conducting research on rare diseases (RDs). The EBB was established in 2001 to facilitate access to RD biospecimens and associated data; it obtained funding from the European Commission in 2002 (5th framework programme) and started operation in 2003. The set-up phase, during the EC funding period 2003-2006, established the basis for running the network; the following consolidation phase has seen the growth of the network through the joining of new partners, better network cohesion, improved coordination of activities, and the development of a quality-control system. During this phase the network participated in the EC-funded TREAT-NMD programme and was involved in planning of the European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure. Recently, EBB became a partner of RD-Connect, an FP7 EU programme aimed at linking RD biobanks, registries, and bioinformatics data. Within RD-Connect, EBB contributes expertise, promotes high professional standards, and best practices in RD biobanking, is implementing integration with RD patient registries and 'omics' data, thus challenging the fragmentation of international cooperation on the field. PMID:25537360

  4. Hidden cost reductions in bank mergers: accounting for more productive banks

    OpenAIRE

    Simon H. Kwan; Wilcox, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, the banking industry has undergone rapid consolidation; indeed, on average, for the past three years there were more than two bank mergers every business day. Before the 1990s, most bank mergers involved banks with less than $1 billion in assets; more recently, even the very largest banks have merged with other banks and with nonbank financial firms. ; Globalization, technological advances, and regulatory retreat are often cited as factors that have stimulated and allowe...

  5. An analysis of Internet Banking in Portugal: the antecedents of mobile banking adoption

    OpenAIRE

    João Pedro Couto; Teresa Tiago; Flávio Tiago

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, mobile operations have gained wide popularity among mainstream users, and banks tend to follow this trend. But are bank customers ready to move forward? Mobile banking appears to be a natural extension of Internet banking, . Thus, to predict consumer decisions to adopt mobile banking, it’s useful to understand the pattern of adoption of Internet banking (IB). This investigation seeks contribute to an expansion of the knowledge regarding this matter by researching Portuguese c...

  6. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  7. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rahm, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor paper I focus on the issue of shadow banking. The paper is theoretically oriented. Its main goal is to provide overview on the shadow banking system. The text is divided into four parts. The first part includes the definition of shadow banking and the description of its characteristics. The credit intermediation in shadow banking and the process of securitization is explained in the second part. The third part is aimed at mapping of situation in the area of implementation of re...

  8. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  9. Assessment of Competition in the Banking Sector of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rimavičiūtė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the banking sector is different from the competition in the other sectors. Banks can compete only onthe basis of banking products. Also, banks are dependent on each other – actions of every market participant may strongly affectthe others. Problems of one bank may encourage distrust of the entire banking system. Analysis of Lithuanian banking sectorhas showed that country’s banking sector can be divided into three groups – the biggest banks, smaller and medium-sized banksand foreign banks branches. The largest part of banking sector is concentrated in activity of the three banks. All these banksare owned by Scandinavian capital. Lithuanian banking sector is highly concentrated. In 2005–2012 years the average mean ofthree banks concentration index (CR3 in deposits, assets and loans markets was 68 percent. According to these high values ofconcentration rates, Lithuanian banking sector can be characterized as oligopoly.

  10. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century

  11. Forced Bank Mergers and SME Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Access to finance is one of the most significant challenges for the creation, survival and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially, innovative ones. However, forced bank mergers by Central bank of Indonesia may hurdle SME financing and growth. Using the financial data of seven Indonesian bank mergers within 2004-2009, periods three years before and after the merger, this study examines whether bank mergers may hurdle SME financing and growth. The study concludes that bank me...

  12. Community Bank Performance: How Important are Managers?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean F. Amel; Robin A. Prager

    2014-01-01

    Community banks have long played an important role in the U.S. economy, providing loans and other financial services to households and small businesses within their local markets. In recent years, technological and legal developments, as well as changes in the business strategies of larger banks and non-bank financial service providers, have purportedly made it more difficult for community banks to attract and retain customers, and hence to survive. Indeed, the number of community banks and t...

  13. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  14. BANK GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.

  15. Strategic Marketing Plan for Huishang Bank in Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yani

    2010-01-01

    Huishang Bank Corporation Limited Company was founded on December 28, 2005, and it has operated since January 1, 2006. Before it was established, it merged with six cities' commercial banks and seven urban credit banks in Anhui Province. It then became the first regional bank which had developed from city commercial bank in China. In the last five years, Huishang bank has already got significant progress, and it entered top 500 global banks in 2010. This thesis focuses on the strategic m...

  16. Effectiveness of Training and Development on Employees’ Performance and Organisation Competitiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Falola, H.O.; Osibanjo, A.O.; Ojo, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    Training and development is indispensable strategic tool for enhancing employee performance and organizations keep increasing training budget on yearly basis with believe that it will earn them competitive edge. The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organisation competitive advantage in the Nigerian banking industry. Descriptive research method was adopted for this study using two hundred and twenty three val...

  17. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  18. Performance of Tunisian Banks Following Transformations of Banking Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bassem Salhi; Younes Boujelbene

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to study the impact of new forms of banking intermediation on the performance of Tunisianbanks. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 10 Tunisian banks for a period of analysis that spans 13 years,from 1997 until 2009. To make better use of our database, we have utilized the panel data technique.Our empirical validation shows that the context of bank intermediation is still traditional, despite the reforms offinancial liberalization; they still carry the traditional busi...

  19. 20年合作“北斗”项目历史回顾%Twenty years of cooperation--A brief history of the“Bei Dou”project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    . Spurred by the expanding landings of anchovy, analyses were made on the long-term annual yield of anchovy and discussions raised on the need to introduce some fisheries management regulations in order to avoid over-exploitation and possible collapse of the stock.   This and other management issues dominated the Project during the last 5-year period. Norwegian experts, particularly from the Directorate of Fisheries, have participated in a series of seminar organised by the Bureau of Fisheries covering topics in fisheries management such as management objectives, fisheries law, statistics, inspection and coastal zone management. At the same time, workshops have been held at the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute to prepare assessments of fish resources and provide advice to central government authorities on fisheries management.   Project evaluations have demonstrated that the “Bei Dou” Project in its various phases has made important contributions to the development of fisheries in China. It has also brought together scientists, technicians and administrators from China and Norway in fruitful cooperation, thus expanding their professional and cultural knowledge for mutual benefit.   NORAD has offered to support continued cooperation between fisheries institutions in Norway and China and a Project Document for 2001-2005 has been prepared. The Project will during the nearest years provide information on the Norwegian experience related to establishing and managing fisheries in Exclusive Economic Zones.   This will continue the well-established fisheries cooperation beyond the twenty years marked by the present “Bei Dou” Seminar in Qingdao.

  20. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  1. Managing Operational Risk In Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to impr...

  2. A review of bank performance in the Fifth district, 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, John R.; David L. Mengle

    1987-01-01

    Gains from sales of securities and lower loan loss previsions helped bring higher profits to large Fifth District commercial banks in 1986. At the same time, small- and medium-sized bank profits fell slightly in the District from the previous year. As in the past few years, Fifth District banks outperformed banks in the rest of the United States. For the benefit of those readers curious about the problems connected with measuring bank performance, the authors discuss the most common bank prof...

  3. Banking union and bank regulation: Banking sector stability in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bremus, Franziska M.; Lambert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the most recent period of calm on the financial markets, the long-term resilience of the European financial system is not yet assured, even several years after the financial crisis began. However, the stability of the financial system playsa crucial role for real economic development and consequently for growth and prosperity. The financial crisis has shown that stricter regulation is required to improve the stability and resilience of the banking system. Further, it has become eviden...

  4. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  5. Variabilidade espacial da densidade e da porosidade de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico sob semeadura direta por vinte anos Spatial variability of soil bulk density and soil porosity on Rhodic Eutrudox under no tillage for twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glécio Machado Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Todas as práticas de manejo causam impacto sobre os atributos do solo que se traduzem em influência sobre o desenvolvimento das culturas. Sabe-se que no sistema de semeadura direta ocorre compactação do solo na camada superficial, com tendência a progredir com o tempo de cultivo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade espacial da densidade e da porosidade de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico sob semeadura direta por vinte anos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Campinas (SP considerando o período entre 1985 e 2005. Os atributos analisados neste estudo foram: argila (g kg-1, silte (g kg-1, areia (g kg-1, densidade (kg dm-3, porosidade total (%, macroporosidade (% e microporosidade (%. Ferramentas de geoestatística foram utilizadas para análise dos dados e construção de mapas de variabilidade espacial da densidade e da porosidade do solo. A amostragem realizada em 1985 não foi capaz de detectar a variabilidade espacial da densidade e porosidade do solo. Nos atributos físicos amostrados em 2005, observou-se alta razão de dependência espacial. Nos mapas de variabilidade espacial não se constatou relação clara entre a textura, a densidade e a porosidade do solo. Na área após vinte anos de manejo com semeadura direta não havia problemas com compactação. O manejo do solo com semeadura direta influenciou favoravelmente a variabilidade espacial dos atributos amostrados em 2005.Soil management practices affect its attributes which will further affect crop development. It is generally known and accepted that soil surface compaction occurs in no tillage system and that this compaction tends to increase with time. However, most of the research do not evaluate adequately soil physical properties behavior as affected by time of management. The objective of this work was to evaluate spatial variability of soil bulk density and soil porosity on a Rhodic Eutrudox under no tillage with annual crops for twenty years. The work

  6. The variation of psychiatric in -patients' clinical diagnosis and treatment during past twenty years%20年间精神病住院患者的临床诊疗变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇雅菊; 高静芳; 谭忠林

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study was to investigate the variations of psychiatric in - patients' clinical diagnosis and treatment in order to explore its discipline and tendency. Method We drew off in - patients' cases in 1991, 2000 and 2009 of the Seventh People's Hospital of Hangzhou, with the method of case data searches. Result ①The study was conducted on 5635 cases of psychosis,the proportion of receiving and curing schizophrenia is relatively stable, it divines more than half( 55.04% ) of all the patients. ②Mood disorders to 16.24% ranked only second to schizophrenia, it consisted 16.24% of all the diseases, the scale of 2000 and 2009 was less than 1991 a little( P = 0.002 ). ③Change of the use of psychotropic drugs was mainly for the following two aspects. First,more and more doctors chose to use second - generation antipsychotic drugs( 29.95% ,50.78% and 75.28% in year of 1991,2000 and 2009 separately ). Second,combination was more and more common( 54.42% ,55.43% and 70. 52% separately ). Conclusion Schizophrenia remains the prime target of specialized hospital of mental disease in late twenty years, and,the trend of dropping of in - patients with mood disorder may concerning with therapeutic change. second - generation antipsychotic drugs'clinical superiority and diversification tendency of medical treatment are accepted by more and more clinicians.%目的 为了探讨近20年来精神病专科医院中住院患者的分布及相关的药物治疗变化趋势.方法 通过病例资料检索方法分别抽取1991年、2000年及2009年在杭州市第七人民医院住院治疗的全部病例资料.结果 共获得病例资料5635例,精神分裂症在各年度中的收治比例无显著差异,占所有精神障碍患者的半数以上(55.04%);心境障碍仅次于精神分裂症,占所有疾病数的16.24%,在2000和2009年度中收治比例略低于1991年(P=0.002);精神药物治疗方面的变化主要表现为新一代的抗精

  7. Síndrome de Cushing: veinticinco años de experiencia clínica en Navarra Cushing´s syndrome: twenty-five years of clinical experience in Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pérez García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación del Síndrome de Cushing (CS en cuanto a etiología, diagnóstico, tratamiento y curación en los últimos 25 años en Navarra. Material y métodos. Este estudio -retrospectivo, observacional-, se ha llevado a cabo sobre 36 pacientes diagnosticados de SC entre 1985 y 2010. Resultados. El 80,5% eran mujeres y el 19,5% hombres. La edad media al diagnóstico fue 39,3±13 años. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: obesidad (85,3%, cara de luna llena (35,3% y miopatía (50%. Etiológicamente, el 58,3 % tenían origen hipofisario, el 36,1% adrenal y el 5,5% ectópico. La media de CLU fue 343,5±310,1 μg/24horas. El cortisol sérico tras el Nugent fue de 15,6±8,6 μg/dl. La media del cortisol plasmático tras el frenado débil fue 15,1±14,2 μg/dl. Existe correlación lineal directa estadísticamente significativa (pBackground. The aim of this work is to determine the situation of Cushing´s Syndrome (CS with respect to aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and cure in the last 25 years in Navarre. Methods. Retrospective, observational study on 36 patients diagnosed with CS between 1985 and 2010. Results. Eighty point five percent were women and 19.5% were men. The average age on diagnosis was 39.3±13 years. The main clinical manifestations were: obesity (85.3%, full moon face (35.3% and myopathy (50%. Aetiologically, in 58.3% the origin was hypophisiary, in 36.1% it was adrenal, and in 5.5% it was ectopic. The UFC average was 343.5±310.1 μg/24hours. Serum cortisol after Nugent test was 15.6±8.6 μg/dl. Low dose plasma cortisol average was 15.1±14.2 μg/dl. There is a statistically significant (p< 0.01 direct lineal correlation between UFC and the Nugent test, as well as between the Nugent test and low dose cortisol test. There are no statistically significant differences between adrenal and hypophisiary aetiology in either demographic factors or analytical results

  8. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  9. Central Bank Focuses on Money Supply and Commercial Bank Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Money supply index will continue to be the main topic of the annual meeting of Central Bank, this has actually refuted the rumor that the intermediate goal of Central Bank's monetary policy,which has been implementing for 8 years, will be demolished.

  10. Halcyon Days of the Banks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With limited exposure to the global financial crisis, Chinese banks have remained profitable for the past three quarters while the rest of the world has groaned under the spreading global financial turmoil, China’s banking industry reported another season of good harvest when 14 listed banks all managed to secure high net profit growth in the first three quarters of this year. According to their quarterly reports, the 14 banks reaped a total of 334.1 billion yuan ($49 billion) in net profit during the period,

  11. MANAGING OPERATIONAL RISK IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to improve their risk management process.Operational risk is considered a significant risk and has an important impact on banks activity and results. Now, there is a clear effort of the banks for applying more advanced methods on operational risk so that their control and management to be improved. The present paper presents the specificity of the operational risk management and the author’s solution for the operational risk management in banks.

  12. Effects of e-banking on growth of customer base in kenyan banks

    OpenAIRE

    Okibo, Bichanga Walter; Wario, Ali Yattani

    2014-01-01

    The study highlights the effects of E-banking services on growth of customer base in Kenyan banks for over the last five years. It addresses issues that affect effective utilization of E-banking facilities by customers. The study generally investigates how lack of technological know-how, illiteracy, unreliability, and transaction limits has hindered growth of on-line customer base in Kenyan banks. E-banking provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of time saving and cost of transactio...

  13. "Governance and Performance of Banks in Prewar Japan: Testing the "Organ Bank" Hypothesis Quantitatively"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki; Kazuki Yokoyama

    2001-01-01

    More than forty years ago, Kato[1957] posed the organ bank hypothesis. Namely, he stressed that in prewar Japan, many of the banks were tightly connected with certain industrial companies, and those banks loosely gave loans to the connected companies, which eventually resulted in the Showa Financial Crisis. This view has been widely accepted by economic historians. However, there has been no attempt to test the organ bank hypothesis quantitatively. In this paper, we tested the organ bank hypo...

  14. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  15. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stunting, underweight, and overweight among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years in two major governorates in the West Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awartani Faisal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about height and weight status of Palestinian adolescents. The objective of this paper was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight/obesity among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years and associated sociodemographic factors in 2 major governorates in the West Bank. Methods A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 comprising 1942 students in 65 schools in Ramallah and Hebron governorates. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from students and parents. Weights and heights were measured. Overweight and obesity were assessed using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reference and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Stunting and underweight were assessed using the 2000 CDC reference. Results Overweight/obesity was more prevalent in Ramallah than in Hebron and affected more girls than boys. Using the 2000 CDC reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Ramallah among boys was 9.6% and 8.2%, respectively versus 15.6% and 6.0% among girls (P Conclusion Under- and overnutrition co-exist among Palestinian adolescents, with differences between sexes. Region, residence, STL, and onset of puberty were associated factors.

  16. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  17. PROSPECTS OF ISLAMIC BANKING: REFLECTIONS FROM PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the growth and development phases as well as prospects of Islamic banking in Pakistan. The role of Islamic banking is explained with special regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR as now days this concept is growing vastly. Awareness in public also has been growing and people are moving towards Islamic banking system. As we live in a Muslim country so it is very essential to have some basic knowledge about the Islamic banking. In this paper growth and performance of Islamic banking is discussed and compared among the financial years from 2003 to 2010 in terms of growth parameters like assets, deposits, sources and uses of funds. The performance indicators are also discussed to evaluate the growth and performance of Islamic banking system. In the last eight years, Islamic banking paved with the rapid market share of banking services. Moreover the efforts made by the central bank in Pakistan (SBP are also remarkable in growth of Islamic banking. By seeing the present growth of Islamic banking, it is anticipated that in near future, Islamic banking with get major share in banking industry in Pakistan.

  18. Loan Growth and Riskiness of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Foos, Daniel; Norden, Lars; Weber, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether loan growth affects the riskiness of banks in 14 major western countries under "regular conditions". Using Bankscope data from more than 10,000 individual banks during 1997-2005, we test three hypotheses on the relation between past loan growth and loan losses, bank profitability, and bank solvency. Our empirical evidence supports the view that loan growth leads to a peak in loan loss provisions three years later, to a decrease in relative interest income, and to lower ...

  19. Lithuania : Banking System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...

  20. Norges Bank Watch 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.; Wilhelmsen, Bjørn Roger

    2011-01-01

    Each year the Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at The Department of Economics, BI Norwegian School of Management appoints an independent group of experts to evaluate monetary policy in Norway. The Ministry of Finance partly funds the Norges Bank Watch reports, which contain useful information and analyses for the Ministry’s evaluation of monetary policy that is presented each year in a White Paper to Parliament.

  1. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  2. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  3. Vinte anos do MST: a psicologia nesta história Veinte años de lo movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra: la psicología en esta historia Landless peasants’ movement after twenty years: psychology and the movement’s history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Domingues

    2007-12-01

    resultados y conclusiones de las pesquisas. Se destaca la necesidad de estudios sobre la infancia, desterritorialización y sufrimiento psíquico y salud mental en el campo.The Landless Peasants’ Movement (MST in Brazil commemorated twenty years in 2004. Throughout its lifetime, it has aroused the interest of researchers hailing from different areas, mainly from those involved in Education and Sociology. Few researches on the movement are extant within Psychology. The mapping of general scientific production on the Movement and an analysis of the specific production within Psychology are the objects of current research. An online search was undertaken at the CAPES data bank with regard to the 1987-2004. All abstracts were printed and classified. Whereas the abstracts revealed the theses and dissertations developed in postgraduate programs for Master’s degree in Psychology, the dissertations were read to identify pre-oriented subject matter in the researches, their main results and their conclusions. The need for further studies concerning childhood, de-territorialization, psychic suffering and mental health conditions in the rural area is emphasized.

  4. REVIEW OF RESEARCH ARTICLES ON INFLUENCE OF BANK SAVING ACCOUNT ON FINANCIAL LITERACY OF STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanshree Dinkarrao Mohite,; Ashokkumar S. Karande

    2016-01-01

    Researcher analyzed, research articles, research papers and research reports of financial literacy of Students and influence of Bank Saving Accounts on financial literacy of students. The review found twenty six articles that studied influence of Bank Saving Accounts on financial literacy of Minor Students. Most of researchers conclude to have significant relationship between having bank saving account and financial literacy of minor students.

  5. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  6. Ist die Bank der Zukunft eine Bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.

  7. Banking Efficiency in European Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelidou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to unveil whether the tremendous banking sector reforms within the dynamic nature of the EU economic environment have achieved one of the catalyst EU goals, increase financial institutions’ cost efficiency. Using a single stage stochastic frontier approach, cost efficiency of the enlarged EU is estimated and evaluated for the period 2005-2011. The results suggest that EU pursuits have been successful but that stronger controls are needed.

  8. E-banking innovations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a number of important e-banking innovations that take place on Polish market. It also presents digital channels trends in e-banking and mobile banking with projections for next five years. All innovations being developed are more and more considered by the banks as an element of their strategy, in order to offer enhanced customer experience and better ménage relations with their customers. A visible trend is integration of digital channels with physical ones. Banks tend to invest more in innovations in order to gain competitive advantage.

  9. E-BANKING INNOVATIONS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows a number of important e-banking innovations that take place on Polish market. It also presents digital channels trends in e-banking and mobile banking with projections for next five years. All innovations being developed are more and more considered by the banks as an element of their strategy, in order to offer enhanced customer experience and better ménage relations with their customers. A visible trend is integration of digital channels with physical ones. Banks tend to inv...

  10. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  11. A STUDY OF BANK CUSTOMERS’ PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF ADOPTING ONLINE BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh-Ying Wu; Chun-Chun Lin; Cheng-Lung Li; Hsing-Hui Lin

    2010-01-01

    As information technology rapidly changes the fabrics of industries in recent years, the trade of online banking has become more diversified. Specializing in unlimited, speedy and convenient services, online banking has transformed traditional banking in many countries. The managements’ ability to anticipate and respond to such changes in the financial marketplace, thus, has a decisive influence on the success or failure of many retail banks. The present study, exploratory in nature, was in...

  12. Determinants of Commercial Bank Performance and Its Implication on China Banking Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhuoxi

    2011-01-01

    The China banking reform started in 1987, for years it is processed in a view of improving efficiency and resource allocation. The most recent reform have been carried out to focus on the joint stock reform related to privatisation and listing of bank shares, liberalisation of business to the foreign banks, encouraging diversifications into intermediary business beyond the traditional deposit and loan activities, and the consolidation reform of the city and rural commercial banks. Meanwhile, ...

  13. Vietnam’s banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Arlene Mayeda

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (FRBSF) travels on a “fact-finding” trip to Asia. These trips advance two of the Bank’s broad objectives: serving as a repository of expertise on economic, banking, and financial issues relating to the Pacific Rim and building ties with policymakers and economic officials there. The knowledge gained and the contacts developed during these trips provide valuable input to understanding trends affecting the Twelfth District, c...

  14. Determinants of bank lending performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, Ralf; Schenk, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the lending business has come under considerable competitive pressure and bank managers often express concern regarding its profitability vis-a-vis other activities. This paper tries to empirically identify factors that are able to explain the financial performance of bank lending activities. The analysis is based on the CFS-data-set that has been collected in 1997 from 200 medium-sized firms. Two regressions are performed: The first is directed towards relationships bet...

  15. Reasons for Non-Adoption of Internet Banking: A Study with Reference to Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    J Ramola Premalatha; Sundaram, N.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental commotion of twenty first century verve of ‘banking’ is transformed by the perception called Internet banking or online banking. Internet banking is accomplished by means of a personal computer or any itinerant piece of equipment presenting internet connection. All the banks in India offer Internet banking with a nexus of transactions in addition to an informational source. In spite of scores of incentives, there are certain issues affecting its practice. It is realized that t...

  16. External indebtedness of Croatian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Jurman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main characteristics of the foreign assets and foreign liabilities of the banks that to a great extent include credit and deposit activities with non-residents – foreign physical persons and legal entities, mostly with foreign banks. The author in this paper analyses the size and trends of the Republic of Croatia’s external debt with regard to gross domestic product, import, export, international reserve of the Croatian National Bank (HNB, etc. The author also discusses external debt of the banks that have, during the past few years, contributed substantially to the overall external debt of the Republic of Croatia. The autor points out that the banks have used foreign sources mainly for placing citizens’ loans, and less for financing development projects and economy. Thus, the banks have “spent”, i.e. used up their credit capacity as well as the credit capacity of the Republic of Croatia. Regardless of the fact that the banks have improved the quality of their assets, maintained liquidity/solvency and made extremely good profits, there have not been positive effects of the multiplication of credits/loans and deposits nor have there been the awaited effects on the growth of the gross domestic product and employment that otherwise might have been achieved via different foreign resources investment policy

  17. Recent trends in the profitability of credit card banks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Meyercord

    1994-01-01

    Competition among credit card issuers has increased sharply over the past few years. Despite this trend, the profitability of credit card banks not only remains high relative to the rest of the banking industry but continues to grow. This article examines recent trends in credit card bank profitability and, by looking beyond the aggregate data, uncovers some important differences between credit card banks owned by bank holding companies and those owned by nonbank firms.

  18. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview (v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  19. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  20. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    DRĂGAN (SÂNTĂMARIAN) OANA RALUCA

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to highlight the strategic implication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development for the banking sector. A few years ago, banks did not give much importance to the social and environmental problems. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the banking system. In this context, the development of a bank management system based on sustaina...

  1. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  2. Banking on Reform in the Rising China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About six years ago when China first entered the WTO and agreed to open up its retail banking market after a period of five years,many overseas media organizations held a pessimistic outlook that China s banking industry was headed towards bankruptcy.

  3. Banking reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  4. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  5. Trigeminal neuralgia related to megadolichobasilar artery compression: a prospective series of twenty-nine patients treated with gamma knife surgery, with more than one year of follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Carron, Romain; Resseguier, Noémie; Donnet, Anne; Roussel, P.; Gaudart, Jean; Levivier, Marc; Regis, Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND:Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to megadolichobasilar artery (MBA) compression is considerably difficult to manage surgically.OBJECTIVE:This study aims to evaluate the safety/efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in this special group of patients.METHODS:Between July 1992 and November 2010, 29 patients with >1 year of follow-up presenting with MBA compression were treated with GKS at Timone University Hospital. Radiosurgery was performed using a Gamma ...

  6. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  7. Twenty-five years of change in scleractinian coral communities of Daya Bay (northern South China Sea)and its response to the 2008 AD extreme cold climate event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN TianRan; YU KeFu; SHI Qi; LI Shu; Gilbert J. Price; WANG Rong; ZHAO MeiXia; CHEN TeGu; ZHAO JianXin

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are becoming increasingly and detrimentally impacted upon by a variety of factors including significant climate changes, such as global warming and increased EI Nino-Southern Oscillation activity. Generally, the persistence of coral reefs, especially at low-latitudes, is governed, in part, by sea surface temperatures not exceeding the critical limit (~30℃) at which mass mortality can occur. Thus, it is thought that corals living at high-latitudes (i.e., currently cooler sea surface temperatures) will likely respond more favourably to hypothesized future temperature increases than corals living at low-latitudes (i.e., currently warmer sea surface temperatures). Consequently, high-latitude coral communities may have the potential to act as regions of refugia for many coral species in the face of potential future global warming. The Daya Bay (22°31′-22°0′N), northern South China Sea, contains several high-latitude non-reefal coral communities and represents one of the most northerly distributions of scleractinian corals within the region. Significantly, Daya Bay has experienced dramatic warming in both air and sea surface temperatures throughout the past 50 years. In this paper, we analyze 25 years of change in the Daya Bay coral communities, based both on historic surveys and our latest 2006-2008 regional ecological surveys. Our results suggest that, contrary to predictions, there have been significant declines in coral cover within the Daya Bay during the past 25 years (i.e., 76.6%coral cover in 1983/1984 to only 15.3% coral cover by 2008). Such changes also reflect a significant shift in the most abundant coral species, from Acropora pruinosa to Favites abdita. Most of the modern coral communities became established between 15 and 30 years ago, corresponding to a period of increased winter sea surface temperature. However, very few colonies have become established within the last 15 years, despite a more intense period of warming. By

  8. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  9. Norges Bank Watch 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Dørum, Øystein; Holden, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Overall, monetary policy in Norway is quite successful. The interest rate setting in the past 2-3 years has contributed to a strong development of the Norwegian economy, without sacrificing price stability. Now, the issue is when and by how much monetary policy should be tightened, to avoid an excessive stimulation of the economy. Since the adoption of an inflation target five years ago, Norges Bank has been determined to learn and improve, as well as to being open and transparent. The Ban...

  10. Predicting PTSD following bank robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. We investigated multiple predictors of PTSD severity in a highly representative Danish cohort study of bank employees...... being significant predictors. However, interpretation of the role of peritraumatic dissociation in the regression model was hampered by a statistical artifact. The results indicate that screening for PTSD following bank robbery should focus on ASD severity, and that it may be possible to develop...

  11. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU

    2008-01-01

    Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....

  12. Finance and politics in the USA: From National City Bank to Citigroup — An American bank or a world bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Zumello

    2007-01-01

    The banking landscape in the USA has been shaped by various political and economic forces throughout the years, and the interaction between banks and the state has, in the case of Citibank, been particularly close. The role of globalization, the increased number of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector in the USA have in the last decade clearly contributed to the blurring of frontiers between domestic and international boundaries in financial operations. Citigroup has managed to hold...

  13. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRĂGAN (SÂNTĂMARIAN OANA RALUCA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the strategic implication of corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development for the banking sector. A few years ago, banks did not give much importance to the social and environmental problems. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the banking system. In this context, the development of a bank management system based on sustainable principles is one of the current challenges. For this purpose this paper focuses on issues such as the importance and advantages of implementing sustainability bank management, international standards regarding sustainable banking management such as: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. In addition, we have developed a practical case study about the implementation of sustainable banking management; the case study presents Romanian Commercial Bank as an example of good practice in the Romanian banking sector.

  14. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  15. Reformation of the Estonian banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Sõrg, Mart

    2003-01-01

    Over fifteen years have passed since the beginning of the reconstruction of the transition countries' banking systems. The analysis of the development of commercial banking in Estonia and other transition countries points out several features, which are typical for the starting period of financial sector reforms. It turns out from our research that the success of the reconstruction of banking sector in certain transition countries differs substantially. It turned out from the research that si...

  16. Internationalization of banks : The consumer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Kristina; Gankhuyag, Tsolmon

    2008-01-01

    Increased deregulation, cross-border activities of non-financial companies and improved information communications technology led to an increased consolidation of financial institutions across borders. Commercial banking sector in particular, have witnessed trenmendous amount of cross-border bank merger and acquisitions’ (M&As) deals through out the recent years. The reasons behind cross-border bank M&As are examined from different theoritical perspectives, such as a mode of entry int...

  17. Economic profit and performance measurement in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph C. Kimball

    1998-01-01

    Successful bank operation requires managers to weigh complex trade-offs between growth, return, and risk. In recent years banks increasingly have adopted innovative performance metrics based on the concept of economic profit, rather than accounting earnings to assist managers in making such difficult and complex decisions. Banks hope in this way to elicit better decision-making by managers and also too align managerial behavior more closely with the interests of shareholders. This article ana...

  18. The innofusion of electronic banking in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Iman, Nofie

    2011-01-01

    Even though financial innovation plays an important role in the modern economy, surprisingly there have been few empirical literatures. In developing countries, electronic banking (e-banking), for example, received relatively little attention although has been deployed for years. Indonesia presents unique case of Asian tiger economies, especially after experiencing crisis, financial recession, and economic reform. This research address how e-banking being developed in Indonesia, how it diffus...

  19. The prevalence of disc aging and back pain after fusion extending into the lower lumbar spine. A matched MR study twenty-five years after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the long-term outcome after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in terms of degenerative disc findings diagnosed using MR imaging and to elucidate the clinical consequences. Material and methods: Thirty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who had undergone spinal fusion using Harrington rods to the lower lumbar spine with one or two unfused discs below the fusion, were re-examined 25 years after the fusion. The re-examinations included validated questionnaires, clinical examination, full standing frontal and lateral radiographs and MR examination of the lower lumbar region. Curve size and degenerative findings on MR images were evaluated by two unbiased radiologists, blinded to the clinical findings. A matched control group of 32 persons without scoliosis was subjected to the same examinations. Results and conclusion: There were significantly more degenerative disc changes (p<0.0001), disc height reduction (p=0.0010) and end-plate changes (p<0.0001 for both upper and lower end-plates) in the lowest unfused disc in the patient group compared with the control group. The MR findings in the lowest unfused disc, but not the one above, in the patient group correlated to lumbar pain intensity as well as to the diminished lumbar lordosis

  20. Examination of Abiotic Drivers and Their Influence on Spartina alterniflora Biomass over a Twenty-Eight Year Period Using Landsat 5 TM Satellite Imagery of the Central Georgia Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. R. O’Donnell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of abiotic drivers on inter-annual and phenological patterns of aboveground biomass for Marsh Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, on the Central Georgia Coast. The linkages between drivers and plant response via soil edaphic factors are captured in our graphical conceptual model. We used geospatial techniques to scale up in situ measurements of aboveground S. alterniflora biomass to landscape level estimates using 294 Landsat 5 TM scenes acquired between 1984 and 2011. For each scene we extracted data from the same 63 sampling polygons, containing 1222 pixels covering about 1.1 million m2. Using univariate and multiple regression tests, we compared Landsat derived biomass estimates for three S. alterniflora size classes against a suite of abiotic drivers. River discharge, total precipitation, minimum temperature, and mean sea level had positive relationships with and best explained biomass for all dates. Additional results, using seasonally binned data, indicated biomass was responsive to changing combinations of variables across the seasons. Our 28-year analysis revealed aboveground biomass declines of 33%, 35%, and 39% for S. alterniflora tall, medium, and short size classes, respectively. This decline correlated with drought frequency and severity trends and coincided with marsh die-backs events and increased snail herbivory in the second half of the study period.

  1. The prevalence of disc aging and back pain after fusion extending into the lower lumbar spine. A matched MR study twenty-five years after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, A.J.; Nachemson, A.L. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Cederlund, C.G.; Ekholm, S. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    To determine the long-term outcome after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in terms of degenerative disc findings diagnosed using MR imaging and to elucidate the clinical consequences. Material and methods: Thirty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who had undergone spinal fusion using Harrington rods to the lower lumbar spine with one or two unfused discs below the fusion, were re-examined 25 years after the fusion. The re-examinations included validated questionnaires, clinical examination, full standing frontal and lateral radiographs and MR examination of the lower lumbar region. Curve size and degenerative findings on MR images were evaluated by two unbiased radiologists, blinded to the clinical findings. A matched control group of 32 persons without scoliosis was subjected to the same examinations. Results and conclusion: There were significantly more degenerative disc changes (p<0.0001), disc height reduction (p=0.0010) and end-plate changes (p<0.0001 for both upper and lower end-plates) in the lowest unfused disc in the patient group compared with the control group. The MR findings in the lowest unfused disc, but not the one above, in the patient group correlated to lumbar pain intensity as well as to the diminished lumbar lordosis.

  2. Summer workshop on money, banking, payments and finance: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nosal, Ed; Wright, Randall

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Summer Workshop on Money, Banking, Payments and Finance met at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago this summer, for the second year. The following document summarizes and ties together the papers presented.

  3. Banco Mundial: concepção, criação e primeiros anos (1942-60 World Bank: conception, creation and the first years (1942-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Márcio Mendes Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os embates em torno da concepção da criação e dos primeiros anos de funcionamento do Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento (BIRD, mais conhecido como Banco Mundial. Para isso, remonta ao início dos anos 1940, quando começaram as negociações entre os EUA e a Inglaterra em torno da criação da arquitetura monetária e financeira internacional do pós-guerra. O trabalho discute as propostas originais de ambas as potências, a primazia dos EUA na criação do banco e a forma pela qual a correlação de forças dentro dos EUA jogou um papel importante na modelagem da instituição. Analisa, ainda, a trajetória do banco entre 1946 e 1960, mostrando como as injunções da política externa norte-americana pressionaram a atuação da entidade e de que maneira o banco se inseriu na estratégia de contenção do comunismo. Por fim, discute os fatores econômicos e políticos que levaram à ampliação do BIRD na segunda metade dos anos 1950, mediante a criação da Corporação Financeira Internacional e da Associação Internacional de Desenvolvimento.This article analyzes the disputes around the conception, creation and the first years of work of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRD, better known as the World Bank. For such, it goes back to the early 1940s when the negotiations between the United States and England for the creation of a post-war international monetary and financial architecture began. The work discusses the original propositions of both potencies, the primacy of the United States in the creation of the bank and the way the force correlations inside the USA played an important role in institution's modeling. It also analyzes the bank's trajectory between 1946 an 1960, showing how the North-American foreign policy's injunctions pressed the entity's actions and in which ways the bank inserted itself in the communism containment strategy. Finally, it discusses the

  4. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  5. A constituição de 1988, vinte anos depois: suprema corte e ativismo judicial "à brasileira" The Brazilian 1988 constitution twenty years on: supreme court and activism in a "Brazilian mode"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Verissimo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as transformações por que vem passando o Supremo Tribunal Federal nos últimos anos, relacionando-as à sua reconfiguração institucional ocorrida por ocasião da Constituição de 1988. essas transformações são apresentadas como respostas a um duplo fenômeno (impulsionado por essa mesma reconfiguração institucional de incremento do papel político do tribunal, por um lado, e de sobrecarga extraordinária de seu volume de trabalho, por outro. Essa tensão reflete no modelo misto de controle de constitucionalidade no Brasil e parece apontar para mudanças iminentes nesse mesmo modelo, algumas das quais já vêm sendo concebidas pelo próprio tribunal.The Brazilian Supreme Court is currently changing. This process of change seems to aim at solving a important contradiction caused by the institutional redesign of the court in the 1988 Constitution that, on the one hand, has transformed it into one of the country's major political actors, but, on the other hand, has also caused its dockets to get incredibly overloaded, forcing the court to deal with more then 100,000 cases a year. The solution for such paradox will probably lead to changes in the Brazilian mixed model of judicial review, and some of these changes are already been conceived by the jurisprudence of the court itself.

  6. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-01-01

    The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...

  7. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...

  8. Brain tumors in the first three years of life: a review of twenty cases Tumores do sistema nervoso central nos primeiros três anos de vida: revisão de vinte casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Espíndola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To review the clinical and neuropathological findings as well as the type of therapy and outcome in 20 infants under 3 years-old with central nervous system (CNS tumor. They were treated at the Department of Neurology, "Hospital das Clínicas" University of São Paulo Medical School, from January 1997 to May 2001. RESULTS: Astrocytoma was the most common histological type (n=7, followed by ependymoma (n=3, medulloblastoma (n=2, craniopharyngioma (n=2 and desmoplastic ganglioglioma (n=2. The location of the tumor was predominantly supratentorial. Mean follow-up time was 20.2 months with recurrence in 7 cases. For each type of tumor we have emphasized the treatment currently recommended. CONCLUSION: Although follow-up time is not sufficient for analyzing survival, a trend of improvement in prognosis was noted, compared to another series of cases from our Institution that had been evaluated before 1990.OBJETIVO E MÉTODO: Avaliar os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos, o tipo de tratamento e a evolução de 20 crianças menores de três anos de idade, com o diagnóstico de tumor de sistema nervoso central, que foram tratadas em nossa Instituição no período de janeiro de 1997 a maio de 2001. RESULTADOS: O astrocitoma foi o tumor mais comum (n=7, seguido pelo ependimoma (n=3, meduloblastoma (n=2, craniofaringioma (n=2 e ganglioglioma desmoplásico infantil (n=2. A localização do tumor foi predominantemente supratentorial. A média de seguimento foi 20,2 meses e houve recidiva em sete casos. Para cada tipo de tumor enfatizamos o tipo de tratamento recomendado na atualidade. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o tempo de seguimento não seja suficiente, ainda, para analisar a sobrevida, foi notada nítida tendência a melhor prognóstico em comparação com a casuística proviniente de nossa Instituição que analisou casos abordados antes da década de 90.

  9. What is Shadow Banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stijn Claessens; Lev Ratnovski

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow banking as “all financial activities, except traditional banking, which require a private or public backstop to operateâ€. Backstops can come in the form of franchise value of a bank or insurance c...

  10. Morte materna em hospital terciário do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil: um estudo de 20 anos Maternal mortality at a tertiary hospital in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil: a twenty-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Lopes Ramos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os casos de morte materna ocorridos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, hospital universitário de referência para gestação de alto risco no Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: realizamos estudo retrospectivo analisando os prontuários médicos das mulheres entre 10 e 49 anos que morreram no HCPA no período de 1980 a 1999. Foram analisadas apenas as mortes relacionadas a gestação e puerpério (até 365 dias após o término da gestação, independente do tipo e duração da gestação. As causas foram separadas em causas obstétricas diretas, obstétricas indiretas e causas não obstétricas. RESULTADOS: entre as causas obstétricas diretas (61,7%, destacaram-se a hipertensão arterial (18,5%, a infecção pós-cesariana (16% e o aborto séptico (12,3%. Dentre as causas obstétricas indiretas (23,5%, as mais prevalentes foram a cardiopatia (8,6%, o fígado gorduroso agudo (3,5% e o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (2,5%. Dentre as causas não obstétricas (15,0%, destacam-se as neoplasias malignas (7,4% e a AIDS (3,7%. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência das principais causas de morte materna não sofreu modificação nas últimas duas décadas, sendo que a principal causa continua sendo a hipertensão arterial. Também, há número significativo de mortes relacionadas à cesariana (relacionadas ao procedimento e às infecções. Podemos concluir que a prevalência de causas obstétricas diretas aponta para a baixa capacidade de prevenção de morte materna no nosso sistema de saúde.PURPOSE: to analyze maternal death cases that occurred at the "Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre", a reference university hospital for high-risk pregnancies in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: we carried out a retrospective study of medical records of 10- to 49-year-old women who died at the hospital between 1980 and 1999. Deaths related to pregnancy and puerperium were analyzed independently of the kind and duration of

  11. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  12. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  13. Oman; Banking Sector Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna

    2010-01-01

    This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...

  14. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  15. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Tumer-Alkan, G.

    2008-01-01

    The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’ role is relevant for the smooth functioning and growth of an economy as well. Moreover, when banks and firms enter into a relationship, they are able to overcome problems of asymmetric information and...

  16. Shadow bank monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian,Tobias; Adam B. Ashcraft; Cetorelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    We provide a framework for monitoring the shadow banking system. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialized financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Shadow banking activities are often intertwined with core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies, secur...

  17. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  18. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  19. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  20. Bank Profitability during Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; Leo de Haan; Marco Hoeberichts; Maarten van Oordt; Job Swank

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the relation between bank profitability and economic downturns using a theoretical model that takes into account the bank's lending history as well as amortization and losses on outstanding loans. We focus on total bank profits and its components: net interest income, other income, and net provisioning plus other costs. Using both aggregate and individual bank panel datasets, our results confirm that pro-cyclicality of bank profits is stronger for deep recessions than dur...

  1. Selling Failed Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru

    2014-01-01

    We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...

  2. Outsourcing central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...

  3. Understanding Banking Sector Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variation Characteristics of Forest Biomass in South Jiangsu during the Nearly Twenty Years%苏南快速城市化地区森林生物量时空变化及影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广宇; 陈爽; 余成; 王肖惠

    2014-01-01

    积和生物量未产生显著负面影响。%Urbanization in China is undergoing rapid development. The urbanization process is characterized by the rapid urban expansion and excessive development, resulting in remarkable negative eco-environmental impacts on urban ecosystems, which include landscape fragmentation, increased ecological footprint in urban area, increased carbon emissions, etc. Forests contributed several crucial ecosystem services to human society, such as biomass, carbon sequestration, water, and recreation opportunities. A few researches indicated that the ecosystem service function is closely related to biomass. While there has been a net gain of forest cover and forest age during the past two decade, changes in forest biomass are rarely concerned in City-and-town Concentrated Area. To evaluate forest biomass dynamics of regional forest based on the data from the forest resource inventory (1990, 2005) and forest area data in 2010, this paper studied the spatial and temporal variation of forest biomass in South Jiangsu. The results show that the area, the total biomass and the average biomass density of forest vegetation in South Jiangsu have increased significantly during the nearly 20 years. The total biomass increased from 7.15 Tg to 16.72 Tg. The average biomass density increased from 29.32 t/hm2 to 39.82 t·hm-2 which is still far below the national average. The biomass is unevenly distributed in different cities. The cities with larger area aslo have higher biomass. Among the five cities, Nanjing possesses the largest forest biomass, followed by Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou and Zhenjiang. The total biomass in various cities depend on the forest area and natural condition, such as terrain. Rising of forest biomass density and the increase of the proportion of broad-leaved forest also have boosted the growth of total forest biomass. Human activity played a major role in the rising tide of forest biomass in South Jiangsu. The high level of economic

  5. Coordinates of National Bank of Romania Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN CAPRARU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the National Bank of Romania has started sixteen years ago since the communist regime was eliminated. The perspectives of Romania’s EU accession enforced this process and the NBR accounted performances in targeting its objectives. In this study we underline the challenges and consequences of Romanian central bank reform. In spite of a central bank independence, sometimes between monetary and fiscal polices there are no correlation. That’s why we propose the multiannual budgeting as a correspondent in fiscal policy for inflation targeting monetary policy framework. Also we assess the consequences of Basel II implementation for Romanian banking system and, especially NBR responsibilities.

  6. Investigating the effects of issuance of bank debt guarantee on profitability of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between bank debt guarantee and profitability, increase in banks resources and customer retention. The proposed study has been implemented in one of Iranian banks located in city of Zanjan, Iran over the period of 10 years. The study has used Pearson correlation test to examine three hypotheses of the survey. The results indicate that there were positive and meaningful relationship between bank debt guarantee and profitability (r = 0.863, P-value = 0.001, a positive relationship between bank debt guarantee and bank resources (r = 0.708 with P-value = 0.015 and there was a positive and meaningful relationship between bank debt guarantee and customer retention (r = 0.252 with P-value = 0.001.

  7. RMB Business Boost for Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the competition over foreign currency loans becoming intensified among foreign and Chinese banks, rivalry on loans made in RMB are seeing a similar trend. Specifically, the local banks' "comfort zone" has been challenged as the country's financial industry opens according to the timetable of WTO agreement, with full opening arriving at the end of this year.

  8. How Banking Competition changed over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first detailed and world-wide investigation of the developments in banking competition during the past fiffteen years. Using the Panzar-Rosse approach, we establish significant changes over time in the competitiveness of the banking industry. The changes in competition over time ar

  9. Recent trends in commercial bank loan sales

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Demsetz

    1993-01-01

    The dollar volume of commercial bank loan sales rose rapidly in the mid-1980s but has declined equally rapidly over the past few years. This article provides insight into these loan sales trends by looking beyond the aggregate data and separately examining the sales activities of the largest loan sellers and those of all other banks.

  10. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  11. Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panattoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To shed light on trends about elimination of viruses from plants, a bibliographic research was conducted to identify thermotherapy, chemotherapy and tissue culture trials published from 1991 through 2010. Among woody plants, grapevine, apple and peach are the most frequent targets of sanitation protocols because their health status is strictly regulated. Even if thermotherapy represents the preferred method for the host, grapevine viruses can also be eliminated with chemotherapy and tissue culture; apple viruses respond to chemotherapy as well. Although a similar trend was reported among herbaceous plants, chemotherapy was the most frequently used technique in potato. With regard to virus, thermotherapy was successfully applied against viruses belonging to 13 families and an unassigned genus. Instead, chemotherapy and tissue culture techniques eradicated viruses belonging to fewer families (nine. An interpretation of thermotherapy effects considers the new metabolic “pathways” triggered by the natural antiviral response emitted by the infected plant, with particular reference to virus-induced gene silencing. With regard to chemotherapy, several groups of antiviral drugs belong to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors. Tissue culture, usually adopted to regenerate plantlets in biotechnological breeding programs, represents the less used tool for eliminate viruses from plants.

  12. Neutrino-driven explosions twenty years after SN1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Janka, H -Th; Kitaura, F -S

    2007-01-01

    The neutrino-heating mechanism remains a viable possibility for the cause of the explosion in a wide mass range of supernova progenitors. This is demonstrated by recent two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with detailed, energy-dependent neutrino transport. Neutrino-driven explosions were not only found for stars in the range of 8-10 solar masses with ONeMg cores and in case of the iron core collapse of a progenitor with 11 solar masses, but also for a ``typical'' progenitor model of 15 solar masses. For such more massive stars, however, the explosion occurs significantly later than so far thought, and is crucially supported by large-amplitude bipolar oscillations due to the nonradial standing accretion shock instability (SASI), whose low (dipole and quadrupole) modes can develop large growth rates in conditions where convective instability is damped or even suppressed. The dominance of low-mode deformation at the time of shock revival has been recognized as a possible explanation of large pulsar kicks an...

  13. Twenty years of child and teenager’s statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2010 completaremos 20 anos do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA, instituído pela Lei 8.069, em julho de 1990(1. O seu papel é de fundamental importância, pois até então as políticas relacionadas a crianças e adolescentes surgiam com o objetivo de resolução de problemas sociais. O ECA consiste na forma de regulamentação dos direitos das crianças e dos adolescentes de nosso país.O ECA surgiu a partir das diretrizes da Constituição Federal de 1988(2, explicitadas em seu art 227.Art. 227. É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança e ao adolescente, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão.A partir destes dois importantes documentos sociais e em resposta às lutas sociais que vinham sendo travadas desde 1980 em prol da redemocratização e da defesa dos direitos da criança e do adolescetes, estes passaram a ser considerados como “sujeitos de direitos”. Desde então, são considerados em sua “peculiar condição de pessoas em desenvolvimento” e a quem se deve assegurar “prioridade absoluta” na formulação de políticas públicas e destinação privilegiada de recursos nas dotações orçamentárias das diversas instâncias político-administrativas do País(3.Os direitos concernentes à convivência familiar e comunitária e ao lazer como parte fundamental de sua socialização e de seu florescimento enquanto ser humano, também são estabelecidos pelo documento. Entretanto, apesar de serem considerados como direitos básicos de todas as crianças, este aspecto da legislação não recebe ainda a devida atenção. O problema do trabalho infantil, apesar de todos os esforços das organizações governamentais, não governamentais e da sociedade, ainda está longe de ser resolvido (3.O ECA, além de criar mecanismos de proteção nas áreas de educação, saúde, trabalho e assistência social, estabelece o fim da aplicação de punições para adolescentes, tratados com medidas de proteção em caso de desvio de conduta e com medidas socioeducativas em caso de cometimento de atos infracionais. Ponto este que tem sido alvo de debates e de necessidade de maiores estudos acerca da violência. Não só daquela sofrida pelo jovem, mas principalmente aquela que é exercida por ele(4.Com o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente surgem os Conselhos e Fundos dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente – municipais, estaduais e nacional –, e o Conselho Tutelar – apenas na esfera municipal –, obrigatórios em todo Município. Passa-se assim a responsabilidade para o município.No ano de 2009 foi realizada uma avaliação da Associação Nacional dos Centros de Defesa (ANCED, tendo sido organizado, pela segunda vez, um relatório sobre a situação dos direitos da criança e do adolescente no país. Neste levantamento sobre os principais eixos temáticos que albergam as políticas públicas, destacaram-se aquelas que envolviam: Sistema Geral de Proteção; Medidas Gerais de Implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança (CDC; Homicídios, Atentados à Vida, à Integridade Física, Tortura e Punições Corporais; Convivência Família e Comunitária; Violências Sexuais e Exploração Econômica; Direito à Saúde, Direito à Educação e Justiça Juvenil. Concluindo-se que o estado tem fracassado no seu papel primordial de defesa dos direitos da criança e do adolescente(5.Neste número da Revista Brasileira em Promoção da Saúde publicamos um artigo que aborda o tema Políticas Públicas de Saúde (PPS voltadas para a criança. Esta pesquisa foi realizada nos Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil (CMEI e nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS na Cidade de Santa Maria no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul(6.Os achados corroboram o que tem sido visto em todo o Brasil: as políticas públicas direcionadas para as crianças e adolescentes necessitam de maior empenho para que sejam plenamente executadas.REFERÊNCIAS1. BRASIL. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente: Lei8.069/90, de 13 de Julho de 1990. Brasília: SenadoFederal;19902. BRASIL. Constituição da República Federativa doBrasil. Brasília: Senado Federal;19883. Sposito MP, Carrano PCR. Juventude e políticaspúblicas no Brasil. Rev Bras Educ 2003; 24:16-39.4. Oliveira APG, Milnitsky-Sapiro C. Políticas públicaspara adolescentes em vulnerabilidade social: abrigo eprovisoriedade. Psicol Cienc Prof 2007;27(4:623-35.5. Anced – Associação Nacional dos Centros de Defesa daCriança e do Adolescente. Análise sobre os direitos dacriança e do adolescente no Brasil: relatório preliminarda ANCED. [acesso em dez 2009]. Disponível em:http://www.anced.org.br/sitio/anced_2009/cyberteca/publicacoes/relatorio-alternativo-cdc.6. Rizzetti DA, Fabbrin APA, Trevisan CM. Políticaspúblicas de saúde voltadas para a criança no municípiode Santa Maria-RS. Rev Bras Promoção Saúde.

  14. Glomus Tumor: Twenty-Year Experience and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tingmao; Pan, Shin Chen; Shieh, Shyh Jou; Lee, Jin Wei; Chiu, Haw Yen; Ho, Chien Liang

    2016-03-01

    Glomus tumors are rare, usually benign, vascular hamartomas consisting cells resembling the smooth muscle cells of the normal glomus body. They can be solitary or multiple, whereas solitary tumors are majorly located on the digits. Digital glomus tumors most commonly appear in subungual region and show a strong female predominance. There are several classical symptoms, clinical tests, and imaging tools, such as X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography, which can provide good accuracy for clinical diagnosis. However, misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis are still commonly observed because primary physicians are unfamiliar with classical symptoms and clinical tests. Complete surgical excision often can result in complete relief of symptoms. Recurrence is largely caused by incomplete excision, but repeated image study is recommended to rule out new or malignant lesions. This series is a retrospective review of 50 cases with glomus tumors managed at our institute. We aim to review the key aspects of glomus tumor and provide a simple guideline for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26808758

  15. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  16. Twenty-five years of operation of Beznau II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a discussion about oil fired thermal plants NOK, as the largest Swiss power utility, in late 1964 decided in favor of building the Beznau Nuclear Power Station also for environmental reasons. The choice of site had been based on the existence of one of the main load regious nearby, i.e. the Zurich agglomeration area, and the location of a major grid node on the isle of Beznau in the Aare River, a short distance upstream of the discharge of that river into the Rhine River. Other site advantages were the high availability of cooling water from the Aare River, and the existing railroad and road connections. (orig./GL)

  17. Twenty-five years of digital conversion. Current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Robledano Arillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the Project “Los Medios Audiovisuales en la Transición Española (1975-1985): las imágenes del Cambio Democrático”. Ref. CSO2009-09291. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.

  18. Twenty years of oxygenated treatment on Russian supercritical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitsman, M.E. [G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute (ENIN), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-01-01

    The oxygenated treatment (OT) in Russia was first (1973-74) introduced at the 300 MWe Konakovo Supercritical units (SCU). The advantage of OT over AVT especially in rising the reliability of low-radiation boiler section (LRS) promoted to conversion the working units on OT and putting into operation the new SCUs directly with OT. All Russian supercritical plants, besides two of them, operate currently with OT. The conversion of units on OT doesn`t demand much expenditures. OT is simple and reliable. The OT introduction makes the main difficulty connected with the existance of stable stereotype for ammonia feed and supporting the oxygen concentration in feedwater less than 5 ppb. The staff of two mentioned plants gave proof of devotion to AVT by its wide application in the USA and Japan. Now the units with once through boilers at these countries are intensively conversed on OT. It is possible to hope that this circumstance will dismiss at last the stereotype of oxygen fear.

  19. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying o...... as the private sector. ** ** The research reported here is based on the analysis of documents and personal experience of the authors. It has been conducted under contract with the Institute for Information Management Bremen (ifrib), Germany, funded by Volkswagen Foundation, Germany....

  20. Philosophy of veterinary radiobiology twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective is to provide safe foodstuffs. This approach has connection with the food chain protection including the diagnostics and the acute radiation disease therapy at the farm animals. The extra significance is given to the research of technologies which can reduce the activity of the contaminated foodstuffs. In the field of the ionizing radiation effect research in live organisms attention should be devoted to the new alternative bio-tests. The low-dose effect or the interaction with other negative physical and chemical aspects of the environment is mainly considered. In cooperation with human medicine, it is necessary to develop radiotherapy and to study the effects of therapy and radiotherapy. From the standpoint of perspective technologies, it is advisable to focus on irradiation of the foodstuffs in veterinary radiobiology. (authors)